WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomed central study

  1. Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on biomes. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  2. Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lebamba; A. Ngomanda; A. Vincens; D. Jolly; C. Favier; H. Elenga; I. Bentaleb

    2009-01-01

    New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo) including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs) and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1) modern potential biomes and (2) potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new ap...

  3. A reconstruction of Atlantic Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lebamba; A. Ngomanda; A. Vincens; D. Jolly; C. Favier; H. Elenga; I. Bentaleb

    2009-01-01

    New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo) including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs) and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1) modern potential biomes and (2) potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a...

  4. Toward Understanding Dynamics in Shifting Biomes: An Individual Based Modeling Approach to Characterizing Drought and Mortality in Central Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Foster, A.; Rogers, B. M.; Hogg, T.; Michaelian, M.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Goetz, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic-Boreal zone is known be warming at an accelerated rate relative to other biomes. Persistent warming has already affected the high northern latitudes, altering vegetation productivity, carbon sequestration, and many other ecosystem processes and services. The central-western Canadian boreal forests and aspen parkland are experiencing a decade long drought, and rainfall has been identified as a key factor controlling the location of the boundary between forest and prairie in this region. Shifting biome with related greening and browning trends are readily measureable with remote sensing, but the dynamics that create and result from them are not well understood. In this study, we use the University of Virginia Forest Model Enhanced (UVAFME), an individual-based forest model, to simulate the changes that are occurring across the southern boreal and parkland forests of west-central Canada. We present a parameterization of UVAFME for western central Canadian forests, validated with CIPHA data (Climate Change Impacts on the Productivity and Health of Aspen), and improved mortality. In order to gain a fine-scale understanding of how climate change and specifically drought will continue to affect the forests of this region, we simulated forest conditions following CMIP5 climate scenarios. UVAFME predictions were compared with statistical models and satellite observations of productivity across the landscape. Changes in forest cover, forest type, aboveground biomass, and mortality and recruitment dynamics are presented, highlighting the high vulnerability of this region to vegetation transitions associated with future droughts.

  5. Licensing the future: report on BioMed Central's public consultation on open data in peer-reviewed journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Busch, Stefan; Cockerill, Matthew J

    2013-08-21

    We report the outcomes of BioMed Central's public consultation on implementing open data-compliant licensing in peer-reviewed open access journals. Respondents (42) to the 2012 consultation were six to one in favor (29 in support; 5 against; 8 abstentions) of changing our authors' default open access copyright license agreement, to introduce the Creative Commons CC0 public domain waiver for data published in BioMed Central's journals. We summarize the different questions we received in response to the consultation and our responses to them - matters such as citation, plagiarism, patient privacy, and commercial use were raised. In light of the support for open data in our journals we outline our plans to implement, in September 2013, a combined Creative Commons Attribution license for published articles (papers) and Creative Commons CC0 waiver for published data.

  6. The study of landscape units in Pantanal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Siqueira Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The geoecological landscape observation allows the analysis of geosystems fragmentation in small areas or a diagnosis of a particular environment or biome. This geosystemic approach permits the integration of elements that constitutes the environment, allowing the interaction and interdependence analysis of social and ecological elements. The main goal of this work was to elaborate a map of landscape units and a territorial planning for Pantanal biome, using data generated by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE corresponding to morphometric relief units, geology, soils and agricultural capability; the land cover and land use map developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA and the maps of flooded areas and spatial variability of the Pantanal biome. From the crosstab between altitude, slope, spatial variability map and geology we identified 16 landscape units. Additionally, the analysis of Pantanal biome environmental vulnerability of the landscape units considering different types of vegetation, topography and soils units showed that Pantanal has an intermediate environmental fragility, located mainly in the alluvial deposition areas of the Taquari river and in flood plains with altitude between 50 and 250 meters.

  7. NPP Multi-Biome: Summary Data from Intensive Studies at 125 Sites, 1936-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, NPP Multi-Biome: Summary Data from Intensive Studies at 125 Sites, 1936-2006, contains a single shapefile that provides site-level summary statistics...

  8. Forgotten forests - issues and prospects in biome mapping using Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särkinen Tiina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South America is one of the most species diverse continents in the world. Within South America diversity is not distributed evenly at both local and continental scales and this has led to the recognition of various areas with unique species assemblages. Several schemes currently exist which divide the continental-level diversity into large species assemblages referred to as biomes. Here we review five currently available biome maps for South America, including the WWF Ecoregions, the Americas basemap, the Land Cover Map of South America, Morrone's Biogeographic regions of Latin America, and the Ecological Systems Map. The comparison is performed through a case study on the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF biome using herbarium data of habitat specialist species. Results Current biome maps of South America perform poorly in depicting SDTF distribution. The poor performance of the maps can be attributed to two main factors: (1 poor spatial resolution, and (2 poor biome delimitation. Poor spatial resolution strongly limits the use of some of the maps in GIS applications, especially for areas with heterogeneous landscape such as the Andes. Whilst the Land Cover Map did not suffer from poor spatial resolution, it showed poor delimitation of biomes. The results highlight that delimiting structurally heterogeneous vegetation is difficult based on remote sensed data alone. A new refined working map of South American SDTF biome is proposed, derived using the Biome Distribution Modelling (BDM approach where georeferenced herbarium data is used in conjunction with bioclimatic data. Conclusions Georeferenced specimen data play potentially an important role in biome mapping. Our study shows that herbarium data could be used as a way of ground-truthing biome maps in silico. The results also illustrate that herbarium data can be used to model vegetation maps through predictive modelling. The BDM approach is a promising new method in

  9. A BiomeBGC-based Evaluation of Dryness Stress of Central European Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Buddenbaum, H.; Hientgen, J.; Dotzler, S.; Werner, W.; Hill, J.

    2015-01-01

    Dryness stress is expected to become a more common problem in central European forests due to the predicted regional climate change. Forest management has to adapt to climate change in time and think ahead several decades in decisions on which tree species to plant at which locations. The summer of 2003 was the most severe dryness event in recent time, but more periods like this are expected. Since forests on different sites react quite differently to drought conditions, we used the ...

  10. Data gaps in anthropogenically driven local-scale species richness change studies across the Earth's terrestrial biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Grace E P; Romanuk, Tamara N

    2016-05-01

    There have been numerous attempts to synthesize the results of local-scale biodiversity change studies, yet several geographic data gaps exist. These data gaps have hindered ecologist's ability to make strong conclusions about how local-scale species richness is changing around the globe. Research on four of the major drivers of global change is unevenly distributed across the Earth's biomes. Here, we use a dataset of 638 anthropogenically driven species richness change studies to identify where data gaps exist across the Earth's terrestrial biomes based on land area, future change in drivers, and the impact of drivers on biodiversity, and make recommendations for where future studies should focus their efforts. Across all drivers of change, the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests and the tropical moist broadleaf forests are the best studied. The biome-driver combinations we have identified as most critical in terms of where local-scale species richness change studies are lacking include the following: land-use change studies in tropical and temperate coniferous forests, species invasion and nutrient addition studies in the boreal forest, and warming studies in the boreal forest and tropics. Gaining more information on the local-scale effects of the specific human drivers of change in these biomes will allow for better predictions of how human activity impacts species richness around the globe.

  11. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting the responsiveness of soil biodiversity to deforestation: a cross-biome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Thomas W; Maynard, Daniel S; Leff, Jonathan W; Oldfield, Emily E; McCulley, Rebecca L; Fierer, Noah; Bradford, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of deforestation for aboveground biodiversity have been a scientific and political concern for decades. In contrast, despite being a dominant component of biodiversity that is essential to the functioning of ecosystems, the responses of belowground biodiversity to forest removal have received less attention. Single-site studies suggest that soil microbes can be highly responsive to forest removal, but responses are highly variable, with negligible effects in some regions. Using high throughput sequencing, we characterize the effects of deforestation on microbial communities across multiple biomes and explore what determines the vulnerability of microbial communities to this vegetative change. We reveal consistent directional trends in the microbial community response, yet the magnitude of this vegetation effect varied between sites, and was explained strongly by soil texture. In sandy sites, the difference in vegetation type caused shifts in a suite of edaphic characteristics, driving substantial differences in microbial community composition. In contrast, fine-textured soil buffered microbes against these effects and there were minimal differences between communities in forest and grassland soil. These microbial community changes were associated with distinct changes in the microbial catabolic profile, placing community changes in an ecosystem functioning context. The universal nature of these patterns allows us to predict where deforestation will have the strongest effects on soil biodiversity, and how these effects could be mitigated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Defining functional biomes and monitoring their change globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steven I; Buitenwerf, Robert; Moncrieff, Glenn R

    2016-11-01

    Biomes are important constructs for organizing understanding of how the worlds' major terrestrial ecosystems differ from one another and for monitoring change in these ecosystems. Yet existing biome classification schemes have been criticized for being overly subjective and for explicitly or implicitly invoking climate. We propose a new biome map and classification scheme that uses information on (i) an index of vegetation productivity, (ii) whether the minimum of vegetation activity is in the driest or coldest part of the year, and (iii) vegetation height. Although biomes produced on the basis of this classification show a strong spatial coherence, they show little congruence with existing biome classification schemes. Our biome map provides an alternative classification scheme for comparing the biogeochemical rates of terrestrial ecosystems. We use this new biome classification scheme to analyse the patterns of biome change observed over recent decades. Overall, 13% to 14% of analysed pixels shifted in biome state over the 30-year study period. A wide range of biome transitions were observed. For example, biomes with tall vegetation and minimum vegetation activity in the cold season shifted to higher productivity biome states. Biomes with short vegetation and low seasonality shifted to seasonally moisture-limited biome states. Our findings and method provide a new source of data for rigorously monitoring global vegetation change, analysing drivers of vegetation change and for benchmarking models of terrestrial ecosystem function. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Description of the Fynbos Biome Project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, FJ

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives, organization and research programme of the Fynbos Biome Project being undertaken in the south-west and southern Cape are described. The project is a cooperative multi-disciplinary study of the ecological characteristics, structure...

  15. User's Guide to Biome Information from the United States International Biological Program (IBP). First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, A. Dexter; Haug, Peter T.

    This publication is a guide to the biome research conducted under the International Biological Program. The guide lists biome researchers by interest and by biome as well as a central list. A site list, map, information sources section reporting abstracts, bibliographies, journals, books, evaluations, and data books are also included. Three…

  16. Biosphere 2's Marsh Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Jennifer; Goodridge, Kelven

    1997-01-01

    The Marsh Biome, which was modeled after the mangroves and marshes of southwest Florida, has an area of 441.2 sq m separated into three hydrologically independent sections: the Freshwater, Oligohaline and Salt Marshes. The divisions are made based on their salinity (approximately 0, 4, and 34 ppt. respectively), but they also contain different biological communities. The Freshwater and Oligohaline Marshes are mostly filled with various grasses and several trees, while the Salt Marsh houses regions of red, black, and white mangroves (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Languncularia racemosa respectively). Overall, there are an estimated 80 species of plants within the biome. Water in the Salt Marsh follows a meandering stream from the algal turf scrubbers (apparatuses that clean the water of its nutrients and heavy metals while increasing dissolved oxygen levels) which have an outlet in the Salt Marsh section near sites 4 and 5 to the Fringing Red Mangrove section. The sections of the Salt Marsh are separated by walls of concrete with openings to allow the stream to flow through. Throughout this study, conducted through the months of June and July, many conditions within the biome remained fairly constant. The temperature was within a degree or two of 25 C, mostly depending on whether the sample site was in direct sunlight or shaded. The pH throughout the Salt Marsh was 8.0 +/- 0.2, and the lower salinity waters only dropped below this soon after rains. The water rdepth and dissolved oxygen varied, however, between sites.

  17. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  18. Consequences of biome depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The human microbiome is an integral part of the superorganism together with their host and they have co-evolved since the early days of the existence of the human species. The modification of the microbiome as a result changes in food and social habits of human beings throughout their life history has led to the emergence of many diseases. In contrast with the Darwinian view of nature of selfishness and competence, new holistic approaches are rising. Under these views, the reconstitution of the microbiome comes out as a fundamental therapy for emerging diseases related to biome depletion.

  19. Environmental history of the dry forest biome of Guerrero, Mexico, and human impact during the last c. 2700 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrio, J.C.; Hooghiemstra, H.; van Geel, B.; Ludlow-Wiegers, B.

    2006-01-01

    Two lake sediment cores from Madre del Sur mountain range, Guerrero State, west-central Mexico were studied to examine the past dynamics of the dry forest biome. Pollen, spores of coprophilous fungi, cyanobacteria and lithological changes are presented. The 390-cm Tixtla core (17°30′N, 99°24′W, 1400

  20. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolforo, Henrique Ferraco; Scolforo, Jose Roberto Soares; Mello, Carlos Rogerio; Mello, Jose Marcio; Ferraz Filho, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna.

  2. Satellite mapping of surface biophysical parameters at the biome scale over the North American grasslands: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, B.K.; Meyer, D.J.; Tieszen, L.L.; Mannel, S.

    2002-01-01

    Quantification of biophysical parameters is needed by terrestrial process modeling and other applications. A study testing the role of multispectral data for monitoring biophysical parameters was conducted over a network of grassland field sites in the Great Plains of North America. Grassland biophysical parameters [leaf area index (LAI), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR), and biomass] and their relationships with ground radiometer normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were established in this study (r2=.66–.85) from data collected across the central and northern Great Plains in 1995. These spectral/biophysical relationships were compared to 1996 field data from the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in northeastern Oklahoma and showed no consistent biases, with most regression estimates falling within the respective 95% confidence intervals. Biophysical parameters were estimated for 21 “ground pixels” (grids) at the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in 1996, representing three grazing/burning treatments. Each grid was 30×30 m in size and was systematically sampled with ground radiometer readings. The radiometric measurements were then converted to biophysical parameters and spatially interpolated using geostatistical kriging. Grid-based biophysical parameters were monitored through the growing season and regressed against Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) NDVI (r2=.92–.94). These regression equations were used to estimate biophysical parameters for grassland TM pixels over the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in 1996. This method maintained consistent regression development and prediction scales and attempted to minimize scaling problems associated with mixed land cover pixels. A method for scaling Landsat biophysical parameters to coarser resolution satellite data sets (1 km2) was also investigated.

  3. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for other

  4. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankenbrand, Markus J; Terhoeven, Niklas; Hohlfeld, Sonja; Förster, Frank; Keller, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability: https://github.com/molbiodiv/biojs-io-biom, https://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.218277.

  5. Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Caroline E R; Parr, Catherine L

    2016-09-19

    Tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) are changing rapidly the world over through a coalescence of high rates of land-use change, global change and altered disturbance regimes that maintain the ecosystem structure and function of these biomes. Our theme issue brings together the latest research examining the characterization, complex ecology, drivers of change, and human use and ecosystem services of TGBs. Recent advances in ecology and evolution have facilitated a new perspective on these biomes. However, there continues to be controversies over their classification and state dynamics that demonstrate critical data and knowledge gaps in our quantitative understanding of these geographically dispersed regions. We highlight an urgent need to improve ecological understanding in order to effectively predict the sensitivity and resilience of TGBs under future scenarios of global change. With human reliance on TGBs increasing and their propensity for change, ecological and evolutionary understanding of these biomes is central to the dual goals of sustaining their ecological integrity and the diverse services these landscapes provide to millions of people.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Description of the Karoo Biome project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cowling, RM

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological characteristics and ecological problems of the karoo biome are briefly described. A conceptual basis and guidelines for the development of the Karoo Biome Project are outlined by addressing project goals, project structure...

  7. Description of the Grassland Biome Project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mentis, MT

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives, organization and research programme of the Grassland Biome Project are described against a background of the biome's ecological characteristics and environmental problems. Four principal research topics wil 1 be focused upon: (i...

  8. Applying plant functional types to construct biome maps from eastern North American pollen data: comparisons with model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John W.; Summers, Robert L.; Webb, Thompson, III

    . These model biases are also evident in the simulations at 6 ka despite the fact that CCM1 simulates warmer than present temperatures in the central United States. To the north, however, BIOME1 correctly simulates the cool mixed forest and taiga boundary at 6 ka as more northwestward than at present.

  9. Vegetation structure of the biomes in southwestern Africa And their precipitation patterns

    OpenAIRE

    OKITSU, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Southwestern Africa contains diverse biomes. The amount of the annual precipitation of this area has been traditionally thought to be the most important controlling factor to the differentiation of the biomes. However, this territory experiences the summer rain type and winter rain type. Those two different precipitation patterns should result in the different mechanisms to control the distribution of the biomes. This study intends to clarify the relationships between the distribution of the ...

  10. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  11. A Biomes Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  12. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World Dataset, Version 1 describes globally- significant ecological patterns within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained...

  13. Australia's City Food Bowls: Fertile Ground for Investigating Biomes and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel; Sheridan, Jen

    2017-01-01

    Australia's major state capitals are surrounded by highly productive food bowls, which are an important source of fresh foods for their growing populations. These food producing biomes are a rich resource for investigating key themes related to Biomes and food security, one of two Year 9 units of study in the Australian Curriculum: Geography. This…

  14. Remotely sensed phenology for mapping biomes and vegetation functional types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used remotely-sensed phenology data derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), in a fully supervised decision-tree classification based on the new biome map of South Africa. The objectives were: (i) to investigate...

  15. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H

    2013-08-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesised litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~ 37%). [corrected]. However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Identification of biomes affected by marginal expansion of agricultural land use induced by increased crop consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper Hedal

    2009-01-01

    or potential grassland/steppe, whereas expansion on land suited for grazing but not for crop cultivation (grazable land) typically occurs on potential shrubland or a few other biomes depending on the region. Some uncertainty applies to the results but it is concluded that it is feasible to identify biomes...... to characterise these areas. The present study ascribes so-called biomes (natural potential vegetation) to the areas affected by agricultural expansion in order to provide a basis for assessing the environmental impacts from land use in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The methodology builds...... on agricultural statistics and maps of global agricultural areas and the global distribution of biomes. The application of the method is illustrated with four examples. The results indicate that agricultural expansion on land suited for crop cultivation (cultivable land) typically affects forest biomes...

  17. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  18. Centralized vs. Distributed Databases. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Magdalena Iacob

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in information technology domain and implicit in databases domain can be noticed two apparently contradictory approaches: centralization and distribution respectively. Although both aim to produce some benefits, it is a known fact that for any advantage a price must be paid. In addition, in this paper we have presented a case study, e-learning portal performance optimization by using distributed databases technology. In the stage of development in which institutions have branches distributed over a wide geographic area, distributed database systems become more appropriate to use, because they offer a higher degree of flexibility and adaptability then centralized ones.

  19. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri Kalervo; Oksanen, Tarja Maarit; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C.; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This is the published version of the article. Published source: http://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1837. According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate...

  20. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Ankenbrand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability: https://github.com/molbiodiv/biojs-io-biom, https://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.218277

  1. Thresholds for boreal biome transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Hirota, Marina; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H; Chapin, F Stuart

    2012-12-26

    Although the boreal region is warming twice as fast as the global average, the way in which the vast boreal forests and tundras may respond is poorly understood. Using satellite data, we reveal marked alternative modes in the frequency distributions of boreal tree cover. At the northern end and at the dry continental southern extremes, treeless tundra and steppe, respectively, are the only possible states. However, over a broad intermediate temperature range, these treeless states coexist with boreal forest (∼75% tree cover) and with two more open woodland states (∼20% and ∼45% tree cover). Intermediate tree covers (e.g., ∼10%, ∼30%, and ∼60% tree cover) between these distinct states are relatively rare, suggesting that they may represent unstable states where the system dwells only transiently. Mechanisms for such instabilities remain to be unraveled, but our results have important implications for the anticipated response of these ecosystems to climatic change. The data reveal that boreal forest shows no gradual decline in tree cover toward its limits. Instead, our analysis suggests that it becomes less resilient in the sense that it may more easily shift into a sparse woodland or treeless state. Similarly, the relative scarcity of the intermediate ∼10% tree cover suggests that tundra may shift relatively abruptly to a more abundant tree cover. If our inferences are correct, climate change may invoke massive nonlinear shifts in boreal biomes.

  2. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 1 data set describes globally-significant ecological patterns within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained...

  3. Shift of biome patterns due to simulated climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claussen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The variability of simulated equilibrium-response patterns of biomes caused by simulated climate variability and climate shift is analysed. This investigation is based on various realisations of simulated present-day climate and climate shift. It has been found that the difference between biomes computed from three 10-year climatologies and from the corresponding 30-year climatology, simulated by the Hamburg climate model at T21 resolution, amounts to approximately 6% of the total land area, Antarctica excluded. This difference is mainly due to differences in annual moisture availability and winter temperatures. When intercomparing biomes from the 10-year climatologies a 10% difference is seen, but there is no unique difference pattern. In contrast to the interdecadal variability, the shift of conditions favorable for biomes due to a shift in climate in the next 100 years, caused by an increase in sea-surface temperatures and atmospheric CO 2 , reveals a unique trend pattern. It turns out that the strongest and most significant signal is the north-east shift of conditions for boreal biomes. This signal is caused by an increase of annual temperature sums as well as mean temperatures of the coldest and warmest months. Trends in annual moisture availability are of secondary importance globally. Regionally, a decrease in water availability affects biomes in Central and East Europe and an increase of water availability leads to a potential increase in tropical rain forest. In total, all differences amount to roughly 30% of the total land surface, Antarctica excluded. (orig./KW)

  4. Sex-biased parasitism is not universal: evidence from rodent-flea associations from three biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Stanko, Michal; Morand, Serge; Khokhlova, Irina S; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Hawlena, Hadas; Krasnov, Boris R

    2013-11-01

    The distribution of parasites among individual hosts is characterised by high variability that is believed to be a result of variations in host traits. To find general patterns of host traits affecting parasite abundance, we studied flea infestation of nine rodent species from three different biomes (temperate zone of central Europe, desert of Middle East and tropics of East Africa). We tested for independent and interactive effects of host sex and body mass on the number of fleas harboured by an individual host while accounting for spatial clustering of host and parasite sampling and temporal variation. We found no consistent patterns of the effect of host sex and body mass on flea abundance either among species within a biome or among biomes. We found evidence for sex-biased flea infestation in just five host species (Apodemus agrarius, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Gerbillus andersoni, Mastomys natalensis). In six rodent species, we found an effect of body mass on flea abundance (all species mentioned above and Meriones crassus). This effect was positive in five species and negative in one species (Microtus arvalis). In M. glareolus, G. andersoni, M. natalensis, and M. arvalis, the relationship between body mass and flea abundance was mediated by host sex. This was manifested in steeper change in flea abundance with increasing body mass in male than female individuals (M. glareolus, G. andersoni, M. natalensis), whereas the opposite pattern was found in M. arvalis. Our findings suggest that sex and body mass are common determinants of parasite infestation in mammalian hosts, but neither of them follows universal rules. This implies that the effect of host individual characteristics on mechanisms responsible for flea acquisition may be manifested differently in different host species.

  5. The extent of forest in dryland biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Francois Bastin; Nora Berrahmouni; Alan Grainger; Danae Maniatis; Danilo Mollicone; Rebecca Moore; Chiara Patriarca; Nicolas Picard; Ben Sparrow; Elena Maria Abraham; Kamel Aloui; Ayhan Atesoglu; Fabio Attore; Caglar Bassullu; Adia Bey; Monica Garzuglia; Luis G. GarcÌa-Montero; Nikee Groot; Greg Guerin; Lars Laestadius; Andrew J. Lowe; Bako Mamane; Giulio Marchi; Paul Patterson; Marcelo Rezende; Stefano Ricci; Ignacio Salcedo; Alfonso Sanchez-Paus Diaz; Fred Stolle; Venera Surappaeva; Rene Castro

    2017-01-01

    Dryland biomes cover two-fifths of Earth’s land surface, but their forest area is poorly known. Here, we report an estimate of global forest extent in dryland biomes, based on analyzing more than 210,000 0.5-hectare sample plots through a photo-interpretation approach using large databases of satellite imagery at (i) very high spatial resolution and (ii) very high...

  6. Birth of a biome: insights into the assembly and maintenance of the Australian arid zone biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M; Yeates, D K; Joseph, L; Kearney, M; Bowler, J; Williams, M A J; Cooper, S; Donnellan, S C; Keogh, J S; Leys, R; Melville, J; Murphy, D J; Porch, N; Wyrwoll, K-H

    2008-10-01

    The integration of phylogenetics, phylogeography and palaeoenvironmental studies is providing major insights into the historical forces that have shaped the Earth's biomes. Yet our present view is biased towards arctic and temperate/tropical forest regions, with very little focus on the extensive arid regions of the planet. The Australian arid zone is one of the largest desert landform systems in the world, with a unique, diverse and relatively well-studied biota. With foci on palaeoenvironmental and molecular data, we here review what is known about the assembly and maintenance of this biome in the context of its physical history, and in comparison with other mesic biomes. Aridification of Australia began in the Mid-Miocene, around 15 million years, but fully arid landforms in central Australia appeared much later, around 1-4 million years. Dated molecular phylogenies of diverse taxa show the deepest divergences of arid-adapted taxa from the Mid-Miocene, consistent with the onset of desiccation. There is evidence of arid-adapted taxa evolving from mesic-adapted ancestors, and also of speciation within the arid zone. There is no evidence for an increase in speciation rate during the Pleistocene, and most arid-zone species lineages date to the Pliocene or earlier. The last 0.8 million years have seen major fluctuations of the arid zone, with large areas covered by mobile sand dunes during glacial maxima. Some large, vagile taxa show patterns of recent expansion and migration throughout the arid zone, in parallel with the ice sheet-imposed range shifts in Northern Hemisphere taxa. Yet other taxa show high lineage diversity and strong phylogeographical structure, indicating persistence in multiple localised refugia over several glacial maxima. Similar to the Northern Hemisphere, Pleistocene range shifts have produced suture zones, creating the opportunity for diversification and speciation through hybridisation, polyploidy and parthenogenesis. This review highlights

  7. Model prediction of biome-specific global soil respiration from 1960 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengyong; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Qi; Meng, Fan-Rui; Song, Xinzhang; Chen, Shutao; Epule, Terence Epule; Li, Peng; Zhu, Qiuan

    2017-07-01

    Biome-specific soil respiration (Rs) has important yet different roles in both the carbon cycle and climate change from regional to global scales. To date, no comparable studies related to global biome-specific Rs have been conducted applying comprehensive global Rs databases. The goal of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models capable of spatially estimating global Rs and to evaluate the effects of interannual climate variations on 10 major biomes. We used 1976 annual Rs field records extracted from global Rs literature to train and test the ANN models. We determined that the best ANN model for predicting biome-specific global annual Rs was the one that applied mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and biome type as inputs (r2 = 0.60). The ANN models reported an average global Rs of 93.3 ± 6.1 Pg C yr-1 from 1960 to 2012 and an increasing trend in average global annual Rs of 0.04 Pg C yr-1. Estimated annual Rs increased with increases in MAT and MAP in cropland, boreal forest, grassland, shrubland, and wetland biomes. Additionally, estimated annual Rs decreased with increases in MAT and increased with increases in MAP in desert and tundra biomes, and only significantly decreased with increases in MAT (r2 = 0.87) in the savannah biome. The developed biome-specific global Rs database for global land and soil carbon models will aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying variations in soil carbon dynamics and in quantifying uncertainty in the global soil carbon cycle.

  8. The underestimated biodiversity of tropical grassy biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brett P; Andersen, Alan N; Parr, Catherine L

    2016-09-19

    For decades, there has been enormous scientific interest in tropical savannahs and grasslands, fuelled by the recognition that they are a dynamic and potentially unstable biome, requiring periodic disturbance for their maintenance. However, that scientific interest has not translated into widespread appreciation of, and concern about threats to, their biodiversity. In terms of biodiversity, grassy biomes are considered poor cousins of the other dominant biome of the tropics-forests. Simple notions of grassy biomes being species-poor cannot be supported; for some key taxa, such as vascular plants, this may be valid, but for others it is not. Here, we use an analysis of existing data to demonstrate that high-rainfall tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) have vertebrate species richness comparable with that of forests, despite having lower plant diversity. The Neotropics stand out in terms of both overall vertebrate species richness and number of range-restricted vertebrate species in TGBs. Given high rates of land-cover conversion in Neotropical grassy biomes, they should be a high priority for conservation and greater inclusion in protected areas. Fire needs to be actively maintained in these systems, and in many cases re-introduced after decades of inappropriate fire exclusion. The relative intactness of TGBs in Africa and Australia make them the least vulnerable to biodiversity loss in the immediate future. We argue that, like forests, TGBs should be recognized as a critical-but increasingly threatened-store of global biodiversity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzuto, D.

    1991-12-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an RΦ tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against γ → e + e - events

  10. Montane plant environments in the Fynbos Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental data collected at 507 plots on 22 transects, and soil analytical data from 81 of these plots, have been used to describe the plant environments of the mountains in the Fynbos Biome. Two major regional gradients are recognized: a west-east gradient and a coast-interior gradient. Of particular consequence for fynbos-environment studies is the increase in the proportion of fine soil particles from west to east. At least some aspects of soil fertility also increase towards the east. The edaphic changes are paralleled by climatic changes: chiefly a decrease in the severity of summer drought towards the east. On the coast-interior gradient a major non-climatic variable in the gradient is rock cover. High rock cover is a feature of the interior ranges. Soils with organic horizons or with E horizons are a feature on the coastal mountains, but are generally lacking on the interior mountains. The other environmental gradients recognized occur on individual transects and all include edaphic variables. The rockiness-soil depth gradient, on which an increase in rockiness is associated with a decrease in soil depth and usually a decrease in clay content, tends to occur in three situations. Firstly, it is associated with local topographic variation; the shallow, rocky soils being a feature of the steeper slopes. Secondly, it is associated with the aspect gradient; the hot, dry northern aspects having shallow, rocky, less developed soils. Thirdly, it tends to be associated with the altitude-rainfall gradient: shallower soils being found at higher altitudes. It is also at higher altitudes that higher rainfall is found. Variation in oxidizable carbon is chiefly accounted for by the altitude-rainfall gradient. Whereas at a biome-wide level, aspects of soil fertility are related to soil texture, it appears that on individual transects fertility is linked to amounts of plant remains in the soil and to rainfall. Apart from these gradients, which are

  11. Himalayan uplift shaped biomes in Miocene temperate Asia: evidence from leguminous Caragana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Xiao-Guo Xiang; Juan-Juan Xue; Stewart C. Sanderson; Peter W. Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Caragana, with distinctive variation in leaf and rachis characters, exhibits three centers of geographic distribution, i.e., Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), and East Asia, corresponding to distinct biomes. Because Caragana species are often ecologically dominant components of the vegetation in these regions, it is regarded as a key taxon for...

  12. Temporal profiles of vegetation indices for characterizing grazing intensity on natural grasslands in Pampa biome

    OpenAIRE

    Junges,Amanda Heemann; Bremm,Carolina; Fontana,Denise Cybis; Oliveira,Carlos Alberto Oliveira de; Schaparini,Laura Pigatto; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Pampa biome is an important ecosystem in Brazil that is highly relevant to livestock production. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential use of vegetation indices to discriminate grazing intensities on natural grasslands in the Pampa biome. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) images from Jan to Dec, 2000 to 2013 series, were analyzed for natural grassland experimen...

  13. Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    Full Text Available Root to shoot ratio (RS is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP and potential water deficit index (PWDI. Mean annual temperature (MAT also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship.

  14. Constrained variability of modeled T:ET ratio across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos

    2017-07-01

    A large variability (35-90%) in the ratio of transpiration to total evapotranspiration (referred here as T:ET) across biomes or even at the global scale has been documented by a number of studies carried out with different methodologies. Previous empirical results also suggest that T:ET does not covary with mean precipitation and has a positive dependence on leaf area index (LAI). Here we use a mechanistic ecohydrological model, with a refined process-based description of evaporation from the soil surface, to investigate the variability of T:ET across biomes. Numerical results reveal a more constrained range and higher mean of T:ET (70 ± 9%, mean ± standard deviation) when compared to observation-based estimates. T:ET is confirmed to be independent from mean precipitation, while it is found to be correlated with LAI seasonally but uncorrelated across multiple sites. Larger LAI increases evaporation from interception but diminishes ground evaporation with the two effects largely compensating each other. These results offer mechanistic model-based evidence to the ongoing research about the patterns of T:ET and the factors influencing its magnitude across biomes.

  15. A dated phylogeny and collection records reveal repeated biome shifts in the African genus Coccinia (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renner Susanne S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conservatism in climatic tolerance may limit geographic range expansion and should enhance the effects of habitat fragmentation on population subdivision. Here we study the effects of historical climate change, and the associated habitat fragmentation, on diversification in the mostly sub-Saharan cucurbit genus Coccinia, which has 27 species in a broad range of biota from semi-arid habitats to mist forests. Species limits were inferred from morphology, and nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data, using multiple individuals for the widespread species. Climatic tolerances were assessed from the occurrences of 1189 geo-referenced collections and WorldClim variables. Results Nuclear and plastid gene trees included 35 or 65 accessions, representing up to 25 species. The data revealed four species groups, one in southern Africa, one in Central and West African rain forest, one widespread but absent from Central and West African rain forest, and one that occurs from East Africa to southern Africa. A few individuals are differently placed in the plastid and nuclear (LFY trees or contain two ITS sequence types, indicating hybridization. A molecular clock suggests that the diversification of Coccinia began about 6.9 Ma ago, with most of the extant species diversity dating to the Pliocene. Ancestral biome reconstruction reveals six switches between semi-arid habitats, woodland, and forest, and members of several species pairs differ significantly in their tolerance of different precipitation regimes. Conclusions The most surprising findings of this study are the frequent biome shifts (in a relatively small clade over just 6 - 7 million years and the limited diversification during and since the Pleistocene. Pleistocene climate oscillations may have been too rapid or too shallow for full reproductive barriers to develop among fragmented populations of Coccinia, which would explain the apparently still ongoing hybridization between certain

  16. Disturbance and the dynamics of fynbos biome communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cowling, RM

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This volume comprises invited review and research papers dealing with the effects of disturbance on the dynamics of fynbos biome communities. Since fire is the most important disturbance factor in the biome, most contributions concentrate...

  17. FIFE data analysis: Testing BIOME-BGC predictions for grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) was conducted in a 15 km by 15 km research area located 8 km south of Manhattan, Kansas. The site consists primarily of native tallgrass prairie mixed with gallery oak forests and croplands. The objectives of FIFE are to better understand the role of biology in controlling the interactions between the land and the atmosphere, and to determine the value of remotely sensed data for estimating climatological parameters. The goals of FIFE are twofold: the upscale integration of models, and algorithm development for satellite remote sensing. The specific objectives of the field campaigns carried out in 1987 and 1989 were the simultaneous acquisition of satellite, atmospheric, and surface data; and the understanding of the processes controlling surface energy and mass exchange. Collected data were used to study the dynamics of various ecosystem processes (photosynthesis, evaporation and transpiration, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, etc.). Modelling terrestrial ecosystems at scales larger than that of a homogeneous plot led to the development of simple, generalized models of biogeochemical cycles that can be accurately applied to different biomes through the use of remotely sensed data. A model was developed called BIOME-BGC (for BioGeochemical Cycles) from a coniferous forest ecosystem model, FOREST-BGC, where a biome is considered a combination of a life forms in a specified climate. A predominately C4-photosynthetic grassland is probably the most different from a coniferous forest possible, hence the FIFE site was an excellent study area for testing BIOME-BGC. The transition from an essentially one-dimensional calculation to three-dimensional, landscape scale simulations requires the introduction of such factors as meteorology, climatology, and geomorphology. By using remotely sensed geographic information data for important model inputs, process

  18. Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S.A. Beck; Glenn P. Juday; Claire Alix; Valerie A. Barber; Stephen E. Winslow; Emily E. Sousa; Patricia Heiser; James D. Herriges; Scott J. Goetz

    2011-01-01

    Global vegetation models predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. This shift would manifest itself first at the biome's margins, with evergreen forest expanding into current tundra while being replaced by grasslands or temperate forest at the biome's southern edge. We evaluated changes in forest...

  19. Global climate and the distribution of plant biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, F I; Lomas, M R; Kelly, C K

    2004-10-29

    Biomes are areas of vegetation that are characterized by the same life-form. Traditional definitions of biomes have also included either geographical or climatic descriptors. This approach describes a wide range of biomes that can be correlated with characteristic climatic conditions, or climatic envelopes. The application of remote sensing technology to the frequent observation of biomes has led to a move away from the often subjective definition of biomes to one that is objective. Carefully characterized observations of life-form, by satellite, have been used to reconsider biome classification and their climatic envelopes. Five major tree biomes can be recognized by satellites based on leaf longevity and morphology: needleleaf evergreen, broadleaf evergreen, needleleaf deciduous, broadleaf cold deciduous and broadleaf drought deciduous. Observations indicate that broadleaf drought deciduous vegetation grades substantially into broadleaf evergreen vegetation. The needleleaf deciduous biome occurs in the world's coldest climates, where summer drought and therefore a drought deciduous biome are absent. Traditional biome definitions are quite static, implying no change in their life-form composition with time, within their particular climatic envelopes. However, this is not the case where there has been global ingress of grasslands and croplands into forested vegetation. The global spread of grasses, a new super-biome, was probably initiated 30-45 Myr ago by an increase in global aridity, and was driven by the natural spread of the disturbances of fire and animal grazing. These disturbances have been further extended over the Holocene era by human activities that have increased the land areas available for domestic animal grazing and for growing crops. The current situation is that grasses now occur in most, if not all biomes, and in many areas they dominate and define the biome. Croplands are also increasing, defining a new and relatively recent component to the

  20. Multiband radar characterization of forest biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, M. Craig; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1990-01-01

    The utility of airborne and orbital SAR in classification, assessment, and monitoring of forest biomes is investigated through analysis of orbital synthetic aperature radar (SAR) and multifrequency and multipolarized airborne SAR imagery relying on image tone and texture. Preliminary airborne SAR experiments and truck-mounted scatterometer observations demonstrated that the three dimensional structural complexity of a forest, and the various scales of temporal dynamics in the microwave dielectric properties of both trees and the underlying substrate would severely limit empirical or semi-empirical approaches. As a consequence, it became necessary to develop a more profound understanding of the electromagnetic properties of a forest scene and their temporal dynamics through controlled experimentation coupled with theoretical development and verification. The concatenation of various models into a physically-based composite model treating the entire forest scene became the major objective of the study as this is the key to development of a series of robust retrieval algorithms for forest biophysical properties. In order to verify the performance of the component elements of the composite model, a series of controlled laboratory and field experiments were undertaken to: (1) develop techniques to measure the microwave dielectric properties of vegetation; (2) relate the microwave dielectric properties of vegetation to more readily measured characteristics such as density and moisture content; (3) calculate the radar cross-section of leaves, and cylinders; (4) improve backscatter models for rough surfaces; and (5) relate attenuation and phase delays during propagation through canopies to canopy properties. These modeling efforts, as validated by the measurements, were incorporated within a larger model known as the Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS) Model.

  1. On coupling global biome models with climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claussen, M.

    1994-01-01

    The BIOME model of Prentice et al. (1992), which predicts global vegetation patterns in equilibrium with climate, is coupled with the ECHAM climate model of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg. It is found that incorporation of the BIOME model into ECHAM, regardless at which frequency, does not enhance the simulated climate variability, expressed in terms of differences between global vegetation patterns. Strongest changes are seen only between the initial biome distribution and the biome distribution computed after the first simulation period, provided that the climate-biome model is started from a biome distribution that resembles the present-day distribution. After the first simulation period, there is no significant shrinking, expanding, or shifting of biomes. Likewise, no trend is seen in global averages of land-surface parameters and climate variables. (orig.)

  2. Importance of land use update during the calibration period and simulation of water balance response to land use change in the upper Rio das Mortes Catchment (Cerrado Biome, Central-Western Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparter, Gabriele; Kovacs, Kristof; Nobrega, Rodolfo; Gerold, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological balance and following degradation of the water ecosystem services due to large scale land use changes are reported from agricultural frontiers all over the world. Traditionally, hydrological models including vegetation and land use as a part of the hydrological cycle use a fixed distribution of land use for the calibration period. We believe that a meaningful calibration - especially when investigating the effects of land use change on hydrology - demands the inclusion of land use change during the calibration period into the calibration procedure. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a process-based, semi-distributed model calculating the different components of the water balance. The model bases on the definition of hydrological response units (HRUs) which are based on soil, vegetation and slope distribution. It specifically emphasises the role of land use and land management on the water balance. The Central-Western region of Brazil is one of the leading agricultural frontiers, which experienced rapid and radical deforestation and agricultural intensification in the last 40 years (from natural Cerrado savannah to cattle grazing to intensive corn and soya cropland). The land use history of the upper Rio das Mortes catchment (with 17500 km²) is reasonably well documented since the 1970th. At the same time there are almost continuous climate and runoff data available for the period between 1988 and 2011. Therefore, the work presented here shows the model calibration and validation of the SWAT model with the land use update function for three different periods (1988 to 1998, 1998 to 2007 and 2007 to 2011) in comparison with the same calibration periods using a steady state land use distribution. The use of the land use update function allows a clearer identification which changes in the discharge are due to climatic variability and which are due to changes in the vegetation cover. With land use update included into the

  3. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  4. The extent of forest in dryland biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Jean-François; Berrahmouni, Nora; Grainger, Alan; Maniatis, Danae; Mollicone, Danilo; Moore, Rebecca; Patriarca, Chiara; Picard, Nicolas; Sparrow, Ben; Abraham, Elena Maria; Aloui, Kamel; Atesoglu, Ayhan; Attore, Fabio; Bassüllü, Çağlar; Bey, Adia; Garzuglia, Monica; García-Montero, Luis G; Groot, Nikée; Guerin, Greg; Laestadius, Lars; Lowe, Andrew J; Mamane, Bako; Marchi, Giulio; Patterson, Paul; Rezende, Marcelo; Ricci, Stefano; Salcedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Alfonso Sanchez-Paus; Stolle, Fred; Surappaeva, Venera; Castro, Rene

    2017-05-12

    Dryland biomes cover two-fifths of Earth's land surface, but their forest area is poorly known. Here, we report an estimate of global forest extent in dryland biomes, based on analyzing more than 210,000 0.5-hectare sample plots through a photo-interpretation approach using large databases of satellite imagery at (i) very high spatial resolution and (ii) very high temporal resolution, which are available through the Google Earth platform. We show that in 2015, 1327 million hectares of drylands had more than 10% tree-cover, and 1079 million hectares comprised forest. Our estimate is 40 to 47% higher than previous estimates, corresponding to 467 million hectares of forest that have never been reported before. This increases current estimates of global forest cover by at least 9%. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Surging wildfire activity in a grassland biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Victoria M.; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2017-06-01

    Rapid changes in wildfire patterns are documented globally, increasing pressure to identify regions that may experience increases in wildfire in future decades. Temperate grassland and savanna biomes were some of the most frequently burned regions on Earth; however, large wildfires have been largely absent from the Great Plains of North America over the last century. In this paper, we conduct an in-depth analysis of changes in large wildfire (>400 ha) regime characteristics over a 30 year period across the Great Plains. For the entire biome, (i) the average number of large wildfires increased from 33.4 ± 5.6 per year from 1985 to 1994 to 116.8 ± 28.8 wildfires per year from 2005 to 2014, (ii) total area burned by large wildfires increased 400%, (iii) over half the ecoregions had greater than a 70% probability of a large wildfire occurring in the last decade, and (iv) seasonality of large wildfires remained relatively similar.

  6. Consistent shifts in spring vegetation green-up date across temperate biomes in China, 1982-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan

    2013-03-01

    Understanding spring phenology changes in response to the rapid climate change at biome-level is crucial for projecting regional ecosystem carbon exchange and climate-biosphere interactions. In this study, we assessed the long-term changes and responses to changing climate of the spring phenology in six temperate biomes of China by analyzing the global inventory monitoring and modeling studies (GIMMS) NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and concurrent mean temperature and precipitation data for 1982-2006. Results show that the spring phenology trends in the six temperate biomes are not continuous throughout the 25 year period. The spring phenology in most areas of the six biomes showed obvious advancing trends (ranging from -0.09 to -0.65 day/yr) during the 1980s and early 1990s, but has subsequently suffered consistently delaying trends (ranging from 0.22 to 1.22 day/yr). Changes in spring (February-April) temperature are the dominating factor governing the pattern of spring vegetation phenology in the temperate biomes of China. The recently delayed spring phenology in these temperate biomes has been mainly triggered by the stalling or reversal of the warming trend in spring temperatures. Results in this study also reveal that precipitation during November-January can explain 16.1% (P biomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brian Pointing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favourable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on polar plant diversity and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks.

  8. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  9. Global trends in biome-level plant water-use efficiency in the past 25 years from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang Soh, Wuu; Yiotis, Charilaos; Murray, Michelle; Batke, Sven; McElwain, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will likely alter future ecosystems functioning however the magnitude and direction of such changes are unpredictable and difficult to quantify. One notable aspect of ecosystem functioning is the carbon and hydrologic cycles which are closely tied by gas exchange via plant stomata. Uncertainties in the magnitude and direction of the physiological responses of plants to elevated CO2 at biome level hamper modelling of terrestrial water cycling and carbon storage. One of the important physiological traits is water-use efficiency which is the ratio of water loss to carbon gain. This is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Many existing studies have focused on long-term centennial effects of elevated CO2 on plant water-use efficiency of a relatively few species within narrow ecosystem range but short-term effect on much broader ecosystem coverage is unknown. Here we assessed the impact of a short-term (25 years: between 1988/89 and 2013/15) increase in CO2 (c. 40 ppm) on plant intrinsic water-use efficiency inferred from leaf stable carbon isotope (δ13C), encompassing a broader coverage to include seven world biome and 229 woody angiosperm species. To substantiate the result from the leaf stable carbon isotope data, we also conducted gas-exchange analyses experiments. We show that the magnitude of plant intrinsic water-use efficiency change varied among biomes and plant functional types. Our finding is important because it shows that short-term increase in atmospheric CO2 can potentially alter hydrologic cycle and its magnitude may differ among biome-plant functional type compositions.

  10. A study of Central Exclusive Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monk, James [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    Central exclusive production of a system X in a collision between two hadrons h is defined as hh → h + X + h with no other activity apart from the decay products of X. This thesis presents predictions for the production cross section of a CP violating supersymmetric Higgs boson and the radion of the Randall-Sundrum model. The ExHuME Monte Carlo generator was written to simulate central exclusive processes and is described and explored. A comparison to di-jet observations made by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, Fermilab between January and June 2004 is made and the distributions found support the predictions of ExHuME.

  11. Evaluating fire danger in Brazilian biomes: present and future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on fire occurrence and activity, particularly in Brazil, a region known to be fire-prone [1]. The Brazilian savanna, commonly referred to as cerrado, is a fire-adapted biome covering more than 20% of the country's total area. It presents the highest numbers of fire events, making it particularly susceptible to changes in climate. It is thus essential to understand the present fire regimes in Brazilian biomes, in order to better evaluate future patterns. The CPTEC/INPE, the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research at the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research developed a fire danger index based on the occurrence of hundreds of thousands of fire events in the main Brazilian biomes [2]: the Meteorological Fire Danger Index (MFDI). This index indicates the predisposition of vegetation to be burned on a given day, for given climate conditions preceding that day. It relies on daily values of air temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation and vegetation cover. In this study we aim to access the capability of the MFDI to accurately replicate present fire conditions for different biomes, with a special focus on cerrado. To this end, we assess the link between the MFDI as calculated by three different reanalysis (ERA-Interim, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 and MERRA-2) and the observed burned area. We further calculate the validated MFDI using a regional climate model, the RCA4 as forced by EC-Earth from CORDEX, to understand the ability of the model to characterize present fire danger. Finally, the need to calibrate the model to better characterize future fire danger was also evaluated. This work was developed within the framework of the Brazilian Fire-Land-Atmosphere System (BrFLAS) Project financed by the Portuguese and Brazilian science foundations, FCT and FAPESP (project references FAPESP/1389/2014 and 2014/20042-2). [1] KRAWCHUK, M.A.; MORITZ, M.A.; PARISIEN, M.A.; VAN DORN, J

  12. A brief botanical survey into Kumbira forest, an isolated patch of Guineo-Congolian biome

    OpenAIRE

    Gon?alves, Francisco M. P.; Goyder, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kumbira forest is a discrete patch of moist forest of Guineo-Congolian biome in Western Angola central scarp and runs through Cuanza Norte and Cuanza Sul province. The project aimed to document the floristic diversity of the Angolan escarpment, a combination of general walk-over survey, plant specimen collection and sight observation was used to aid the characterization of the vegetation. Over 100 plant specimens in flower or fruit were collected within four identified vegetation typ...

  13. Ticks parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012 and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013. Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1, Nothoaspis (n = 1 and Ornithodoros (n = 407. Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

  14. Ticks parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso de; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN) located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1), Nothoaspis (n = 1) and Ornithodoros (n = 407). Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

  15. La filatelia biomédica

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio J.A. Roldán; Claudio Zuckerberg

    2011-01-01

    La temática biomédica es un capítulo extendido de la filatelia o coleccionismo de sellos postales. Inaugura la temática la imagen de la diosa Hygeia, en un sello de la isla Nevis de 1861. Los primeros médicos retratados en una estampilla son tres constitucionalistas americanos, en un ejemplar de 1869, pero recién en 1937 aparecen médicos holandeses en reconocimiento específico de sus aportes a la salud. En la Argentina la primera estampilla que oficialmente se ocupa del tema es de 1944, en ay...

  16. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1800

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1800 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  17. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1900

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1900 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  18. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 2000 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  19. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1700

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1700 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  20. Himalayan uplift shaped biomes in Miocene temperate Asia: evidence from leguminous Caragana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Xue, Juan-Juan; Sanderson, Stewart C; Fritsch, Peter W

    2016-11-09

    Caragana, with distinctive variation in leaf and rachis characters, exhibits three centers of geographic distribution, i.e., Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), and East Asia, corresponding to distinct biomes. Because Caragana species are often ecologically dominant components of the vegetation in these regions, it is regarded as a key taxon for the study of floristic evolution in the dry regions of temperate Asia. Based on an expanded data set of taxa and gene regions from those previously generated, we employed molecular clock and biogeographical analyses to infer the evolutionary history of Caragana and link it to floristic patterns, paleovegetation, and paleoclimate. Results indicate that Caragana is of arid origin from the Junggar steppe. Diversification of crown group Caragana, dated to the early Miocene ca. 18 Ma and onwards, can be linked to the Himalayan Motion stage of QTP uplift. Diversification of the major clades in the genus corresponding to taxonomic sections and morphological variation is inferred to have been driven by the uplift, as well as Asian interior aridification and East Asian monsoon formation, in the middle to late Miocene ca. 12~6 Ma. These findings demonstrate a synchronous evolution among floristics, vegetation and climate change in arid Central Asia, cold arid alpine QTP, and mesophytic East Asia.

  1. Bartonella species pathogenic for humans infect pets, free-ranging wild mammals and their ectoparasites in the Caatinga biome, Northeastern Brazil: a serological and molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Fontalvo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in dogs, cats, wild mammals and their ectoparasites in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande Counties, Pernambuco, located in a semi-arid region in Northeastern Brazil. Anti-Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA in 24.8% of dogs (27/109 and in 15% of cats (6/40. Bartonella sp. DNA was identified by PCR performed on DNA extracted from blood and ectoparasites using primers targeting Bartonella sp. gltA and ribC genes in 100% (9/9 of Pulex irritans from Cerdocyon thous, 57.4% (35/61 of P. irritans from dogs, 2.3% (1/43 of Ctenocephalides felis felis from dogs, 53.3% (24/45 of C. felis felis from cats, and 10% (1/10 of Polyplax spp. from Thrichomys apereoides. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae in C. felis felis from cats, Bartonella rochalimae in P. irritans from dog and C. thous, and Bartonella vinsoni berkhofii in P. irritans from dog.

  2. Bartonella species pathogenic for humans infect pets, free-ranging wild mammals and their ectoparasites in the Caatinga biome, Northeastern Brazil: a serological and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontalvo, Mariana Campos; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Santos, Naylla Mayana Dos; Oliveira, Glauber Meneses Barboza de; Aguiar, Daniel Moura; Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    This study verified the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in dogs, cats, wild mammals and their ectoparasites in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande Counties, Pernambuco, located in a semi-arid region in Northeastern Brazil. Anti-Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in 24.8% of dogs (27/109) and in 15% of cats (6/40). Bartonella sp. DNA was identified by PCR performed on DNA extracted from blood and ectoparasites using primers targeting Bartonella sp. gltA and ribC genes in 100% (9/9) of Pulex irritans from Cerdocyon thous, 57.4% (35/61) of P. irritans from dogs, 2.3% (1/43) of Ctenocephalides felis felis from dogs, 53.3% (24/45) of C. felis felis from cats, and 10% (1/10) of Polyplax spp. from Thrichomys apereoides. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae in C. felis felis from cats, Bartonella rochalimae in P. irritans from dog and C. thous, and Bartonella vinsoni berkhofii in P. irritans from dog. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. La filatelia biomédica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J.A. Roldán

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La temática biomédica es un capítulo extendido de la filatelia o coleccionismo de sellos postales. Inaugura la temática la imagen de la diosa Hygeia, en un sello de la isla Nevis de 1861. Los primeros médicos retratados en una estampilla son tres constitucionalistas americanos, en un ejemplar de 1869, pero recién en 1937 aparecen médicos holandeses en reconocimiento específico de sus aportes a la salud. En la Argentina la primera estampilla que oficialmente se ocupa del tema es de 1944, en ayuda de las víctimas del terremoto de San Juan. Florentino Ameghino es el primer científico incluido en 1954, y en 1967 se edita un sello conmemorativo de la Dra. Cecilia Grierson. La filatelia argentina luego reconoce varios de nuestros científicos y médicos, congresos, universidades, campañas sanitarias, temas de odontología, farmacia, enfermería y otros, generando un amplio material filatélico en reconocimiento del valor social que la ciencia biomédica argentina ha logrado en el contexto propio e internacional. Posiblemente sea un científico, el Dr. Bernardo Houssay, uno de los argentinos más veces editado en distintos sellos postales de la filatelia mundial.

  4. BioMe: biologically relevant metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tus, Alan; Rakipović, Alen; Peretin, Goran; Tomić, Sanja; Šikić, Mile

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce BioMe (biologically relevant metals), a web-based platform for calculation of various statistical properties of metal-binding sites. Users can obtain the following statistical properties: presence of selected ligands in metal coordination sphere, distribution of coordination numbers, percentage of metal ions coordinated by the combination of selected ligands, distribution of monodentate and bidentate metal-carboxyl, bindings for ASP and GLU, percentage of particular binuclear metal centers, distribution of coordination geometry, descriptive statistics for a metal ion–donor distance and percentage of the selected metal ions coordinated by each of the selected ligands. Statistics is presented in numerical and graphical forms. The underlying database contains information about all contacts within the range of 3 Å from a metal ion found in the asymmetric crystal unit. The stored information for each metal ion includes Protein Data Bank code, structure determination method, types of metal-binding chains [protein, ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), water and other] and names of the bounded ligands (amino acid residue, RNA nucleotide, DNA nucleotide, water and other) and the coordination number, the coordination geometry and, if applicable, another metal(s). BioMe is on a regular weekly update schedule. It is accessible at http://metals.zesoi.fer.hr. PMID:22693222

  5. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF NATIVE PLANTS FROM THE CAATINGA BIOME AGAINST Staphylococcus spp. ISOLATES FROM SMALL RUMINANTS WITH MASTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    PEIXOTO, RODOLFO DE MORAES; SILVA, WELLINGTON ERASMO LIMA E; ALMEIDA, JACKSON ROBERTO GUEDES SILVA; BRANCO, ALEXSANDRO; COSTA, MATEUS MATIUZZI DA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to assess the antibacterial potential of plants from the Caatinga biome of the semi-arid region of Pernambuco, against Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of subclinical mastitis in small ruminants, such as goats and ewes. Ethanolic extracts of the following plants from the Caatinga biome were used: Encholirium spectabile Mart., Bromelia laciniosa Mart., Neoglaziovia variegata Mez., Amburana cearensis (Fr. Allem.) A. C. Smith, Hymenaea martiana Hay...

  6. Climate-biomes, pedo-biomes and pyro-biomes: which world view explains the tropical forest - savanna boundary in South America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Liam; Higgins, Steven; Scheiter, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Elucidating the drivers of broad vegetation formations improves our understanding of earth system functioning. The biome, defined primarily by the dominance of a particular growth strategy, is commonly employed to group vegetation into similar units. Predicting tropical forest and savanna biome boundaries in South America has proven difficult. Process based DGVMs (Dynamic global vegetation models) are our best tool to simulate vegetation patterns, make predictions for future changes and test theory, however, many DGVMs fail to accurately simulate the spatial distribution or indeed presence of the South American savanna biome which can result in large differences in modelled ecosystem structural properties. Evidence suggests fire plays a significant role in mediating these forest and savanna biome boundaries, however, fire alone does not appear to be sufficient to predict these boundaries in South America using DGVMs hinting at the presence of one or more missing environmental factors. We hypothesise that soil depth, which affects plant available water by determining maximum storage potential and influences temporal availability, may be one of these missing environmental factors. To test our hypothesis we use a novel vegetation model, the aDGVM2. This model has been specifically designed to allow plant trait strategies, constrained by trade-offs between traits, evolve based on the abiotic and biotic conditions where the resulting community trait suites are emergent properties of model dynamics. Furthermore it considers root biomass in multiple soil layers and therefore allows the consideration of alternative rooting strategies, which in turn allows us to explore in more detail the role of soil hydraulic factors in controlling biome boundary distributions. We find that changes in soil depth, interacting with fire, affect the relative dominance of tree and grass strategies and thus the presence and spatial distribution of forest and savanna biomes in South America

  7. An Overview of the BIOMed Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, John; Wageih, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose is to: 1) foster the national BioMedical Informatics (BMI) foundation aligning with the international medical informatics association (IMIA) in order to remodel the national strategies; 2) structure the BMHI strategic plans in Egypt and Jordan as models for other Arab States; 3) define the requirements for new joint EU-Mediterranean BMHI projects and initiatives; and 4) encourage and support the BMHI centres of excellence in Egypt and Jordan. BIOMed will synergistically apply up-to-date European and International methodologies & standards. The pre-defined challenges were integrating multiple segregated BMHI initiatives and policies; overcoming obstructions- socio, political, economic; recommendation adaptation, assessing the current and proposed solutions; defining the national health systems real demands; identifying different European best practices. Political instability in the Middle East after the Arab Spring in 2011 added further challenges as well as improved the importance of the EU-MENA (EU and Middle East and North Africa) cooperation.

  8. Extreme precipitation patterns and reductions of terrestrial ecosystem production across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongguang Zhang; M. Susan Moran; Mark A. Nearing; Guillermo E. Ponce Campos; Alfredo R. Huete; Anthony R. Buda; David D. Bosch; Stacey A. Gunter; Stanley G. Kitchen; W. Henry McNab; Jack A. Morgan; Mitchel P. McClaran; Diane S. Montoya; Debra P.C. Peters; Patrick J. Starks

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation regimes are predicted to shift to more extreme patterns that are characterized by more heavy rainfall events and longer dry intervals, yet their ecological impacts on vegetation production remain uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. This in situ study investigated the effects of these climatic conditions on aboveground net primary...

  9. Vegetation productivity responds to sub-annual climate conditions across semiarid biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Southwestern United States (SW), the current prolonged warm drought is similar to the predicted future climate change scenarios for the region. This study aimed to determine patterns in vegetation response to the early 21st century drought across multiple biomes. We hypothesized that differen...

  10. Explicit Not Implicit Preferences Predict Conservation Intentions for Endangered Species and Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, Alejandra; Callahan, Megan M; Chan, Kai M A; Satterfield, Terre; Zhao, Jiaying

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity is determined in part by human preferences. Preferences relevant to conservation have been examined largely via explicit measures (e.g., a self-reported degree of liking), with implicit measures (e.g., preconscious, automatic evaluations) receiving relatively less attention. This is the case despite psychological evidence from other contexts that implicit preferences are more informative of behavior. Thus, the type of measure that predicts conservation intentions for biodiversity is unknown. We conducted three studies to examine conservation intentions in light of people's explicit and implicit preferences toward four endangered species (sea otter, American badger, caribou, yellow-breasted chat) and four biomes (forest, ocean, grassland, tundra). In Study 1 (n = 55), we found that people implicitly preferred caribou most, but explicitly preferred sea otter most, with a significant multiple regression where participants' explicit preferences dictated their stated intended donations for conservation of each species. In Study 2 (n = 57) we found that people implicitly and explicitly preferred forest and ocean over grassland and tundra. Explicit rather than implicit preferences predicted the intended donation for conservation of the ocean biome. Study 3 involved a broader online sample of participants (n = 463) and also found that explicit preferences dictated the intended donations for conservation of biomes and species. Our findings reveal discrepancies between implicit and explicit preferences toward species, but not toward biomes. Importantly, the results demonstrate that explicit rather than implicit preferences predict conservation intentions for biodiversity. The current findings have several implications for conservation and the communication of biodiversity initiatives.

  11. St. Paul central corridor study : Pierce Butler industrial redevelopment parkway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    At present, development in the St. Paul Central Corridor is occurring piecemeal and lacks an integrative vision. This study's aim was to devise design approaches that create a district which integrates light industrial job creation and retention with...

  12. A case-study from central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such type of woody ingression leading to the reduction of grassland area is not much reported from Indian region, particularly using remote sensing datasets. Remote sensing based vegetation studies related to succession and competition of species are limited by coarser spatial resolution of historical satellite datasets.

  13. Uso de bases de datos bibliográficas por investigadores biomédicos latinoamericanos hispanoparlantes: estudio transversal The use of bibliographic databases by Spanish-speaking Latin American biomedical researchers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Guillermo Ospina

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cómo los profesionales biomédicos hispanoparlantes de América Latina acceden a y utilizan las bases de datos bibliográficas. MÉTODOS: A partir de una búsqueda en MEDLINE se identificaron 2 515 artículos publicados entre agosto de 2002 y agosto de 2003 por autores de Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, Uruguay y Venezuela. La búsqueda se limitó a referencias de las ciencias básicas y clínicas y de la medicina social. Se envió una encuesta por correo electrónico a los autores que efectuaron su investigación y residían en alguno de los países estudiados. En la encuesta se exploraron el área de desempeño del investigador (ciencias básicas, clínicas o salud pública, el nivel de destreza en la utilización de las bases de datos, la frecuencia y el tipo de acceso a las bases de datos más empleadas, el impacto de la carencia de los textos completos en el momento de escribir un manuscrito y la vía mediante la cual los encuestados solían conseguir el texto completo de los artículos. RESULTADOS: Se enviaron en total 586 mensajes con la encuesta y se recibieron 185 respuestas (32%. Las bases de datos más utilizadas para obtener información biomédica fueron MEDLINE (34,1%, los motores de búsqueda generales (Google, Yahoo! y Alta Vista (15,9%, las revistas en línea (9,8%, BIREME-LILACS (6,0%, BioMedNet (5,4%, las bases de datos del Centro para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC de los Estados Unidos (5,2% y la Biblioteca Cochrane (4,9%. De los encuestados, 64% indicaron tener habilidades medias o avanzadas en la utilización de MEDLINE. Sin embargo, 72% no utilizaban ni conocían los MeSH ("medical subject headings", términos estandarizados fijados por la Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina de los Estados Unidos para hacer búsquedas en bases de datos bio-médicas. La frecuencia de las consultas a las

  14. Technical study for inflector and central region of high intensity central region model cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hongjuan; Lu Yinlong; Zhang Tianjue; Li Zhenguo; Jia Xianlu; Guan Fengping; Wang Zhenhui; Lin Jun; Lin Yuzheng

    2008-01-01

    The central region model (CRM) cyclotron is the experimental platform for the key technology study of a high intensity beam cyclotron. In thia paper we introduce the spiral inflector and central region designed for the CRM cyclotron, including the physical design, the numerical control machining and the installation precision control techniques. The shape of electrodes is complex, and machining with a strict tolerance must be done by a numerical control machine tool with the number of its axles no less that 4. The electrodes of central region were finished by using 3-axle machine tools. The size of gaps between the ground and Dee tip is very important, a special device was made to guarantee the installation precision, and the error of gaps was controlled within ±0.05 mm. (authors)

  15. Late Quaternary and future biome simulations for Alaska and Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Amy S.

    Arctic biomes across a region including Alaska and Eastern Russia were investigated using the BIOME4 biogeochemical and biogeography vegetation model. This study investigated past (the last 21,000 years), present, and future vegetation distributions in the study area, using climate forcing from five CMIP5 models (CCSM4, GISS-E2-R, MIROC-ESM, MPI-ESM, and MRI-CGCM3). The present-day BIOME4 simulations were generally consistent with current vegetation observations in the study region characterized by evergreen and deciduous taiga and shrub tundras. Paleoclimatological simulations were compared with pollen data samples collected in the study region. Pre-industrial biome simulations are generally similar to the modern reconstruction but differ by having more shrub tundra in both Russia and Alaska to the north, as well as less deciduous taiga in Alaska. Pre-industrial simulations were in good agreement with the pollen data. Mid-Holocene simulations place shrub tundras along the Arctic coast, and in some cases along the eastern coast of Russia. Simulations for the Mid-Holocene are in good agreement with pollen-based distributions of biomes. Simulations for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) show that the Bering Land Bridge was covered almost entirely by cushion forb, lichen and moss tundra, shrub tundra, and graminoid tundra. Three out of the five models' climate data produce evergreen and deciduous taiga in what is now southwestern Alaska, however the pollen data does not support this. The distributions of cushion forb, lichen, and moss tundra and graminoid tundra differ noticeably between models, while shrub tundra distributions are generally similar. Future simulations of BIOME4 based on the RCP8.5 climate scenario indicate a northward shift of the treeline and a significant areal decrease of shrub tundra and graminoid tundra regions in the 21st century. Intrusions of cool mixed, deciduous, and conifer forests above 60°N, especially in southwest Alaska, were notable

  16. Uso de bases de datos bibliográficas por investigadores biomédicos latinoamericanos hispanoparlantes: estudio transversal The use of bibliographic databases by Spanish-speaking Latin American biomedical researchers: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Guillermo Ospina; Ludovic Reveiz Herault; Andrés Felipe Cardona

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cómo los profesionales biomédicos hispanoparlantes de América Latina acceden a y utilizan las bases de datos bibliográficas. MÉTODOS: A partir de una búsqueda en MEDLINE se identificaron 2 515 artículos publicados entre agosto de 2002 y agosto de 2003 por autores de Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, Uruguay y Venezuela. La búsqueda se limitó a referencias de las ciencias básica...

  17. Varying influence of environmental gradients on vegetation patterns across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.; Mascaro, J.; Taylor, P.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental gradients, like elevation, slope, aspect, and soil properties, filter vegetation types at the local scale. These `environmental filters' create conditions that are conducive to the success or failure of different plant types, influencing landscape-scale heterogeneity in taxonomic diversity, functional diversity, biomass accumulation, greenness, and more. Niche-based models implicitly assume that environmental filtering is the dominant process controlling plant distributions. While environmental filtering is a well understood process, its importance relative to other drivers of heterogeneity, like disturbance, human impacts, and plant-animal interactions, remains unknown and likely varies between biomes. Here we synthesize results from several studies using data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory - a fused LiDAR and imaging spectroscopy system - that mapped a vegetation patterns in multiple biomes and associated these with environmental gradients. The study sites range from Panama to California, and the patterns range from aboveground carbon to foliar chemistry. We show that at fine spatial scales environmental filtering is a strong predictor of aboveground biomass in a dry system (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, California - Dahlin et al 2012) but a weak predictor of plant functional traits in that same system (Dahlin et al 2014), a weak predictor of aboveground carbon in the tropics (Barro Colorado Island, Panama - Mascaro et al 2011; Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica - Taylor et al 2015), and a weak predictor of greenness (NDVI) in a disturbed dry system (Santa Cruz Island, California - Dahlin et al 2014). Collectively, these results suggest that while environmental filtering is an important driver of landscape-scale heterogeneity, it is not the only, or often even the most important, driver for many of these systems and patterns.

  18. Temporal Changes in Coupled Vegetation Phenology and Productivity are Biome-Specific in the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhui Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has greatly stimulated vegetation growth through both extending the growing season and promoting photosynthesis in the Northern Hemisphere (NH. Analyzing the combined dynamics of such trends can potentially improve our current understanding on changes in vegetation functioning and the complex relationship between anthropogenic and climatic drivers. This study aims to analyze the relationships (long-term trends and correlations of length of vegetation growing season (LOS and vegetation productivity assessed by the growing season NDVI integral (GSI in the NH (>30°N to study any dependency of major biomes that are characterized by different imprint from anthropogenic influence. Spatial patterns of converging/diverging trends in LOS and GSI and temporal changes in the coupling between LOS and GSI are analyzed for major biomes at hemispheric and continental scales from the third generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset for a 32-year period (1982–2013. A quarter area of the NH is covered by converging trends (consistent significant trends in LOS and GSI, whereas diverging trends (opposing significant trends in LOS and GSI cover about 6% of the region. Diverging trends are observed mainly in high latitudes and arid/semi-arid areas of non-forest biomes (shrublands, savannas, and grasslands, whereas forest biomes and croplands are primarily characterized by converging trends. The study shows spatially-distinct and biome-specific patterns between the continental land masses of Eurasia (EA and North America (NA. Finally, areas of high positive correlation between LOS and GSI showed to increase during the period of analysis, with areas of significant positive trends in correlation being more widespread in NA as compared to EA. The temporal changes in the coupled vegetation phenology and productivity suggest complex relationships and interactions that are induced

  19. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.

  20. Amblyomma sculptum: genetic diversity and rickettsias in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourth, K; Amorim, M; DE Oliveira, S V; Caetano, R L; Voloch, C M; Gazêta, G S

    2017-12-01

    Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Berlese, 1888 is the most important tick vector in Brazil, transmitting the bioagent of the most severe form of spotted fever (SF) in part of the Cerrado (in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo). In another part of the Cerrado (Central-West region of Brazil), a milder form of SF has been recorded. However, neither the rickettsia nor the vector involved have been characterized. The aim of the current study was to analyse genetic variation and the presence of rickettsia in A. sculptum in Cerrado, from silent areas and with the milder form of SF. Samples were subjected to DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit II and D-loop mitochondrial genes (for tick population analyses), and gltA, htrA, ompA and gene D (sca4) genes for rickettsia researches. Exclusive haplotypes with low frequencies, high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity, star-shaped networks and significant results in neutrality tests indicate A. sculptum population expansions in some areas. Rickettsia amblyommatis, Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae and Rickettsia felis were detected. The A. sculptum diversity is not geographically, or biome delimited, pointing to a different potential in vector capacity, possibly associated with differing tick genetic profiles. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. The Economics of Root Distributions of Terrestrial Biomes in Response to Elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M.; Hedin, L. O. O.

    2017-12-01

    Belowground root distributions of terrestrial biomes are central to understanding soil biogeochemical processes and land carbon sink. Yet models are thus far not able to predict root distributions across plant functional groups and major biomes, limiting our ability to predict the response of land systems to elevated CO2 concentration. Of particular concern is the apparent lack of stimulation of the aboveground carbon sink despite 30% increase of atmospheric CO2 over the past half-century, and despite the clear acceleration of the land carbon sink over the same period. This apparent discrepancy in land ecosystem response has led to the proposition that changes in belowground root dynamics might be responsible for the overlooked land sink. We here present a new modeling approach for predicting the response of root biomass and soil carbon storage to increased CO2. Our approach considers the first-principle mechanisms and tradeoffs by which plants and plant roots invest carbon to gain belowground resources, in collaboration with distinct root symbioses. We allow plants to locally compete for nutrients, with the ability to allocate biomass at different depths in the soil profile. We parameterized our model using an unprecedented global dataset of root traits, and validated our biome-level predictions with a recently updated global root biomass database. Our results support the idea that plants "dig deeper" when exposed to increased CO2, and we offer an economic-based mechanism for predicting the plant root response across soil conditions, plant functional groups and major biomes. Our model also recreates the observed responses across a range of free-air CO2 enrichment experiments, including a distinct response between plants associated with ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Most broadly, our findings suggest that roots may be increasingly important in the land carbon sink, and call for a greater effort to quantify belowground responses to elevated

  2. Aura-biomes are present in the water layer above coral reef benthic macro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin; Haggerty, J Matthew; Doane, Michael P; Hansen, John J; Morris, Megan M; Moreira, Ana Paula B; de Oliveira, Louisi; Leomil, Luciana; Garcia, Gizele D; Thompson, Fabiano; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    As coral reef habitats decline worldwide, some reefs are transitioning from coral- to algal-dominated benthos with the exact cause for this shift remaining elusive. Increases in the abundance of microbes in the water column has been correlated with an increase in coral disease and reduction in coral cover. Here we investigated how multiple reef organisms influence microbial communities in the surrounding water column. Our study consisted of a field assessment of microbial communities above replicate patches dominated by a single macro-organism. Metagenomes were constructed from 20 L of water above distinct macro-organisms, including (1) the coral Mussismilia braziliensis , (2) fleshy macroalgae ( Stypopodium , Dictota and Canistrocarpus ), (3) turf algae, and (4) the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum and were compared to the water microbes collected 3 m above the reef. Microbial genera and functional potential were annotated using MG-RAST and showed that the dominant benthic macro-organisms influence the taxa and functions of microbes in the water column surrounding them, developing a specific "aura-biome". The coral aura-biome reflected the open water column, and was associated with Synechococcus and functions suggesting oligotrophic growth, while the fleshy macroalgae aura-biome was associated with Ruegeria , Pseudomonas, and microbial functions suggesting low oxygen conditions. The turf algae aura-biome was associated with Vibrio, Flavobacterium, and functions suggesting pathogenic activity, while zoanthids were associated with Alteromonas and functions suggesting a stressful environment. Because each benthic organism has a distinct aura-biome, a change in benthic cover will change the microbial community of the water, which may lead to either the stimulation or suppression of the recruitment of benthic organisms.

  3. Estimating 40 years of nitrogen deposition in global biomes using the SCIAMACHY NO2 column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Xiuying; Liu, Jinxun; Jin, Jiaxin

    2016-01-01

    Owing to human activity, global nitrogen (N) cycles have been altered. In the past 100 years, global N deposition has increased. Currently, the monitoring and estimating of N deposition and the evaluation of its effects on global carbon budgets are the focus of many researchers. NO2 columns retrieved by space-borne sensors provide us with a new way of exploring global N cycles and these have the ability to estimate N deposition. However, the time range limitation of NO2 columns makes the estimation of long timescale N deposition difficult. In this study we used ground-based NOx emission data to expand the density of NO2columns, and 40 years of N deposition (1970–2009) was inverted using the multivariate linear model with expanded NO2 columns. The dynamic of N deposition was examined in both global and biome scales. The results show that the average N deposition was 0.34 g N m–2 year–1 in the 2000s, which was an increase of 38.4% compared with the 1970s’. The total N deposition in different biomes is unbalanced. N deposition is only 38.0% of the global total in forest biomes; this is made up of 25.9%, 11.3, and 0.7% in tropical, temperate, and boreal forests, respectively. As N-limited biomes, there was little increase of N deposition in boreal forests. However, N deposition has increased by a total of 59.6% in tropical forests and croplands, which are N-rich biomes. Such characteristics may influence the effects on global carbon budgets.

  4. Aspectos cualitativos del aprendizaje en el Programa de Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile Aspectos qualitativos da aprendizagem no Programa de Ética da Pesquisa Biomédica e Psicossocial do Centro Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Bioética da Universidade do Chile Learning qualitative aspects of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies on Bioethics, University of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre la experiencia de 10 años en procesos de aprendizaje grupal y adquisición de competencias, de los participantes en el Programa de Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. Considera el papel de la bioética en la formación en su carácter transdisciplinario.O presente trabalho reflete a experiência de 10 anos em processos de aprendizagem em grupo e aquisição de competências dos participantes no Programa de Ética da Pesquisa Biomédica e Psicossocial do Centro Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Bioética da Universidade do Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. Considera o papel da bioética na formação de seu caráter transdisciplinar.This article reflects on the ten years experience of group learning processes and skills acquisition by trainees of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research international training program from the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies on Bioethics of the University of Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. It takes into consideration the role of bioethics in training in its transdisciplinary character.

  5. Forest resilience to drought varies across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazol, Antonio; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Emilia; de Luis, Martin; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Novak, Klemen; Rozas, Vicente; Tíscar, Pedro A; Linares, Juan C; Martín-Hernández, Natalia; Martínez Del Castillo, Edurne; Ribas, Montse; García-González, Ignacio; Silla, Fernando; Camisón, Alvaro; Génova, Mar; Olano, José M; Longares, Luis A; Hevia, Andrea; Tomás-Burguera, Miquel; Galván, J Diego

    2018-05-01

    Forecasted increase drought frequency and severity may drive worldwide declines in forest productivity. Species-level responses to a drier world are likely to be influenced by their functional traits. Here, we analyse forest resilience to drought using an extensive network of tree-ring width data and satellite imagery. We compiled proxies of forest growth and productivity (TRWi, absolutely dated ring-width indices; NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for 11 tree species and 502 forests in Spain corresponding to Mediterranean, temperate, and continental biomes. Four different components of forest resilience to drought were calculated based on TRWi and NDVI data before, during, and after four major droughts (1986, 1994-1995, 1999, and 2005), and pointed out that TRWi data were more sensitive metrics of forest resilience to drought than NDVI data. Resilience was related to both drought severity and forest composition. Evergreen gymnosperms dominating semi-arid Mediterranean forests showed the lowest resistance to drought, but higher recovery than deciduous angiosperms dominating humid temperate forests. Moreover, semi-arid gymnosperm forests presented a negative temporal trend in the resistance to drought, but this pattern was absent in continental and temperate forests. Although gymnosperms in dry Mediterranean forests showed a faster recovery after drought, their recovery potential could be constrained if droughts become more frequent. Conversely, angiosperms and gymnosperms inhabiting temperate and continental sites might have problems to recover after more intense droughts since they resist drought but are less able to recover afterwards. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Structural characterization of vegetation in the fynbos biome

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Campbell, BM

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available A proposed system for the standardization of descriptive terminology for structural characterization of vegetation in the Fynbos Biome is presented in tabular form. Specific applications of the system are described and illustrations of some...

  7. Using an Exploratory Internet Activity & Trivia Game to Teach Students about Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in life science classes need an introduction to biomes, including an introduction to the concept, key biotic and abiotic features of biomes, and geographic locations of biomes. In this activity, students in seventh- and eighth-grade science classes used a directed exploratory Internet activity to learn about biomes. The author tested…

  8. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Harrison, S. P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, V.; van Boxel, J. H.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J. C.; Burbridge, R.; Björck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M. B.; Cleef, A. M.; Duivenvoorden, J. F.; Flenley, J. R.; de Oliveira, P.; van Geel, B.; Graf, K. J.; Gosling, W. D.; Harbele, S.; van der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B. C. S.; Horn, S. P.; Islebe, G. A.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F. E.; Leyden, B. W.; Lozano-García, S.; Melief, A. B. M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N. T.; Prieto, A.; van Reenen, G. B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.; Schäbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-02-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small. Patterns of change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America also show a change in biome assignment to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucatán peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation that reflects a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland prevalent in southeast Brazil, Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate

  9. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Harrison, S.P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, Vera; Van Boxel, J. H.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J.C.; Burbridge, R.; Bjorck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Flenley, J.R.; De Oliveira, P.; Van Geel, B.; Graf, K.J.; Gosling, W.D.; Harbele, S.; Van Der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B.C.S.; Horn, S.P.; Islebe, G.A.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F.E.; Leyden, B.W.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Melief, A.B.M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N.T.; Prieto, A.; Van Reenen, G. B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.; Schasignbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-01-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small. Patterns of change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America also show a change in biome assignment to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucat??n peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation that reflects a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland prevalent in southeast Brazil, Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate

  10. Climate sensitivity of shrub growth across the tundra biome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myers-Smith, Isla H; Elmendorf, Sarah C; Beck, Pieter S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid climate warming in the tundra biome has been linked to increasing shrub dominance1–4. Shrub expansion can modify climate by altering surface albedo, energy and water balance, and permafrost2,5–8, yet the drivers of shrub growth remain poorly understood. Dendroecological data consisting...... be incorporated into Earth system models to improve future projections of climate change impacts across the tundra biome....

  11. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2016-01-01

    According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate and vegetation along the gradient from Siberian tundra via northernmost Fennoscandia to the alpine habitats of European middle-latitude mountains, as well as explored those patterns within Fennoscandian tundra based on climate-vegetation patterns obtained from a fine-scale vegetation map. Our analyses reveal that ecologically meaningful January-February snow and thermal conditions differ between different types of tundra. High precipitation and mild winter temperatures prevail on middle-latitude mountains, low precipitation and usually cold winters prevail on high-latitude tundra, and Scandinavian mountains show intermediate conditions. Similarly, heath-like plant communities differ clearly between middle latitude mountains (alpine) and high-latitude tundra vegetation, including its altitudinal extension on Scandinavian mountains. Conversely, high abundance of snowbeds and large differences in the composition of dwarf shrub heaths distinguish the Scandinavian mountain tundra from its counterparts in Russia and the north Fennoscandian inland. The European tundra areas fall into three ecologically rather homogeneous categories: the arctic tundra, the oroarctic tundra of northern heights and mountains, and the genuinely alpine tundra of middle-latitude mountains. Attempts to divide the tundra into two sub-biomes have resulted in major discrepancies and confusions, as the oroarctic areas are included in the arctic tundra in some biogeographic maps and in the alpine tundra in others. Our analyses based on climate and vegetation criteria thus seem to resolve the long-standing biome

  12. The birds of Uaso Narok Forest Reserve, Central Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. The birds of the Uaso Narok Forest, Central Kenya, were surveyed between. June 2008 and April 2009. We recorded 161 species representing 49 families in total. Of these species, 34 were representative of the Afrotropical Highland. Biome, representing 51% of all Kenyan species of this biome; two species were.

  13. Impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Rodolfo L B; Guzha, Alphonce C; Lamparter, Gabriele; Amorim, Ricardo S S; Couto, Eduardo G; Hughes, Harold J; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Gerold, Gerhard

    2018-04-14

    Studies on the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in active deforestation zones of the Amazon agricultural frontier are limited and have often used low-temporal-resolution datasets. Moreover, these impacts are not concurrently assessed in well-established agricultural areas and new deforestations hotspots. We aimed to identify these impacts using an experimental setup to collect high-temporal-resolution hydrological and hydrochemical data in two pairs of low-order streams in catchments under contrasting land use and land cover (native vegetation vs. pasture) in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Our results indicate that the conversion of natural landscapes to pastures increases carbon and nutrient fluxes via streamflow in both biomes. These changes were the greatest in total inorganic carbon in the Amazon and in potassium in the Cerrado, representing a 5.0- and 5.5-fold increase in the fluxes of each biome, respectively. We found that stormflow, which is often neglected in studies on stream hydrochemistry in the tropics, plays a substantial role in the carbon and nutrient fluxes, especially in the Amazon biome, as its contributions to hydrochemical fluxes are mostly greater than the volumetric contribution to the total streamflow. These findings demonstrate that assessments of the impacts of deforestation in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes should also take into account rapid hydrological pathways; however, this can only be achieved through collection of high-temporal-resolution data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Refractive error in central India: the Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Sinha, Ajit; Matin, Arshia; Kulkarni, Maithili

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the refractive error and its associations in the adult population of rural Central India. Population-based study. The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study performed in a markedly rural region in Central India. It included 4711 subjects (aged 30 years or older) of 5885 eligible subjects (response rate, 80.1%). The participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic and medical examination, including standardized questions on the socioeconomic background, lifestyle, and social relations. This study was focused on the refractive error, the prevalence of hyperopia and myopia, and its factors. Refractive error. After exclusion of pseudophakic or aphakic eyes, 9076 (96.3%) eyes of 4619 (98.0%) subjects (2472 females) were included into the study. The mean refractive error was -0.20+/-1.51 diopters (D). Myopia of more than -0.50 D, -1.0 D, more than -6.0 D, and more than -8 D occurred in 17.0+/-0.6%, 13.0+/-0.5%, 0.9+/-1.4%, and 0.4+/-0.1% of the subjects, respectively. Hyperopia of more than 0.50 D was detected in 18.0+/-0.6% of the subjects. Refractive error was associated significantly (i.e., became more hyperopic) with lower age (Prefractive power (Prefractive error was not significantly associated with the level of education (P = 0.56). High myopia (>-8 D) was associated significantly with male gender (P = 0.03) and lower best-corrected visual acuity (Prefractive error (Perror was 0.29+/-0.60 D and was associated significantly with higher age (Prefractive power (P<0.001). The rural population of Central India has not experienced a myopic shift as described for many urban populations at the Pacific Rim. Correspondingly, the relatively low level of education was not associated with myopia. Urbanization may be a major factor for myopization. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vegetation and plant diversity pattern study of Central Eastern Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetation and plant diversity pattern study of Central Eastern Niger grasslands. ... The environmental parameters that favorably influence these plant distributions are topography, moisture, texture and land use (fallow, pasture). Importantly, each of these communities seems to correspond to a particular wildlife habitat.

  16. SOIL COVER AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN OXISOL IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST BIOME

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Almeida Bertossi; Paulo Roberto da Rocha Júnior; Paulo Henrique Ribeiro; João Paulo Cunha de Menezes; Roberto Avelino Cecílio; Felipe Vaz Andrade

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical and physical attributes of different soil cover in a Oxisol with a strong wavy relief in the Atlantic Forest Biome, in which were selected three watersheds, employed with grazing (watershed P), forest (watershed M) and coffee (watershed C). Deformed and not deformed samples were collected in three depths for physical and chemical characterization. The chemical characteristics of soil in different watershed studies presented low...

  17. Visual impairment and blindness in rural central India: the Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Gupta, Rajesh; Khare, Anshu; Sinha, Ajit

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence of visual impairment in rural central India. The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects with an age of 30+ years. Presenting visual acuity (PRVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded. Visual impairment and blindness were defined using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and United States (US) standard. On the basis of PRVA and using WHO and US standards, 1049 [22%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 21.1, 23.5] subjects and 1290 (27%; 95% CI: 26.1, 28.7) subjects, respectively, were visually impaired, and 35 (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) subjects and 116 (2.5%; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.9) subjects, respectively, were blind. The corresponding age-standardized prevalence figures were 17%, 21%, 0.5% and 2%, respectively. Using best-correcting glasses could eliminate PRVA-visual impairment/blindness in 729 subjects (67% of all subjects with visual impairment/blindness). On the basis of BCVA and using WHO and US standards, 333 (7%; 95% CI: 6.3, 7.8) subjects and 473 (10%; 95% CI: 9.2, 10.9) subjects, respectively, had visual impairment, and 22 (0.5%; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.7) and 31 (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9) subjects, respectively, were blind. Corresponding age-standardized prevalence figures were 5%, 8%, 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Causes for BCVA-visual impairment/blindness were cataract (75%), postoperative posterior capsular opacification (4%), surgical complications (2%), corneal opacifications (2%), age-related macular degeneration (2%), other macular diseases (1%), and glaucoma (1%). Age-standardized prevalence of PRVA-visual impairment/blindness (WHO definition) in the adult population of rural central India was 17%. Most frequent cause was undercorrected refractive error. Supply of correct glasses is the most efficient way to improve vision in the rural central India. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  18. The effects of biome and spatial scale on the Co-occurrence patterns of a group of Namibian beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Montalto, Francesca; Amore, Valentina; Luiselli, Luca; Bologna, Marco A.

    2017-08-01

    Co-occurrence patterns (studied by C-score, number of checkerboard units, number of species combinations, and V-ratio, and by an empirical Bayes approach developed by Gotelli and Ulrich, 2010) are crucial elements in order to understand assembly rules in ecological communities at both local and spatial scales. In order to explore general assembly rules and the effects of biome and spatial scale on such rules, here we studied a group of beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae), using Namibia as a case of study. Data were gathered from 186 sampling sites, which allowed collection of 74 different species. We analyzed data at the level of (i) all sampled sites, (ii) all sites stratified by biome (Savannah, Succulent Karoo, Nama Karoo, Desert), and (iii) three randomly selected nested areas with three spatial scales each. Three competing algorithms were used for all analyses: (i) Fixed-Equiprobable, (ii) Fixed-Fixed, and (iii) Fixed-Proportional. In most of the null models we created, co-occurrence indicators revealed a non-random structure in meloid beetle assemblages at the global scale and at the scale of biomes, with species aggregation being much more important than species segregation in determining this non-randomness. At the level of biome, the same non-random organization was uncovered in assemblages from Savannah (where the aggregation pattern was particularly strong) and Succulent Karoo, but not in Desert and Nama Karoo. We conclude that species facilitation and similar niche in endemic species pairs may be particularly important as community drivers in our case of study. This pattern is also consistent with the evidence of a higher species diversity (normalized according to biome surface area) in the two former biomes. Historical patterns were perhaps also important for Succulent Karoo assemblages. Spatial scale had a reduced effect on patterning our data. This is consistent with the general homogeneity of environmental conditions over wide areas in Namibia.

  19. The Use of Fire Radiative Power to Estimate the Biomass Consumption Coefficient for Temperate Grasslands in the Atlantic Forest Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Salvador Cabral da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Every year, many active fire spots are identified in the satellite images of the southern Brazilian grasslands in the Atlantic Forest biome and Pampa biome. Fire Radiative Power (FRP is a technique that uses remotely sensed data to quantify burned biomass. FRP measures the radiant energy released per time unit by burning vegetation. This study aims to use satellite and field data to estimate the biomass consumption rate and the biomass consumption coefficient for the southern Brazilian grasslands. Three fire points were identified in satellite FRP products. These data were combined with field data, collected through literature review, to calculate the biomass consumption coefficient. The type of vegetation is an important variable in the estimation of the biomass consumption coefficient. The biomass consumption rate was estimated to be 2.237 kg s-1 for the southern Brazilian grasslands in Atlantic Forest biome, and the biomass consumption coefficient was estimated to be 0.242 kg MJ-1.

  20. Fishes from Parque Estadual de Itapeva, Rio Grande do Sul state, Atlantic Forest biome, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Marco; Bertaco, Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    The ichthyofauna herein presented was collected in streams, lake, and swamps from the Parque Estadual de Itapeva, Rio Mampituba basin. The protected area is located in the northernmost part of the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul state. Samplings resulted in 26 species, in 20 genera, 15 families, and six orders. Two species are listed as threatened and one near threatened in Rio Grande do Sul. This study represents the first fish survey in the protected area, Atlantic Forest biome.

  1. Central Venous Catheter (CVC) related infections: a local retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Fresu; Agostina Ronca; Carla Pruzzo; Simona Roveta

    2008-01-01

    Background. Central venous catheter (CVC) related infection is associated with significant increases in morbidity, mortality, and health care cost.This local surveillance study was carry out to monitor the frequency of occurrence of CVC-related blood stream infections. Materials and methods. During the period January – December 2005, 226 CVC specimens were analyzed (quantitative method) and microrganism identification from positive samples was performed by Vitek II. In 53 patients it was poss...

  2. Evolution of Philodendron (Araceae species in Neotropical biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Loss-Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade. A thorough evaluation of the phylogeny and timescale of these lineages is thus necessary to elucidate the tempo and mode of evolution of this large Neotropical genus and to unveil the biogeographic history of Philodendron evolution along the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests as well as open dry forests of South America. To this end, we have estimated the molecular phylogeny for 68 Philodendron species, which consists of the largest sampling assembled to date aiming the study of the evolutionary affinities. We have also performed ancestral reconstruction of species distribution along biomes. Finally, we contrasted these results with the inferred timescale of Philodendron and Homalomena lineage diversification. Our estimates indicate that American Homalomena is the sister clade to Philodendron. The early diversification of Philodendron took place in the Amazon forest from Early to Middle Miocene, followed by colonization of the Atlantic forest and the savanna-like landscapes, respectively. Based on the age of the last common ancestor of Philodendron, the species of this genus diversified by rapid radiations, leading to its wide extant distribution in the Neotropical region.

  3. Evolution of Philodendron (Araceae) species in Neotropical biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Sakuragui, Cassia; Soares, Maria de Lourdes; Schrago, Carlos G

    2016-01-01

    Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade. A thorough evaluation of the phylogeny and timescale of these lineages is thus necessary to elucidate the tempo and mode of evolution of this large Neotropical genus and to unveil the biogeographic history of Philodendron evolution along the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests as well as open dry forests of South America. To this end, we have estimated the molecular phylogeny for 68 Philodendron species, which consists of the largest sampling assembled to date aiming the study of the evolutionary affinities. We have also performed ancestral reconstruction of species distribution along biomes. Finally, we contrasted these results with the inferred timescale of Philodendron and Homalomena lineage diversification. Our estimates indicate that American Homalomena is the sister clade to Philodendron. The early diversification of Philodendron took place in the Amazon forest from Early to Middle Miocene, followed by colonization of the Atlantic forest and the savanna-like landscapes, respectively. Based on the age of the last common ancestor of Philodendron, the species of this genus diversified by rapid radiations, leading to its wide extant distribution in the Neotropical region.

  4. Conserving the Brazilian semiarid (Caatinga) biome under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Rangel, Thiago Fernado

    2012-01-01

    to assess changes in climate suitability across individual species ranges, ensemble forecasting was used based on seven bioclimatic envelope models, three atmosphere–ocean general circulation models, and two greenhouse emission gas scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080. We found that most species will gain...... additional threats to the biome’s biodiversity. Here, we ask if the remnants of natural vegetation in Caatinga biome, where endemic terrestrial vertebrate species occur, are likely to retain more climatic suitability under climate change scenarios than other less pristine areas of the biome. In order......The Caatinga is a semiarid biome of the northeast of Brazil with only 1 % of its territory currently conserved. The biome’s biodiversity is highly threatened due to exposure to land conversion for agricultural and cattle ranch. Climate forecasts predict increases in aridity, which could pose...

  5. Tropical grassy biomes: misunderstood, neglected, and under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Catherine L; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Bond, William J; Hoffmann, William A; Andersen, Alan N

    2014-04-01

    Tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) are globally extensive, provide critical ecosystem services, and influence the earth-atmosphere system. Yet, globally applied biome definitions ignore vegetation characteristics that are critical to their functioning and evolutionary history. Hence, TGB identification is inconsistent and misinterprets the ecological processes governing vegetation structure, with cascading negative consequences for biodiversity. Here, we discuss threats linked to the definition of TGB, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation schemes (REDD+), and enhanced atmospheric CO2, which may facilitate future state shifts. TGB degradation is insidious and less visible than in forested biomes. With human reliance on TGBs and their propensity for woody change, ecology and evolutionary history are fundamental to not only the identification of TGBs, but also their management for future persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N₂-fixing plants in cold biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D; Reed, Sasha C; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Körner, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem's capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  7. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N2-fixing plants in cold biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D.; Reed, Sasha C.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Körner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem’s capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  8. Biomass Allocation Patterns across China’s Terrestrial Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limei; Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; Tian, Xin; Wang, Xiaoke; Luo, Geping

    2014-01-01

    Root to shoot ratio (RS) is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China’s terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm) for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP) and potential water deficit index (PWDI). Mean annual temperature (MAT) also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship. PMID:24710503

  9. La prosodia como identificador biométrico

    OpenAIRE

    Farrús i Cabeceran, Mireia

    2011-01-01

    La biometría tiene como objetivo el reconocimiento de personas mediante uno o más identificadores biométricos como la voz, la cara o las huellas dactilares, entre otros. Gracias a la buena aceptación social y el poco intrusismo en los individuos, la voz ha sido, tradicionalmente, uno de los identificadores más utilizados en los sistemas biométricos. Estos sistemas de reconocimiento basados en la voz utilizan, habitualmente, características relacionadas con el espectro de la voz. No obstante, ...

  10. Structural development and web service based sensitivity analysis of the Biome-BGC MuSo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, Dóra; Balogh, János; Churkina, Galina; Haszpra, László; Horváth, Ferenc; Ittzés, Péter; Ittzés, Dóra; Ma, Shaoxiu; Nagy, Zoltán; Pintér, Krisztina; Barcza, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Studying the greenhouse gas exchange, mainly the carbon dioxide sink and source character of ecosystems is still a highly relevant research topic in biogeochemistry. During the past few years research focused on managed ecosystems, because human intervention has an important role in the formation of the land surface through agricultural management, land use change, and other practices. In spite of considerable developments current biogeochemical models still have uncertainties to adequately quantify greenhouse gas exchange processes of managed ecosystem. Therefore, it is an important task to develop and test process-based biogeochemical models. Biome-BGC is a widely used, popular biogeochemical model that simulates the storage and flux of water, carbon, and nitrogen between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, and within the components of the terrestrial ecosystems. Biome-BGC was originally developed by the Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) of University of Montana (http://www.ntsg.umt.edu/project/biome-bgc), and several other researchers used and modified it in the past. Our research group developed Biome-BGC version 4.1.1 to improve essentially the ability of the model to simulate carbon and water cycle in real managed ecosystems. The modifications included structural improvements of the model (e.g., implementation of multilayer soil module and drought related plant senescence; improved model phenology). Beside these improvements management modules and annually varying options were introduced and implemented (simulate mowing, grazing, planting, harvest, ploughing, application of fertilizers, forest thinning). Dynamic (annually varying) whole plant mortality was also enabled in the model to support more realistic simulation of forest stand development and natural disturbances. In the most recent model version separate pools have been defined for fruit. The model version which contains every former and new development is referred as Biome-BGC MuSo (Biome

  11. Aura-biomes are present in the water layer above coral reef benthic macro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Walsh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As coral reef habitats decline worldwide, some reefs are transitioning from coral- to algal-dominated benthos with the exact cause for this shift remaining elusive. Increases in the abundance of microbes in the water column has been correlated with an increase in coral disease and reduction in coral cover. Here we investigated how multiple reef organisms influence microbial communities in the surrounding water column. Our study consisted of a field assessment of microbial communities above replicate patches dominated by a single macro-organism. Metagenomes were constructed from 20 L of water above distinct macro-organisms, including (1 the coral Mussismilia braziliensis, (2 fleshy macroalgae (Stypopodium, Dictota and Canistrocarpus, (3 turf algae, and (4 the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum and were compared to the water microbes collected 3 m above the reef. Microbial genera and functional potential were annotated using MG-RAST and showed that the dominant benthic macro-organisms influence the taxa and functions of microbes in the water column surrounding them, developing a specific “aura-biome”. The coral aura-biome reflected the open water column, and was associated with Synechococcus and functions suggesting oligotrophic growth, while the fleshy macroalgae aura-biome was associated with Ruegeria, Pseudomonas, and microbial functions suggesting low oxygen conditions. The turf algae aura-biome was associated with Vibrio, Flavobacterium, and functions suggesting pathogenic activity, while zoanthids were associated with Alteromonas and functions suggesting a stressful environment. Because each benthic organism has a distinct aura-biome, a change in benthic cover will change the microbial community of the water, which may lead to either the stimulation or suppression of the recruitment of benthic organisms.

  12. Beyond the climate envelope: using trait filtering models to predict biome boundaries from plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R.; Hoffmann, W. A.; Muszala, S.

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of second-generation dynamic vegetation models - which simulate the distribution of light resources between plant types along the vertical canopy profile, and therefore facilitate the representation of plant competition explicitly - is a large increase in the complexity and fidelity with which the terrestrial biosphere is abstracted into Earth System Models. In this new class of model, biome boundaries are predicted as the emergent properties of plant physiology, and are therefore sensitive to the high-dimensional parameterizations of plant functional traits. These new approaches offer the facility to quantitatively test ecophysiological hypotheses of plant distribution at large scales, a field which remains surprisingly under-developed. Here we describe experiments conducted with the Community Land Model Ecosystem Demography component, CLM(ED), in which we reduce the complexity of the problem by testing how individual plant functional trait changes to control the location of biome boundaries between functional types. Specifically, we investigate which physiological trade-offs determine the boundary between frequently burned savanna and forest biomes, and attempt to distinguish how each strategic life-history trade-off (carbon storage, bark investment, re-sprouting strategy) contributes towards the maintenance of sharp geographical gradients between fire adapted and typically inflammable closed canopy ecosystems. This study forms part of the planning for a model-inspired fire manipulation experiment at the cerrado-forest boundary in South-Eastern Brazil, and the results will be used to guide future data-collection and analysis strategies.

  13. Federal Conservation Units in Brazil: The Situation of Biomes and Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pacca Luna Mattar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Federal conservation units (FCU are areas legally established by the government, in order to meet the needs of protection and sustainable exploitation of biodiversity. A way to ensure the efficiency of public management is to systematize data. Therefore, the present study grouped and analyzed public data about FCU. Brazil has 309 federal conservation units, which represent 9.06% of the national territory and 45305 residents households. The Northern Region covers 84.80% of these families and 79.20% of its area belongs to FCU. The Amazônia biome has 14.57% of its territory occupied by FCU; on the other hand, Pantanal has only 0.98% of its area protected. There is a higher concentration of public agents in the FCU of the Southeastern region and in the Mata Atlântica biome. The analysis of this information reveals significant differences between the biomes and the federation units, a fact that reflects the importance of the organization of public data.

  14. Abiotic and biotic determinants of leaf carbon exchange capacity from tropical to high boreal biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land represent the two largest fluxes of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. As such, the Earth System Models that are used to project climate change are high sensitive to these processes. Studies have found that much of this uncertainty is due to the formulation and parameterization of plant photosynthetic and respiratory capacity. Here, we quantified the abiotic and biotic factors that determine photosynthetic and respiratory capacity at large spatial scales. Specifically, we measured the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and leaf dark respiration (Rd) in >600 individuals of 98 plant species from the tropical to high boreal biomes of Northern and Central America. We also measured a bevy of covariates including plant functional type, leaf nitrogen content, short- and long-term climate, leaf water potential, plant size, and leaf mass per area. We found that plant functional type and leaf nitrogen content were the primary determinants of Vcmax, Jmax, and Rd. Mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were not significant predictors of these rates. However, short-term climatic variables, specifically soil moisture and air temperature over the previous 25 days, were significant predictors and indicated that heat and soil moisture deficits combine to reduce photosynthetic capacity and increase respiratory capacity. Finally, these data were used as a model benchmarking tool for the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM 4.5). The benchmarking analyses determined errors in the leaf nitrogen allocation scheme of CLM 4.5. Under high leaf nitrogen levels within a plant type the model overestimated Vcmax and Jmax. This result suggested that plants were altering their nitrogen allocation patterns when leaf nitrogen levels were high, an effect that was not being captured by the model. These data, taken with models in mind

  15. Social wasps (Polistinae from Pampa Biome: South Brazil, Northeastern Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to determine social wasps’ species from Pampa Biome. Were examined samples of social wasps from south-central of Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, parts of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé and La Pampa provinces (Argentina and in Uruguay maintained in the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brazil, American Museum of Natural History (USA, Natural History Museum (London-United Kingdom and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-France. Thirty species were recorded: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 and Protonectarina (01. Vespas sociais do Bioma Pampa: sul do Brasil, nordeste da Argentina e Uruguai. Resumo. Este estudo objetivou determinar as espécies de vespas sociais provenientes do Bioma Pampa. Foram examinadas vespas sociais provenientes de coletas da região centro-sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, parte das províncias de Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé e La Pampa (Argentina e Uruguai depositadas na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brasil, American Museum of Natural History (Nova Iorque-USA, Natural History Museum (Londres-Reino Unido e Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-França. Trinta espécies foram registradas: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 e Protonectarina (01.

  16. Use of Orbital LIDAR in the Brazilian Cerrado Biome: Potential Applications and Data Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Guimarães Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS data availability over the 2 million km2 Cerrado, the Brazilian central savanna biome and one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. Overall, about 2.5 million laser shots, distributed along the seven years of ICESat operation (2003–2009 and comprising three major seasonal domains, were acquired, from which, 206,026 and 176,035 screened footprints are coincident with the remnant vegetation and cultivated pasture areas (the dominant land-use form in the Cerrado. Although these points are well distributed over the entire Cerrado, the ICESat track data collection results in substantial data gaps. In relation to the 15,612 Cerrado watersheds (6th order Otto basin system, 8,369 and 4,415 watersheds are completely deprived of data points over their remnant vegetation and pasture covers, respectively. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR availability was also evaluated in relation to specific targets of interest, including both fully-protected conservation units as well as areas impacted by fire and deforestation. In spite of the very few occurrences, our assessments indicate that enough LIDAR data is available for retrieving structural and functional properties of a variety of Cerrado physiognomies, as well as to assess how these physiognomies respond to anthropogenic induced changes. In fact, the comprehensive data availability analysis conducted in this study corroborate the potential of GLAS LIDAR waveforms for the retrieval of biophysical properties at both local and regional scales, particularly concerning remnant carbon stocks and pasture conditions, key information for the conservation of the fast-changing and severely threatened Cerrado.

  17. BOREAS RSS-08 BIOME-BGC Model Simulations at Tower Flux Sites in 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: BIOME-BGC is a general ecosystem process model designed to simulate biogeochemical and hydrologic processes across multiple scales. BIOME-BGC is used to...

  18. BOREAS RSS-08 BIOME-BGC Model Simulations at Tower Flux Sites in 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BIOME-BGC is a general ecosystem process model designed to simulate biogeochemical and hydrologic processes across multiple scales. BIOME-BGC is used to estimate...

  19. A clinicopathological study of eyelid malignancies from central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar Sameer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eyelid malignancies are completely treatable if detected early. The treatment depends on the invasiveness of the cancer which in turn depends on the type of malignancy. Aim: The aim of the study was to characterize the distribution of the types of eyelid malignancies in central India. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery at a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: We report a series of 27 cases of eyelid malignancies. In the same case series, we also include a case of malignant hemangiopericytoma which is an extremely rare form of eyelid malignancy worldwide. Statistical Analysis: Depending on the underlying statistical distribution, either analysis of variance (ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis (K-W test was used to assess the differential distribution of these variables across the types of eyelid malignancies observed in this study. Results: We observed that sebaceous cell carcinoma (~37% was almost as prevalent as basal cell carcinoma (~44% in the study subjects and had an earlier age of occurrence and a more rapid clinical course. Conclusions: Sebaceous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is almost as common as basal cell carcinoma in a large tertiary care centre in central India.

  20. Importance of soil-water to the Caatinga biome, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro, Everton; Metselaar, Klaas; Jong van Lier, de Quirijn; Araújo, de José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Northeastern Brazil is hydrologically characterized by recurrent droughts leading to a highly vulnerable natural water resource system. The region contains the Caatinga biome, covering an area of approximately 800000km2. To increase insight in water balance components for this sparsely

  1. South African Red Data Book: Plants - fynbos and Karoo biomes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report a list is given of 1 808 rare, threatened and recently extinct plants in the fynbos and karoo biomes in the Cape Province of South Africa. The area covers the south-western and southern Cape, Namaqualand and the Karoo. Following...

  2. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yi, C.; Ricciuto, D.; Marek, Michal V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 034007 ISSN 1748-9326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : NEE * climate control * terrestrial carbon sequestration * temperature * dryness * eddy flux * biomes * photosynthesis * respiration * global carbon cycle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2010

  3. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuixiang Yi; Daniel Ricciuto; Runze Li; John Wolbeck; Xiyan Xu; Mats Nilsson; John Frank; William J. Massman

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes...

  4. Anthropogenic biomes: a key contribution to earth-system science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilian Alessa; F. Stuart Chapin

    2008-01-01

    Human activities now dominate most of the ice-free terrestrial surface. A recent article presents a classification and global map of human-influenced biomes of the world that provides a novel and potentially appropriate framework for projecting changes in earth-system dynamics.

  5. Karoo biome: a preliminary sythesis. Part 1 - physical environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cowling, RM

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available . It is a multi-authored publication covering a wide range of topics. This first volume summarizes what is currently known on the physical environment of the biome; namely geology, soils, climate, hydrology, geohydrology and soil erosion. Other aspects...

  6. Do arthropod assemblages fit the grassland and savanna biomes of South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Botha; Stefan J. Siebert; Johnnie van den Berg

    2016-01-01

    The long-standing tradition of classifying South Africa's biogeographical area into biomes is commonly linked to vegetation structure and climate. Because arthropod communities are often governed by both these factors, it can be expected that arthropod communities would fit the biomes. To test this hypothesis, we considered how well arthropod species assemblages fit South Africa's grassy biomes. Arthropod assemblages were sampled from six localities across the grassland and savanna biomes by ...

  7. Validation of BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR tubes for detection of TCRB gene rearrangements in T-cell malignancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droese, J.; Langerak, A.W.; Groenen, P.J.T.A.; Bruggemann, M.; Neumann, P.; Wolvers-Tettero, I.L.M.; Altena, M.C. van; Kneba, M.; Dongen, J.J.M. van

    2004-01-01

    The BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936 on 'Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based clonality studies for early diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders' developed standardized PCR protocols for detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) rearrangements, including TCR beta

  8. Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Phase I study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-01

    A management plan is presented for implementation during the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System - Phase I study project. The project plan and the management controls that will be used to assure technically adequate, timely and cost effective performance of the work required to prepare the designated end products are described. Bechtel in-house controls and those to be used in directing the subcontractors are described. Phase I of the project consists of tradeoff studies, parametric analyses, and engineering studies leading to conceptual definition and evaluation of a commercial hybrid power system that has the potential for supplying economically competitive electric power to a utility grid in the 1985-1990 time frame. The scope also includes the preparation of a development plan for the resolution of technical uncertainties and the preparation of plans and a proposal for Phase II of the program. The technical approach will be based on a central receiver solar energy collection scheme which supplies thermal energy to a combined cycle, generating system, consisting of a gas turbine cycle combined with a steam bottoming cycle by means of a heat recovery steam generator.

  9. Car Crashes and Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: A French Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pizza

    Full Text Available Drowsiness compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, and delayed reaction times. Sleep-related car crashes account for a considerable proportion of accident at the wheel. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, narcolepsy type 2 (NT2 and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH are rare central disorders of hypersomnolence, the most severe causes of sleepiness thus being potential dangerous conditions for both personal and public safety with increasing scientific, social, and political attention. Our main objective was to assess the frequency of recent car crashes in a large cohort of patients affected with well-defined central disorders of hypersomnolence versus subjects from the general population.We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 527 patients and 781 healthy subjects. All participants included needed to have a driving license, information available on potential accident events during the last 5 years, and on potential confounders; thus analyses were performed on 282 cases (71 IH, 82 NT2, 129 NT1 and 470 healthy subjects.Patients reported more frequently than healthy subjects the occurrence of recent car crashes (in the previous five years, a risk that was confirmed in both treated and untreated subjects at study inclusion (Untreated, OR = 2.21 95%CI = [1.30-3.76], Treated OR = 2.04 95%CI = [1.26-3.30], as well as in all disease categories, and was modulated by subjective sleepiness level (Epworth scale and naps. Conversely, the risk of car accidents of patients treated for at least 5 years was not different to healthy subjects (OR = 1.23 95%CI = [0.56-2.69]. Main risk factors were analogous in patients and healthy subjects.Patients affected with central disorders of hypersomnolence had increased risk of recent car crashes compared to subjects from the general population, a finding potentially reversed by long-term treatment.

  10. Vegetation impoverishment despite greening: a case study from central Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Stefanie M.; Tappan, G. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Recent remote sensing studies have documented a greening trend in the semi-arid Sahel and Sudan zones of West Africa since the early 1980s, which challenges the mainstream paradigm of irreversible land degradation in this region. What the greening trend means on the ground, however, has not yet been explored. This research focuses on a region in central Senegal to examine changes in woody vegetation abundance and composition in selected sites by means of a botanical inventory of woody vegetation species, repeat photography, and perceptions of local land users. Despite the greening, an impoverishment of the woody vegetation cover was observed in the studied sites, indicated by an overall reduction in woody species richness, a loss of large trees, an increasing dominance of shrubs, and a shift towards more arid-tolerant, Sahelian species since 1983. Thus, interpretation of the satellite-derived greening trend as an improvement or recovery is not always justified. The case of central Senegal represents only one of several possible pathways of greening throughout the region, all of which result in similar satellite-derived greening signals.

  11. USING LUDIC ACTIVITIES TO EXPLAIN THE BIOME CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Riccioni de Melos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to research on the role of ludic activities in teaching and learning physical geography content during the last four years of primary school. We question the discourse that identifies students’ lack of interest as the obstacle to teaching physical geography. This study contributes by questioning this obstacle. We note that few studies exist on this topic, according to the CAPES (Coordination for higher Education Staff Development dissertation database, in 2011 only five were completed. The theoretical basis for the study considers work by Graciolli (2009, Silva et al. (2010, Rupel (2011 and Freitas and Salvi (2011, authors who defend the use of ludic activities in teaching methodology. In 2010, the “Biome Game” for 6th year students was developed based on this theoretical framework as part of the required course “Supervised Practice”. The goal of the activity was to think about how the concept of biome was created, and the methodology used valued recreational approaches. The empirical results of this experiment, which involved developing and implementing the game during the Supervised Practice course, demonstrate the importance of ludic pedagogical strategies for teaching physical geography in Brazilian primary education. O presente artigo traz contribuições de pesquisa sobre a função da ludicidade no ensino-aprendizagem de conteúdos da geografia física, no segundo segmento do ensino fundamental. Tal questão problematiza o discurso sobre o desinteresse dos alunos, como significativo obstáculo para a didática da geografia física. A pertinência do presente estudo está em reconhecer esta questão, tendo em vista que existem poucos estudos na área, totalizando em 2011, segundo o banco de dissertações da CAPES, somente cinco trabalhos concluídos. Nossa investigação dialoga com Graciolli (2009, Silva et al. (2010, Rupel (2011 e Freitas e Salvi (2011, autores dedicados à defesa da utilização de

  12. Habitat use and home range of brown-nosed coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guilherme Trovati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua is a carnivorous species found in all the Brazilian biomes, some of which are endangered areas. The aim of this work was to determine the habitat use and selection, home range and core area of N. nasua in the Cerrado biome, central region of Tocantins, Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of approximately 20 000ha from May 2000 to July 2002. A total of seven box traps were placed in the area for 13 months, three of 11 captured animals were followed and monitored by radio-tracking during 13 months. The monitoring was conducted once a day, three times a week using a car and walking through the study area (radio-tracking and visual contact. The results demonstrate that these three males used more frequently the gallery forest formation, followed by cerrado and wetlands. The use of gallery forest by these animals indicated an habitat selection (Proportion test, z=12.98, p< 0.01. Besides, adult males used the gallery forest more frequently (Fisher’s exact test, p<0.01 and wetlands less frequently (Fisher’s exact test, p<0.01 than juvenile males, without significant differences between animal ages for cerrado percentage of habitat use. Besides, results also showed a gallery forest selection by adult (Proportion test z= 13.62, p<0.01 and juvenile (Proportion test z=2.68, p<0.01 males, and a wetland selection by the juvenile male (Proportion test z=3.90, p<0.01. The home ranges varied from 2.20 to 7.55km² for the Minimum Convex Polygon 100% (MCP 100% and from 4.38 to 13.32km² for the Harmonic Mean 95% (HM 95%. The smallest home range overlap occurred between the adult males (Nm1 and Nm3, and the greatest between the juvenile Njm2 and the adult Nm1. The average of the core area (HM 75% for the three monitored animals represented 21.29% of the home range calculated with HM 95%. No overlap between core areas was observed for adult males, but, it was an overlap between the core area of the juvenile male and

  13. Habitat use and home range of brown-nosed coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Roberto Guilherme; Brito, Bernardo Alves de; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2010-09-01

    The brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua) is a carnivorous species found in all the Brazilian biomes, some of which are endangered areas. The aim of this work was to determine the habitat use and selection, home range and core area of N. nasua in the Cerrado biome, central region of Tocantins, Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of approximately 20 000ha from May 2000 to July 2002. A total of seven box traps were placed in the area for 13 months, three of 11 captured animals were followed and monitored by radio-tracking during 13 months. The monitoring was conducted once a day, three times a week using a car and walking through the study area (radio-tracking and visual contact). The results demonstrate that these three males used more frequently the gallery forest formation, followed by cerrado and wetlands. The use of gallery forest by these animals indicated an habitat selection (Proportion test, z=12.98, pgallery forest more frequently (Fisher's exact test, pgallery forest selection by adult (Proportion test z=13.62, p<0.01) and juvenile (Proportion test z=2.68, p<0.01) males, and a wetland selection by the juvenile male (Proportion test z=3.90, p<0.01). The home ranges varied from 2.20 to 7.55km2 for the Minimum Convex Polygon 100% (MCP 100%) and from 4.38 to 13.32km2 for the Harmonic Mean 95% (HM 95%). The smallest home range overlap occurred between the adult males (Nm1 and Nm3), and the greatest between the juvenile Njm2 and the adult Nm1. The average of the core area (HM 75%) for the three monitored animals represented 21.29% of the home range calculated with HM 95%. No overlap between core areas was observed for adult males, but, it was an overlap between the core area of the juvenile male and its band with that of the two adult males. The present study provides new data on core area size and frequency habitat use by adult and juvenile males of N. nasua in the Brazilian Cerrado, that may support conservation efforts.

  14. Environmental Studies in the Boreal Forest Zone: Summer IPY Institute at Central Boreal Forest Reserve, Fedorovskoe, Tver area, Russia (14-28 August, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kurbatova, Y.; Groisman, P.; Alexeev, V.

    2007-12-01

    Reserve were arranged to highlight various aspects of wetland studies and management in the European taiga environment. As part of the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) IPY "Seasons and Biomes" project led by Dr. Elena Sparrow, the K-12 teachers were instructed in and practiced existing GLOBE protocols as well as new protocols created specifically for the Seasons and Biomes project to study interannual variability of seasons in their own biomes. These teachers will in turn engage their students in Earth System scientific research as a way of teaching and learning science as well as involving them in the IPY. Support for the Summer Institute was provided by many institutions and organizations from the United States (IARC, NASA, NSF, University of Maryland, GLOBE USA, and Hydrology Science and Services Corporation), Russia (Central Biosphere Forest Reserve, A.N. Severtsov Institute for Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Southern Federal University, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, GLOBE Russia, and non-profit organization "Transparent World"), Japan (National Institute for Environmental Studies), China (Beijing Normal University), Germany (Friedrich-Schiller-University) and the Circumpolar North (University of the Arctic).

  15. Water demand studies. [central and southern California regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.; Estes, J. E.; Churchman, C. W.; Johnson, C. W.; Huning, J. R.; Rozelle, K.; Hamilton, J.; Washburn, G.; Tinney, L. R.; Thaman, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The areas of focus of the Santa Barbara and Riverside groups in conducting water demand studies are the central and southern California regional test sites, respectively. Within each test site, sub-areas have been selected for use in the making of detailed investigations. Within each of these sub-areas an in-depth evaluation is being made as to the capability of remote sensing systems to provide pertinent data relative to water demand phenomena. These more limited sub-areas are: (1) Kern County and the San Joaquin Basin; (2) Chino-Riverside Basin; and (3) the Imperial Valley. Rational for the selection of these subareas included the following: Much of the previous remote sensing research had been conducted in these areas and therefore a great deal of remote sensing imagery and pertinent ground truth for the areas was already available.

  16. Central motor control failure in fibromyalgia: a surface electromyography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Roberto; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Gazzoni, Marco; Buskila, Dan; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2009-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterised by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and stiffness at multiple sites, tender points in characteristic locations, and the frequent presence of symptoms such as fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess whether the myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in patients affected by FM are central or peripheral in origin. Eight female patients aged 55.6 +/- 13.6 years (FM group) and eight healthy female volunteers aged 50.3 +/- 9.3 years (MCG) were studied by means of non-invasive surface electromyography (s-EMG) involving a linear array of 16 electrodes placed on the skin overlying the biceps brachii muscle, with muscle fatigue being evoked by means of voluntary and involuntary (electrically elicited) contractions. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), motor unit action potential conduction velocity distributions (mean +/- SD and skewness), and the mean power frequency of the spectrum (MNF) were estimated in order to assess whether there were any significant differences between the two groups and contraction types. The motor pattern of recruitment during voluntary contractions was altered in the FM patients, who also showed fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue (normalised conduction velocity rate of changes: -0.074 +/- 0.052%/s in FM vs -0.196 +/- 0.133%/s in MCG; normalised MNF rate of changes: -0.29 +/- 0.16%/s in FM vs -0.66 +/- 0.34%/s in MCG). Mean conduction velocity distribution and skewnesses values were higher (p fatigue in FM is the electrophysiological expression of muscle remodelling in terms of the prevalence of slow conducting fatigue-resistant type I fibres. As the only between-group differences concerned voluntary contractions, they are probably more related to central motor control failure than muscle membrane alterations, which suggests pathological muscle fibre remodelling related to altered suprasegmental control.

  17. Central motor control failure in fibromyalgia: a surface electromyography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Roberto; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Gazzoni, Marco; Buskila, Dan; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterised by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and stiffness at multiple sites, tender points in characteristic locations, and the frequent presence of symptoms such as fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess whether the myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in patients affected by FM are central or peripheral in origin. Methods Eight female patients aged 55.6 ± 13.6 years (FM group) and eight healthy female volunteers aged 50.3 ± 9.3 years (MCG) were studied by means of non-invasive surface electromyography (s-EMG) involving a linear array of 16 electrodes placed on the skin overlying the biceps brachii muscle, with muscle fatigue being evoked by means of voluntary and involuntary (electrically elicited) contractions. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), motor unit action potential conduction velocity distributions (mean ± SD and skewness), and the mean power frequency of the spectrum (MNF) were estimated in order to assess whether there were any significant differences between the two groups and contraction types. Results The motor pattern of recruitment during voluntary contractions was altered in the FM patients, who also showed fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue (normalised conduction velocity rate of changes: -0.074 ± 0.052%/s in FM vs -0.196 ± 0.133%/s in MCG; normalised MNF rate of changes: -0.29 ± 0.16%/s in FM vs -0.66 ± 0.34%/s in MCG). Mean conduction velocity distribution and skewnesses values were higher (p fatigue in FM is the electrophysiological expression of muscle remodelling in terms of the prevalence of slow conducting fatigue-resistant type I fibres. As the only between-group differences concerned voluntary contractions, they are probably more related to central motor control failure than muscle membrane alterations, which suggests pathological muscle fibre remodelling related to altered suprasegmental control. PMID:19570214

  18. Central motor control failure in fibromyalgia: a surface electromyography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buskila Dan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterised by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and stiffness at multiple sites, tender points in characteristic locations, and the frequent presence of symptoms such as fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess whether the myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in patients affected by FM are central or peripheral in origin. Methods Eight female patients aged 55.6 ± 13.6 years (FM group and eight healthy female volunteers aged 50.3 ± 9.3 years (MCG were studied by means of non-invasive surface electromyography (s-EMG involving a linear array of 16 electrodes placed on the skin overlying the biceps brachii muscle, with muscle fatigue being evoked by means of voluntary and involuntary (electrically elicited contractions. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs, motor unit action potential conduction velocity distributions (mean ± SD and skewness, and the mean power frequency of the spectrum (MNF were estimated in order to assess whether there were any significant differences between the two groups and contraction types. Results The motor pattern of recruitment during voluntary contractions was altered in the FM patients, who also showed fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue (normalised conduction velocity rate of changes: -0.074 ± 0.052%/s in FM vs -0.196 ± 0.133%/s in MCG; normalised MNF rate of changes: -0.29 ± 0.16%/s in FM vs -0.66 ± 0.34%/s in MCG. Mean conduction velocity distribution and skewnesses values were higher (p Conclusion The apparent paradox of fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in FM is the electrophysiological expression of muscle remodelling in terms of the prevalence of slow conducting fatigue-resistant type I fibres. As the only between-group differences concerned voluntary contractions, they are probably more related to central motor control failure than muscle membrane alterations, which suggests pathological muscle fibre remodelling related to altered

  19. Prevalence of optic disc hemorrhages in rural central India. The Central Indian Eye and Medical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of optic disc hemorrhages in a rural Indian population. METHODS: The population-based Central Indian Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects. Mean age was 48.5±12.9 years (range: 30-100 years. Color optic disc photographs were examined. RESULTS: Optic disc photographs were available for 4570 (97.0% subjects. Prevalence of disc hemorrhages was 17/8869 (0.19%; 95%CI:0.10,0.28 per eye and 16/4570 (0.35±0.09%; 95%CI:0.18,0.52 per subject. Prevalence of disc hemorrhages increased from 0.05% (95%CI:0.00,0.13 in the age group of 30-39 years to 0.25% (95CI:0.00,0.49 in the age group of 60-69 years and to 0.91% (95%CI:0.24,1.58 in the age group of 70+ years. After adjusting for older age, higher systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, myopic refractive error, smaller neuroretinal rim area and thinner retinal nerve fiber layer, occurrence of disc hemorrhages was associated only with glaucomatous optic nerve damage (P<0.001; Odds ratio: 87; 95%CI:32,239. Eleven of the 17 (65%; 95%CI:39,90 disc hemorrhages were found in glaucomatous eyes. Out of 193 glaucomatous eyes, 11 eyes (5.7%; 95%CI:2.4,9.0 showed a disc hemorrhage. Out of the 8676 non-glaucomatous eyes, 6 eyes (0.07%; 95%CI:0.01,0.12 had an optic disc hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of disc hemorrhages (0.2% per eye; 0.4% per subject in Indians aged 30+ years was strongly associated with glaucoma after adjustment for age, blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. A disc hemorrhage suggested glaucomatous optic nerve damage with a positive predictive value of 65%. About 6% of glaucomatous eyes showed a disc hemorrhage at the time of clinical examination highlighting the importance of optic disc hemorrhages for the diagnosis of glaucoma.

  20. ECAIM : Air Quality Studies and its Impact in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Torres, R.; Garcia-Reynoso, J. A.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Grutter, M.; Delgado-Campos, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area has been the object of several well know intensive campaigns. Since MARI (1991) , IMADA (1997), MCMA 2003 and MILAGRO (2006). The spatial scope of these studies have gone from urban to regional to continental, with the focus on MCMA as an emissions source. During MILAGRO, the influence on MCMA of wildfires and agricultural biomass burning around the megacity was considered. However, around Mexico City a crown of metropolis and middle size cities make a region known as the Central Mexico Regional Crow (CRCM for its acronym in Spanish language) or Central Mexico City Belt. It contains 32 million inhabitants and produces 40% of national gross product. The region undergoes an uncontrolled urban sprawl. Evidence is building-up on complex air pollution transport processes between the air basins within CRCM. However, only MCMA counts with reliable long-term records of criteria pollutants monitoring. Only few intensive campaigns have been done in the air basins surrounding MCMA. ECAIM project has several goals: a) To use ground and satellite observations to assess emissions inventories; b) To use ground and satellite observations to assess the performance of air quality models for the whole region; c) to produce critical levels exceedence maps; d) To produce a preliminary diagnostic of air quality for the CRCM; e) to produce a preliminary estimate of the cost of air pollution within the CRCM. In this work we show the method approach to use the best available information from local AQM networks, field campaigns, satellite observations and modeling to achieve those goals. We show some preliminary results.

  1. Pennsylvanian coniferopsid forests in sabkha facies reveal the nature of seasonal tropical biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Jud, N.A.; John, Nelson W.; DiMichele, W.A.; Chaney, D.S.; Lucas, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Pennsylvanian fossil forests are known from hundreds of sites across tropical Pangea, but nearly all comprise remains of humid Coal Forests. Here we report a unique occurrence of seasonally dry vegetation, preserved in growth position along >5 km of strike, in the Pennsylvanian (early Kasimovian, Missourian) of New Mexico (United States). Analyses of stump anatomy, diameter, and spatial density, coupled with observations of vascular traces and associated megaflora, show that this was a deciduous, mixed-age, coniferopsid woodland (~100 trees per hectare) with an open canopy. The coniferopsids colonized coastal sabkha facies and show tree rings, confirming growth under seasonally dry conditions. Such woodlands probably served as the source of coniferopsids that replaced Coal Forests farther east in central Pangea during drier climate phases. Thus, the newly discovered woodland helps unravel biome-scale vegetation dynamics and allows calibration of climate models. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  2. Multiple nutrient stresses at intersecting Pacific Ocean biomes detected by protein biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mak A; McIlvin, Matthew R; Moran, Dawn M; Goepfert, Tyler J; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Post, Anton F; Lamborg, Carl H

    2014-09-05

    Marine primary productivity is strongly influenced by the scarcity of required nutrients, yet our understanding of these nutrient limitations is informed by experimental observations with sparse geographical coverage and methodological limitations. We developed a quantitative proteomic method to directly assess nutrient stress in high-light ecotypes of the abundant cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus across a meridional transect in the central Pacific Ocean. Multiple peptide biomarkers detected widespread and overlapping regions of nutritional stress for nitrogen and phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and iron in the equatorial Pacific. Quantitative protein analyses demonstrated simultaneous stress for these nutrients at biome interfaces. This application of proteomic biomarkers to diagnose ocean metabolism demonstrated Prochlorococcus actively and simultaneously deploying multiple biochemical strategies for low-nutrient conditions in the oceans. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Cleef, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, V.; van Boxel, J.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J. C.; Burbridge, R.; Björck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Flenley, J.; de Oliveira, P.; van Geel, B.; Graf, K.; Gosling, W. D.; Harbele, S.; van der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B.; Horn, S.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F.; Leyden, B.; Lozano-García, S.; Melief, A. M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N. T.; Prieto, A.; van Reenen, G.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-12-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small; change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America show a change in biome assignment, but to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucatán peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation reflecting a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland is prevalent in southeast Brazil whereas Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate rain

  4. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marchant

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation.

    At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small; change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America show a change in biome assignment, but to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucatán peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded.

    At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation reflecting a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland is prevalent in southeast Brazil whereas Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America

  5. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Cleef, A.; Harrison, S.P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, Vera; Van Boxel, J.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J.C.; Burbridge, R.; Bjorck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Flenley, J.; De Oliveira, P.; Van Gee, B.; Graf, K.; Gosling, W.D.; Harbele, S.; Van Der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B.; Horn, S.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F.; Leyden, B.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Melief, A.M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N.T.; Prieto, A.; Van Reenen, G.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Schabitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-01-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000??500 and 18 000??1000 radiocarbon years before present ( 14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000??500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000??500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small; change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America show a change in biome assignment, but to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucat??n peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000??1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation reflecting a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland is prevalent in southeast Brazil whereas Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate rain

  6. Mapping Foliar Traits Across Biomes Using Imaging Spectroscopy: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. A.; Singh, A.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    One of the great promises of imaging spectroscopy - also known as hyperspectral remote sensing - is the ability to map the spatial variation in foliar functional traits, such as nitrogen concentration, pigments, leaf structure, photosynthetic capacity and secondary biochemistry, that drive terrestrial ecosystem processes. A remote-sensing approach enables characterization of within- and between-biome variations that may be crucial to understanding ecosystem responses to pests, pathogens and environmental change. We provide a synthesis of the foliar traits that can be mapped from imaging spectroscopy, as well as an overview of both the major applications of trait maps derived from hyperspectral imagery and current gaps in our knowledge and capacity. Specifically, we make the case that a global imaging spectroscopy mission will provide unique and urgent measurements necessary to understand the response of agricultural and natural systems to rapid global changes. Finally, we present a quantitative framework to utilize imaging spectroscopy to characterize spatial and temporal variation in foliar traits within and between biomes. From this we can infer the dynamics of vegetation function across ecosystems, especially in transition zones and environmentally sensitive systems. Eventual launch of a global imaging spectroscopy mission will enable collection of narrowband VSWIR measurements that will help close major gaps in our understanding of biogeochemical cycles and improve representation of vegetated biomes in Earth system process models.

  7. The Central Eurasia collision zone: insights from a neotectonic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunini, Lavinia; Jiménez-Munt, Ivone; Fernandez, Manel; Vergés, Jaume

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we explore the neotectonic deformation in the whole Central Eurasia, including both the India-Eurasia and the Arabia-Eurasia collision zones, by using the thin-sheet approach in which the lithosphere strength is calculated from the lithosphere structure and thermal regime. We investigate the relative contributions of the lithospheric structure, rheology, boundary conditions, and friction coefficient on faults on the predicted velocity and stress fields. The resulting models have been evaluated by comparing the predictions with available data on seismic deformation, stress directions and GPS velocities. A first order approximation of the velocity and stress directions is obtained, reproducing the counter-clockwise rotation of Arabia and Iran, the westward escape of Anatolia, and the eastward extrusion of the northern Tibetan Plateau. To simulate the observed extensional faults within Tibet a weaker lithosphere is required, provided by a change in the rheological parameters or a reduction of the lithosphere thickness in NE-Tibet. The temperature increase generated by the lithospheric thinning below the Tibetan Plateau would also allow reconciling the model with the high heat flow and low mantle seismic velocities observed in the area. Besides the large scale, this study offers a coherent result in regions with little or no data coverage, as in the case of the Arabia-India inter-collision zone, over large areas of Pakistan and entire Afghanistan. The study is supported by MITE (CGL2014-59516-P) and WE-ME (PIE-CSIC-201330E111) projects.

  8. Soil quality in anthropized ecosystem located in two biomes in Campinas city / SP-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márcia Longo, Regina; Corcovia, Marina; Gomes, Raissa Caroline; Bettine, Sueli C.; Demamboro, Antonio Carlos; Fengler, Felipe H.; Irio Ribeiro, Admilson

    2017-04-01

    The rapid growth of large urban centers and the expansion of agricultural activities promote direct pressures on natural ecosystems. These actions have led to constant discussions by researchers and society as a whole in relation to preservation and quality of terrestrial ecosystems, and soil and vegetation components of vital importance to maintain these. In this context, the present study was to evaluate the anthropogenic interferences on soil properties in areas in two forest fragments located in the remaining urban areas in different biomes of Campinas-SP , Brazil. Both have their edges significantly disturbed by the proximity to urban centers , highways, sugarcane cultivation, among others. The remnant of the Atlantic Forest has an area of 250.36 ha is found in a so called protected area of ecological interest (A.R.I.E). This site access is restricted and has conservation measures, but is near major highways. The remnant of savanna has an approximate area of 40 ha there and has no conservation measure, finding it quite degraded. The physical properties and chemical soil in the two situations were collected throughout the border area totaling 28 points in the remaining savanna and 40 in the Atlantic Forest. The results were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the main soil properties that reflect the quality of the ecosystems studied. It can be seen that most of the physical-chemical soil parameters were impacted in some way related to each other and in two ecosystems that is, the size of the vectors and the distance between them are studied in corresponding situations. The bulk density parameter has different behavior between the two biomes, since the particle density is presented close to each other but have different vector sizes. Some of the parameters have been identified with strong relationship between biomes: the Exchange Capacity Cationic (ECC) and the amounts of copper (Cu) by its close proximity of the vectors and the

  9. Characterizing forest carbon stocks at tropical biome and landscape level in Mount Apo National Park, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubas, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Forest resources sequester and store carbon, and serve as a natural brake on climate change. In the tropics, the largest source of greenhouse emission is from deforestation and forest degradation (Gibbs et al 2007). This paper attempts to compile sixty (60) existing studies on using remote sensing to measure key environmental forest indicators at two levels of scales: biome and landscape level. At the tropical forest biome level, there is not as much remote sensing studies that have been done as compared to other forest biomes. Also, existing studies on tropical Asia is still sparse compared to other tropical regions in Latin America and Africa. Biomass map is also produced for the tropical biome using keyhole macro language (KML) which is projected on Google Earth. The compiled studies showed there are four indicators being measured using remote sensors in tropical forest. These are biomass, landcover classification, deforestation and cloud cover. The landscape level will focus on Mount Apo National Park in the Philippines which is encompassing a total area of 54,974.87 hectares. It is one of the ten priority sites targeted in the World Bank-assisted Biodiversity Conservation Program. This park serves as the major watershed for the three provinces with 19 major rivers emanating from the montane formations. Only a small fraction of the natural forest that once covered the country remains. In spite of different policies that aim to reduce logging recent commercial deforestation, illegal logging and agricultural expansion pose an important threat to the remaining forest areas. In some locations in the country, these hotspots of deforestation overlap with the protected areas (Verburg et al 2006). The study site was clipped using ArcGIS from the forest biomass carbon density map produced by Gibbs and Brown (2007). Characterization on this national park using vegetation density, elevation, slope, land cover and precipitation will be conducted to determine factors that

  10. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajetunmobi, A; Prina-Mello, A; Volkov, Y; Corvin, A; Tropea, D

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  12. Central Venous Catheter (CVC related infections: a local retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fresu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Central venous catheter (CVC related infection is associated with significant increases in morbidity, mortality, and health care cost.This local surveillance study was carry out to monitor the frequency of occurrence of CVC-related blood stream infections. Materials and methods. During the period January – December 2005, 226 CVC specimens were analyzed (quantitative method and microrganism identification from positive samples was performed by Vitek II. In 53 patients it was possible to compare quantitative results with those obtained from blood cultures. Results. Positive CVC samples were 125 (55% and 130 microrganisms were isolated: 109 Gram-positives (84%, 4 Gram-negatives (3%, and 17 mycetes (13%. Among pathogens collected simultaneously from CVC and blood samples, the most frequently isolated were Staphylococcus spp. (30% coagulase-negative staphylococci and 20%. S. aureus and Candida spp. (45%. In the group of patients that presented positive CVC and negative blood samples the most frequently recovered microrganisms were staphylococci. Many isolates (33% were polymicrobial. Conclusions. Catheter-related infections occurred in those patients who presented the same pathogen in both CVC and blood cultures. These infections were principally caused by staphylococci and Candida spp. On the contrary, a possible CVC contamination could be suspected when positive CVC and negative blood cultures were found.

  13. Early stage litter decomposition across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ika Djukic; Sebastian Kepfer-Rojas; Inger Kappel Schmidt; Klaus Steenberg Larsen; Claus Beier; Björn Berg; Kris Verheyen; Adriano Caliman; Alain Paquette; Alba Gutiérrez-Girón; Alberto Humber; Alejandro Valdecantos; Alessandro Petraglia; Heather Alexander; Algirdas Augustaitis; Amélie Saillard; Ana Carolina Ruiz Fernández; Ana I. Sousa; Ana I. Lillebø; Anderson da Rocha Gripp; André-Jean Francez; Andrea Fischer; Andreas Bohner; Andrey Malyshev; Andrijana Andrić; Andy Smith; Angela Stanisci; Anikó Seres; Anja Schmidt; Anna Avila; Anne Probst; Annie Ouin; Anzar A. Khuroo; Arne Verstraeten; Arely N. Palabral-Aguilera; Artur Stefanski; Aurora Gaxiola; Bart Muys; Bernard Bosman; Bernd Ahrends; Bill Parker; Birgit Sattler; Bo Yang; Bohdan Juráni; Brigitta Erschbamer; Carmen Eugenia Rodriguez Ortiz; Casper T. Christiansen; E. Carol Adair; Céline Meredieu; Cendrine Mony; Charles A. Nock; Chi-Ling Chen; Chiao-Ping Wang; Christel Baum; Christian Rixen; Christine Delire; Christophe Piscart; Christopher Andrews; Corinna Rebmann; Cristina Branquinho; Dana Polyanskaya; David Fuentes Delgado; Dirk Wundram; Diyaa Radeideh; Eduardo Ordóñez-Regil; Edward Crawford; Elena Preda; Elena Tropina; Elli Groner; Eric Lucot; Erzsébet Hornung; Esperança Gacia; Esther Lévesque; Evanilde Benedito; Evgeny A. Davydov; Evy Ampoorter; Fabio Padilha Bolzan; Felipe Varela; Ferdinand Kristöfel; Fernando T. Maestre; Florence Maunoury-Danger; Florian Hofhansl; Florian Kitz; Flurin Sutter; Francisco Cuesta; Francisco de Almeida Lobo; Franco Leandro de Souza; Frank Berninger; Franz Zehetner; Georg Wohlfahrt; George Vourlitis; Geovana Carreño-Rocabado; Gina Arena; Gisele Daiane Pinha; Grizelle González; Guylaine Canut; Hanna Lee; Hans Verbeeck; Harald Auge; Harald Pauli; Hassan Bismarck Nacro; Héctor A. Bahamonde; Heike Feldhaar; Heinke Jäger; Helena C. Serrano; Hélène Verheyden; Helge Bruelheide; Henning Meesenburg; Hermann Jungkunst; Hervé Jactel; Hideaki Shibata; Hiroko Kurokawa; Hugo López Rosas; Hugo L. Rojas Villalobos; Ian Yesilonis; Inara Melece; Inge Van Halder; Inmaculada García Quirós; Isaac Makelele; Issaka Senou; István Fekete; Ivan Mihal; Ivika Ostonen; Jana Borovská; Javier Roales; Jawad Shoqeir; Jean-Christophe Lata; Jean-Paul Theurillat; Jean-Luc Probst; Jess Zimmerman; Jeyanny Vijayanathan; Jianwu Tang; Jill Thompson; Jiří Doležal; Joan-Albert Sanchez-Cabeza; Joël Merlet; Joh Henschel; Johan Neirynck; Johannes Knops; John Loehr; Jonathan von Oppen; Jónína Sigríður Þorláksdóttir; Jörg Löffler; José-Gilberto Cardoso-Mohedano; José-Luis Benito-Alonso; Jose Marcelo Torezan; Joseph C. Morina; Juan J. Jiménez; Juan Dario Quinde; Juha Alatalo; Julia Seeber; Jutta Stadler; Kaie Kriiska; Kalifa Coulibaly; Karibu Fukuzawa; Katalin Szlavecz; Katarína Gerhátová; Kate Lajtha; Kathrin Käppeler; Katie A. Jennings; Katja Tielbörger; Kazuhiko Hoshizaki; Ken Green; Lambiénou Yé; Laryssa Helena Ribeiro Pazianoto; Laura Dienstbach; Laura Williams; Laura Yahdjian; Laurel M. Brigham; Liesbeth van den Brink; Lindsey Rustad; al. et

    2018-01-01

    Through litter decomposition enormous amounts of carbon is emitted to the atmosphere. Numerous large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process in order to understand the controls on the terrestrial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. However, previous studies were mostly based on site-specific litter and methodologies...

  14. Study of global control of VIRGO Central Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, Luca

    1999-01-01

    The VIRGO project for the detection of gravitational waves will first operate in a test configuration, known as the Central Area Interferometer (CITF). The subject of this thesis consists of a study for the global control of this interferometer. In particular, the problems of auto-alignment and acquisition of lock are addressed. First, an investigation of the CITF optical response to longitudinal and angular mirror movements is given. On the basis of this study, we show how the ratio of photodiode signals can be used to detect and control the dark fringe when the CITF is far from its operating point (locked state). Furthermore, we present the simulation results of a quadrant photodiode configuration capable of reconstructing the mirrors' tilts once the CITF is in a locked state. The performance of a control system for the auto-alignment is then given. A study on the mode-cleaner prototype MC30 is then introduced in order to comprehend the process of lock acquisition by a linear feedback system for two different finesse values: F ≅100 and F ≅ 1600. We define a threshold velocity for the mirrors' relative motion below which acquisition of lock is possible. A phenomenon, referred to as ringing effect, was observed and examined on the MC30 prototype in high finesse. The results of numerical calculations allowed us to fit measurement and estimate from them the cavity finesse as well as the mirrors' relative velocity during the resonance crossing. An empirical formula is then presented capable of determine the relative velocity from the positions of the oscillations' minima and maxima. An algorithm to guide into lock the CITF is then presented, consisting of an iterative procedure of velocity reconstruction and pulse application. A numerical calculation simulated the algorithm, the mirrors' motion, the optical response and the ADCs' process. As a result, acquisition times of the order of one second were observed: an improvement of more than one order of magnitude was

  15. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Urban Stormwater Temperature Surges: A Central US Watershed Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean J. Zeiger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of urban land use can include increased stormwater runoff temperature (Tw leading to receiving water quality impairment. There is therefore a need to target and mitigate sources of thermal pollution in urban areas. However, complex relationships between urban development, stormwater runoff and stream water heating processes are poorly understood. A nested-scale experimental watershed study design was used to investigate stormwater runoff temperature impacts to receiving waters in a representative mixed-use urbanizing watershed of the central US. Daily maximum Tw exceeded 35.0 °C (threshold for potential mortality of warm-water biota at an urban monitoring site for a total of five days during the study period (2011–2013. Sudden increases of more than 1.0 °C within a 15 min time interval of Tw following summer thunderstorms were significantly correlated (CI = 95%; p < 0.01 to cumulative percent urban land use (r2 = 0.98; n = 29. Differences in mean Tw between monitoring sites were significantly correlated (CI = 95%; p = 0.02 to urban land use practices, stream distance and increasing discharge. The effects of the 2012 Midwest USA drought and land use on Tw were also observed with maximum Tw 4.0 °C higher at an urban monitoring site relative to a rural site for 10.5 h. The current work provides quantitative evidence of acute increases in Tw related to urban land use. Results better inform land managers wishing to create management strategies designed to preserve suitable thermal stream habitats in urbanizing watersheds.

  17. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T 2 O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  18. A climatological study of rural surface ozone in central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that surface ozone levels at rural sites in Greece are generally high when compared with rural ozone measurements at northern European sites. The area of SE Europe, including Greece, is not very well monitored regarding rural ozone in comparison to central and northern Europe. In order to have the best possible picture of the rural surface ozone climatology in the area, based on the available data-sets of long-term continuous monitoring stations, the 10-year measurement records (1987-1996 of the Athens peripheral station of Liossia, (12 km N of the city center and the urban background station of Geoponiki (3 km W as well as the 4-year record (1996-1999 of the rural station of Aliartos (100 km NW of Athens, are analyzed in this paper. The data for Liossia and Geoponiki stations are screened for cases of strong airflow from rural areas (N-NE winds stronger than 5 m/s. The variation characteristics of the average rural ozone afternoon levels (12:00-18:00, with the best vertical atmospheric mixing, are mainly examined since these measurements are expected to be representative of the broader area. In all three stations there is a characteristic seasonal variation of rural ozone concentrations with lowest winter afternoon values at about 50 μg/m3 in December-January and average summer afternoon values at about 120 μg/m3 in July-August, indicating that high summer values are observed all over the area. The rural summer afternoon ozone values are very well correlated between the three stations, implying spatial homogeneity all over the area but also temporal homogeneity, since during the 13-year period 1987-1999 the rural afternoon ozone levels remained almost constant around the value of 120 μg/m3.

  19. Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Belman, A L; Park, Y D; Wiley, C; Horoupian, D S; Llena, J; Kure, K; Lyman, W D; Morecki, R; Mitsudo, S

    1989-01-01

    The neuropathologic findings of brains and spinal cords removed at autopsy from 26 infants and children with AIDS is described; in two cases, only the spinal cords were available. The most common finding in the brains was dystrophic calcification of blood vessels of all calibers in the basal ganglia and deep cerebral white matter (21 og 24 cases). The next most frequent finding was subacute encephalitis (SE) (15 of 24 cases) with microglial nodules and multinulceated giant cells. Immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization studies showed HIV antigen or genetic sequences only in the brains of cases with SE. Multinucleated giants cells (MGC) were the most frequent cells with reaction products. MGC were labeled with ricinus lectin (RCA), but not with leukocyte common antigen (LCA) or glial fibrillary acidic protein. Many cells in microglial nodules were labeled with RCA, but not LCA; cells in the perivascular compartment were labeled with LCA, but not RCA. Corticospinal tract degeneration was noted in 15 of 20 spinal cords. In six cases tract degeneration was consistent with delayed myelination, and the remaining cases had axonal injury consistent with Wallerian degeneration. Opportunistic infections were rare (three cases). Central nervous system lymphoma occurred in three children and was the most common mass lesion. In two cases lymphoma occurred in the setting of a systemic polyclonal immunoproliferation possibly related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Cerebrovascular accidents were noted in seven cases. Two cases had hemorrhage associated with immune thrombocytopenia; one hemorrhage was catastrophic. Two children had large vessel arteriopathy with multiple encephalomalacias. Two children had a necrotizing encephalopathy with encephalomalacia and vascular changes suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The beetle Costalimaita ferruginea (Coleoptera: Chysomelidae) in Eucalyptus plantations in transition area of Amazon and Cerrado Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, T K R; Pires, E M; Souza, A P; Tanaka, A A; Monteiro, E B; Wilcken, C F

    2018-02-01

    Costalimaita ferruginea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) attacks Eucalyptus plants causing severe damage through netting of the leaves. Recently, this Coleoptera has been reported attacking Myrtaceae in Mato Grosso State and, studies about the occurrence of this beetle in commercial plantations of eucalypts has been the subject of researchers through monitoring programmes in the forest protection area. With the beginning of the rainy season, adults were observed causing damage in eucalypt plantations in four cities that are part of the transition region of Amazon and Cerrado Biomes. The spots where these insects were observed are located in Feliz Natal, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso and Vera. The purpose of this study was to report the new occurrences and to characterize the attack period of the beetle C. ferruginea in Eucalyptus plantations in Middle-North region of Mato Grosso State, region of Biomes Transition.

  1. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Chuixiang; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li, Runze

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate–carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between...... climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems...

  2. Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Central Engines of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivron, Ran

    1995-03-01

    In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the observed spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the observed luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With observations from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or

  3. Integrating Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversities: Interactive Effects with the Biome and Land Use across Taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Julian Martin; Zurita, Gustavo Andres; Filloy, Julieta; Galvis, Juan Pablo; Vespa, Natalia Isabel; Bellocq, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of species, functional traits and phylogenetic relationships at both the regional and local scales provide complementary approaches to study patterns of biodiversity and help to untangle the mechanisms driving community assembly. Few studies have simultaneously considered the taxonomic (TBD), functional (FBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) facets of beta diversity. Here we analyze the associations between TBD, FBD, and PBD with the biome (representing different regional species pools) and land use, and investigate whether TBD, FBD and PBD were correlated. In the study design we considered two widely used indicator taxa (birds and ants) from two contrasting biomes (subtropical forest and grassland) and land uses (tree plantations and cropfields) in the southern Neotropics. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic distances were associated to biome and land use; study sites grouped into four groups on the bi-dimensional space (cropfields in forest and grassland, and tree plantations in forest and grassland), and that was consistent across beta diversity facets and taxa. Mantel and PERMANOVA tests showed that TBD, FBD and PBD were positively correlated for both bird and ant assemblages; in general, partial correlations were also significant. Some of the functional traits considered here were conserved along phylogeny. Our results will contribute to the development of sound land use planning and beta diversity conservation.

  4. Integrating Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversities: Interactive Effects with the Biome and Land Use across Taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Julian Martin; Zurita, Gustavo Andres; Filloy, Julieta; Galvis, Juan Pablo; Vespa, Natalia Isabel; Bellocq, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of species, functional traits and phylogenetic relationships at both the regional and local scales provide complementary approaches to study patterns of biodiversity and help to untangle the mechanisms driving community assembly. Few studies have simultaneously considered the taxonomic (TBD), functional (FBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) facets of beta diversity. Here we analyze the associations between TBD, FBD, and PBD with the biome (representing different regional species pools) and land use, and investigate whether TBD, FBD and PBD were correlated. In the study design we considered two widely used indicator taxa (birds and ants) from two contrasting biomes (subtropical forest and grassland) and land uses (tree plantations and cropfields) in the southern Neotropics. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic distances were associated to biome and land use; study sites grouped into four groups on the bi-dimensional space (cropfields in forest and grassland, and tree plantations in forest and grassland), and that was consistent across beta diversity facets and taxa. Mantel and PERMANOVA tests showed that TBD, FBD and PBD were positively correlated for both bird and ant assemblages; in general, partial correlations were also significant. Some of the functional traits considered here were conserved along phylogeny. Our results will contribute to the development of sound land use planning and beta diversity conservation. PMID:25978319

  5. Above- and Belowground Biomass Allocation in Shrub Biomes across the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanhe; Yang, Lucun; Zhou, Guoying

    2016-01-01

    Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011–2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB) and root: shoot ratio (R/S) and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP), while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT). Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level. PMID:27119379

  6. Above- and Belowground Biomass Allocation in Shrub Biomes across the Northeast Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiuqing; Yang, Yuanhe; Yang, Lucun; Zhou, Guoying

    2016-01-01

    Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011-2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB) and root: shoot ratio (R/S) and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP), while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT). Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level.

  7. Above- and Belowground Biomass Allocation in Shrub Biomes across the Northeast Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqing Nie

    Full Text Available Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011-2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB, below-ground biomass (BGB and root: shoot ratio (R/S and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP, while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT. Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level.

  8. Temporal profiles of vegetation indices for characterizing grazing intensity on natural grasslands in Pampa biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Heemann Junges

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Pampa biome is an important ecosystem in Brazil that is highly relevant to livestock production. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential use of vegetation indices to discriminate grazing intensities on natural grasslands in the Pampa biome. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI images from Jan to Dec, 2000 to 2013 series, were analyzed for natural grassland experimental units managed under high (forage allowance of 5 ± 2 % live weight – LW, moderate (13 ± 5 % LW and low grazing intensity (19 ± 7 % LW. Regardless of intensity, the temporal profiles showed lower NDVI and EVI during winter, increased values in spring because of summer species regrowth, slightly decreased values in summer, especially in years when there is a water deficit, and increased values in the fall associated with the beginning of winter forage development. The average temporal profiles of moderate grazing intensity exhibited greater vegetation index values compared with low and high grazing intensities. The temporal profiles of less vegetation index were associated with lower green biomass accumulation caused by the negative impact of stocking rates on the leaf area index under high grazing intensity and a floristic composition with a predominance of tussocks under low grazing intensity. Vegetation indices can be used for distinguishing moderate grazing intensity from low and high intensities. The average EVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during any season, and the NDVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during spring and winter.

  9. Las publicaciones de investigación biomédica en la Revista de Biología Tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Gutiérrez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis temático de los trabajos de ciencias biomédicas publicados en la Revista de Biología Tropical durante sus 50 años de existencia. Las ciencias biomédicas, principalmente la Parasitología y la Microbiología, fueron el tema predominante en la Revista durante su primera década de existencia, como reflejo del dinámico y productivo ambiente de investigación existente alrededor de la Facultad de Microbiología de la Universidad de Costa Rica y del Hospital San Juan de Dios. El peso relativo de temas de investigación biomédica disminuyó paulatinamente en las décadas subsiguientes, aunque el número absoluto de contribuciones biomédicas se ha mantenido constante, con una media de cerca de 80 trabajos por década. La Parasitología ha sido el tema predominante en las publicaciones de tipo biomédico en la Revista; sin embargo, en las últimas décadas han aparecido publicaciones en una serie de temas como Farmacología de productos naturales, Toxinología, especialmente relacionada con venenos de serpientes y Genética Humana, lo cual ha ampliado el espectro temático de las ciencias biomédicas en los índices de la Revista. Este análisis retrospectivo evidencia claramente que las ciencias biomédicas, particularmente las relacionadas con Medicina Tropical, jugaron un papel fundamental en los primeros años de existencia de la Revista de Biología Tropical y han mantenido una presencia relevante durante las últimas décadas en esta publicación, sin duda la más importante y sólida de la región centroamericana en ciencias naturales.The contributions published in Revista de Biología Tropical in the area of Biomedical Sciences are reviewed in terms of number of contributions and scope of research subjects. Biomedical Sciences, particularly Parasitology and Microbiology, constituted the predominant subject in the Revista during the first decade, reflecting the intense research environment at the

  10. Comparative study of peripherally inserted central venous catheter and traditional central catheter assisted with X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jianchun; Wang Xiurong; Jiang Zhuming

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility, complications, mid- and long-term advantages of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) compared with central venous access assisted with X-ray. Methods: From Jan 1997 to Dec 1998, the authors conducted a study in 60 patients with placed PICC lines and 60 patients with central lines. Study variables included tip placement and complication rates. Results: Tere were on significant differences between PICC and CVC in the successful placement 95.0% and 88.3%, t = 1.745, P 0.19; the mean duration 13(6-98) days and 14 (7-104) days, F = 0.049, P = 0.83; the total occlusion rate 6.7% (4/60) and 5.0%(3/60), t = 0.152, P = 0.70. In PICC patients, the occlusion rate was slightly higher in 3 Fr (20-gauge) catheter (3/20, 15.0%) than in 4 Fr(18-gauge) catheters (1/20, 5.0%), t = 1.111, P=0.29. Phlebitis occurred in 5.0% of patients (3/60) and one catheter fracture was happened on the catheter hub junction (1.7%). In 3 catheter tips dislocation cases, the catheter tips were moved to the optional position assisted with X-ray image. In CVC group, pneumothorax happened in 1 case (1.7%). In 4 catheter dislocation cases, the catheters were with drawn. No catheter-related sepsis and hemo-pneumothorax happened in both group patients. Conclusions: Both PICC and CVC can be acceptable in clinical use. PICC assisted with X-ray possesses the advantages of less trauma, accurate localization preventing some possible severe complications of central venous access such as pneumothorax. The new method provides a reliable, effective venous access for mid-and long-term usage in patients receiving a variety of solutions, primarily parenteral alimentation, chemotherapy or antibiotic infusion

  11. Loess studies in central United States: Evolution of concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    Few words in the realm of earth science have caused more debate than "loess". It is a common term that was first used as a name of a silt deposit before it was defined in a scientific sense. Because this "loose" deposit is easily distinguished from other more coherent deposits, it was recognized as a matter of practical concern and later became the object of much scientific scrutiny. Loess was first recognized along the Rhine Valley in Germany in the 1830s and was first noted in the United States in 1846 along the lower Mississippi River where it later became the center of attention. The use of the name eventually spread around the world, but its use has not been consistently applied. Over the years some interpretations and stratigraphic correlations have been validated, but others have been hotly contested on conceptual grounds and semantic issues. The concept of loess evolved into a complex issue as loess and loess-like deposits were discovered in different parts of the US. The evolution of concepts in the central US developed in four indefinite stages: the eras of (1) discovery and development of hypotheses, (2) conditional acceptance of the eolian origin of loess, (3) "bandwagon" popularity of loess research, and (4) analytical inquiry on the nature of loess. Toward the end of the first era around 1900, the popular opinion on the meaning of the term loess shifted from a lithological sense of loose silt to a lithogenetic sense of eolian silt. However, the dual use of the term fostered a lingering skepticism during the second era that ended in 1944 with an explosion of interest that lasted for more than a decade. In 1944, R.J. Russell proposed and H.N. Fisk defended a new non-eolian, property-based, concept of loess. The eolian advocates reacted with surprise and enthusiasm. Each side used constrained arguments to show their view of the problem, but did not examine the fundamental problem, which was not in the proofs of their hypothesis, but in the definition of

  12. Are There Consistent Grazing Indicators in Drylands? Testing Plant Functional Types of Various Complexity in South Africa’s Grassland and Savanna Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linstädter, Anja; Schellberg, Jürgen; Brüser, Katharina; Moreno García, Cristian A.; Oomen, Roelof J.; du Preez, Chris C.; Ruppert, Jan C.; Ewert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Despite our growing knowledge on plants’ functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs) with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa’s grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs). Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses) and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses) performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold) had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may also be

  13. Are there consistent grazing indicators in Drylands? Testing plant functional types of various complexity in South Africa's Grassland and Savanna Biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Linstädter

    Full Text Available Despite our growing knowledge on plants' functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa's grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs. Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may

  14. [Parameter sensitivity of simulating net primary productivity of Larix olgensis forest based on BIOME-BGC model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-hong; Wang, Hai-yan; Lei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-01

    Model based on vegetation ecophysiological process contains many parameters, and reasonable parameter values will greatly improve simulation ability. Sensitivity analysis, as an important method to screen out the sensitive parameters, can comprehensively analyze how model parameters affect the simulation results. In this paper, we conducted parameter sensitivity analysis of BIOME-BGC model with a case study of simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of Larix olgensis forest in Wangqing, Jilin Province. First, with the contrastive analysis between field measurement data and the simulation results, we tested the BIOME-BGC model' s capability of simulating the NPP of L. olgensis forest. Then, Morris and EFAST sensitivity methods were used to screen the sensitive parameters that had strong influence on NPP. On this basis, we also quantitatively estimated the sensitivity of the screened parameters, and calculated the global, the first-order and the second-order sensitivity indices. The results showed that the BIOME-BGC model could well simulate the NPP of L. olgensis forest in the sample plot. The Morris sensitivity method provided a reliable parameter sensitivity analysis result under the condition of a relatively small sample size. The EFAST sensitivity method could quantitatively measure the impact of simulation result of a single parameter as well as the interaction between the parameters in BIOME-BGC model. The influential sensitive parameters for L. olgensis forest NPP were new stem carbon to new leaf carbon allocation and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio, the effect of their interaction was significantly greater than the other parameter' teraction effect.

  15. Association of Bartonella Species with Wild and Synanthropic Rodents in Different Brazilian Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Mendes, Natalia Serra; Fidelis Junior, Otávio Luiz; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2016-12-15

    Bartonella spp. comprise an ecologically successful group of microorganisms that infect erythrocytes and have adapted to different hosts, which include a wide range of mammals, besides humans. Rodents are reservoirs of about two-thirds of Bartonella spp. described to date; and some of them have been implicated as causative agents of human diseases. In our study, we performed molecular and phylogenetic analyses of Bartonella spp. infecting wild rodents from five different Brazilian biomes. In order to characterize the genetic diversity of Bartonella spp., we performed a robust analysis based on three target genes, followed by sequencing, Bayesian inference, and maximum likelihood analysis. Bartonella spp. were detected in 25.6% (117/457) of rodent spleen samples analyzed, and this occurrence varied among different biomes. The diversity analysis of gltA sequences showed the presence of 15 different haplotypes. Analysis of the phylogenetic relationship of gltA sequences performed by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood showed that the Bartonella species detected in rodents from Brazil was closely related to the phylogenetic group A detected in other cricetid rodents from North America, probably constituting only one species. Last, the Bartonella species genogroup identified in the present study formed a monophyletic group that included Bartonella samples from seven different rodent species distributed in three distinct biomes. In conclusion, our study showed that the occurrence of Bartonella bacteria in rodents is much more frequent and widespread than previously recognized. In the present study, we reported the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in some sites in Brazil. The identification and understanding of the distribution of this important group of bacteria may allow the Brazilian authorities to recognize potential regions with the risk of transmission of these pathogens among wild and domestic animals and humans. In addition, our study accessed important gaps in

  16. Landslide vulnerability criteria: a case study from Umbria, central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Mirco; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the vulnerability to landslides, despite landslides causing frequent and widespread damage to the population and the built-up environment in many areas of the world. Lack of information about vulnerability to landslides limits our ability to determine landslide risk. This paper provides information on the vulnerability of buildings and roads to landslides in Umbria, central Italy. Information on 103 landslides of the slide and slide-earth flow types that have resulted in damage to buildings and roads at 90 sites in Umbria is used to establish dependencies between the area of the landslide and the vulnerability to landslides. The dependencies obtained are applied in the hills surrounding the town of Collazzone, in central Umbria, an area for which a detailed landslide inventory map is available. By exploiting the landslide inventory and the established vulnerability curves, the geographical distribution of the vulnerability to landslides is mapped and statistics of the expected damage are calculated. Reliability and limits of the vulnerability thresholds and of the obtained vulnerability assessment are discussed.

  17. Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Kitzberger, Thomas; Allen, Craig D.; Fensham, Rod; Laughlin, Daniel C.; Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Jump, Alistair S.

    2017-01-01

    Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and functional groups and functional traits. We identified a consistent global-scale response, where mortality increased with drought severity [log mortality (trees trees−1 year−1) increased 0.46 (95% CI = 0.2–0.7) with one SPEI unit drought intensity]. We found no significant differences in the magnitude of the response depending on forest biomes or between angiosperms and gymnosperms or evergreen and deciduous tree species. Functional traits explained some of the variation in drought responses between species (i.e. increased from 30 to 37% when wood density and specific leaf area were included). Tree species with denser wood and lower specific leaf area showed lower mortality responses. Our results illustrate the value of functional traits for understanding patterns of drought-induced tree mortality and suggest that mortality could become increasingly widespread in the future.

  18. Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Kitzberger, Thomas; Allen, Craig D; Fensham, Rod; Laughlin, Daniel C; Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kraft, Nathan J B; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-04-01

    Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and functional groups and functional traits. We identified a consistent global-scale response, where mortality increased with drought severity [log mortality (trees trees -1  year -1 ) increased 0.46 (95% CI = 0.2-0.7) with one SPEI unit drought intensity]. We found no significant differences in the magnitude of the response depending on forest biomes or between angiosperms and gymnosperms or evergreen and deciduous tree species. Functional traits explained some of the variation in drought responses between species (i.e. increased from 30 to 37% when wood density and specific leaf area were included). Tree species with denser wood and lower specific leaf area showed lower mortality responses. Our results illustrate the value of functional traits for understanding patterns of drought-induced tree mortality and suggest that mortality could become increasingly widespread in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. S2Biom database with logistical components of the biomass value chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Groot, de H.L.E.; Shah, N.; Giarola, S.; Pantaleo, M.; Anttila, P.; Vis, Martijn; Raa, te Rik; Berg, van den Douwe; Gabrielle, B.

    2015-01-01

    The S2Biom project (www.s2biom.eu) - Delivery of sustainable supply of non-food biomass to support
    a resource-efficient Bioeconomy in Europe - supports sustainable delivery chains of non-food biomass feedstock.
    This poses a logistical challenge because the quality and handling

  20. Pollen-based biome reconstruction for southern Europe and Africa 18,000 yr BP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elenga, H; Peyron, O; Bonnefille, R; Jolly, D; Cheddadi, R; Guiot, J; Andrieu, [No Value; Bottema, S; Buchet, G; de Beaulieu, JL; Hamilton, AC; Maley, J; Marchant, R; Perez-Obiol, R; Reille, M; Riollet, G; Scott, L; Straka, H; Taylor, D; Van Campo, E; Vincens, A; Laarif, F; Jonson, H

    Pollen data from 18,000 C-14 yr sp were compiled in order to reconstruct biome distributions at the last glacial maximum in southern Europe and Africa. Biome reconstructions were made using the objective biomization method applied to pollen counts using a complete list of dryland taxa wherever

  1. Mid- to Late-Holocene pollen-based biome reconstructions for Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.; Behling, H.; Berrío, J.C.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Kuhry, P.; Melief, B.; Geel, van B.; Hammen, van der T.; Reenen, van T.; Wille, M.

    2001-01-01

    The assignment of Colombian pollen data to biomes allows the data to be synthesised at 10 `time windows' from the present-day to 6000 radiocarbon years before present (BP). The modern reconstructed biomes are compared to a map of modern potential vegetation to check the applicability of the method

  2. Flammable biomes dominated by eucalypts originated at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Michael D; Burrows, Geoffrey E; Cook, Lyn G; Thornhill, Andrew H; Bowman, David M J S

    2011-02-15

    Fire is a major modifier of communities, but the evolutionary origins of its prevalent role in shaping current biomes are uncertain. Australia is among the most fire-prone continents, with most of the landmass occupied by the fire-dependent sclerophyll and savanna biomes. In contrast to biomes with similar climates in other continents, Australia has a tree flora dominated by a single genus, Eucalyptus, and related Myrtaceae. A unique mechanism in Myrtaceae for enduring and recovering from fire damage likely resulted in this dominance. Here, we find a conserved phylogenetic relationship between post-fire resprouting (epicormic) anatomy and biome evolution, dating from 60 to 62 Ma, in the earliest Palaeogene. Thus, fire-dependent communities likely existed 50 million years earlier than previously thought. We predict that epicormic resprouting could make eucalypt forests and woodlands an excellent long-term carbon bank for reducing atmospheric CO(2) compared with biomes with similar fire regimes in other continents.

  3. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, TG; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, DG; Nunes, MEM; Rodrigues, NR

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies. PMID:26056614

  4. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TG Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2 nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  5. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T G; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, Mem; Rodrigues, N R; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  6. Response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Gouveia, Célia; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Beguería, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; López-Moreno, Juan I; Azorín-Molina, César; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jesús; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2013-01-02

    We evaluated the response of the Earth land biomes to drought by correlating a drought index with three global indicators of vegetation activity and growth: vegetation indices from satellite imagery, tree-ring growth series, and Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP) records. Arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and we suggest that the persistence of the water deficit (i.e., the drought time-scale) could be playing a key role in determining the sensitivity of land biomes to drought. We found that arid biomes respond to drought at short time-scales; that is, there is a rapid vegetation reaction as soon as water deficits below normal conditions occur. This may be due to the fact that plant species of arid regions have mechanisms allowing them to rapidly adapt to changing water availability. Humid biomes also respond to drought at short time-scales, but in this case the physiological mechanisms likely differ from those operating in arid biomes, as plants usually have a poor adaptability to water shortage. On the contrary, semiarid and subhumid biomes respond to drought at long time-scales, probably because plants are able to withstand water deficits, but they lack the rapid response of arid biomes to drought. These results are consistent among three vegetation parameters analyzed and across different land biomes, showing that the response of vegetation to drought depends on characteristic drought time-scales for each biome. Understanding the dominant time-scales at which drought most influences vegetation might help assessing the resistance and resilience of vegetation and improving our knowledge of vegetation vulnerability to climate change.

  7. Softball Games Bring NCI and Leidos Biomed Employees Together | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI and Leidos Biomed employees took to the fields at Nallin Pond for the third annual slow-pitch softball games on August 26. The series attracted 54 employees who were divided into four teams, Red, Blue, Gray, and White, and they were cheered on by about 40 enthusiastic spectators. In the first set of games, the Gray team defeated the Blue team, 15–8, and the White team pulled out a win against the Red team, 17–15. After a brief rest, the two winning teams and the two losing teams faced each other in a second set of games. On Field 1, the “winners” match-up of the Gray and White teams was a nail biter, with a close score throughout the game. Daylight was a factor, however, and the team captains decided to call the game for safety reasons. With a lead of 15 to 13, the Gray team was declared the overall winner.

  8. Identification of novel mammalian hosts and Brazilian biome geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi TcIII and TcIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Juliana Helena S; Xavier, Samanta Cristina C; Bilac, Daniele; Lima, Valdirene Santos; Dario, Maria Augusta; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2017-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. Seven different Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) of T. cruzi are currently identified in nature: TcI-TcVI, and TcBat whose distribution patterns in nature, hosts/reservoirs and eco-epidemiological importance are still little known. Here, we present novel data on the geographic distribution and diversity of mammalian hosts and vectors of T. cruzi DTUs TcIII and TcIV. In this study, we analyzed 61 T. cruzi isolates obtained from 18 species of mammals (five orders) and two Hemiptera genera. Samples were collected from five Brazilian biomes (Pantanal, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Rainforest, and Amazon) previously characterized as Z3 or mixed infection (TcI-Z3) by mini-exon gene PCR. To identify TcIII and TcIV genotypes, we applied restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to the PCR-amplified histone 3 gene. DTUs TcIII and TcIV were identified in single and mixed infections from wide dispersion throughout five Brazilian biomes studied, with TcIV being the most common. Pantanal was the biome that displayed the largest number of samples characterized as TcIII and TcIV in single and mixed infections, followed by Atlantic Rainforest and Amazon. Species from the Didelphimorphia order displayed the highest frequency of infection and were found in all five biomes. We report, for the first time, the infection of a species of the Artiodactyla order by DTU TcIII. In addition, we describe new host species: five mammals (marsupials and rodents) and two genera of Hemiptera. Our data indicate that DTUs TcIII and TcIV are more widespread and infect a larger number of mammalian species than previously thought. In addition, they are transmitted in restricted foci and cycles, but in different microhabitats and areas with distinct ecological profiles. Finally, we show that DTUs TcIII and TcIV do not present any specific association with biomes or host species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Central sensitization phenomena after third molar surgery: A quantitative sensory testing study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Gitte Irene; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Nørholt, Svend Erik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical removal of third molars may carry a risk of developing persistent orofacial pain, and central sensitization appears to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate sensitization (primarily central...... impacted third molar. RESULTS: Central sensitization for at least one week was indicated by significantly increased pain intensity evoked by intraoral repetitive pinprick and electrical stimulation (p...surgery. Our results indicate that even a minor orofacial surgical procedure may be sufficient to evoke signs of both central and peripheral sensitization, which may play...

  10. Central sensitization phenomena after third molar surgery: A quantitative sensory testing study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.S.; Norholt, S.E.; Svensson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Surgical removal of third molars may carry a risk of developing persistent orofacial pain, and central sensitization appears to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate sensitization (primarily central...... impacted third molar. Results: Central sensitization for at least one week was indicated by significantly increased pain intensity evoked by intraoral repetitive pinprick and electrical stimulation (p ... to single pinprick (p surgery. Our results indicate that even a minor orofacial surgical procedure may be sufficient to evoke signs of both central and peripheral sensitization...

  11. Central sensitization phenomena after third molar surgery: A quantitative sensory testing study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.S.; Norholt, S.E.; Svensson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Surgical removal of third molars may carry a risk of developing persistent orofacial pain, and central sensitization appears to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate sensitization (primarily central...... impacted third molar. Results: Central sensitization for at least one week was indicated by significantly increased pain intensity evoked by intraoral repetitive pinprick and electrical stimulation (p ... to single pinprick (p sensitization of the trigeminal nociceptive system for at least one week after the surgery. Our results indicate that even a minor orofacial surgical procedure may be sufficient to evoke signs of both central and peripheral sensitization...

  12. Studies on the upgrade of the ALICE central tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mager, Magnus; Musa, Luciano

    2012-11-14

    When two high-energy lead ions collide, as they currently do inside the “Large Hadron Collider” (LHC) of the “European Organization for Nuclear Research” (CERN), energy densities similar to those shortly (some 1ps to 10μs) after the Big Bang are created. At these energies quarks are loosing their confinement into hadrons and may move around freely, the “quark-gluon plasma” (QGP) is created. Such a picture deserves of course a thorough check and a precise measurement. There are however intrinsic difficulties to overcome: the macroscopic free energy (about 1 mJ) of these collision allow for an infinite number of processes to happen and finally—-due to mass-energy equivalence--a significant number (order of 10,000) of particles is created. The ALICE experiment was designed to be able to cope with this large number of particles, it can measure the properties (species and momentum) of the big majority. This requires a very fine segmentation of the detector. The central part of ALICE is made of a 90 ...

  13. A Study of Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392718

    This thesis presents an analysis of the central exclusive production (CEP) of $\\chi_{\\mathrm{c}}(1\\mathrm{P})$ mesons in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, using data collected with the LHCb detector corresponding to an effective integrated luminosity of $(126.3 \\pm 4.3)$ pb$^{-1}$. Candidate $\\chi_{\\mathrm{c}}(1\\mathrm{P})$ decays are reconstructed in the $K^+K^-$ and $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final states, where the final state particles have pseudorapidities between 2.5 and 4.5. The products of the cross sections and branching fractions are measured as \\begin{equation} \\sigma\\times\\mathcal{B}(\\chi_{\\mathrm{c}0}(1\\mathrm{P}) \\rightarrow K^+K^-) = 28.0 \\pm 2.8 \\pm 13.9\\,\\mathrm{pb}, \\end{equation} \\begin{equation} \\sigma\\times\\mathcal{B}(\\chi_{\\mathrm{c}0}(1\\mathrm{P}) \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-) = 20.3 \\pm 2.4 \\pm 8.1\\,\\mathrm{pb}, \\end{equation} \\begin{equation} \\sigma\\times\\mathcal{B}(\\chi_{\\mathrm{c}2}(1\\mathrm{P}) \\rightarrow K^+K^-) < 12.1\\,\\mathrm{pb}, \\end{equation} \\begin{equation} \\sig...

  14. Degree centrality for semantic abstraction summarization of therapeutic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Fiszman, Marcelo; Shin, Dongwook; Miller, Christopher M; Rosemblat, Graciela; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2011-10-01

    Automatic summarization has been proposed to help manage the results of biomedical information retrieval systems. Semantic MEDLINE, for example, summarizes semantic predications representing assertions in MEDLINE citations. Results are presented as a graph which maintains links to the original citations. Graphs summarizing more than 500 citations are hard to read and navigate, however. We exploit graph theory for focusing these large graphs. The method is based on degree centrality, which measures connectedness in a graph. Four categories of clinical concepts related to treatment of disease were identified and presented as a summary of input text. A baseline was created using term frequency of occurrence. The system was evaluated on summaries for treatment of five diseases compared to a reference standard produced manually by two physicians. The results showed that recall for system results was 72%, precision was 73%, and F-score was 0.72. The system F-score was considerably higher than that for the baseline (0.47). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Quantitative biome reconstruction using modern and late Quaternary pollen data from the southern part of the Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhova, Lyudmila; Tarasov, Pavel; Bazarova, Valentina; Klimin, Mikhail

    2009-12-01

    In this study we present a recent compilation of 286 modern surface pollen spectra from the southern part of the Russian Far East (42-54°N, 131-141°E) and use it to test the biome reconstruction method. Seventy terrestrial pollen taxa were assigned to plant functional types and then classified to eight regional biomes. When applied to 286 surface pollen spectra, the method assigns about 70% (201 sites) of the samples to the cool mixed forest biome, 17% - to the taiga, 2% - to the cool conifer forest, 3% - to the temperate deciduous forest, and 7% - to the steppe. The steppe reconstruction is characteristic of the pollen spectra from the agricultural areas around Lake Khanka. A visual comparison shows good agreement between pollen-derived biomes and actual vegetation distribution in the region. However, pollen and botanical data, compared with the potential vegetation distribution simulated from the modern climate dataset using the BIOME1 model, demonstrate that spatial distribution of cool mixed forest is underrepresented in the model simulation. The model sets the mean temperature of the coldest month of -15 °C as the factor limiting distribution of the temperate deciduous broadleaf taxa, while vegetation and pollen data from the region demonstrate that this limit should be lowered to -26 °C. Application of the method to the Gur 3-99 pollen record (50°00 'N, 137°03 'E) demonstrates that tundra vegetation predominated around the site prior to 14 ka BP (1 ka = 1000 cal. years). However, the local presence of boreal trees and mixed forest-tundra vegetation is suggested by relatively high taiga scores. Soon after 14 ka BP the scores of taiga become slightly higher than tundra scores. During 11.4-10.5 ka BP a cool conifer forest is reconstructed. Establishment of the full interglacial conditions is marked by the onset of cool mixed forest by 10.5 ka BP. Between 10.3 and 2.5 ka BP the scores of temperate deciduous forest are close to those of cool mixed forest and

  16. Prevalence and associations of refractive error in indigenous Australians within central Australia: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie

    2010-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and associations of refractive error within the indigenous Australian population living in central Australia. 1884 individuals aged 20 years or older, living in one of 30 remote communities within the statistical local area of 'central Australia' were recruited for this study. This equated to 36% of those aged 20 years or older and 67% of those aged 40 years or older within this district. Participants were recruited as they presented to the eye clinic at each remote community. Participants underwent subjective refraction to determine spherical equivalent and then had a slit-lamp anterior segment examination. Participants were only included if they were phakic and only the right eye was considered. The prevalence of hypermetropia worse than +1.0 dioptres (D), myopia worse than -0.5 D and astigmatism worse than 1.0 D is presented. From those recruited, 15.2% were hypermetropic; 11.1% were myopic; and 6.2% had astigmatism. Participants became progressively more hypermetropic with increasing age until the age of 70 years, after which time they become more myopic. Furthermore, there was an increasing likelihood of myopia and a decreasing likelihood of hypermetropia with increasing nuclear opalescent cataract. Our study has shown that indigenous Australians are less likely to be ametropic compared with non-indigenous groups. Variations with age and nuclear opalescent cataract seen in other previous work have also been observed in our sample.

  17. Objective Endoscopic Measurements of Central Airway Stenosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Debora; Ortiz, Rosa Maria; Sánchez, Carles; Rosell, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Endoscopic estimation of the degree of stenosis in central airway obstruction is subjective and highly variable. To determine the benefits of using SENSA (System for Endoscopic Stenosis Assessment), an image-based computational software, for obtaining objective stenosis index (SI) measurements among a group of expert bronchoscopists and general pulmonologists. A total of 7 expert bronchoscopists and 7 general pulmonologists were enrolled to validate SENSA usage. The SI obtained by the physicians and by SENSA were compared with a reference SI to set their precision in SI computation. We used SENSA to efficiently obtain this reference SI in 11 selected cases of benign stenosis. A Web platform with three user-friendly microtasks was designed to gather the data. The users had to visually estimate the SI from videos with and without contours of the normal and the obstructed area provided by SENSA. The users were able to modify the SENSA contours to define the reference SI using morphometric bronchoscopy. Visual SI estimation accuracy was associated with neither bronchoscopic experience (p = 0.71) nor the contours of the normal and the obstructed area provided by the system (p = 0.13). The precision of the SI by SENSA was 97.7% (95% CI: 92.4-103.7), which is significantly better than the precision of the SI by visual estimation (p < 0.001), with an improvement by at least 15%. SENSA provides objective SI measurements with a precision of up to 99.5%, which can be calculated from any bronchoscope using an affordable scalable interface. Providing normal and obstructed contours on bronchoscopic videos does not improve physicians' visual estimation of the SI. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Converting To Digital Library in Banking Organizations : Case Study For Library of Central Bank of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Basher Abou Louefa

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A Case study For Library of Central Bank of Libya, it deals the converting to a digital library. It start with an introduction about digital libraries, and technology in libraries, then deal Library of Central Bank of Libya, and it current situation, then states the plan to be converted to digital library.

  19. Serologic and Molecular Evidence of Vaccinia Virus Circulation among Small Mammals from Different Biomes, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Júlia B; Borges, Iara A; Campos, Samantha P S; Vieira, Flávia N; de Ázara, Tatiana M F; Marques, Fernanda A; Costa, Galileu B; Luis, Ana Paula M F; de Oliveira, Jaqueline S; Ferreira, Paulo César P; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; da Silva, Silvio L M; Eiras, Álvaro E; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Kroon, Erna G; Drumond, Betânia P; Paglia, Adriano P; Trindade, Giliane de S

    2017-06-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a zoonotic agent that causes a disease called bovine vaccinia, which is detected mainly in milking cattle and humans in close contact with these animals. Even though many aspects of VACV infection have been described, much is still unknown about its circulation in the environment and its natural hosts/reservoirs. To investigate the presence of Orthopoxvirus antibodies or VACV DNA, we captured small rodents and marsupials in 3 areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and tested their samples in a laboratory. A total of 336 animals were tested; positivity ranged from 18.1% to 25.5% in the 3 studied regions located in different biomes, including the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado. Analysis of nucleotide sequences indicated co-circulation of VACV groups I and II. Our findings reinforce the possible role played by rodents and marsupials in VACV maintenance and its transmission chain.

  20. Genetic Divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Progenies in the Savanna Biome in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Brito da Costa

    Full Text Available Assessing the parental genetic differences and their subsequent prediction of progeny performance is an important first step to assure the efficiency of any breeding program. In this study, we estimate the genetic divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis based on the morphological traits of 132 progenies grown in a savanna biome. Thus, a field experiment was performed using a randomized block design and five replications to compare divergences in total height, commercial height, diameter at breast height, stem form and survival rate at 48 months. Tocher's clustering method was performed using the Mahalanobis and Euclidian distances. The Mahalanobis distance seemed more reliable for the assessed parameters and clustered all of the progenies into fourteen major groups. The most similar progenies (86 accessions were clustered into Group I, while the most dissimilar (1 progeny represented Group XIV. The divergence analysis indicated that promising crosses could be made between progenies allocated in different groups for high genetic divergence and for favorable morphological traits.

  1. Accounting for age Structure in Ponderosa Pine Ecosystem Analyses: Integrating Management, Disturbance Histories and Observations with the BIOME-BGC Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Law, B.; Thornton, P.

    2003-12-01

    Disturbance and management regimes in forested ecosystems have been recently highlighted as important factors contributing to quantification of carbon stocks and fluxes. Disturbance events, such as stand-replacing fires and current management regimes that emphasize understory and tree thinning are primary suspects influencing ecosystem processes, including net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in forests of the Pacific Northwest. Several recent analyses have compared simulated to measured component stocks and fluxes of carbon in Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa var. Laws) at 12 sites ranging from 9 to 300 years in central Oregon (Law et al. 2001, Law et al. 2003) using the BIOME-BGC model. Major emphases on ecosystem model developments include improving allocation logic, integrating ecosystem processes with disturbance such as fire and including nitrogen in biogeochemical cycling. In Law et al. (2001, 2003), field observations prompted BIOME-BGC improvements including dynamic allocation of carbon to fine root mass through the life of a stand. A sequence of simulations was also designed to represent both management and disturbance histories for each site, however, current age structure of each sites wasn't addressed. Age structure, or cohort management has largely been ignored by ecosystem models, however, some studies have sought to incorporate stand age with disturbance and management (e.g. Hibbard et al. 2003). In this analyses, we regressed tree ages against height (R2 = 0.67) to develop a proportional distribution of age structure for each site. To preserve the integrity of the comparison between Law et al. (2003) and this study, we maintained the same timing of harvest, however, based on the distribution of age structures, we manipulated the amount of removal. Harvest by Law et al. (2003) was set at stand-replacement (99%) levels to simulate clear-cutting and reflecting the average top 10% of the age in each plot. For the young sites, we set removal at 73%, 51% and

  2. Trans-biome diversity in Australian grass-specialist lizards (Diplodactylidae: Strophurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Rebecca J; Nielsen, Stuart V; Rosauer, Dan F; Oliver, Paul M

    2017-10-01

    Comparisons of biodiversity patterns within lineages that occur across major climate gradients and biomes, can provide insights into the relative roles that lineage history, landscape and climatic variation, and environmental change have played in shaping regional biotas. In Australia, while there has been extensive research into the origins and patterns of diversity in the Australian Arid Zone (AAZ), how diversity is distributed across this biome and the Australian Monsoonal Tropics (AMT) to the north, has been less studied. We compared the timing and patterns of diversification across this broad aridity gradient in a clade of lizards (Strophurus: phasmid geckos) that only occur in association with a unique Australian radiation of sclerophyllous grasses (Triodia: spinifex). Our results indicate that overall genetic diversity is much higher, older and more finely geographically structured within the AMT, including distantly related clades endemic to the sandstone escarpments of the Kimberley and Arnhem Plateau. Niche modelling analyses also suggest that the distribution of taxa in the AMT is more strongly correlated with variation in topographic relief than in the AAZ. The two broad patterns that we recovered - (i) lineage endemism increases as latitude decreases, and (ii) endemism is tightly correlated to rocky regions - parallel and corroborate other recent studies of habitat generalists and specialised saxicoline lineages occurring across these same regions. Early Miocene diversification estimates also suggest that, soon after Triodia grasses colonised Australia and began to diversify in the Miocene, phasmid geckos with Gondwanan ancestry shifted into these grasses, and have subsequently remained closely associated with this unique vegetation type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil Acidobacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Reveal Subgroup Level Differences between Savanna-Like Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Brazilian Biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa C. P. Catão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 16S rRNA sequences from the phylum Acidobacteria have been commonly reported from soil microbial communities, including those from the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biomes, two biomes that present contrasting characteristics of soil and vegetation. Using 16S rRNA sequences, the present work aimed to study acidobacterial diversity and distribution in soils of Cerrado savanna and two Atlantic forest sites. PCA and phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the acidobacterial communities found in “Mata de galeria” forest soil samples from the Cerrado biome have a tendency to separate from the other Cerrado vegetation microbial communities in the direction of those found in the Atlantic Forest, which is correlated with a high abundance of Acidobacteria subgroup 2 (GP2. Environmental conditions seem to promote a negative correlation between GP2 and subgroup 1 (GP1 abundance. Also GP2 is negatively correlated to pH, but positively correlated to high Al3+ concentrations. The Cerrado soil showed the lowest Acidobacteria richness and diversity indexes of OTUs at the species and subgroups levels when compared to Atlantic Forest soils. These results suggest specificity of acidobacterial subgroups to soils of different biomes and are a starting point to understand their ecological roles, a topic that needs to be further explored.

  4. BioM2MetDisease: a manually curated database for associations between microRNAs, metabolites, small molecules and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Haixiu; Wu, Tan; Dong, Qun; Sun, Zeguo; Shang, Desi; Li, Feng; Xu, Yingqi; Su, Fei; Liu, Siyao; Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, Xia

    2017-01-01

    BioM2MetDisease is a manually curated database that aims to provide a comprehensive and experimentally supported resource of associations between metabolic diseases and various biomolecules. Recently, metabolic diseases such as diabetes have become one of the leading threats to people’s health. Metabolic disease associated with alterations of multiple types of biomolecules such as miRNAs and metabolites. An integrated and high-quality data source that collection of metabolic disease associated biomolecules is essential for exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms and discovering novel therapeutics. Here, we developed the BioM2MetDisease database, which currently documents 2681 entries of relationships between 1147 biomolecules (miRNAs, metabolites and small molecules/drugs) and 78 metabolic diseases across 14 species. Each entry includes biomolecule category, species, biomolecule name, disease name, dysregulation pattern, experimental technique, a brief description of metabolic disease-biomolecule relationships, the reference, additional annotation information etc. BioM2MetDisease provides a user-friendly interface to explore and retrieve all data conveniently. A submission page was also offered for researchers to submit new associations between biomolecules and metabolic diseases. BioM2MetDisease provides a comprehensive resource for studying biology molecules act in metabolic diseases, and it is helpful for understanding the molecular mechanisms and developing novel therapeutics for metabolic diseases. http://www.bio-bigdata.com/BioM2MetDisease/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Soil Acidobacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Reveal Subgroup Level Differences between Savanna-Like Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Brazilian Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catão, Elisa C P; Lopes, Fabyano A C; Araújo, Janaína F; de Castro, Alinne P; Barreto, Cristine C; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Quirino, Betania F; Krüger, Ricardo H

    2014-01-01

    16S rRNA sequences from the phylum Acidobacteria have been commonly reported from soil microbial communities, including those from the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) and the Atlantic Forest biomes, two biomes that present contrasting characteristics of soil and vegetation. Using 16S rRNA sequences, the present work aimed to study acidobacterial diversity and distribution in soils of Cerrado savanna and two Atlantic forest sites. PCA and phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the acidobacterial communities found in "Mata de galeria" forest soil samples from the Cerrado biome have a tendency to separate from the other Cerrado vegetation microbial communities in the direction of those found in the Atlantic Forest, which is correlated with a high abundance of Acidobacteria subgroup 2 (GP2). Environmental conditions seem to promote a negative correlation between GP2 and subgroup 1 (GP1) abundance. Also GP2 is negatively correlated to pH, but positively correlated to high Al(3+) concentrations. The Cerrado soil showed the lowest Acidobacteria richness and diversity indexes of OTUs at the species and subgroups levels when compared to Atlantic Forest soils. These results suggest specificity of acidobacterial subgroups to soils of different biomes and are a starting point to understand their ecological roles, a topic that needs to be further explored.

  6. Procesamiento de señales biomédicas mediante instrumento virtual desarrollado con matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Márquez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una alternativa para el estudio y desarrollo de prototipos biomédicos y de instrumentación, mediante el uso de la plataforma de Matlab para el procesamiento de señales biomédicas reales. Las señales biomédicas son continuas en el tiempo y son de pequeña amplitud, del orden de los mV, que presentan ruido corporal, ruido del equipo, ruido del ambiente, sin dejar de contar con el ruido acoplado de la red de 60 Hz. En ese sentido, la adquisición de datos se puede hacer medi...

  7. Integrated geophysical study off Goa, Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Desa, M.; Ramprasad, T.

    to 31r). The present study indicates that the Goa offshore is an integral part of the Laxmi Basin. As such it is interpreted that a tectonic boundary between the oceanic crust in the north and the CLR complex in the south lies south of the study area...

  8. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Catão, Elisa Caldeira Pires; Santana, Renata Henrique; Cabral, Anderson de Souza; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rangel, Thiago Pessanha; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Edwards, Robert A; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD). In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans). During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  9. General patterns of acclimation of leaf respiration to elevated temperatures across biomes and plant types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, Martijn; Kitajima, Kaoru

    2015-03-01

    Respiration is instrumental for survival and growth of plants, but increasing costs of maintenance processes with warming have the potential to change the balance between photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory carbon release from leaves. Climate warming may cause substantial increases of leaf respiratory carbon fluxes, which would further impact the carbon balance of terrestrial vegetation. However, downregulation of respiratory physiology via thermal acclimation may mitigate this impact. We have conducted a meta-analysis with data collected from 43 independent studies to assess quantitatively the thermal acclimation capacity of leaf dark respiration to warming of terrestrial plant species from across the globe. In total, 282 temperature contrasts were included in the meta-analysis, representing 103 species of forbs, graminoids, shrubs, trees and lianas native to arctic, boreal, temperate and tropical ecosystems. Acclimation to warming was found to decrease respiration at a set temperature in the majority of the observations, regardless of the biome of origin and growth form, but respiration was not completely homeostatic across temperatures in the majority of cases. Leaves that developed at a new temperature had a greater capacity for acclimation than those transferred to a new temperature. We conclude that leaf respiration of most terrestrial plants can acclimate to gradual warming, potentially reducing the magnitude of the positive feedback between climate and the carbon cycle in a warming world. More empirical data are, however, needed to improve our understanding of interspecific variation in thermal acclimation capacity, and to better predict patterns in respiratory carbon fluxes both within and across biomes in the face of ongoing global warming.

  10. Evaluation of MODIS Gross Primary Production across Multiple Biomes in China Using Eddy Covariance Flux Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongji Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MOD17A2 provides near real-time estimates of gross primary production (GPP globally. In this study, MOD17A2 GPP was evaluated using eddy covariance (EC flux measurements at eight sites in five various biome types across China. The sensitivity of MOD17A2 to meteorological data and leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/FPAR products were examined by introducing site meteorological measurements and improved Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI products. We also assessed the potential error contributions from land cover and maximum light use efficiency (εmax. The results showed that MOD17A2 agreed well with flux measurements of annual GPP (R2 = 0.76 when all biome types were considered as a whole. However, MOD17A2 was ineffective for estimating annual GPP at mixed forests, evergreen needleleaf forests and croplands, respectively. Moreover, MOD17A2 underestimated flux derived GPP during the summer (R2 = 0.46. It was found that the meteorological data used in MOD17A2 failed to properly estimate the site measured vapor pressure deficits (VPD (R2 = 0.31. Replacing the existing LAI/FPAR data with GLASS LAI products reduced MOD17A2 GPP uncertainties. Though land cover presented the fewest errors, εmax prescribed in MOD17A2 were much lower than inferred εmax calculated from flux data. Thus, the qualities of meteorological data and LAI/FPAR products need to be improved, and εmax should be adjusted to provide better GPP estimates using MOD17A2 for Chinese ecosystems.

  11. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Alvares Cardoso Lopes

    Full Text Available The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD. In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans. During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  12. La filatelia biomédica Biomedicine philately

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J.A. Roldán

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La temática biomédica es un capítulo extendido de la filatelia o coleccionismo de sellos postales. Inaugura la temática la imagen de la diosa Hygeia, en un sello de la isla Nevis de 1861. Los primeros médicos retratados en una estampilla son tres constitucionalistas americanos, en un ejemplar de 1869, pero recién en 1937 aparecen médicos holandeses en reconocimiento específico de sus aportes a la salud. En la Argentina la primera estampilla que oficialmente se ocupa del tema es de 1944, en ayuda de las víctimas del terremoto de San Juan. Florentino Ameghino es el primer científico incluido en 1954, y en 1967 se edita un sello conmemorativo de la Dra. Cecilia Grierson. La filatelia argentina luego reconoce varios de nuestros científicos y médicos, congresos, universidades, campañas sanitarias, temas de odontología, farmacia, enfermería y otros, generando un amplio material filatélico en reconocimiento del valor social que la ciencia biomédica argentina ha logrado en el contexto propio e internacional. Posiblemente sea un científico, el Dr. Bernardo Houssay, uno de los argentinos más veces editado en distintos sellos postales de la filatelia mundial.Biomedicine is a vast field in philately or stamp collecting. It opens the topic the image of the goddess Hygeia, issued in a stamp from Nevis Island dated 1861. The first physicians to appear printed in stamps, in 1869, were three American constitutionalists, but only in 1937 there appear Dutch physicians as an acknowledgement of their contribution to public health. In Argentina the first stamp officially related to the topic was issued in 1944, to raise funds for the victims of the San Juan earthquake. Florentino Ameghino was the first scientist included in 1954, and in 1967 a stamp was issued in honour of Dr. Cecilia Grierson. Afterwards, Argentinean philately has recognized several of our scientists and physicians, congresses, universities, health campaigns, dentistry topics

  13. Radiologic studies in two outbreaks of isolated vasculitis in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, H.J.; Perez, M.; Tilton, A.H.; Garcia, C.; McGarry, P.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis is only occasionally diagnosed with angiography. Two outbreaks of isolated central nervous system vasculitis permitted a comparison of the accuracy of diagnostic radiologic studies. Two new radiologic features and methods of diagnosis are discussed

  14. Morphometric studies on a part of Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.

    frequencies is found to be valid for deep sea topographic data also. Elevation-relief ratios and ruggedness values are relatively high for the southern portion of the study area whereas these values are less in the northern portion. Some of the features like...

  15. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Chuixiang; Wolbeck, John; Xu Xiyan; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li Runze; Nilsson, Mats; Aires, Luis; Albertson, John D; Ammann, Christof; Arain, M Altaf; De Araujo, Alessandro C; Aubinet, Marc; Aurela, Mika; Barcza, Zoltan; Barr, Alan; Berbigier, Paul; Beringer, Jason; Bernhofer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 deg. N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ∼ 16 deg. C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO 2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  16. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Chuixiang; Wolbeck, John; Xu Xiyan [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College, City University of New York, NY 11367 (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Li Runze [Department of Statistics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nilsson, Mats [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Aires, Luis [CESAM and Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (Portugal); Albertson, John D [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 22708-0287 (United States); Ammann, Christof [Federal Research Station Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Arain, M Altaf [School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); De Araujo, Alessandro C [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Programa LBA, Campus-II, Manaus-Amazonas 69060 (Brazil); Aubinet, Marc [University of Liege, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Unit of Biosystem Physics, 2 Passage des Deportes, 5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Aurela, Mika [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate Change Research, FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Barcza, Zoltan [Department of Meteorology, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany setany 1/A (Hungary); Barr, Alan [Climate Research Division, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Berbigier, Paul [INRA, UR1263 EPHYSE, Villenave d' Ornon F-33883 (France); Beringer, Jason [School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bernhofer, Christian [Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Dresden University of Technology, Pienner Strasse 23, D-01737, Tharandt (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO{sub 2} exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 deg. N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at {approx} 16 deg. C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO{sub 2} uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  17. Epidemiological study of insect bite reactions from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physical effects of the arthropod bites on human skin receive less attention, especially in the rural areas where the per capita income is less. Ours is a rural-based hospital, the vicinity having more of plants, trees, and forests; we undertook the study to find out the relation of insect bite dermatitis in a rural area. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Dermatology outpatient department of our institute on 100 subjects of insect bite dermatitis who were questioned retrospectively about the sequence of events besides their environmental and living conditions. They were examined thoroughly and the relevant clinical findings were noted, also taking into account the prior treatment taken by them, if any. Results and Conclusions: It was found that insect bite dermatitis has no age or gender preponderance, and the protective factors for the same are use of full sleeve clothes and keeping the doors and windows closed at night. On the contrary, the risk factors are residence in areas of heavy insect infestation, use of perfumes and colognes, warm weather in spring and summer and the lack of protective measures. However, there was no direct association of atopy with increased risk of developing insect bite dermatitis.

  18. Biome-BGC: Modeling Effects of Disturbance and Climate (Thornton et al. 2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running Biome-BGC, Version 4.1.1, to recreate the results of the...

  19. Biome-BGC: Terrestrial Ecosystem Process Model, Version 4.1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biome-BGC is a computer program that estimates fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen for the vegetation and soil components of terrestrial...

  20. LiDAR-based Biomass Estimates, Boreal Forest Biome, Eurasia, 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB) for defined land cover types within World Wildlife Fund (WWF) ecoregions across the boreal biome of...

  1. Biome-BGC: Terrestrial Ecosystem Process Model, Version 4.1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biome-BGC is a computer program that estimates fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen for the vegetation and soil components of...

  2. Biome-BGC: Modeling Carbon Dynamics in Ponderosa Pine Stands (Law et al. 2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running Biome-BGC, Version 4.1.2, to recreate the results of the following...

  3. Literature-Derived Parameters for the BIOME-BGC Terrestrial Ecosystem Mode

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Various aspects of primary production of a variety of plant species found in natural temperate biomes were compiled from literature and presented for use...

  4. NACP LiDAR-based Biomass Estimates, Boreal Forest Biome, North America, 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB) for defined land cover types within World Wildlife Fund (WWF) ecoregions across the boreal biome of...

  5. Biome-BGC: Modeling Effects of Disturbance and Climate (Thornton et al. 2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running Biome-BGC, Version 4.1.1, to recreate the results of the following...

  6. Biome-BGC: Modeling Carbon Dynamics in Ponderosa Pine Stands (Law et al. 2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running Biome-BGC, Version 4.1.2, to recreate the results of the...

  7. BIOME: A scientific data archive search-and-order system using browser-aware, dynamic pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, S. V.; Yow, T. G.; Ng, V. W.

    1997-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is a data archive and distribution center for the National Air and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Both the Earth Observing System (EOS) and EOSDIS are components of NASA's contribution to the US Global Change Research Program through its Mission to Planet Earth Program. The ORNL DAAC provides access to data used in ecological and environmental research such as global change, global warming, and terrestrial ecology. Because of its large and diverse data holdings, the challenge for the ORNL DAAC is to help users find data of interest from the hundreds of thousands of files available at the DAAC without overwhelming them. Therefore, the ORNL DAAC has developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a customized search and order system for the World Wide Web (WWW). BIOME is a public system located at http://www-eosdis. ornl.gov/BIOME/biome.html.

  8. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots, IBP Tundra Biome, Barrow, Alaska, 1972-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides vegetation cover and environmental plot data collected as part of the International Biological Program (IBP), U. S. Tundra Biome Program, in...

  9. Remotely sensed vegetation phenology for describing and predicting the biomes of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available What are the patterns of remotely sensed vegetation phenology, including their inter-annual variability, across South Africa? What are the phenological attributes that contribute most to distinguishing the different biomes? How well can...

  10. NACP Biome-BGC Modeled Ecosystem Carbon Balance, Pacific Northwest, USA, 1986-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Biome-BGC modeled estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for the years 1986-2010. Fluxes include net ecosystem...

  11. Simulating economics and environmental impacts of beef and soybean systems in Brazil's Pamas and Amozon Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reductions in the deforestation of the Amazon biome have highlighted the need for the sustainable intensification of beef and commodity crop production in Brazil to increase agricultural productivity without accelerating adverse environmental impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, eutro...

  12. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.

  13. A study on the role adjustment between central and local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Dong Il; Ji, Min Gu; Yun, Yo Il; Kim, Yong Cheon; Lee, Sang In; Lee, Chan Won [Chunnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    The goal of this study is to develop new model and feasible alternatives by seeking solutions for rational redistribution of the nuclear regulatory roles between central and local governments. Since local autonomy system has been reimplemented in Korea, It is imperative to improve reform measures for the decentralization of power between central and local governments. The core of decentralization is to redistribute administrative authorities and roles which have been centralized, toward both self-governing body and communities. The level of decentralization depends on how to redistribute roles and functions between central and local government. Therefore, it is necessary to examine principle and type of domestic foreign role adjustment for effective nuclear regulation. Based on three prerequisite studies, role adjustment model for more effective nuclear regulation is made taking account of the current domestic environments and conditions. In the long run, the outcomes of this study will be expected to improve the optimal and democratic regulatory system in Korea.

  14. Different responses of soil respiration and its components to nitrogen addition among biomes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyan; Zhou, Xuhui; Zhang, Baocheng; Lu, Meng; Luo, Yiqi; Liu, Lingli; Li, Bo

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen (N) deposition by threefold to fivefold over the last century, which may considerably affect soil respiration (Rs). Although numerous individual studies and a few meta-analyses have been conducted, it remains controversial as to how N addition affects Rs and its components [i.e., autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh)]. To reconcile the difference, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 295 published studies to examine the responses of Rs and its components to N addition in terrestrial ecosystems. We also assessed variations in their responses in relation to ecosystem types, environmental conditions, and experimental duration (DUR). Our results show that N addition significantly increased Rs by 2.0% across all biomes but decreased by 1.44% in forests and increased by 7.84% and 12.4% in grasslands and croplands, respectively (P biomes with more stimulation of Ra in croplands and grasslands compared with no significant change in forests. Rh exhibited a similar negative response to N addition among biomes except that in croplands, tropical and boreal forests. Methods of partitioning Rs did not induce significant differences in the responses of Ra or Rh to N addition, except that Ra from root exclusion and component integration methods exhibited the opposite responses in temperate forests. The response ratios (RR) of Rs to N addition were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), with being more significant when MAT was less than 15 °C, but negatively with DUR. In addition, the responses of Rs and its components to N addition largely resulted from the changes in root and microbial biomass and soil C content as indicated by correlation analysis. The response patterns of Rs to N addition as revealed in this study can be benchmarks for future modeling and experimental studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Comparison of the Aged to the Bayesian Ideal Observer Model for Cueing Tasks with Peripheral and Central Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor F Swan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies investigating automatic (peripheral cues and voluntary (central cues attention decline with age have produced inconsistent findings. The present study investigated automatic and voluntary attention in the aged by comparing performance in 15 younger (18–25 years and 15 older (65–78 years observers to the Bayesian Ideal Observer Model (BIOM. The BIOM predicts cueing effects by the optimal differential weighting of likelihoods of targets appearing at each location (cue validity. It also allows the measure of bias in the responses and accounts for the detectability of targets, a factor that influences the predicted size of the cueing effect in the BIOM (Shimozaki et al 2003, Journal of Vision 3 209–229 and thus may explain some of the inconsistencies in previous research. Observers performed a yes/no cueing task of 2D Gaussian targets (60 ms, eccentricity 8 deg appearing at one of two locations. Pre-cues (150 ms were 70% valid and appeared either in peripheral (2 deg squares, Experiment 1 or central (shapes symbolizing left or right, Experiment 2 locations. Detectability was controlled across observers with a staircase, and difficulty was manipulated (contrast = threshold or one-octave below threshold. Both age groups showed cueing effects whether the cue appeared in peripheral or central locations, suggesting that automatic and voluntary attention are preserved in older adults. Both groups weighted the valid cue optimally at both levels of detectability (threshold and 1-octave below. However, for centrally located cues (voluntary attention, older adults were less accurate and exhibited more bias than their younger counterparts.

  16. Prevalence and associated factors for pterygium in rural agrarian central India. The central India eye and medical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Nangia

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of pterygia and associated factors in a rural population in a mostly undeveloped agrarian region. METHODS: The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study performed in a rural region of Central India. The study comprised 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years. A detailed ophthalmic and medical examination was performed. A pterygium was diagnosed during the slit lamp examination and confirmed on corneal photographs. It was defined as a fleshy fibrovascular growth, crossing the limbus and typically seen on the nasal, and sometimes temporal, conjunctiva. RESULTS: A pterygium was detected in 798 eyes (prevalence rate: 8.47 ± 0.29% of 608 (12.91 ± 0.49% subjects. Bilateral pterygia were present in 190 subjects (4.0% of study population. Pterygia prevalence increased from 6.7 ± 0.8% in the age group 30-39 years, to 13.5 ± 1.2% in the age group 50-59 years, to 25.3 ± 2.1% in the age group 70-79 years. Prevalence of pterygia was associated with older age (P<0.001; regression coefficient B: 0.02; odds ratio (OR: 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03, male gender (P<0.001;B:-0.73;OR: .48;95%CI:0.39,0.61, lower level of education (P<0.001;B:-0.30;OR:0.74;95%CI:0.69,0.80, lower body height (P=0.001;B:-0.02;OR:0.98;95%CI:0.97,0.99, and higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001;B:0.23;OR:1.26;95%CI:1.18,1.34. If the education level was dropped, the number of hours spent with vigorous activity outdoors (P=0.001;B:0.001;OR:1.001;95%CI:1.000,1.0001 was significantly associated with the prevalence of pterygia, in addition to older age (P<0.001;B:0.03;OR:1.03;95%CI:1.03,1.04, male gender (P<0.001;B:-0.49;OR:0.62;95%CI:0.49,0.77, lower body height (P=0.005;B:-0.02;OR:0.98;95%CI:0.97,0.99, and higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001;B:0.23;OR:1.25;95%CI:1.18,1.34. CONCLUSIONS: Pterygium prevalence in rural Central India is about 13% among adult Indians aged 30+ years. Older age, male gender, lower educational level

  17. IMPACT OF CENTRAL SURGICAL REVIEW IN A STUDY OF MALIGNANT GERM CELL TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmire, Deborah F.; Rescorla, Frederick J.; Ross, Jonathan H.; Schlatter, Marc G.; Dicken, Bryan J.; Krailo, Mark D.; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Olson, Thomas A.; Cullen, John W.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Verification of surgical staging has received little attention in clinical oncology trials for both children and adults. Central surgical review in a study of malignant pediatric germ cell tumors provided an opportunity to assess the impact of this process. METHODS Children’s Oncology Group study AGCT0132 data submission at study entry required operative note, surgical checklist, pathology and imaging reports. Central surgical review during the study included assessment for completeness of submitted data and confirmation of assigned stage. Review resulted in one of three conclusions: assigned status confirmed, assignment withheld pending review of additional information requested, or institutional assignment of stage disputed with reasons for recommended stage assignment explained. Changes in stage assignment based on central surgical review were left at the discretion of the enrolling institution. RESULTS 206 patients underwent central review. Failure to submit required data elements or need for clarification was noted in 40%. Disagreement with stage assignment occurred in 10%; the highest rate of discordance was in ovarian tumors submitted as stage I (34%). 17 of 21 discordant patients were reassigned to the stage recommended by central review. 4 patients with ovarian tumors not meeting central review criteria for Stage I remained in that stratum by institutional decision. Two-year event free survival (EFS) in Stage I ovarian tumor patients was 25% (1/4) for discordant patients compared to 57% (9/21) in patients who met Stage I criteria by central review. CONCLUSIONS Central review of stage assignment by a dedicated study surgeon improved collection of complete data and assignment of correct tumor stage at study entry, and allowed for prompt initiation of chemotherapy in patients determined not to have Stage I disease. PMID:25783295

  18. Use of BIOME-BGG to simulate Mediterranean forest carbon stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Chirici G; Barbati A; Salvati R; Maselli F; Chiesi M

    2011-01-01

    BIOME-BGC is a bio-geochemical model capable of estimating the water, carbon and nitrogen fluxes and storages of terrestrial ecosystems. Previous research demonstrated that, after proper calibration of its ecophysiological parameters, the model can reproduce the main processes of Mediterranean forest types. The same investigations, however, indicated a model tendency to overestimate woody biomass accumulation. The current paper aims at modifying BIOME-BGC ecophysiological settings to improve ...

  19. Sediment studies in the Assabet River, central Massachusetts, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Sorenson, Jason R.

    2005-01-01

    From its headwaters in Westborough, Massachusetts, to its confluence with the Sudbury River, the 53-kilometer-long Assabet River passes through a series of small towns and mixed land-use areas. Along the way, wastewater-treatment plants release nutrient-rich effluents that contribute to the eutrophic state of this waterway. This condition is most obvious where the river is impounded by a series of dams that have sequestered large amounts of sediment and support rooted and floating macrophytes and epiphytic algae. The water in parts of these impoundments may also have low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, another symptom of eutrophication. All of the impoundments had relatively shallow maximum water depths, which ranged from approximately 2.4 to 3.4 meters, and all had extensive shallow areas. Sediment volumes estimated for the six impoundments ranged from approximately 380 cubic meters in the Aluminum City impoundment to 580,000 cubic meters in the Ben Smith impoundment. The other impoundments had sediment volumes of 120,000 cubic meters (Powdermill), 67,000 cubic meters (Gleasondale), 55,000 cubic meters (Hudson), and 42,000 cubic meters (Allen Street). The principal objective of this study was the determination of sediment volume, extent, and chemistry, in particular, the characterization of toxic inorganic and organic chemicals in the sediments. To determine the bulk-sediment chemical-constituent concentrations, more than one hundred sediment cores were collected in pairs from the six impoundments. One core from each pair was sampled for inorganic constituents and the other for organic constituents. Most of the cores analyzed for inorganics were sectioned to provide information on the vertical distribution of analytes; a subset of the cores analyzed for organics was also sectioned. Approximately 200 samples were analyzed for inorganic constituents and 100 for organics; more than 10 percent were quality-control replicate or blank samples. Maximum bulk

  20. Central Obesity and Albuminuria: Both Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yuan; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Li, Chia-Ing; Davidson, Lance E.; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Background Albuminuria is recognized as a marker of vascular dysfunction. Central obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Little is known about the association between albuminuria and central obesity in Chinese. We aimed to assess the association between central obesity and prevalence and incidence of albuminuria in a middle-aged population-based cohort study. Methods This is a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study. A total of 2350 subjects aged ≥40 years were recruited in 2004 in Taiwan for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal analysis included 1432 baseline normoalbuminuria subjects with a mean 2.8 years follow-up, 67 of whom exhibited incident albuminuria. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g creatinine. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between central obesity and prevalence and incidence of albuminuria after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, renal function, glucose, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, smoking, betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Results At baseline, albuminuria is significantly associated with central obesity. The adjusted odds ratio of having albuminuria among subjects with central obesity was 1.73(95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–2.85), compared to the subjects without central obesity. In multivariable models, participants with central obesity at baseline had a 112% increase in risk of incident albuminuria (adjusted incidence rate ratio (95% CI): 2.12(1.01–4.44)) compared with participants with non-central obesity. Conclusions Abdominal adiposity was independently associated with increased prevalence and incidence of albuminuria in Chinese. The mechanisms linking adiposity and albuminuria need to be addressed. PMID:23251329

  1. A study on the central plane of image layer in panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon Bai; Park, Chang Seo

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to locate the plane of the image layer on the panoramic machine relative to a specific point on the machine. In the study of the central plane of the image layer of panoramic radiograph, using the Morrita Company PANEX-EC a series of 33 exposures were taken with the 4-5 experimental pins placed in the holes of the plastic model plate, then evaluated by human eye. The author analyzed the central plane of the image layer by Mitutoy-A-221 and calculated horizontal and vertical magnification ratio in central plane of the image layer determined experimentally. The results were as follows: 1. The location of the central plane of the image layer determined experimentally was to lateral compared with manufactural central plane. 2. Horizontal magnification ratio in the central plane of image layer determined experimentally was 9.25%. 3. Vertical magnification ratio in the central plane of the image layer determined experimentally was 9.17%.

  2. An Epidemiological Study of Leptospira-Induced Abortion in Mares in Central Kentucky (1990-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-02

    an estimated prevalence for leptospira-induced abortions , a better understanding of the horse population in which these incidents occur can be...EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LEPTOSPIRA-INDUCED ABORTION IN MARES IN CENTRAL KENTUCKY (1990-2004) 6. AUTHOR(S) CAPT HALL DAVID C 7. PERFORMING... ABORTION IN MARES IN CENTRAL KENTUCKY (1990-2004) THESIS A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of

  3. Genetic Predisposition to Central Obesity and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Two Independent Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Ley, Sylvia H; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B; Qi, Lu

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to examine the association between the genetic predisposition to central obesity, assessed by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) genetic score, and T2D risk. The current study included 2,591 participants with T2D and 3,052 participants without T2D of European ancestry from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Genetic predisposition to central obesity was estimated using a genetic score based on 14 established loci for the WHR. We found that the central obesity genetic score was linearly related to higher T2D risk. Results were similar in the NHS (women) and HPFS (men). In combined results, each point of the central obesity genetic score was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07) for developing T2D, and the OR was 1.24 (1.03-1.45) when comparing extreme quartiles of the genetic score after multivariate adjustment. The data indicate that genetic predisposition to central obesity is associated with higher T2D risk. This association is mediated by central obesity. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  4. Insertion rates and complications of central lines in the UK population: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Adrian Vk; Arora, Nitin; Olusanya, Olusegun; Sharif, Ben; Lundin, Robert M; Dhadda, A; Clarke, S; Siviter, R; Argent, M; Denton, Gavin; Dennis, Anna; Day, Angela; Szakmany, Tamas

    2018-02-01

    Central venous catheters are inserted ubiquitously in critical care and have roles in drug administration, fluid management and renal replacement therapy. They are also associated with numerous complications. The true number of central venous catheters inserted per year and the proportion of them associated with complications are unknown in the UK. We performed a prospective audit at five hospitals, as a feasibility pilot for a larger, nationwide audit. Using a novel secure online data collection platform, developed earlier and adapted for this project, all central venous catheters inserted for patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units were documented at five pilot sites across the UK. A total of 117 data collection forms were submitted. Users found the electronic data collection system easy to use. All data fields were ready for analysis immediately after data input. Out of the 117 central venous catheters, 17 were haemodialysis catheters and five pulmonary artery introducers. Experienced practitioners (at least three years' experience) inserted 85% of the central venous catheters. The site of insertion was the internal jugular vein for 80%, femoral for 12% and subclavian for 8% of central venous catheters. Most central venous catheters were inserted in ICU (49%) or theatres (42%). Ultrasound was used for 109 (93%) of central venous catheter insertions and its use was not associated with fewer complications. In 15 cases venopuncture was attempted more than once (all with ultrasound) and this was associated with significantly increased risk of complications. There were eight immediate complications (6.8%): five related to venopuncture and inability to pass a guidewire, two carotid artery punctures and one associated with significant arrhythmia. This study demonstrates the ease and feasibility of collecting detailed descriptive data on central line insertion and its immediate complications in the UK over two weeks. In our proposed nationwide audit, organisation

  5. Emulation-based comparative study of centralized and distributed control schemes for optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chunsheng; Ye, Yinghua; Dixit, Sudhir; Qiao, Chunming

    2001-07-01

    Recently there are considerable amount of research about the automatic control and provisioning in all optical networks. One of the critical issues is how to provide effective lightpath provisioning to improve network performance, such as blocking probability and decision time. Depending on the network topology, configuration, and administration policy, a distributed or centralized control scheme can be employed to manage the routing and signaling. In a distributed control scheme, each node exchanges information with other nodes, but performs routing and signaling independently from other nodes. On the other hand, in a centralized scheme, each node communicates with a central controller and the controller performs routing and signaling on behalf of all other nodes. Intuitively, the centralized scheme can obtain a lower blocking probability since the controller has the complete resource availability information. We have studied the two schemes through emulations, determined the signaling and processing overheads and quantified the conditions that favor one approach over the other.

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Central America: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy A. Wong-McClure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS as found by the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI study for five major Central American populations: Belize (national; Costa Rica (San José; Guatemala (Guatemala City; Honduras (Tegucigalpa; and Nicaragua (Managua. METHODS: Study data on 6 185 adults aged 20 years or older with anthropometric and laboratory determination of MetS from population-based surveys were analyzed. Overall, the survey response rate was 82.0%. MetS prevalence was determined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The study's protocol was reviewed and approved by the bioethical committee of each country studied. RESULTS: The overall standardized prevalence of MetS in the Central American region was 30.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 27.1-33.4. There was wide variability by gender and work conditions, with higher prevalence among females and unpaid workers. The standardized percentage of the population free of any component of MetS was lowest in Costa Rica (9.0%; CI: 6.5-11.4 and highest in Honduras (21.1%; CI: 16.4-25.9. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence of MetS in Central America is high. Strengthening surveillance of chronic diseases and establishing effective programs for preventing cardiovascular diseases might reduce the risk of MetS in Central America.

  7. Central obesity and normal-weight central obesity among adults attending healthcare facilities in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Eyitayo Omolara; Ter Goon, Daniel; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent

    2017-12-28

    Central obesity (CO) confers a significant threat on the cardio-metabolic health of individuals, independently of overall obesity. Disparities in the measures of fat distribution lead to misclassification of individuals who are at risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. This study sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of central obesity and normal-weight central obesity among adults attending selected healthcare facilities in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM), South Africa, assess their health risk and examine the association between central obesity and cardio-metabolic diseases among adults with normal weight, measured by body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional survey of 998 adults was carried out at the three largest outpatient clinics in BCMM. Overall and central obesity were assessed using BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR). The WHO STEPwise questionnaire was used for data collection. Blood pressure and blood glucose were measured. Normal-weight central obesity was defined as CO among individuals with normal weight, as assessed by BMI. Health risk levels were assessed using the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) BMI-WC composite index. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the prevalence of CO, normal-weight central obesity and the predictors of CO. The mean age of participants was 42.6 (± 16.5) years. The prevalence of CO was 67.0, 58.0 and 71.0% by WC, WHR and WHTR, respectively. The prevalence of normal-weight central obesity was 26.9, 36.9 and 29.5% by WC, WHR and WHTR, respectively. About 41% of the participants had a very high health risk, 13% had increased risk or high risk and 33% had no health risk. Central obesity was significantly associated with hypertension but not associated with diabetes among those with normal weight (by BMI). Female sex, age over 30 years, marriage, secondary or tertiary level of education, non

  8. 24-hour central aortic systolic pressure and 24-hour central pulse pressure are related to diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Simone; Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive measurements of 24 hour ambulatory central aortic systolic pressure (24 h-CASP) and central pulse pressure (24 h-CPP) are now feasible. We evaluate the relationship between 24 h central blood pressure and diabetes-related complications in patients with type 1 diabetes....... METHODS: The study was cross-sectional, including 715 subjects: 86 controls (C), 69 patients with short diabetes duration (treatment (SN), 211 with longstanding diabetes (≥ 10 years) and normoalbuminuria (LN), 163...... ± 13, 121 ± 13, 119 ± 16 and 121 ± 13 mmHg (p diabetes, albuminuria degree, previous...

  9. Pattern of Head and neck malignancies in Central Sudan-(study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this work is to study the patterns of head and neck malignancies (HNM) in central Sudan and to compare it with international published series. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Biology and Oncology (INMO)-University of Gezira; ...

  10. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  11. 2008 Co2 Assimilation in Plants: Genome to Biome Gordon Research Conference - August 17-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James V. Maroney

    2009-08-12

    Formerly entitled 'CO2 Fixation and Metabolism in Green Plants', this long-standing Gordon Research Conference has been held on a triennial basis since 1976. In 1990 the participants decided to alternate between sites in the U.S. and outside the U.S. The 2005 conference was held in Europe at the Centre Paul Langevin in Aussois, France, so the 2008 conference returns to a U.S. site - the University of New England in Biddeford, Maine. The 2008 conference covers basic plant research related to photosynthesis and the subsequent regulation and engineering of carbon assimilation. Approaches that range from post-genomic technologies and systems biology, through to fundamental biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology are integrated within ecological and agronomic contexts. As such, the meeting provides the rare opportunity of a single venue for discussing all aspects of the 'carbon-side' of photosynthesis - from genome to biome. The 2008 conference will include an emphasis on the central role of carbon assimilation by plants for developing new sources of bioenergy and for achieving a carbon-neutral planet. A special characteristic of this conference is its 'intimacy' with approximately 110 conferees, ranging from beginning graduate students and postdoctoral associates to leading senior plant scientists, engaged in open and forward-thinking discussions in an informal, friendly setting. With extended time devoted to discussion, and the encouragement to challenge dogma, it is unlike other meetings in the U.S. or abroad. Another novel feature of the conference is a session devoted to the latest 'hot off the press' findings by both established and early career scientists, picked from the abstracts. Together with an expanded poster discussion in the evening sessions, this session provides an opportunity for early career scientists to present interesting new data and to 'test drive' hypotheses in a collegial atmosphere.

  12. Study of global control of VIRGO Central Interferometer; Etude du controle global de l'Interferometre Central de VIRGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matone, Luca [Paris-11 Univ., 91 Orsay (France)

    1999-10-29

    The VIRGO project for the detection of gravitational waves will first operate in a test configuration, known as the Central Area Interferometer (CITF). The subject of this thesis consists of a study for the global control of this interferometer. In particular, the problems of auto-alignment and acquisition of lock are addressed. First, an investigation of the CITF optical response to longitudinal and angular mirror movements is given. On the basis of this study, we show how the ratio of photodiode signals can be used to detect and control the dark fringe when the CITF is far from its operating point (locked state). Furthermore, we present the simulation results of a quadrant photodiode configuration capable of reconstructing the mirrors' tilts once the CITF is in a locked state. The performance of a control system for the auto-alignment is then given. A study on the mode-cleaner prototype MC30 is then introduced in order to comprehend the process of lock acquisition by a linear feedback system for two different finesse values: F {approx_equal}100 and F {approx_equal} 1600. We define a threshold velocity for the mirrors' relative motion below which acquisition of lock is possible. A phenomenon, referred to as ringing effect, was observed and examined on the MC30 prototype in high finesse. The results of numerical calculations allowed us to fit measurement and estimate from them the cavity finesse as well as the mirrors' relative velocity during the resonance crossing. An empirical formula is then presented capable of determine the relative velocity from the positions of the oscillations' minima and maxima. An algorithm to guide into lock the CITF is then presented, consisting of an iterative procedure of velocity reconstruction and pulse application. A numerical calculation simulated the algorithm, the mirrors' motion, the optical response and the ADCs' process. As a result, acquisition times of the order of one second were observed: an

  13. Structure of Drosophilidae Assemblage (Insecta, Diptera in Pampa Biome (São Luiz Gonzaga, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lucas Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa (the southernmost end of the country is currently a highly modified environment because of increasing agricultural activities. In many places, only small parts of grasslands remain inside an agricultural landscape. Drosophilidae (Diptera have been widely used as a potential bioindicators to monitor the effects of anthropogenic changes in natural environments. However, the fauna of Drosophilidae in the Pampa Biome from natural and disturbed environments, still remains largely unknown. The present study represents one of the first attempts to fill this gap, showing results from monthly collections in the municipality of São Luiz Gonzaga (28º24'28"S, 54º57'39"W, in the Brazilian Pampa. A species inventory was carried out in two contrasting environments, an urban zone and a forest remnant (rural zone. In both areas banana-baited traps were used to capture adult drosophilids. The identification was made using external morphology and male terminalia. In total, 13,379 drosophilids were analyzed (rural zone: N = 8,812 and Sobs = 25; urban zone: N = 4,567 and Sobs = 16. In the present study, 16 (60% out of 26 species were found exclusively or preferentially in the forest. The period of highest richness was between the months of June to November (roughly winter and spring, and the period of lowest richness was from December to May (roughly summer and autumn. An analysis of cluster by the Coefficient of Jaccard showed that species composition slightly changes when the period of the year with higher temperatures (from January to May is compared with the period with lower temperatures (from June to October. The species abundances were also highly affected by seasonality, as revealed by the Morisita Index, since the samples clustered into similar groups in consecutive periods and in the same season, showing the seasonal preference of some species. The time component was a determinant in the diversity of the assemblage, surpassing the

  14. The Interaction of Snow Physical Processes With Vegetation in Open and Forested Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    It is well accepted that the physical processes which drive snowcover accumulation, redistribution, transformation and ablation are intimately governed by their interaction with the properties of both local and regional vegetation. It is more recently accepted that the type, structure and spatial distribution of vegetation are themselves affected by snow processes such that natural snow-vegetation-climate systems have evolved distinctive characteristics in various cold regions biomes. The human ecology of snow-vegetation systems is less well known, but extremely important as vegetation is managed to promote beneficial snow characteristics for the purposes of agricultural management in many snowy cultivated farming regions of the world. This paper will review recent field observations and descriptions of characteristic snow process-vegetation interactions and phenomena in various circumpolar biomes and the potential transferability of observed processes and snow-vegetation relationships amongst biomes in the circumpolar world. The spatial distributions of processes and states within a biome are shown to have important implications for aggregated descriptions of snow at the biome scale; the stability of these distributions will be emphasised.

  15. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Pereira de Castro

    Full Text Available The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  16. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  17. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  18. Hydrology of a Water‐Limited Forest under Climate Change Scenarios: The Case of the Caatinga Biome, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the strong interactions between climate and vegetation, climate change effects on natural and agricultural ecosystems are common objects of research. Reduced water availability is predicted to take place across large regions of the globe, including Northeastern Brazil. The Caatinga, a complex tropical water‐limited ecosystem and the only exclusively Brazilian biome, prevails as the main natural forest of this region. The aim of this study was to examine the soil‐water balance for this biome under a climate‐warming scenario and with reduced rainfall. Climate change projections were assessed from regional circulation models earlier applied to the Brazilian territory. A statistical climate data generator was used to compose a synthetic weather dataset, which was later integrated into a hydrological model. Compared to simulations with current climate for the same site, under the scenario with climate change, transpiration was enhanced by 36%, and soilwater evaporation and interception were reduced by 16% and 34%, respectively. The greatest change in soil‐water components was observed for deep drainage, accounting only for 2% of the annual rainfall. Soil‐plant‐atmosphere fluxes seem to be controlled by the top layer (0.0-0.2 m, which provides 80% of the total transpiration, suggesting that the Caatinga forest may become completely soil‐water pulse dominated under scenarios of reduced water availability.

  19. The biogeographic origin of a radiation of trees in Madagascar: implications for the assembly of a tropical forest biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Sarah; Dornburg, Alex; Downie, Alexander; Richard, Alison F; Daly, Douglas C; Donoghue, Michael J

    2015-10-05

    Madagascar's rain forests are characterized by extreme and uneven patterns of species richness and endemicity, the biogeographic and evolutionary origins of which are poorly understood. Here we use a time-calibrated phylogeny of a dominant group of trees in Madagascar's eastern rain forests, Canarium, and related Burseraceae (Canarieae), to test biogeographic hypotheses regarding the origin and radiation of the flora of this unique biome. Our findings strongly support the monophyly of Malagasy Canarium, suggesting that this clade represents a previously undocumented in situ radiation. Contrary to expectations of dispersal from Africa during the Oligocene, concurrent with the formation of Madagascar's rain forest biome, our analyses support a late Miocene origin for Malagasy Canarium, probably by long distance dispersal from Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the importance of considering long distance dispersal as a viable explanation for clades with pantropical distributions diversifying subsequent to the Oligocene, and it highlights the formation of the Indo-Australian Archipelago and associated fast-moving equatorial surface currents, suggesting an under-appreciated evolutionary link among tropical centers of endemism. We postulate that the relatively recent establishment and radiation of Canarium in Madagascar may have been facilitated by the highly stochastic climates associated with these forest ecosystems.

  20. A network centrality measure framework for analyzing urban traffic flow: A case study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangming; Zhao, Pengxiang; Cui, Yunfan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved network centrality measure framework that takes into account both the topological characteristics and the geometric properties of a road network in order to analyze urban traffic flow in relation to different modes: intersection, road, and community, which correspond to point mode, line mode, and area mode respectively. Degree, betweenness, and PageRank centralities are selected as the analysis measures, and GPS-enabled taxi trajectory data is used to evaluate urban traffic flow. The results show that the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the modified degree, the betweenness, and the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow in all periods are higher than the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the conventional degree, the betweenness, the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow at different modes; this indicates that the modified measurements, for analyzing traffic flow, are superior to conventional centrality measurements. This study helps to shed light into the understanding of urban traffic flow in relation to different modes from the perspective of complex networks.

  1. A study of human bite injuries to the face | Obukwe | Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of human bite injuries to the face. O. N. Obukwe. Abstract. (Central African Journal of Medicine: 2002 48 (5-6): 68-71). AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  2. A Comparative Study of Work Centrality, Job Rewards and Satisfaction: Occupational Groups in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bilha

    1975-01-01

    The study develops and measures a concept of Work-Role Centrality, mainly from a cognitive perspective, and examines by means of questionnaire data its distribution in a representative sample of 778 males participating in the labor force in Israel. (Author)

  3. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...

  4. An International Education Perspective Study of Teachers in the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Sydney A.; Fox, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    The study explored nursery through secondary teachers' perceptions of international education in their teaching practices. All teachers lived in a rural area of the central US. Data were drawn from a web-based survey comprised of 28 questions addressing international education; interview data provided further understanding of one teacher's efforts…

  5. Limited Energy Study. Thermal Storage at Central Chilled Water Plant, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The Scope of Work (See Appendix A) called for the study of the economic feasibility of providing a cold thermal storage system at the central chiller plant serving the Fort Leonard Wood 600 Area in order to reduce electrical demand charges...

  6. SOIL COVER AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN OXISOL IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST BIOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida Bertossi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical and physical attributes of different soil cover in a Oxisol with a strong wavy relief in the Atlantic Forest Biome, in which were selected three watersheds, employed with grazing (watershed P, forest (watershed M and coffee (watershed C. Deformed and not deformed samples were collected in three depths for physical and chemical characterization. The chemical characteristics of soil in different watershed studies presented low levels of fertility. It was observed an elevation of pH in the soil and contents of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the watersheds P and C in relation to the watershed M. Due to deforestation and the establishment of agriculture and livestock, there was a decrease in the contents of soil organic matter in the watershed P and C, not altering the physical characteristics of the soil in the watershed P. The implementation of coffee plantation is causing a reduction in the soil quality of watershed C in comparison to the watershed P and M, therefore indicating a need to adequate soil management in this area.

  7. Termite assemblages in five semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments in the northern coastland limit of the biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Bruno de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Termites are abundant organisms in tropical ecosystems and strongly influence the litter decomposition and soil formation. Despite their importance, few studies about their assemblage structures have been made in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments, especially in the area located north of the São Francisco River. This study aims to analyze the assemblage composition of five Atlantic Forest fragments located in the northern biome limit along the Brazilian coast. A standardized sampling protocol of termites was applied in each fragment. Thirty-three termite species belonging to twenty genera and three families were found in the forest fragments. The wood-feeder group was dominant both concerning to species richness and number of encounters in all areas. In sites northern to 7°S, there is an evident simplification of the termite assemblage composition regarding species richness and number of encounters by feeding group. This fact is apparently due to a higher sandy level in soils and to semideciduous character of the vegetation in the northern fragments. Thus, even on the north of São Francisco River, termite biodiversity is heterogeneously spread with highest density of species in the portion between 07°S and São Francisco River mouth (10°29'S.

  8. Ornamental Eudicotyledons from grasslands of Pampa biome in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana De Araújo Carrion

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the group of Eudicotyledons native plants with ornamental potential of grasslands from the Pampa biome in the south of Brazil. The Pampa presents a high level of biodiversity; however, it requires studies related to the richness of vascular plants and its biological and ecological knowledge. The purpose of this work is to elaborate a preliminary inventory of this group of plants, analyzing the ornamental potential of each specie and indicating those that could be considered as being priorities for the purpose of sustainable use with this objective. Some grassland species were selected through the search for information in herbarium registers, national and international works about decorative plants, floristic surveys, besides the authors´ practical knowledge. Some parameters and values were associated, aiming at reducing the subjectivity of the choice. The survey resulted in a list of 177 species distributed in 36 families and 101 genera. Among these species, ten presented high ornamental potential. These data show that the richness of the grassland native ornamental flora is high, even though its use is poorly known. The use of these plants, if in a sustainable manner, can produce economic and ecological benefits.

  9. Nebivolol reduces central blood pressure in stage I hypertensive patients: experimental single cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Oliveira Vaz-de-Melo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Assessment of central blood pressure (BP has grown substantially over recent years because evidence has shown that central BP is more relevant to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral BP. Thus, different classes of antihypertensive drugs have different effects on central BP despite similar reductions in brachial BP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nebivolol, a β-blocker with vasodilator properties, on the biochemical and hemodynamic parameters of hypertensive patients.DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental single cohort study conducted in the outpatient clinic of a university hospital.METHODS: Twenty-six patients were recruited. All of them underwent biochemical and hemodynamic evaluation (BP, heart rate (HR, central BP and augmentation index before and after 3 months of using nebivolol.RESULTS: 88.5% of the patients were male; their mean age was 49.7 ± 9.3 years and most of them were overweight (29.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2 with large abdominal waist (102.1 ± 7.2 cm. There were significant decreases in peripheral systolic BP (P = 0.0020, diastolic BP (P = 0.0049, HR (P < 0.0001 and central BP (129.9 ± 12.3 versus 122.3 ± 10.3 mmHg; P = 0.0083 after treatment, in comparison with the baseline values. There was no statistical difference in the augmentation index or in the biochemical parameters, from before to after the treatment.CONCLUSIONS: Nebivolol use seems to be associated with significant reduction of central BP in stage I hypertensive patients, in addition to reductions in brachial systolic and diastolic BP.

  10. Association of Central Adiposity With Adverse Cardiac Mechanics: Findings from the HyperGEN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Senthil; Martinez, Eva E.; Aguilar, Frank G.; Kim, Kwang-Youn A.; Peng, Jie; Sha, Jin; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Arnett, Donna K.; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Central obesity, defined by increased waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) events, including heart failure. However, the pathophysiological link between central obesity and adverse CV outcomes remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that central obesity and larger WHR are independently associated with worse cardiac mechanics (reduced left ventricular [LV] strain and systolic [s’] and early diastolic [e’] tissue velocities). Methods and Results We performed speckle-tracking analysis of echocardiograms from participants in the HyperGEN study, a population- and family-based epidemiologic study (N=2181). Multiple indices of systolic and diastolic cardiac mechanics were measured. We evaluated the association between central obesity and cardiac mechanics using multivariable-adjusted linear mixed effects models to account for relatedness among participants. The mean age of the cohort was 51±14 years, 58% were female, and 47% were African-American. Mean body-mass index (BMI) was 30.8±7.1 kg/m2, WC 102±17 cm, WHR 0.91±0.08, and 80% had central obesity based on WC and WHR criteria. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, including age, sex, race, physical activity, BMI, heart rate, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, anti-hypertensive medication use, glomerular filtration rate, LV mass index, wall motion abnormalities, and ejection fraction, central obesity and WHR remained associated with worse global longitudinal strain, early diastolic strain rate, s’ velocity, and e’ velocity (P mechanics. PMID:27307550

  11. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  12. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  13. A pollen-based biome reconstruction over the last 3.562 million years in the Far East Russian Arctic - new insights into climate-vegetation relationships at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, P. E.; Andreev, A. A.; Anderson, P. M.; Lozhkin, A. V.; Leipe, C.; Haltia, E.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Wennrich, V.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2013-12-01

    The recent and fossil pollen data obtained under the frame of the multi-disciplinary international El'gygytgyn Drilling Project represent a unique archive, which allows the testing of a range of pollen-based reconstruction approaches and the deciphering of changes in the regional vegetation and climate. In the current study we provide details of the biome reconstruction method applied to the late Pliocene and Quaternary pollen records from Lake El'gygytgyn. All terrestrial pollen taxa identified in the spectra from Lake El'gygytgyn were assigned to major vegetation types (biomes), which today occur near the lake and in the broader region of eastern and northern Asia and, thus, could be potentially present in this region during the past. When applied to the pollen spectra from the middle Pleistocene to present, the method suggests (1) a predominance of tundra during the Holocene, (2) a short interval during the marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5 interglacial distinguished by cold deciduous forest, and (3) long phases of taiga dominance during MIS 31 and, particularly, MIS 11.3. These two latter interglacials seem to be some of the longest and warmest intervals in the study region within the past million years. During the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene interval (i.e., ~3.562-2.200 Ma), there is good correspondence between the millennial-scale vegetation changes documented in the Lake El'gygytgyn record and the alternation of cold and warm marine isotope stages, which reflect changes in the global ice volume and sea level. The biome reconstruction demonstrates changes in the regional vegetation from generally warmer/wetter environments of the earlier (i.e., Pliocene) interval towards colder/drier environments of the Pleistocene. The reconstruction indicates that the taxon-rich cool mixed and cool conifer forest biomes are mostly characteristic of the time prior to MIS G16, whereas the tundra biome becomes a prominent feature starting from MIS G6. These results

  14. "He just has to like ham" - The centrality of meat in home and consumer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Ingela; Lindblom, Cecilia; Åbacka, Gun; Bengs, Carita; Hörnell, Agneta

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to describe Discourses on meat in the school subject Home and Consumer Studies in five different northern Swedish schools. Fifty-nine students and five teachers from five different schools were recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons. Results indicate that meat was seen as central to nutritional health, sensory experience, culture and social relationships. This positive view was challenged by an alternative Discourse where meat was threatening to health, sensory experience and psychological comfort, but this was not strong enough to affect centrality. Even when participants sought to promote the health advantages of reducing meat consumption, the dominant centrality Discourse was strengthened. This implies that the possible tension between physical and psychosocial/emotional health can make the benefits of a reduction difficult both to convey and accept. A form of critical food literacy may help teachers deconstruct the arbitrary power of the centrality Discourse, but it may also strengthen meat-eater identities because the social norms that guide food choice become salient. A redesign of Discourses might facilitate a reduction in meat consumption, but such a paradigm shift is dependent on the development of society as a whole, and can only be briefly touched upon within the limited time frames and resources of Home and Consumer Studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combining climatic and soil properties better predicts covers of Brazilian biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Daniel M.; Fernandes-Filho, Elpídio I.; Solar, Ricardo R. C.; Schaefer, Carlos E. G. R.

    2017-04-01

    Several techniques have been used to model the area covered by biomes or species. However, most models allow little freedom of choice of response variables and are conditioned to the use of climate predictors. This major restriction of the models has generated distributions of low accuracy or inconsistent with the actual cover. Our objective was to characterize the environmental space of the most representative biomes of Brazil and predict their cover, using climate and soil-related predictors. As sample units, we used 500 cells of 100 km2 for ten biomes, derived from the official vegetation map of Brazil (IBGE 2004). With a total of 38 (climatic and soil-related) predictors, an a priori model was run with the random forest classifier. Each biome was calibrated with 75% of the samples. The final model was based on four climate and six soil-related predictors, the most important variables for the a priori model, without collinearity. The model reached a kappa value of 0.82, generating a highly consistent prediction with the actual cover of the country. We showed here that the richness of biomes should not be underestimated, and that in spite of the complex relationship, highly accurate modeling based on climatic and soil-related predictors is possible. These predictors are complementary, for covering different parts of the multidimensional niche. Thus, a single biome can cover a wide range of climatic space, versus a narrow range of soil types, so that its prediction is best adjusted by soil-related variables, or vice versa.

  16. Combining climatic and soil properties better predicts covers of Brazilian biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Daniel M; Fernandes-Filho, Elpídio I; Solar, Ricardo R C; Schaefer, Carlos E G R

    2017-04-01

    Several techniques have been used to model the area covered by biomes or species. However, most models allow little freedom of choice of response variables and are conditioned to the use of climate predictors. This major restriction of the models has generated distributions of low accuracy or inconsistent with the actual cover. Our objective was to characterize the environmental space of the most representative biomes of Brazil and predict their cover, using climate and soil-related predictors. As sample units, we used 500 cells of 100 km 2 for ten biomes, derived from the official vegetation map of Brazil (IBGE 2004). With a total of 38 (climatic and soil-related) predictors, an a priori model was run with the random forest classifier. Each biome was calibrated with 75% of the samples. The final model was based on four climate and six soil-related predictors, the most important variables for the a priori model, without collinearity. The model reached a kappa value of 0.82, generating a highly consistent prediction with the actual cover of the country. We showed here that the richness of biomes should not be underestimated, and that in spite of the complex relationship, highly accurate modeling based on climatic and soil-related predictors is possible. These predictors are complementary, for covering different parts of the multidimensional niche. Thus, a single biome can cover a wide range of climatic space, versus a narrow range of soil types, so that its prediction is best adjusted by soil-related variables, or vice versa.

  17. First Record of Anopheles oryzalimnetes, Anopheles argyritarsis, and Anopheles sawyeri (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Caatinga Biome, Semiarid Scrubland of Sergipe State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteis, L S; Sallum, M A M; Natal, D; Oliveira, T M P; Gama, R A; Dolabella, S S; Santos, R L C

    2015-09-01

    Caatinga is one of the least known biomes of Brazil in relation to biodiversity. The dry condition of semiarid areas has been associated in the past with low richness of fauna and flora, not encouraging studies in this region. There is a lack of mosquito records including anophelines. Thus, to investigate the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Caatinga biome, we collected immature mosquitoes in aquatic habitats in a conservation reserve located in the northwestern portion of Sergipe state. The captured specimens were initially identified as Anopheles albitarsis l.s. and Anopheles argyritarsis l.s. To confirm the morphological identification, sequences were generated by cytochrome oxidase subunit I mitocondrial gene. The results showed that the specimens belong to the species Anopheles oryzalimnetes, An. argyritarsis, and Anopheles sawyeri. These are the first records of these species in this region. The presence of Anopheles in the Caatinga biome, which is characterized by arid and semiarid climatic conditions, encourages the interest in the study of biological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations, selected over time, which allow these mosquito populations to survive through the long periods of drought that is characteristic of this region. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Soil Loss Vulnerability in an Agricultural Catchment in the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gotardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates soil loss vulnerability using field samples and spatial data in a 30 km² area in the Atlantic forest biome in southern Brazil. The anthropogenic part of the landscape consists mainly of small agricultural properties. Soil loss vulnerability was calculated using adaptations of the universal soil loss equation. The results were compared to sediment data collected during field surveys. Spatial analysis was performed using a geographical information system (GIS and fine resolution data (1 m. Both field and spatial analyses produced similar results, 5.390 tons of soil loss per year using field data and 5.691 tons per year using GIS. Using soil loss and sediment data related to the Concordia River, we estimate that of all the exported sediment 25% of the lost soil reaches the river. These data are an effective source of information for municipal administrators of the region, which consists of small agricultural catchments (dominated by small properties that comprise the regional economy. A thematic map was used to determine sub-drainage priority as information for public managers.

  19. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Mimosa spp. in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Fábio Bueno; Simon, Marcelo F; Gross, Eduardo; Boddey, Robert M; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Neto, Nicolau E; Loureiro, M de Fatima; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Scotti, Maria Rita; Chen, Wen-Ming; Norén, Agneta; Rubio, Maria C; de Faria, Sergio M; Bontemps, Cyril; Goi, Silvia R; Young, J Peter W; Sprent, Janet I; James, Euan K

    2010-06-01

    *An extensive survey of nodulation in the legume genus Mimosa was undertaken in two major biomes in Brazil, the Cerrado and the Caatinga, in both of which there are high degrees of endemicity of the genus. *Nodules were collected from 67 of the 70 Mimosa spp. found. Thirteen of the species were newly reported as nodulating. Nodules were examined by light and electron microscopy, and all except for M. gatesiae had a structure typical of effective Mimosa nodules. The endosymbiotic bacteria in nodules from all of the Mimosa spp. were identified as Burkholderia via immunolabelling with an antibody against Burkholderia phymatum STM815. *Twenty of the 23 Mimosa nodules tested were shown to contain nitrogenase by immunolabelling with an antibody to the nitrogenase Fe- (nifH) protein, and using the delta(15)N ((15)N natural abundance) technique, contributions by biological N(2) fixation of up to 60% of total plant N were calculated for Caatinga Mimosa spp. *It is concluded that nodulation in Mimosa is a generic character, and that the preferred symbionts of Brazilian species are Burkholderia. This is the first study to demonstrate N(2) fixation by beta-rhizobial symbioses in the field.

  20. SOIL ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS IN PRESERVED AND DISTURBED WETLANDS OF THE CERRADO BIOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes de Sousa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Veredas are humid tropical ecosystems, generally associated to hydromorphic soils and a shallow water table. The soils of these ecosystems are affected by the use of the areas around these veredas. The objective of this study was to determine soil organic matter (SOM fractions in veredas adjacent to preserved (native savanna and disturbed environments (agricultural areas and pastures in the Cerrado biome. Soil samples were collected from the 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers along reference lines drawn along the relief following the upper, middle and lower positions of one of the slopes, in the direction of the draining line of the vereda. The soil analysis determined: total soil OC, total nitrogen and C:N ratio; C and N contents and C:N ratio in particulate and mineral-associated fractions (of SOM; fulvic acids, humic acids and humin fractions and ratio between humic and fulvic acids. The agricultural use around the veredas induced changes in the SOM fractions, more pronounced in the lower part of the slope. In the soil surface of this part, the OC levels in the humic substances and the particulate fraction of SOM, as well as total soil OC were reduced in the vereda next to crop fields.

  1. Evaluation of mutagenic and antimicrobial properties of brown propolis essential oil from the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio H. Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological, and particularly antimicrobial, activities have been demonstrated for the essential oil of propolis samples worlwide, yet their mutagenic effects remain unknown. To correlate antimicrobial effects with mutagenic risks, the present study evaluated the antifungal and antibacterial activities of the essential oil obtained from brown propolis collected from the Cerrado biome in Midwest Brazil (EOP, testing it against nine pathogenic microorganisms. Evaluation of mutagenic potential was based on the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART performed on wing cells of standard (ST and high-bioactivation (HB crosses of Drosophila melanogaster. EOP was extracted by hydrodistillation, and sesquiterpenes were characterized by GC–MS as its major constituents. The crude oil proved active against Cryptococcus neoformans and Enterococcus faecalis, as did two of its major constituents, spathulenol and (E-nerolidol – the latter being also active against Staphylococcus aureus – isolated using chromatographic procedures. No significant increase in the number of somatic mutations was observed in the offspring of ST or HB crosses – the latter exhibiting enhanced levels of metabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 type – treated with 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% EOP. These findings revealed no mutagenic activity of EOP, even when tested against the HB strain, and demonstrated that its antimicrobial activities are not associated with DNA damage induction (investigated with SMART, suggesting the potential of EOP as a natural preservative.

  2. Microbial quality of soil from the Pampa biome in response to different grazing pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael S. Vargas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different grazing pressures on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria. We performed a long-term experiment in Eldorado do Sul, southern Brazil, that assessed three levels of grazing pressure: high pressure (HP, with 4% herbage allowance (HA, moderate pressure (MP, with 12% HA, and low pressure (LP, with 16% HA. Two reference areas were also assessed, one of never-grazed native vegetation (NG and another of regenerated vegetation after two years of grazing (RG. Soil samples were evaluated for microbial biomass and enzymatic (β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase and urease activities. The structure of the bacterial community and the population of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated by RFLP of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes, respectively. The diversity of diazotrophic bacteria was assessed by partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The presence of grazing animals increased soil microbial biomass in MP and HP. The structures of the bacterial community and the populations of diazotrophic bacteria were altered by the different grazing managements, with a greater diversity of diazotrophic bacteria in the LP treatment. Based on the characteristics evaluated, the MP treatment was the most appropriate for animal production and conservation of the Pampa biome.

  3. Telemetria : aplicação de rede de sensores biomédicos sem fio

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Eduardo Mamani

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo desta dissertação consiste no desenvolvimento de um protótipo de instrumentação biomédica, baseado na tecnologia de redes de sensores sem fio, para aquisição, transmissão e processamento simultâneos de sinais biomédicos. A instrumentação permite o acompanhamento clínico de pacientes por meio do monitoramento de sinais de eletrocardiograma, eletromiograma, temperatura cutânea, e resistência galvânica da pele; para este objetivo foram implementados circuitos eletrônicos. Os sinais re...

  4. The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: a case study from Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region. Methods Changes in tariff and non-tariff barriers for each country were documented, and compared with time-series graphs of import, production and availability data to show the outcome of changes in trade policy in relation to food imports and food availability. Results Changes in trade policy in Central America have directly affected food imports and availability via three avenues. First, the lowering of trade barriers has promoted availability by facilitating higher imports of a wide range of foods. Second, trade liberalization has affected food availability through promoting domestic meat production. Third, reductions in barriers to investment appear to be critical in expansion of processed food markets. This suggests that changes in trade policies have facilitated rising availability and consumption of meat, dairy products, processed foods and temperate (imported fruits in Central America. Conclusion This study indicates that the policies of trade liberalization in Central American countries over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the United States, have implications for health in the region. Specifically, they have been a factor in facilitating the "nutrition transition", which is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Given the significant cost of chronic disease for the health care system, individuals and the wider community, it is critical

  5. The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: a case study from Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    Background Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region. Methods Changes in tariff and non-tariff barriers for each country were documented, and compared with time-series graphs of import, production and availability data to show the outcome of changes in trade policy in relation to food imports and food availability. Results Changes in trade policy in Central America have directly affected food imports and availability via three avenues. First, the lowering of trade barriers has promoted availability by facilitating higher imports of a wide range of foods. Second, trade liberalization has affected food availability through promoting domestic meat production. Third, reductions in barriers to investment appear to be critical in expansion of processed food markets. This suggests that changes in trade policies have facilitated rising availability and consumption of meat, dairy products, processed foods and temperate (imported fruits) in Central America. Conclusion This study indicates that the policies of trade liberalization in Central American countries over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the United States, have implications for health in the region. Specifically, they have been a factor in facilitating the "nutrition transition", which is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Given the significant cost of chronic disease for the health care system, individuals and the wider community, it is critical that preventive health

  6. Hepatitis B Markers in Isfahan, Central Iran: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman Adibi; Ziba Farajzadegan; Parisa Shoaei; Abbas Ali Javadi; Behrooz Ataei; Nazila Kassaian; Zary Nokhodian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: Hepatitis B is the most frequent cause of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in Iran. To establish better preventive strategies, updating data on prevalence rates are needed. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Isfahan province, Central Iran, in 2006.Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 2006, 816 subjects over 6 years old were selected through a systematic multi-stage cluster sampling from 32 urban and 9 rural areas of Isf...

  7. Estimating carbon flux phenology with satellite-derived land surface phenology and climate drivers for different biomes: a synthesis of AmeriFlux observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenquan; Chen, Guangsheng; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Jianhong; Mou, Minjie

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP) can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP) metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands), using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU) by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptake (ECU) by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. This methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.

  8. First parasitological, histopathological and molecular characterization of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 from Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 in the Cerrado biome (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, Fernanda; Teixeira, Paulo; Alencar, Alba; Menezes, Rodrigo; Corrêa, Christiane; Neves, Leandro; Almeida, Fernanda; Daipert-Garcia, Daniel; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela

    2018-01-30

    Polycystic echinococcosis (PE) is caused by Echinococcus vogeli metacestodes (larval stage) in Neotropical countries. E. vogeli is trophically-transmitted between predators bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) and prey pacas (Cuniculus paca). In Brazil, reported PE cases are restricted to the Amazon biome. In this study, metacestodes from a paca hunted in Mato Grosso do Sul state (Cerrado biome) were identified morphological and histopathological techniques and further confirmed by molecular testing (sequencing of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene) for the first time. Images of the whole liver showed superficial bubble-like hepatic masses. The parasitological analysis revealed large hooks (41.3 ± 1.2 μm length/12.8 ± 0.8 μm width) and small hooks (33.0 ± 1.5 μm length/11.1 ± 1.2 μm width), consistent with E. vogeli. Microscopically, the liver showed protoscoleces, a thick laminated layer, fibrosis, and inflammatory infiltrate in the adventitial layer. The DNA sequencing confirmed E. vogeli with 99% homology with sequences deposited in the GenBank. In addition, this finding greatly extends the geographic range of animal polycystic echinococcosis into the Cerrado. It is likely to occur in new biomes, where bush dogs and pacas share a given area in a trophic relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating carbon flux phenology with satellite-derived land surface phenology and climate drivers for different biomes: a synthesis of AmeriFlux observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Zhu

    Full Text Available Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands, using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptake (ECU by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. This methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.

  10. Management of urbanizing watersheds: Central tendencies, outliers, and the art of the possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Urban watersheds pose numerous challenges for environmental management, and many of these challenges involve well-known examples of degraded water quality and altered hydrologic flow paths. These impacts, such as the widely studied "urban stream syndrome" that has been linked to impervious surfaces, describe the central tendencies of urbanized systems to undergo some sort of degradation as a function of the intensity of the human footprint on the landscape. More people, or more pavement, or more nitrogen inputs are all known to lead to progressive water quality degradation. These central tendencies can result in useful management prescriptions, such as reducing impervious surfaces to reduce impacts on stream hydrology, but they may also result in large investments with a relatively weak scientific underpinning or management prescriptions ("less people") that are not particularly practical. I suggest that as a research community, we should explicitly embrace a research agenda that aggressively continues to describe these central tendencies, but places more emphasis on understanding outliers from the central tendency, and quantifying the impacts of management solutions through experimental observations. Fruitful areas for research include understanding how the impacts of urbanization vary by biome; do the central tendencies of urbanized watersheds vary independent of biome and climate? Better understanding of outlier watersheds can be highly informative for management, as these watersheds are ones in which urban impacts are much more or much less than expected, and thus can provide strong evidence for practical management suggestions. Finally, what is actually possible to achieve through improved physical infrastructure and management practices should be determined experimentally through the development of a network of experimental urban and suburban watersheds.

  11. Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: role in the global carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.S. Zimov; S.A. Zimov; A.E. Zimova; G.M. Zimova; V.I. Chuprynin; F.S. Chapin

    2009-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in preindustrial times. At that time steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some authors assume that C storage in that biome was very small, similar to today's deserts, and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the...

  12. Colombian dry moist forest transitions in the Llanos Orientales - A comparison of model and pollen-based biome reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.A.; Berrio, J.C.; Behling, H.; Boom, A.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Colombian vegetation, at the ecological level of the biome, is reconstructed at six sites using pollen data assigned a priori to plant functional types and biomes. The chosen sites incorporate four savanna sites (Laguna Sardinas, Laguna Angel, El Piñal and Laguna Carimagua), a site on the

  13. The central biobank and virtual biobank of BIOMARKAPD: a resource for studies on neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babette eReijs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease (BIOMARKAPD is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme - Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND, that aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized preanalytical procedures (SOP and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg (IBBL. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, vascular dementia (VaD, multiple system atrophy (MSA, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank.

  14. The Central Biobank and Virtual Biobank of BIOMARKAPD: A Resource for Studies on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijs, Babette L R; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Betsou, Fay; Blennow, Kaj; Baldeiras, Inês; Brosseron, Frederic; Cavedo, Enrica; Fladby, Tormod; Froelich, Lutz; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz; Gurvit, Hakan; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Koson, Peter; Kulic, Luka; Lehmann, Sylvain; Lewczuk, Piotr; Lleó, Alberto; Maetzler, Walter; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Miller, Anne-Marie; Molinuevo, José L; Mollenhauer, Brit; Parnetti, Lucilla; Rot, Uros; Schneider, Anja; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Tsolaki, Magda; Verbeek, Marcel M; Verhey, Frans R J; Zboch, Marzena; Winblad, Bengt; Scheltens, Philip; Zetterberg, Henrik; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (BIOMARKAPD) is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme-Neurodegenerative Disease Research, which aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized pre-analytical procedures and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular dementia, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8,600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank.

  15. Adapting a rapid assessment protocol to environmentally assess palm swamp (Veredas) springs in the Cerrado biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ariane; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-30

    The exploitation and degradation of natural environments exert intense pressure on important ecosystems worldwide. Thus, it is necessary developing or adapting assessment methods to monitor environmental changes and to generate results to be applied to environmental management programs. The Brazilian Veredas (phytophysiognomies typical to the Cerrado biome) are threatened by several human activities; thus, the aim of the present study is to adapt a rapid assessment protocol (RAP) to be applied to Veredas springs, by using the upper course of the Vai-e-Vem stream watershed (Ipameri County, Goiás State, Brazil). Therefore, several springs in the study site were visited and 11 of them were considered Veredas springs. After the RAP was adapted, the instrument was validated and used to environmentally assess the springs in order to demonstrate its applicability. The present study has provided an instrument of option to monitor Veredas springs.

  16. Radioligands for PET studies of central benzodiazepine receptors and PK (peripheral benzodiazepine) binding sites -current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.; Osman, S.; Shah, F.; Turton, D.R.; Waters, S.L.; Crouzel, C.; Nutt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The status of the radiochemical development and biological evaluation of radioligands for PET studies of central benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors and the so-called peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites, here discriminated and referred to as PK binding sites, is reviewed against current pharmacological knowledge, indicating those agents with present value and those with future potential. Practical recommendations are given for the preparation of two useful radioligands for PET studies, [N-methyl- 11 C]flumazenil for central BZ receptors, and [N-methyl- 11 C]PK 11195 for PK binding sites. Quality assurance and plasma metabolite analysis are also reviewed for these radioligands and practical recommendations are given on methodology for their performance. (Author)

  17. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  18. Selection of native trees for intercropping with coffee in the Atlantic Rainforest biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.; Cardoso, I.M.; Fernandes, J.M.; Garcia, F.C.P.; Bonfim, V.R.; Santos, A.C.; Carvalho, A.F.; Mendonca, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge in establishing agroforestry systems is ensuring that farmers are interested in the tree species, and are aware of how to adequately manage these species. This challenge was tackled in the Atlantic Rainforest biome (Brazil), where a participatory trial with agroforestry coffee systems

  19. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  20. Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alden, C.B.; Miller, J.B.; Gatti, L.V.; Gloor, M.M.; Laan-Luijkx, van der I.T.; Krol, M.C.; Guan, K.; Michalak, A.M.; Touma, T.; Andrew, A.; Basso, L.S.; Correia, C.S.C.; Domingues, L.G.; Joiner, J.; Lyapustin, A.; Peters, W.; Shiga, Y.P.; Thoning, K.; Velde, van der I.R.; Leeuwen van, T.T.; Yadav, V.; Diffenbaugh, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate–carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance
    for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2

  1. Assessing the Urban Heat Island Effect Across Biomes in the Continental USA Using Landsat and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, L.; Zhang, Ping; Wolfe, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the Landsat TM and land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) skin temperature amplitude and its relationship to development intensity, size, and ecological setting for 38 of the most populous cities in the continental United States. Development intensity zones based on %ISA are defined across urban gradients and used to stratify sampling of LST and NDVI. We find that ecological context significantly influences the amplitude of summer daytime UHI (urban - rural temperature difference) with the largest 8 C (average) for cities built in mixed forest biomes. For all cities ISA is the primary driver for increase in temperature explaining 70% of the total variance. Annually, urban areas are warmer than the non-urban fringe by 2.9 C, except in biomes with arid and semiarid climates. The average amplitude of the UHI is asymmetric with a 4.3 C difference in summer and 1.3 C in winter. In desert environments, UHI's point to a possible heat sink effect. Results show that the urban heat island amplitude increases with city size and is seasonally asymmetric for a large number of cities across most biomes. The implications are that for urban areas developed within forested ecosystems the summertime UHI can be quite high relative to the wintertime UHI suggesting that the residential energy consumption required for summer cooling is likely to increase with urban growth within those biomes.

  2. The Biome Project: Developing a Legitimate Parallel Curriculum for Physical Education and Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Peter Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the outcomes of a parallel curriculum project between life sciences and physical education. Throughout a 6-week period, students in grades two through five became members of teams that represented different animal species and biomes, and concurrently participated in a season of gymnastics skills and…

  3. A reconstruction of Colombian biomes derived from modern pollen data along an altitude gradient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.A.; Behling, H.; Berrio Mogollon, J.C.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; van Geel, B.; van der Hammen, T.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Kuhry, P.; Melief, B.M.; van Reenen, G.B.A.; Wille, M.

    2001-01-01

    Biomes are reconstructed in Colombia from modern (core-top) pollen data derived from twenty-two sites along an altitudinal gradient (2000 to 4100 m) that encompasses the tree line. The 'biomization' methodology is described in a stepwise manner that details the reconstruction of vegetation along an

  4. A reconstruction of Colombian biomes derived from modern pollen data along an altitude gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.; Berrío, J.C.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Helmens, K.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Kuhry, P.; Melief, B.; Schreve-Brinkman, E.; Geel, van B.; Reenen, van G.; Hammen, van der T.

    2001-01-01

    Biomes are reconstructed in Colombia from modern (core-top) pollen data derived from 22 sites along an altitudinal gradient (2000–4100 m) that encompasses the tree line. The `biomization' methodology is described in a stepwise manner that details the reconstruction of vegetation along an altitudinal

  5. Water balance in paired watersheds with eucalyptus and degraded grassland in Pampa biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands of the Pampa biome, which cover regions of Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil (176,496 km2 – 2.07% of Brazilian territory and 63% of Rio Grande do Sul State territory, southern region of Brazil) in South America (total area of 750,000 km2), are being substituted by crops and commercial eucalyp...

  6. Description of major vegetation categories in and adjacent to the Fynbos biome

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moll, EJ

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available A scheme of major categories of the vegetation in and adjacent to the fynbos biome is given as a second approximation after Acocks1 Veld Types (1953). A four tier hierarchy is presented with nineteen categories of vegetation. The major subdivisions...

  7. Environmental Literacy through Relationships: Connecting Biomes and Society in a Sustainable City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkos, Kimberly; Bautista, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a project developed and implemented in an eighth-grade science classroom in which students apply what they have learned about biomes to create sustainable cities. This project promotes environmental literacy through helping students understand the interrelated elements of sustainable environmental systems and how…

  8. Guide to the literature on research in the grassland biome of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tainton, MN

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available the development of an understanding of how these communities can best be managed to ensure their sustained producti¬vity, or indeed to increase their productivity. This publication serves to highlight the main work which has been undertaken in this biome...

  9. The freezer defrosting: global warming and litter decomposition rates in cold biomes. Essay review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    1 Decomposition of plant litter, a key component of the global carbon budget, is hierarchically controlled by the triad: climate > litter quality > soil organisms. Given the sensitivity of decomposition to temperature, especially in cold biomes, it has been hypothesized that global warming will lead

  10. Relationship Between Sanitation Access and Poverty Rate: a Case Study in Central Java Province

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Samsubar; Rizki, Bhimo

    2007-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) shows the inter¬dependent relationship between sanitation and poverty rate. In addition, the development and improvement of sanitation aspect will indirectly reduce poverty. This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between sanitation and poverty in several cases occurring in all regencies/municipalities in the central Java Province.The results show that the factors affecting sanitation are the per capita gross regional domestic product (PGRDP...

  11. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Kourtchev, I; Godoi, RHM; Connors, S; Levine, JG; Archibald, AT; Godoi, AFL; Paralovo, SL; Barbosa, CGG; Souza, RAF; Manzi, AO; Seco, R; Sjostedt, S; Park, J-H; Guenther, A; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM$_{2.5}$ aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagr...

  12. Coastal processes of Central Tamil Nadu, India: clues from grain size studies

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    Nimalanathan Angusamy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The sediments of the beaches along the central coast of Tamil Nadu from Pondicherry to Vedaranyam were studied for their textural variation. 108 sediment samples collected from the low-, mid-, and high-tidal zones, as well as the berms and dunes of different beach morpho-units were analysed. The study area was divided into three sectors (northern, central and southern on the basis of prevailing energy conditions and oceanographic parameters. The poorly sorted, negatively skewed, coarser sediments of the northern sector are indicative of denudational processes taking place there. Medium-to-fine, moderately-to-well sorted, positive-symmetrically skewed sediments dominate the central sector, probably as a result of the influence of palaeo-sediments deposited by rivers from inland as well as by waves and currents from offshore. Fine, poorly sorted, positive-symmetrically skewed sediments dominate the southern sector, highlighting depositional processes. Linear Discriminant Function Analysis (LDF of the samples indicates a shallow marine environment origin for all the three sectors. These results show that reworked sediments, submerged during the Holocene marine transgression, are being deposited on present-day beaches by waves, currents and rivers in the study area.

  13. - and Cross-Polarization 13C NMR Evidence of Alterations in Molecular Composition of Humic Substances Following Afforestation with Eucalypt in Distinct Brazilian Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I. R.; Soares, E. M.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.; Novais, R.; Barros, N.; Fernandes, S.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of planting fast growing tree species on SOM quality in tropical regions has been overlooked. In the present study 13C-NMR approaches were used to evaluate the impact of eucalypt cultivation on humic and fulvic acids molecular composition. The results indicate that the replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increased the relative contribution of aliphatic groups in HA from soils previously under Atlantic Forest, Grassland, and the Cerrado (Curvelo site only). The same trend was observed for FA, except in the Curvelo site. A trend for degradation and smaller contribution of O-alkyl C (carbohydrates) in HA was observed in soils under eucalyptus in Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. For FA such decreases were seen in Cerrado and Grassland biomes after eucalypt planting. In the area cultivated with pasture in the Atlantic Forest biome and in the Grassland soil, the largest contributions of lignin-derived compounds were detected in HA. The HA from the Cerrado at the Curvelo site, where the woody vegetation is virtually devoid of grassy species, showed the lowest intensity of lignin signal then those from the Cerrado sensu stricto in Itacambira, where grass species are more abundant. At our study sites, charred material are most likely derived from burning of the native vegetation, as naturally occurs in the Cerrado region, or anthropogenic fires in the Grassland biome. Burning of harvest residues in eucalypt fields was also a common practice in the early rotations. The replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increases the relative contribution of nonpolar alkyl groups in HA from soils previously under Atlantic Forest, Grassland, and the Cerrado (Curvelo site only) biomes. There is evidence of substantial contribution of lignin-derived C to HA and FA, especially in sites planted with Brachiaria sp pastures. Eucalypt introduction decreases the relative contribution of carbohydrates in HA and FA. 13C DP/MAS NMR functional groups in

  14. Circulation of canine parvovirus among dogs living in human-wildlife interface in the Atlantic forest biome, Brazil

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    Flávia V. Vieira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for threatening viral diseases for wild carnivores, few studies have focused to identify circulation of viruses among dogs living in human/wildlife interfaces. To identify canine parvovirus (CPV types circulating in dogs living in an Atlantic forest biome, faecal samples (n = 100 were collected at the same period (one week corresponding to each of four areas, during 2014 to 2016 and corresponded to 100 different individuals. CPV was isolated in cell culture from 67 out 100 (67% samples from healthy dogs. Cytopathic effects were characterized by total or partial cell culture lysis. Genome sequences of CPV-2a (10%, CPV-2b (7% and CPV-2c (50% were concomitantly detected by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The current study addresses the importance of monitoring CPV circulation among dogs presenting potential contact with wildlife species.

  15. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Colombia at 3000, 6000, 15 000 and 18 000 14C yr ago : Late Quaternary tropical vegetation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.; Behling, H.; Berrío, J.C.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Kuhry, P.; Melief, B.; Schreve-Brinkman, E.; Geel, van B.; Hammen, van der T.; Reenen, van G.

    2002-01-01

    Colombian biomes are reconstructed at 45 sites from the modern period extending to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The basis for our reconstruction is pollen data assigned to plant functional types and biomes at six 3000-yr intervals. A reconstruction of modern biomes is used to check the treatment

  16. Forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noojipady, Praveen; Morton, C. Douglas; Macedo, N. Marcia; Victoria, C. Daniel; Huang, Chengquan; Gibbs, K. Holly; Edson Bolfe, L.

    2017-02-01

    Land use, land use change, and forestry accounted for two-thirds of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions profile in 2005. Amazon deforestation has declined by more than 80% over the past decade, yet Brazil’s forests extend beyond the Amazon biome. Rapid expansion of cropland in the neighboring Cerrado biome has the potential to undermine climate mitigation efforts if emissions from dry forest and woodland conversion negate some of the benefits of avoided Amazon deforestation. Here, we used satellite data on cropland expansion, forest cover, and vegetation carbon stocks to estimate annual gross forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado biome. Nearly half of the Cerrado met Brazil’s definition of forest cover in 2000 (≥0.5 ha with ≥10% canopy cover). In areas of established crop production, conversion of both forest and non-forest Cerrado formations for cropland declined during 2003-2013. However, forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion increased over the past decade in Matopiba, a new frontier of agricultural production that includes portions of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Gross carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado averaged 16.28 Tg C yr-1 between 2003 and 2013, with forest-to-cropland conversion accounting for 29% of emissions. The fraction of forest carbon emissions from Matopiba was much higher; between 2010-2013, large-scale cropland conversion in Matopiba contributed 45% of total Cerrado forest carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from Cerrado-to-cropland transitions offset 5%-7% of the avoided emissions from reduced Amazon deforestation rates during 2011-2013. Comprehensive national estimates of forest carbon fluxes, including all biomes, are critical to detect cross-biome leakage within countries and achieve climate mitigation targets to reduce emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry.

  17. Assessing MODIS GPP in Non-Forested Biomes in Water Limited Areas Using EC Tower Data

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    Flor Álvarez-Taboada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although shrublands, savannas and grasslands account for 37% of the world’s terrestrial area, not many studies have analysed the role of these ecosystems in the global carbon cycle at a regional scale. The MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP product is used here to help bridge this gap. In this study, the agreement between the MODIS GPP product (GPPm and the GPP Eddy Covariance tower data (GPPec was tested for six different sites in temperate and dry climatic regions (three grasslands, two shrublands and one evergreen forest. Results of this study show that for the non-forest sites in water-limited areas, GPPm is well correlated with GPPec at annual scales (r2 = 0.77, n = 12; SEE = 149.26 g C∙m−2∙year−1, although it tends to overestimate GPP and it is less accurate in the sites with permanent water restrictions. The use of biome-specific models based on precipitation measurements at a finer spatial resolution than the Data Assimilation Office (DAO values can increase the accuracy of these estimations. The seasonal dynamics and the beginning and end of the growing season were well captured by GPPm for the sites where (i the productivity was low throughout the year or (ii the changes in the flux trend were abrupt, usually due to the restrictions in water availability. The agreement between GPPec and GPPm in non-forested sites was lower on a weekly basis than at an annual scale (0.44 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.49, but these results were improved by including meteorological data at a finer spatial scale, and soil water content and temperature measurements in the model developed to predict GPPec (0.52 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.65.

  18. Clinical outcomes associated with albuminuria in central Australia: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Luke, Joanne; Nelson, Craig; Brown, Alex; O'Dea, Kerin; Jenkins, Alicia; Best, James D; McDermott, Robyn; Daniel, Mark; Rowley, Kevin

    2016-08-05

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage-kidney disease (ESKD) continue to be under-diagnosed and a major burden for Aboriginal communities in central Australia. The aim of this study was to examine the risk of poor clinical outcomes associated with elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) among Aboriginal people in central Australia. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of end stage kidney disease (ESKD), dialysis, CVD (cardiovascular disease) and mortality associated with participants' baseline albuminuria reading from a 10-year cohort study of Aboriginal people (n = 623) from three communities in central Australia. Predictors of progression of albuminuria were also examined in the context of the Kidney Health Australia (KHA) Risk Matrix. A baseline ACR level of ≥3.5 mg/mmol was associated with an almost 10-fold increased risk of ESKD (95%CI 2.07-43.8) and a 15-fold risk of dialysis (95%CI 1.89-121). Albuminuria ≥3.5 mg/mmol was also associated with a borderline 63 % increased risk of CVD (95%CI 0.98-2.71). No significant association was observed with mortality from all-causes or chronic disease. Diabetes and a waist-to-hip ratio ≥0.90 independently predicted a two-fold increased risk of a progression to higher ACR levels. A single measure of moderately increased albuminuria was a strong predictor of renal failure in this population. A single spot urine ACR analysis in conjunction with the KHA Risk Matrix may be a useful and efficient strategy to screen for risk of CKD and progression to dialysis in remote communities. A focus on individuals with diabetes and/or central obesity for strategies to avoid increases in albuminuria may also prevent future CKD and CVD complications.

  19. Legal and actual central bank independence : A case study of Bank of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; de Haan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period

  20. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  1. The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format or: how I learned to stop worrying and love the ome-ome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM, pronounced “biome” format: a JSON-based file format for representing arbitrary observation by sample contingency tables with associated sample and observation metadata. As the number of categories of comparative omics data types (collectively, the “ome-ome” grows rapidly, a general format to represent and archive this data will facilitate the interoperability of existing bioinformatics tools and future meta-analyses. Findings The BIOM file format is supported by an independent open-source software project (the biom-format project, which initially contains Python objects that support the use and manipulation of BIOM data in Python programs, and is intended to be an open development effort where developers can submit implementations of these objects in other programming languages. Conclusions The BIOM file format and the biom-format project are steps toward reducing the “bioinformatics bottleneck” that is currently being experienced in diverse areas of biological sciences, and will help us move toward the next phase of comparative omics where basic science is translated into clinical and environmental applications. The BIOM file format is currently recognized as an Earth Microbiome Project Standard, and as a Candidate Standard by the Genomic Standards Consortium.

  2. Serological study of Neospora caninum infection in dogs in central China

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    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176. No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs (p > 0.05. The infection rate in rural dogs (18% was higher (p < 0.05 than in urban dogs (11%. The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased (p < 0.05 with age. The results of the present study indicate the high prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs.

  3. Central Coherence in Eating Disorders: A Synthesis of Studies Using the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test.

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    Katie Lang

    Full Text Available Large variability in tests and differences in scoring systems used to study central coherence in eating disorders may lead to different interpretations, inconsistent findings and between study discrepancies. This study aimed to address inconsistencies by collating data from several studies from the same research group that used the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (Rey Figure in order to produce norms to provide benchmark data for future studies.Data was collated from 984 participants in total. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, recovered Anorexia Nervosa, unaffected family members and healthy controls were compared using the Rey Figure.Poor global processing was observed across all current eating disorder sub-groups and in unaffected relatives. There was no difference in performance between recovered AN and HC groups.This is the largest dataset reported in the literature and supports previous studies implicating poor global processing across eating disorders using the Rey Figure. It provides robust normative data useful for future studies.

  4. Population Genetic Structure of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae: A Freshwater Look at the Pampa Biome in Southern South America

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    Aline M. C. Ramos-Fregonezi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a Neotropical biome formed primarily by low altitude grasslands and encompasses the southernmost portion of Brazil, Uruguay, and part of Argentina. Despite the high level of endemism, and its significant environmental heterogeneity, Pampean species are underrepresented in phylogeographic studies, especially aquatic organisms. The Pampean hydrological system resulted from a long history of tectonism, climate, and sea level changes since the Neogene. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus, a freshwater fish species that occurs throughout most of the Pampa biome. We characterized mitochondrial and autosomal genetic lineages in populations sampled from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to investigate (1 the correspondence between current drainage systems and evolutionary lineages, (2 the demographic history for each genetic lineage, and (3 the temporal depth of these lineages. Overall, we found that the major evolutionary lineages in this species are strongly related to the main Pampean drainage systems, even though stream capture events may have affected the distribution of genetic lineages among drainages. There was evidence for recent population growth in the lineages occupying drainages closest to the shore, which may indicate the effect of quaternary sea-level changes. In general, divergence time estimates among evolutionary lineages were shallow, ranging from 20,000 to 800,000 years before present, indicating a geologically recent history for this group, as previously reported in other Pampean species. A Bayesian phylogeographical reconstruction suggested that an ancestral lineage probably colonized the Uruguay River Basin, and then expanded throughout the Pampas. This evolutionary scenario may represent useful starting models for other freshwater species having a similar distribution.

  5. Future changes in South American biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra is dependent on applied atmospheric forcings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Liam; Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven

    2017-04-01

    It remains poorly understood why the position of the forest-savanna biome boundary, in a domain defined by precipitation and temperature, differs in South America, Africa and Australia. Process based Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are a valuable tool to investigate the determinants of vegetation distributions, however, many DGVMs fail to predict the spatial distribution or indeed presence of the South American savanna biome. Evidence suggests fire plays a significant role in mediating forest-savanna biome boundaries, however, fire alone appear to be insufficient to predict these boundaries in South America. We hypothesize that interactions between precipitation, constraints on tree rooting depth and fire, affect the probability of savanna occurrence and the position of the savanna-forest boundary. We tested our hypotheses at tropical forest and savanna sites in Brazil and Venezuela using a novel DGVM, aDGVM2, which allows plant trait spectra, constrained by trade-offs between traits, to evolve in response to abiotic and biotic conditions. Plant hydraulics is represented by the cohesion-tension theory, this allowed us to explore how soil and plant hydraulics control biome distributions and plant traits. The resulting community trait distributions are emergent properties of model dynamics. We showed that across much of South America the biome state is not determined by climate alone. Interactions between tree rooting depth, fire and precipitation affected the probability of observing a given biome state and the emergent traits of plant communities. Simulations where plant rooting depth varied in space provided the best match to satellite derived biomass estimates and generated biome distributions that reproduced contemporary biome maps well. Future projections showed that biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra will change, however, the magnitude of these changes are highly dependent on the applied atmospheric forcings.

  6. Survival and growth of under-planted trees: a meta-analysis across four biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Alain; Bouchard, André; Cogliastro, Alain

    2006-08-01

    The transformation of natural forest regeneration processes by human activities has created the need to develop and implement new models of forest management. Alternative silvicultural systems such as variable retention harvest, partial and patch cuts, and older forest management practices such as under-planting, are used in many forests around the world, particularly in North American oak stands, the boreal and coastal temperate rain forests of Canada and the United States, and in many degraded tropical regions of Asia and the Americas. Specific objectives are pursued in each of these biomes, but some are common to most regions, such as preservation of cover and structure and their associated benefits for natural or artificial regeneration due to moderation of the microclimate, development of optimal light and competition conditions, and reduced predation by herbivores. Shelterwoods are often presented as an alternative to clear-cutting to improve the survival of planted trees. A meta-analysis of published results with randomization tests was performed to test the relationship between overstory density and planted seedling growth and survival. Multiple comparisons were also used to reveal optimal levels of overstory density, if they exist. A majority of studies show that survival and growth improve as stand density decreases to an intermediate level, below which they either drop or stabilize. This level seems optimal in most conditions, as it is also more apt to fulfill other objectives imposed on today's forest activities, such as the conservation of forest processes and structures, and the reconstruction of degraded stands through the accelerated return of mid- to late-successional species.

  7. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect Across Biomes in the Continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Zhang, Ping; Wolfe, Robert E.; Bounoua, Lahouari

    2010-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the Landsat TM-based NLCD 2001 dataset and land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) skin temperature amplitude and its relationship to development intensity, size, and ecological setting for 38 of the most populous cities in the continental United States. Development intensity zones based on %ISA are defined for each urban area emanating outward from the urban core to the nonurban rural areas nearby and used to stratify sampling for land surface temperatures and NDVI. Sampling is further constrained by biome and elevation to insure objective intercomparisons between zones and between cities in different biomes permitting the definition of hierarchically ordered zones that are consistent across urban areas in different ecological setting and across scales. We find that ecological context significantly influences the amplitude of summer daytime UHI (urban-rural temperature difference) the largest (8 C average) observed for cities built in biomes dominated by temperate broadleaf and mixed forest. For all cities combined, ISA is the primary driver for increase in temperature explaining 70% of the total variance in LST. On a yearly average, urban areas are substantially warmer than the non-urban fringe by 2.9 C, except for urban areas in biomes with arid and semiarid climates. The average amplitude of the UHI is remarkably asymmetric with a 4.3 C temperature difference in summer and only 1.3 C in winter. In desert environments, the LST's response to ISA presents an uncharacteristic "U-shaped" horizontal gradient decreasing from the urban core to the outskirts of the city and then increasing again in the suburban to the rural zones. UHI's calculated for these cities point to a possible heat sink effect. These observational results show that the urban heat island amplitude both increases with city size and is seasonally

  8. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  9. Optimizing selective cutting strategies for maximum carbon stocks and yield of Moso bamboo forest using BIOME-BGC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Pingheng; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2017-04-15

    The selective cutting method currently used in Moso bamboo forests has resulted in a reduction of stand productivity and carbon sequestration capacity. Given the time and labor expense involved in addressing this problem manually, simulation using an ecosystem model is the most suitable approach. The BIOME-BGC model was improved to suit managed Moso bamboo forests, which was adapted to include age structure, specific ecological processes and management measures of Moso bamboo forest. A field selective cutting experiment was done in nine plots with three cutting intensities (high-intensity, moderate-intensity and low-intensity) during 2010-2013, and biomass of these plots was measured for model validation. Then four selective cutting scenarios were simulated by the improved BIOME-BGC model to optimize the selective cutting timings, intervals, retained ages and intensities. The improved model matched the observed aboveground carbon density and yield of different plots, with a range of relative error from 9.83% to 15.74%. The results of different selective cutting scenarios suggested that the optimal selective cutting measure should be cutting 30% culms of age 6, 80% culms of age 7, and all culms thereafter (above age 8) in winter every other year. The vegetation carbon density and harvested carbon density of this selective cutting method can increase by 74.63% and 21.5%, respectively, compared with the current selective cutting measure. The optimized selective cutting measure developed in this study can significantly promote carbon density, yield, and carbon sink capacity in Moso bamboo forests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scale and the isotopic record of C4 plants in pedogenic carbonate: from the biome to the rhizospere.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monger, Dr. H Curtis [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces; Cole, David R [ORNL; Buck, Dr. Brenda [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Gallegos, Robert [Sant fe Water Division

    2009-01-01

    The 13C/12C ratio in pedogenic carbonate (i.e., CaCO3 formed in soil) is a significant tool for investigating C4 biomes of the past. However, the paleoecological meaning of d13C values in pedogenic carbonate can change with the scale at which one considers the data. We describe studies of modern soils, fossil soils, and vegetation change in the Chihuahuan Desert of North America and elsewhere that reveal four scales important for paleoecologic interpretations. (1) At the broadest scale, the biome scale (hundreds to millions of km2), an isotopic record interpreted as C3 vegetation replacing C4 grasslands may indicate invading C3 woody shrubs instead of expanding C3 forests (a common interpretation). (2) At the landscape scale (several tens of m2 to hundreds of km2), the accuracy of scaling up paleoclimatic interpretations to a regional level is affected by the landform containing the isotopic record. (3) At the soil-profile scale (cm2 to m2), soil profiles with multiple generations of carbonate mixed together have a lower-resolution paleoecologic record than soil profiles repeatedly buried. (4) At the rhizosphere scale (lm2 to cm2), carbonate formed on roots lack the 14 17 enrichment observed at broader scales, revealing different fractionation processes at different scales. A multi-scale approach in dealing with d13C in pedogenic carbonate will increase the accuracy of paleoecologic interpretations and understanding of soil geomorphic climatic interactions that affect boundaries between C4 and C3 vegetation.

  11. Scale and the isotopic record of C4 plants in pedogenic carbonate: from the biome to the rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monger, Dr. H Curtis [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces; Cole, David [Ohio State University; Buck, Dr. Brenda [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Gallegos, Robert [Sant fe Water Division

    2009-01-01

    The 13C/12C ratio in pedogenic carbonate (i.e., CaCO3 formed in soil) is a significant tool for investigating C4 biomes of the past. However, the paleoecological meaning of d13C values in pedogenic carbonate can change with the scale at which one considers the data. We describe studies of modern soils, fossil soils, and vegetation change in the Chihuahuan Desert of North America and elsewhere that reveal four scales important for paleoecologic interpretations. (1) At the broadest scale, the biome scale (hundreds to millions of km2), an isotopic record interpreted as C3 vegetation replacing C4 grasslands may indicate invading C3 woody shrubs instead of expanding C3 forests (a common interpretation). (2) At the landscape scale (several tens of m2 to hundreds of km2), the accuracy of scaling up paleoclimatic interpretations to a regional level is affected by the landform containing the isotopic record. (3) At the soil-profile scale (cm2 to m2), soil profiles with multiple generations of carbonate mixed together have a lower-resolution paleoecologic record than soil profiles repeatedly buried. (4) At the rhizosphere scale (lm2 to cm2), carbonate formed on roots lack the 14 17 enrichment observed at broader scales, revealing different fractionation processes at different scales. A multi-scale approach in dealing with d13C in pedogenic carbonate will increase the accuracy of paleoecologic interpretations and understanding of soil geomorphic climatic interactions that affect boundaries between C4 and C3 vegetation.

  12. Comparative biometric study between plateau iris configuration and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle Estudo biométrico comparativo entre configuração da íris em platô e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto com seio camerular estreito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Diniz Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate biometrically the differences between plateau iris configuration (PIC eyes and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes. METHODS: A comparative study involving a case series with 20 eyes of 11 plateau iris configuration patients and 45 eyes of 27 primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes patients was done. The following measurements were taken: corneal curvature, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness (LT, axial length (AL, lens thickness and axial length ratio, lens position (LP and relative lens position (RLP. RESULTS: The plateau iris configuration eyes presented a higher corneal cuvature value than primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes eyes but not with clinical and statistical difference (P=0.090. The plateau iris configuration eyes demonstrated a higher central corneal thickness, with statistical significance, when compared to primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes (P=0.010. Statistical significant difference between plateau iris configuration and primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes was found in axial length (21.69 ± 0.98 vs. 22.42 ± 0.89; P=0.003. No significant difference was found when anterior chamber depth (2.62 ± 0.23 vs. 2.71 ± 0.31; P=0.078, LT (4.67 ± 0.36 vs. 4.69 ± 0.45; P=0.975, LT/AL (2.16 ± 0.17 vs. 2.10 ± 0.21; P=0.569, LP (4.95 ± 0.25 vs. 5.06 ± 0.34; P=0.164 and RLP (0.23 ± 0.01 vs. 0.22 ± 0.14; P=0.348 were evaluated. CONCLUSION: The eyes with plateau iris configuration presented statistical significantly shorter axial length and higher central corneal thickness than primary open angle glaucoma with narrow angle eyes.OBJETIVO: Comparar, biometricamente, olhos portadores de configuração da íris em platô (CIP e olhos portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto com seio camerular estreito. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo comparativo envolvendo 20 olhos de 11 pacientes portadores de íris em plat

  13. The mechanism of neurofeedback training for treatment of central neuropathic pain in paraplegia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Abul; Fraser, Matthew; Conway, Bernard A; Allan, David B; Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2015-10-13

    Central neuropathic pain has a prevalence of 40% in patients with spinal cord injury. Electroencephalography (EEG) studies showed that this type of pain has identifiable signatures, that could potentially be targeted by a neuromodulation therapy. The aim of the study was to investigate the putative mechanism of neurofeedback training on central neuropathic pain and its underlying brain signatures in patients with chronic paraplegia. Patients' EEG activity was modulated from the sensory-motor cortex, electrode location C3/Cz/C4/P4 in up to 40 training sessions Results. Six out of seven patients reported immediate reduction of pain during neurofeedback training. Best results were achieved with suppressing Ɵ and higher β (20-30 Hz) power and reinforcing α power at C4. Four patients reported clinically significant long-term reduction of pain (>30%) which lasted at least a month beyond the therapy. EEG during neurofeedback revealed a wide spread modulation of power in all three frequency bands accompanied with changes in the coherence most notable in the beta band. The standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis of EEG before and after neurofeedback therapy showed the statistically significant reduction of power in beta frequency band in all tested patients. Areas with reduced power included the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and the Insular Cortex. Neurofeedback training produces both immediate and longer term reduction of central neuropathic pain that is accompanied with a measurable short and long term modulation of cortical activity. Controlled trials are required to confirm the efficacy of this neurofeedback protocol on treatment of pain. The study is a registered UKCRN clinical trial Nr 9824.

  14. Central and Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Consumption: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

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    Alexandra Stoianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructose consumption has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, and its role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has been implicated by many studies. It is most often encountered in the diet as sucrose (glucose and fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose. At high levels, dietary exposure to fructose triggers a series of metabolic changes originating in the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and decreased leptin sensitivity. Fructose has been identified to alter biological pathways in other tissues including the central nervous system (CNS, adipose tissue, and the gastrointestinal system. Unlike glucose, consumption of fructose produces smaller increases in the circulating satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, and does not attenuate levels of the appetite suppressing hormone ghrelin. In the brain, fructose contributes to increased food consumption by activating appetite and reward pathways, and stimulating hypothalamic AMPK activity, a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake. Recent studies investigating the neurophysiological factors linking fructose consumption and weight gain in humans have demonstrated differential activation of brain regions that govern appetite, motivation and reward processing. Compared to fructose, glucose ingestion produces a greater reduction of hypothalamic neuronal activity, and increases functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and other reward regions of the brain, indicating that these two sugars regulate feeding behavior through distinct neural circuits. This review article outlines the current findings in fructose-feeding studies in both human and animal models, and discusses the central effects on the CNS that may lead to increased appetite and food intake. Keywords: Fructose, Metabolic syndrome, Appetite, Central nervous system

  15. Neurocognitive sequelae of cerebral malaria in adults: a pilot study in Benguela Central Hospital, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Bruno; Kalei, Isabel

    2013-07-01

    To characterize the neurocognitive sequelae of cerebral malaria (CM) in an adult sample of the city of Benguela, Angola. A neuropsychological assessment was carried out in 22 subjects with prior history of CM ranging from 6 to 12 months after the infection. The obtained results were compared to a control group with no previous history of cerebral malaria. The study was conducted in Benguela Central Hospital, Angola in 2011. CM group obtained lower results on the two last trials of a verbal learning task and on an abstract reasoning test. CM is associated to a slower verbal learning rate and to difficulties in the ability to discriminate and perceive relations between new elements.

  16. Measurement of Vein Diameter for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Insertion: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Rebecca; Cummings, Melita; Childs, Jessie; Fielder, Andrea; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Grech, Carol; Esterman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an appropriately sized vein reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with peripherally inserted central catheters. This observational study described the diameters of the brachial, basilic, and cephalic veins and determined the effect of patient factors on vein size. Ultrasound was used to measure the veins of 176 participants. Vein diameter was similar in both arms regardless of hand dominance and side. Patient factors-including greater age, height, and weight, as well as male gender-were associated with increased vein diameter. The basilic vein tended to have the largest diameter statistically. However, this was the case in only 55% of patients.

  17. Prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, alcohol intake and nicotine consumption in rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

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    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideations, alcohol and nicotine consumption in adults in an agrarian society mostly unchanged by the effects of urbanization.The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in rural Central India close to the tribal belt and included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD, suicidal ideation by six standardized questions, nicotine use by the Fagerstroem Nicotine Tolerance Questionnaire (FTNQ, and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT.Mild to moderate depression (CESD sum score: 15-21 was detected in 1862 (39.6% individuals (33.5% of men, 44.8 of women, and major depression (CESD sum score >21 in 613 (13.0% individuals (8.1 of men, 17.3% of women. Suicide attempt was reported by 199 (4.2% participants and suicidal thoughts during the last 6 months by 238 (5.1% individuals. There were 887 (18.9% smokers and smokeless tobacco was consumed by 1968 (41.8% subjects. Alcohol consumption was reported by 1081 (23.0% participants; 283 (6.0% subjects had an AUDIT score ≥ 8 (hazardous drinking, and 108 (4.63% subjects a score ≥ 13 (women or ≥ 15 (men (alcohol dependence.In rural Central India, prevalence of major depression was comparable to figures reported from other developing countries. Prevalence of smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption was higher than as reported from urban regions. Measures should be taken to address the relatively high prevalence of suicide attempts and thoughts on suicide in rural Central India.

  18. Living with a peripherally inserted central catheter: the perspective of cancer outpatients-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parás-Bravo, Paula; Paz-Zulueta, María; Santibañez, Miguel; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Herrero-Montes, Manuel; Caso-Álvarez, Vanesa; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experience of using a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in cancer sufferers receiving outpatient treatment. A qualitative, phenomenological study was performed. Purposeful sampling methods were used. Data collection methods included semi-structured interviews and researcher field notes. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data. The study was conducted following the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. Eighteen patients (61% women, mean age 58 years) participated. They spent a mean duration of 155 days with the line in place. Two themes were identified with different subgroups. The theme "Living with a PICC line," including the subthemes "Benefits" and "Disadvantages," displays how the implantation is experienced by patients in a dichotomous manner. This highlighted both the beneficial and negative aspects of the implantation. The second theme was "Adapting to life with the catheter" and comprised three subthemes: "Advantages," "Lifestyle modifications," and "Overall assessment of the peripherally inserted central catheter," which shows how patients gradually accept the catheter by adapting their lifestyle. Over time, most patients considered having a PICC line to be a positive experience that they would recommend to other patients, as they found that it did not alter their quality of life. These results can be applied in Oncology Units for developing specific protocols for patients.

  19. An overview on the seismic microzonation and site effect studies in Central Asia

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    Marco Pilz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past centuries, many cities in Central Asia have suffered significant damages caused by earthquakes. A crucial step towards preparedness for future events, the definition of the optimal engineering designs for civil structures and the mitigation of earthquake risks involves the accomplishment of site response studies. To accurately identify local variations of the site response at different locations within the cities, earthquakes recorded by seismic networks as well as measurements of the seismic noise can be used for estimating the resonance frequencies and for evaluating the expected level of ground motion at each site. Additionally, the measurements can help identifying site specific features like more-dimensional resonances and directional effects. This information can be complemented with array measurements of ambient seismic noise in order to estimate local shear-wave velocity profiles, an essential parameter for evaluating the dynamic properties of soil, and to characterize the corresponding sediment layers at each site. The present study gives an overview on the progressive development of the seismic zonation studies in the frame of EMCA carried out in several cities in Central Asia.

  20. Correlation of central venous pressure with venous blood gas analysis parameters; a diagnostic study

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    Sima Rahim-Taleghani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess the correlation between central venous pressure (CVP and venous blood gas (VBG analysis parameters, to facilitate management of severe sepsis and septic shock in emergency department. Material and methods: This diagnostic study was conducted from January 2014 until June 2015 in three major educational medical centers, Tehran, Iran. For patients selected with diagnosis of septic shock, peripheral blood sample was taken for testing the VBG parameters and the anion gap (AG was calculated. All the mentioned parameters were measured again after infusion of 500 cc of normal saline 0.9% in about 1 h. Results: Totally, 93 patients with septic shock were enrolled, 63 male and 30 female. The mean age was 72.53 ± 13.03 and the mean Shock Index (SI before fluid therapy was 0.79 ± 0.30. AG and pH showed significant negative correlations with CVP, While HCO3 showed a significant positive correlation with CVP. These relations can be affected by the treatment modalities used in shock management such as fluid therapy, mechanical ventilation and vasopressor treatment. Conclusion: It is likely that there is a significant statistical correlation between VBG parameters and AG with CVP, but further research is needed before implementation of the results of this study. Keywords: Shock, Septic, Central venous pressure, Blood gas analysis, Emergency department, Emergency medicine

  1. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

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    Fernanda Aparecida Nieri-Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63 and 66.7% (2/3 of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  2. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-04-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  3. STUDY OF CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER RELATED BLOOD STREAM INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ON HAEMODIALYSIS

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    Pranjal Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Temporary and permanent central venous catheters are used in majority of patients of CKD when initiated on hemodialysis and mostly these catheters act as bridge before permanent AV fistula assess could be obtained. Blood stream infections related to these central venous catheters are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Appropriate antiseptic precautions while inserting central venous catheter and early identification of catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI are of utmost importance for reducing hospital stay, cost of therapy and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients of CKD were included in the study who had central venous catheter in situ (internal jugular or subclavian and developed symptoms related to blood stream infections. Blood cultures were obtained from the catheter lumen and a separate venous site 1 hour apart. All the culture sensitivity reports were obtained from department of microbiology of our institute. Inclusion Criteria- Known case of CKD patients aged more than 18yrs on hemodialysis with symptoms and signs of catheter related blood stream infections were included in the study. Exclusion Criteria- Patients with other associated comorbid infections like Koch’s, urinary tract infection or others mimicking symptoms of CRBSI. RESULTS The cultures were found positive in 38 patients (76% while in rest 24% cases positive cultures could not be obtained. Out of culture positive patients 52.63% cases were found to have gram positive infections while 44.74% had gram negative infections. In 2.63% patients, fungus was isolated to be the causative organism. Among the gram positive organisms 50% had CoNS, 30% had MSSA and 20% had MRSA infections. Among the gram negative group, 47.06% had klebsiella, 23.53% had acinetobacter, 17.65% had E.coli and 11.76% had pseudomonas as the causative organisms. Mortality was observed in 14% patients out of which 28.57% were culture

  4. Simulation training for pediatric residents on central venous catheter placement: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott M; Burch, Wesley; Kuehnle, Sarah E; Flood, Robert G; Scalzo, Anthony J; Gerard, James M

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effect of simulation training on pediatric residents' acquisition and retention of central venous catheter insertion skills. A secondary objective was to assess the effect of simulation training on self-confidence to perform the procedure. Prospective observational pilot study. Single university clinical simulation center. Pediatric residents, postgraduate years 1-3. Residents participated in a 60- to 90-minute ultrasound-guided central venous catheter simulation training session. Video recordings of residents performing simulated femoral central venous catheter insertions were made before (baseline), after, and at 3-month following training. Three blinded expert raters independently scored the performances using a 24-item checklist and 100-mm global rating scale. At each time point, residents rated their confidence to perform the procedure on a 100-mm scale. Twenty-six residents completed the study. Compared with baseline, immediately following training, median checklist score (54.2% [interquartile range, 40.8-68.8%] vs 83.3% [interquartile range, 70.0-91.7%]), global rating score (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 0.0-64.3 mm] vs 79.5 mm [interquartile range, 16.3-91.7 mm]), success rate (38.5% vs 80.8%), and self-confidence (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 3.8-19.0 mm] vs 52.0 mm [interquartile range, 43.5-66.5 mm]) all improved (p interquartile range, 40.8-68.8%] vs 54.2% [interquartile range, 45.8-80.4%], p = 0.47), global rating score (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 0.0-64.3 mm] vs 35.5 mm [interquartile range, 5.3-77.0], p = 0.62), and success rate (38.5% vs 65.4%, p = 0.35) were similar at 3-month follow-up. Self-confidence, however, remained above baseline at 3-month follow-up (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 3.8-19.0 mm] vs 61.0 mm [interquartile range, 31.5-71.8 mm], p < 0.01). Simulation training improved pediatric residents' central venous catheter insertion procedural skills. Decay in skills was found at 3-month follow-up. This suggests that

  5. Impact of feeding method on diaphragm electrical activity and central apnea in preterm infants (FEAdi study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eugene; Schurr, Patti; Reilly, Maureen; Dunn, Michael; Beck, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    In preterm infants, it is unknown whether feeding affects neural breathing pattern. By measuring the diaphragm electrical activity (Edi) waveform, we evaluated the effect of enteral feeding and compared the effects of feeding methods on neural breathing pattern and central apnea in very low birth weight preterm infants. In a prospective, randomized, crossover study, ten non-ventilated preterm infants with birth weightsapnea. Primary outcome was change in Edi min with feed. Secondary outcomes include change in Edi peak, frequency and duration of central apnea with feeding. Although intrasubject coefficient of variation was not significantly different, individual responses to feeding and feeding method were variable. No significant difference in Edi timing, Edi min, Edi peak, or apnea was observed for the different epochs. In this study cohort, neural breathing pattern does not appear to be consistently affected by enteral feeding or the feeding method. Compared with BF, SF does not appear to reduce the number or duration of apneas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitivity of the Amazon biome to high resolution climate change projections

    OpenAIRE

    LYRA,Andre de Arruda; CHOU,Sin Chan; SAMPAIO,Gilvan de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Despite the reduction in deforestation rate in recent years, the impact of global warming by itself can cause changes in vegetation cover. The objective of this work was to investigate the possible changes on the major Brazilian biome, the Amazon Rainforest, under different climate change scenarios. The dynamic vegetation models may simulate changes in vegetation distribution and the biogeochemical processes due to climate change. Initially, the Inland dynamic vegetation model was f...

  7. Ceracis zarathustrai sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Ciidae) from the Atlantic Forest biome

    OpenAIRE

    Pecci-Maddalena,Ítalo S.C.; Sandoval-Gómez,Vivian Eliana; Lopes-Andrade,Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    Ceracis Mellié, 1849 is the second most speciose genus of Ciidae, with 51 described species. Here we describe Ceracis zarathustrai sp. nov. based on adult individuals collected in three remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome (states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). We provide information on its host fungi and briefly discuss the morphological affinities with other species of the genus.

  8. Ceracis zarathustrai sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Ciidae from the Atlantic Forest biome

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    Ítalo S.C. Pecci-Maddalena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceracis Mellié, 1849 is the second most speciose genus of Ciidae, with 51 described species. Here we describe Ceracis zarathustrai sp. nov. based on adult individuals collected in three remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome (states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. We provide information on its host fungi and briefly discuss the morphological affinities with other species of the genus.

  9. Direct environmental impacts of solar power in two arid biomes: An initial investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Justine Rudman; Paul Gauch; Karen J. Esler

    2017-01-01

    According to recent national energy plans and policy documents, the number of renewable energy developments is expected to increase in South Africa, thus contributing to the diversification of the country’s energy system. Consequently, numerous solar power developments are being deployed in the sunny arid interior – areas generally represented by the Nama-Karoo and Savanna Biomes. These developments come with a range of novel environmental impacts, providing opportunities for multidimensional...

  10. Genetic diversity of bats coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest hotspot biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Campos, Angélica Cristine de Almeida; Carvalho, Cristiano de; Ambar, Guilherme; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo Pereira; Munir, Muhammad; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Bats are notorious reservoirs of genetically-diverse and high-profile pathogens, and are playing crucial roles in the emergence and re-emergence of viruses, both in human and in animals. In this report, we identified and characterized previously unknown and diverse genetic clusters of bat coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest Biome, Brazil. These results highlight the virus richness of bats and their possible roles in the public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The deforestation story: testing for anthropogenic origins of Africa's flammable grassy biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, William; Zaloumis, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Africa has the most extensive C4 grassy biomes of any continent. They are highly flammable accounting for greater than 70% of the world's burnt area. Much of Africa's savannas and grasslands occur in climates warm enough and wet enough to support closed forests. The combination of open grassy systems and the frequent fires they support have long been interpreted as anthropogenic artefacts caused by humans igniting frequent fires. True grasslands, it was believed, would be restricted to climat...

  12. BiomeNet: a Bayesian model for inference of metabolic divergence among microbial communities.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Shafiei; Katherine A Dunn; Hugh Chipman; Hong Gu; Joseph P Bielawski

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics yields enormous numbers of microbial sequences that can be assigned a metabolic function. Using such data to infer community-level metabolic divergence is hindered by the lack of a suitable statistical framework. Here, we describe a novel hierarchical Bayesian model, called BiomeNet (Bayesian inference of metabolic networks), for inferring differential prevalence of metabolic subnetworks among microbial communities. To infer the structure of community-level metabolic interactions...

  13. A global change-induced biome shift in the Montseny mountains (NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Peñuelas, Josep

    2003-01-01

    Shifts in plant species and biome distribution in response to warming have been described in past climate changes. However, reported evidence of such shifts under current climate change is still scarce. By comparing current and 1945 vegetation distribution in the Montseny mountains (Catalonia, NE Spain), we report here a progressive replacement of cold-temperate ecosystems by Mediterranean ecosystems. Beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest has shifted altitudinally upwards by ca. 70 m at the highest ...

  14. Comparison of central and local serial CT assessments of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients in a clinical phase IIB study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsch, Moritz; Zaim, Souhil; Dicken, Volker; Lehmacher, Walter; Scheuring, Urban J

    2017-02-01

    Background Clinical oncological studies attempt to improve precision of data by central radiological assessments. However, it is unclear, to which extent local and central assessments diverge. Purpose To quantify inter-reader variability and the deviation of local from central radiological assessments of computed tomography (CT) scans. Material and Methods This was a sub-study of a randomized clinical phase IIb trial in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), comparing first-line sorafenib with interferon-alpha-2a (IFN-α-2a). It analyzed agreements of local with central RECIST CT assessments by Cohen's kappa (κ), symmetry tests, deviations in waterfall plots, Bland-Altman plots, and parametric survival analyses. Results The concordance between local and central radiologic review was quantified by κ = 0.53. While local assessment yielded progressive disease (PD) in 18.6%, central assessment classified 22.5% of patient time points as PD exhibiting only a partial overlap with the 18.6% The tumor shrinkage rates in waterfall plots were 68.1% in local and 55.8% in central review (57.8% and 59% by Reader 1 and Reader 2). Bland-Altman plots identified a systematic shift of tumor change rates by -7.5% in local compared to central assessments, that may reflect a systematic tendency of more favorable results in local assessments. The discordance between local and central review was reflected by a time to progression (TTP) hazard ratio (HR) of 1.73 ( P = 0.0003). Conclusion These data suggest that central radiologic review may reduce technical measurement variability in clinical trials, which should be scrutinized in future studies compared to a volumetric reference.

  15. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversity and molecular characterization of novel hemoplasmas infecting wild rodents from different Brazilian biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Matos, Carlos Antonio; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; Olmos, Isabella Delamain Fernandez; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2015-12-01

    Although hemoplasma infection in domestic animals has been well documented, little is known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of these bacteria in wild rodents. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in wild rodents from five Brazilian biomes, assessing the 16S rRNA phylogenetic position of hemoplasma species by molecular approach. Spleen tissues were obtained from 500 rodents, comprising 52 different rodent species trapped between 2000 and 2011. DNA samples were submitted to previously described PCR protocols for amplifying Mycoplasma spp. based on 16S rRNA, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic inferences. Among 457 rodent spleen samples showing absence of inhibitors, 100 (21.9%) were PCR positive to Mycoplasma spp. The occurrence of hemotropic mycoplasmas among all sampled rodents was demonstrated in all five biomes and ranged from 9.3% (7/75) to 26.2% (38/145). The Blastn analysis showed that amplified sequences had a percentage of identity ranging from 86 to 99% with other murine hemoplasmas. The ML phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene of 24 positive randomly selected samples showed the presence of ten distinct groups, all clustering within the Mycoplasma haemofelis. The phylogenetic assessment suggests the circulation of novel hemoplasma species in rodents from different biomes in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global negative vegetation feedback to climate warming responses of leaf litter decomposition rates in cold biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Johannes H C; van Bodegom, Peter M; Aerts, Rien; Callaghan, Terry V; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Alatalo, Juha; Chapin, F Stuart; Gerdol, Renato; Gudmundsson, Jon; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Hartley, Anne E; Hik, David S; Hofgaard, Annika; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Karlsson, Staffan; Klein, Julia A; Laundre, Jim; Magnusson, Borgthor; Michelsen, Anders; Molau, Ulf; Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Quested, Helen M; Sandvik, Sylvi M; Schmidt, Inger K; Shaver, Gus R; Solheim, Bjørn; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Stenström, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Wada, Naoya; Welker, Jeffrey M; Zhao, Xinquan

    2007-07-01

    Whether climate change will turn cold biomes from large long-term carbon sinks into sources is hotly debated because of the great potential for ecosystem-mediated feedbacks to global climate. Critical are the direction, magnitude and generality of climate responses of plant litter decomposition. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of the major climate-change-related drivers of litter decomposition rates in cold northern biomes worldwide. Leaf litters collected from the predominant species in 33 global change manipulation experiments in circum-arctic-alpine ecosystems were incubated simultaneously in two contrasting arctic life zones. We demonstrate that longer-term, large-scale changes to leaf litter decomposition will be driven primarily by both direct warming effects and concomitant shifts in plant growth form composition, with a much smaller role for changes in litter quality within species. Specifically, the ongoing warming-induced expansion of shrubs with recalcitrant leaf litter across cold biomes would constitute a negative feedback to global warming. Depending on the strength of other (previously reported) positive feedbacks of shrub expansion on soil carbon turnover, this may partly counteract direct warming enhancement of litter decomposition.

  18. Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, Mary A; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Penillard, Aurore; Egerton, John J G; Creek, Danielle; Bloomfield, Keith J; Xiang, Jen; Sinca, Felipe; Stangl, Zsofia R; Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Griffin, Kevin L; Huntingford, Chris; Hurry, Vaughan; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2016-04-05

    Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration-temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates.

  19. Intrinsic climate dependency of ecosystem light and water-use-efficiencies across Australian biomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Hao; Li, Longhui; Eamus, Derek; Cleverly, James; Huete, Alfredo; Yu, Qiang; Beringer, Jason; Van Gorsel, Eva; Hutley, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) to availability of water and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) differs among biomes. Here we investigated variations of ecosystem light-use-efficiency (eLUE: GPP/PAR) and water-use-efficiency (eWUE: GPP/evapotranspiration) among seven Australian eddy covariance sites with differing annual precipitation, species composition and temperature. Changes to both eLUE and eWUE were primarily correlated with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at multiple temporal scales across biomes, with minor additional correlations observed with soil moisture and temperature. The effects of leaf area index on eLUE and eWUE were also relatively weak compared to VPD, indicating an intrinsic dependency of eLUE and eWUE on climate. Additionally, eLUE and eWUE were statistically different for biomes between summer and winter, except eWUE for savannas and the grassland. These findings will improve our understanding of how light- and water-use traits in Australian ecosystems may respond to climate change. (letter)

  20. Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, Mary A.; O’Sullivan, Odhran S.; Reich, Peter B.; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Penillard, Aurore; Egerton, John J. G.; Creek, Danielle; Bloomfield, Keith J.; Xiang, Jen; Sinca, Felipe; Stangl, Zsofia R.; Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Griffin, Kevin L.; Huntingford, Chris; Hurry, Vaughan; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H.; Atkin, Owen K.

    2016-01-01

    Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration–temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates. PMID:27001849

  1. Modelling the carbon budget of intensive forest monitoring sites in Germany using the simulation model BIOME-BGC

    OpenAIRE

    Jochheim, H.; Puhlmann, M.; Beese, F.; Berthold, D.; Einert, P.; Kallweit, R.; Konopatzky, A.; Meesenburg, H.; Meiwes, K.-J.; Raspe, S.; Schulte-Bisping, H.; Schulz, C.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that by calibrating the simulation model BIOME-BGC with mandatory and optional Level II data, within the ICP Forest programme, a well-founded calculation of the carbon budget of forest stands is achievable and, based on succeeded calibration, the modified BIOME-BGC model is a useful tool to assess the effect of climate change on forest ecosystems. peerReviewed

  2. [Primary central nervous system diffuse large B cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z P; Ainiwaer, Babayi; Liu, Z Y; Shi, X L; Cui, W L; Zhang, W; Li, X X

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate clinicopathologic characteristics, immunophenotype and EB virus-related molecular genetic alterations in primary central nervous system diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) along with correlation with clinical prognosis. Methods: A total of 30 cases of primary central nervous system DLBCL were retrospectively studied by retrieving clinical data, histological evaluation and immunophenotyping by EnVision two steps methods. The expression of EBER mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization and bcl-2, bcl-6 and C-MYC gene abnormalities were analyzed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results: The cases included 18 males and 12 females (sex ratio of 1.5∶1.0) with an age ranging from 24 to 78 years (average age of 52 years, the median age of 53 years). The single primary clinical presentation was focal neurologic deficits. Tumor locations were supratentorial (21 cases), subtentorial (7 cases), involving both locations in 2 cases. Diffuse growth pattern was observed with large lymphoid cells mostly resembling centroblasts with abundant basophilic cytoplasm with oval to round, vesicular nuclei containing fine chromatin. An angiocentric and angiodestructive growth pattern was also present. Other features included perivascular space invasion. Immunohistochemical staining using a panel of CD10, bcl-6 and MUM1, six cases were germinal center-like (GCB) and 24 cases were non-germinal central-like (non-GCB). The positive rates of bcl-2, bcl-6 and C-MYC were 53.3% (16/30), 80.0% (24/30) and 20.0% (6/30), respectively. Genetic alterations were detected by FISH and the gene arrangement rates of bcl-2, bcl-6 and C-MYC were 3.3% (1/30), 16.7% (5/30) and 3.3% (1/30), respectively. There were 19 cases in stage 0-1 disease and 11 cases had stage 2-3 disease. Postoperative follow-up for average 13.6 months showed the median survival of 10 months, one-year survival of 46.7% and 16 patients died within a year. Conclusions: The clinical prognosis

  3. Biogeographical distribution analysis of hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing genes suggests that near-equatorial biomes have higher abundance of genes with potential for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge S; Araújo, Wydemberg J; Figueiredo, Ricardo M; Silva-Portela, Rita C B; de Brito Guerra, Alaine; da Silva Araújo, Sinara Carla; Minnicelli, Carolina; Carlos, Aline Cardoso; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2017-07-27

    Bacterial and Archaeal communities have a complex, symbiotic role in crude oil bioremediation. Their biosurfactants and degradation enzymes have been in the spotlight, mainly due to the awareness of ecosystem pollution caused by crude oil accidents and their use. Initially, the scientific community studied the role of individual microbial species by characterizing and optimizing their biosurfactant and oil degradation genes, studying their individual distribution. However, with the advances in genomics, in particular with the use of New-Generation-Sequencing and Metagenomics, it is now possible to have a macro view of the complex pathways related to the symbiotic degradation of hydrocarbons and surfactant production. It is now possible, although more challenging, to obtain the DNA information of an entire microbial community before automatically characterizing it. By characterizing and understanding the interconnected role of microorganisms and the role of degradation and biosurfactant genes in an ecosystem, it becomes possible to develop new biotechnological approaches for bioremediation use. This paper analyzes 46 different metagenome samples, spanning 20 biomes from different geographies obtained from different research projects. A metagenomics bioinformatics pipeline, focused on the biodegradation and biosurfactant-production pathways, genes and organisms, was applied. Our main results show that: (1) surfactation and degradation are correlated events, and therefore should be studied together; (2) terrestrial biomes present more degradation genes, especially cyclic compounds, and less surfactation genes, when compared to water biomes; and (3) latitude has a significant influence on the diversity of genes involved in biodegradation and biosurfactant production. This suggests that microbiomes found near the equator are richer in genes that have a role in these processes and thus have a higher biotechnological potential. In this work we have focused on the

  4. Shallow Depth Study Using Gravity & Magnetics Data in Central Java - Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy Ismullah M, Muhammad; Altin Massinai, Muhammad; Maria

    2018-03-01

    Gravity and magnetics measurements carried out in Karangsambung - Bayat - Wonosari track, Central Java - Yogyakarta region as much as 34 points for subsurface identification. Modeling and interpretation using both data at 3 sections. Section A lies on Karangsambung area and reach to 1900 m. Section A showed formation of 0.000001 - 0.0014 nT and 2.00 - 2.80 g/cm3 like alluvium, basalt and tuff. Section B lies on Wates - Yogyakarta area and reach to 1700 m. Section B showed formation of (-0.01) - 0.02 nT and 2.40 - 3.00 g/cm3 like andesite intrusive and Merapi volcano sediments. Section C lies on Bayat - Wonosari area and reach to 2000 m. Section C showed formation of 0.00016 - 0.0005 nT and 2.30 - 3.14 g/cm3 like limestone, tuff and diorite intrusive. Based on modeling results from 2D structure inversion method can identify the formation of sediments from volcano activity on Karangsambung - Bayat - Wonosari track, Central Java - Yogyakarta region. The method of this study shows potential application for identify the formation of volcano activity from 2D structure.

  5. Feasibility study for automation of the Central Laboratories, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.F.; Peck, E.S.; Fisher, E.R.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This study of the feasibility of further automating the Central Laboratories deals specifically with the combined laboratory operations in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Denver, Colorado and is prepared with the understanding that such a system will also be implemented at the Central Laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia, and Albany, New York. The goals of automation are defined in terms of the mission of a water analysis laboratory, propose alternative computer systems for meeting such goals, and evaluate these alternatives in terms of cost effectiveness and other specified criteria. It is found that further automation will be beneficial and an in-house system that incorporates dual minicomputers is recommended: one for time-shared data acquisition, processing, and control; the second for data management. High-use analytical instruments are placed on-line to the time-shared minicomputer, with a terminal at each instrument and backup data storage on magnetic tape. A third, standby computer is switched in manually should the time-shared computer go down. Field-proven, modular hardware and software are chosen. Also recommended is the incorporation of the highly developed, computer-integrated instruments that are commercially available for determining petrochemicals and other organic substances, and are essential to the Laboratories' mission

  6. A study comparing centralized CD-ROM and decentralized intranet access to MEDLINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stefan J.; Benichou, Jacques; Thirion, Benoit; Hellot, Marie France; Fuss, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a decentralized intranet access in each medical department as opposed to centralized unique MEDLINE access in the medical library. Design: A two-phase questionnaire to evaluate MEDLINE use was given to junior and senior physicians at Rouen University Hospital (RUH). Phase I (August–October 1996) corresponded to a time period when centralized access was the only means of access available and phase II (August–October 1997) to a time period following the introduction of decentralized intranet access. Results: A total of 168 physicians filled out at least one phase of the questionnaire, among whom 123 (73%) filled out both phases. Use of MEDLINE significantly increased in 1997 (average of 10.2 ± 1.1 searches in three months) versus 1996 (average of 4.9 ± 0.7 searches in three months, P intranet access to MEDLINE increased the number of searches and knowledge of this bibliographic database. MEDLINE intranet access modified the purpose and the methods of searching. PMID:10783970

  7. Study on long-term aerosol distribution over central plains economic region using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangluo; Xushu; Lianhong, Bai; Caikun

    2017-03-01

    The long-term (2000-2013) Moderate Resolution Imaging (MODIS) level 2 aerosol products were used to study the spatial and temporal distributions of both aerosol optical depths (AOD) over Central Plains Economic Region (CPER), which is critical for a thorough understanding of its formation, transport and accumulation in the atmosphere. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of AOD with higher values locate in Xinxiang city, Kaifeng city, Zhengzhou city and Jiaozuo city. The lower ones locate in the south of Shanxi province and the west of Henan province, which are all mountainous regions. Spring and summer are the two seasons with the lowest AOD in a year. The minimum AOD in CPER occurred in winter. In the Central Plains Urban Agglomeration (CPUA), Kaifeng city, Xinxiang city and Zhengzhou city are the areas with the worst air pollution of particulate matter. The AOD over CPER significantly reduce during the period from 2011 to 2013. In the long term, however, the condition of particulate matter pollution has not been improved.

  8. Central nervous system histoplasmosis: Multicenter retrospective study on clinical features, diagnostic approach and outcome of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Joseph; Myint, Thein; Guo, Ying; Kemmer, Phebe; Hage, Chadi; Terry, Colin; Azar, Marwan M; Riddell, James; Ender, Peter; Chen, Sharon; Shehab, Kareem; Cleveland, Kerry; Esguerra, Eden; Johnson, James; Wright, Patty; Douglas, Vanja; Vergidis, Pascalis; Ooi, Winnie; Baddley, John; Bamberger, David; Khairy, Raed; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Jenny-Avital, Elizabeth; Sivasubramanian, Geetha; Bowlware, Karen; Pahud, Barbara; Sarria, Juan; Tsai, Townson; Assi, Maha; Mocherla, Satish; Prakash, Vidhya; Allen, David; Passaretti, Catherine; Huprikar, Shirish; Anderson, Albert

    2018-03-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement occurs in 5 to 10% of individuals with disseminated histoplasmosis. Most experience has been derived from small single center case series, or case report literature reviews. Therefore, a larger study of central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis is needed in order to guide the approach to diagnosis, and treatment.A convenience sample of 77 patients with histoplasmosis infection of the CNS was evaluated. Data was collected that focused on recognition of infection, diagnostic techniques, and outcomes of treatment.Twenty nine percent of patients were not immunosuppressed. Histoplasma antigen, or anti-Histoplasma antibodies were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 75% of patients. One year survival was 75% among patients treated initially with amphotericin B, and was highest with liposomal, or deoxycholate formulations. Mortality was higher in immunocompromised patients, and patients 54 years of age, or older. Six percent of patients relapsed, all of whom had the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and were poorly adherent with treatment.While CNS histoplasmosis occurred most often in immunocompromised individuals, a significant proportion of patients were previously, healthy. The diagnosis can be established by antigen, and antibody testing of the CSF, and serum, and antigen testing of the urine in most patients. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (AMB-L) for at least 1 month; followed by itraconazole for at least 1 year, results in survival among the majority of individuals. Patients should be followed for relapse for at least 1 year, after stopping therapy.

  9. What are cleats? Preliminary studies from the Konin lignite mine, Miocene of central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Marek

    2014-03-01

    Cleats (fractures, joints) are discontinuities in coals, including lignites. They are important in mining activity because of their gas and water permeability in hard coal, and mainly because of their water permeability in lignites. As opposed to hard-coal cleats, lignite cleats have not been studied in detail before. The present contribution does so, using as an example the 1st Middle-Polish Lignite Seam (MPLS-1) in the Jóźwin IIB opencast mine in central Poland. It should be mentioned here that any remarks in the present contribution concerning MPLS-1 refer exclusively to this lignite seam in the Jóźwin IIB opencast mine. The investigated discontinuities consist of two sets, i.e. the face and butt cleats, which are roughly oriented NW-SE and NE-SW, respectively. The mean spacing of the face cleats is ~12.4 cm, while the mean spacing of the butt cleats is ~12.8 cm. The maximum average aperture is ~4.9 mm for the face cleats and ~4.1 mm for the butt cleats. The cleat spacing and aperture do not depend on the lignite thickness, but the cleat spacing increases with increasing mineral-matter and xylite content, whereas the aperture increases when the contents decrease. The regional folding and local salt diapirism tentatively explain the formation of the orthogonal system of the lignite cleats, partly because of the parallelism of the face cleats and the major tectonic directions in central Poland.

  10. A study of Quaternary structures in the Qom region, West Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Safaei, H.; Yassaghi, A.; Vafa, H.; Naeimi, A.; Madanipour, S.; Ahmadi, M.

    2010-12-01

    West Central Iran comprises numerous Quaternary faults. Having either strike-slip or thrust mechanisms, these faults are potentially active and therefore capable of creating destructive earthquakes. In this paper, we use satellite images as well as field trips to identify these active faults in the Qom region. The Qom and Indes faults are the main NW-trending faults along which a Quaternary restraining step-over zone has formed. Kamarkuh, Mohsen Abad, and Ferdows anticlines are potentially active structures that formed in this restraining step-over zone. There are some thrusts and anticlines, such as the Alborz anticline and Alborz fault, which are parallel to strike-slip faults such as the Qom fault, indicating deformation partitioning in the area. In addition to NW-trending structures, there is an important NE-trending fault known as the Qomrud fault that has deformed Quaternary deposits and affected Kushk-e-Nosrat fault, Alborz anticline, and Qomrud River. The results of this study imply that the major Quaternary faults of West Central Iran and their restraining step-over zones are potentially active.

  11. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Use in Skilled Nursing Facilities: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Vineet; Montoya, Ana; Joshi, Darius; Becker, Carol; Brant, Amy; McGuirk, Helen; Clark, Jordyn; Harrod, Molly; Kuhn, Latoya; Mody, Lona

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe patterns of use, care practices, and outcomes related to peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Two community SNFs. PARTICIPANTS Adult SNF residents with PICCs (N = 56). MEASUREMENTS Information on indication for PICC use, device characteristics (e.g., lumens, gauge), and participant data (comorbidities, medications) were obtained from medical records. Care practices (e.g., frequency of flushing, dressing care) and problems related to PICCs were recorded. Major (central line–associated bloodstream infection, venous thromboembolism, catheter dislodgement) and minor (migration, dressing disruption, lumen occlusion, exit site infection) complications and process measures (flushing of PICC, assessment of necessity) were recorded. Bivariate analyses with t-tests, chi-square tests, or Fischer exact tests were used for continuous and categorical data. RESULTS Participants were enrolled from two SNFs. The most common indication for PICC use was intravenous antibiotic delivery. The average PICC dwell time was 43 days, and most devices were single-lumen PICCs. Major and minor complications were common and occurred in 11 (20%) and 18 (32%) participants, respectively. Occlusion (23%, n = 13), accidental dislodgement (12%, n = 7), and dressing disruption (11%, n = 6) were the commonest complications observed. Documentation regarding catheter care practices occurred in 41% of cases. CONCLUSION Quality improvement efforts that seek to benchmark practice, identify gaps, and institute efforts to improve PICC care and practice in SNFs appear necessary. PMID:26312402

  12. Study of the seismic activity in central Ionian Islands via semi-Markov modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidou, Christina Elisavet; Tsaklidis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria

    2017-06-01

    The seismicity of the central Ionian Islands ( M ≥ 5.2, 1911-2014) is studied via a semi-Markov chain which is investigated in terms of the destination probabilities (occurrence probabilities). The interevent times are considered to follow geometric (in which case the semi-Markov model reduces to a Markov model) or Pareto distributions. The study of the destination probabilities is useful for forecasting purposes because they can provide the more probable earthquake magnitude and occurrence time. Using the first half of the data sample for the estimation procedure and the other half for forecasting purposes it is found that the time windows obtained by the destination probabilities include 72.9% of the observed earthquake occurrence times (for all magnitudes) and 71.4% for the larger ( M ≥ 6.0) ones.

  13. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. A cross-biome synthesis of soil respiration and its determinants under simulated precipitation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingli; Wang, Xin; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Miao, Guofang; Piao, Shilong; Wan, Shiqiang; Wu, Yuxin; Wang, Zhenhua; Yang, Sen; Li, Ping; Deng, Meifeng

    2016-04-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is the second-largest terrestrial carbon (C) flux. Although Rs has been extensively studied across a broad range of biomes, there is surprisingly little consensus on how the spatiotemporal patterns of Rs will be altered in a warming climate with changing precipitation regimes. Here, we present a global synthesis Rs data from studies that have manipulated precipitation in the field by collating studies from 113 increased precipitation treatments, 91 decreased precipitation treatments, and 14 prolonged drought treatments. Our meta-analysis indicated that when the increased precipitation treatments were normalized to 28% above the ambient level, the soil moisture, Rs, and the temperature sensitivity (Q10) values increased by an average of 17%, 16%, and 6%, respectively, and the soil temperature decreased by -1.3%. The greatest increases in Rs and Q10 were observed in arid areas, and the stimulation rates decreased with increases in climate humidity. When the decreased precipitation treatments were normalized to 28% below the ambient level, the soil moisture and Rs values decreased by an average of -14% and -17%, respectively, and the soil temperature and Q10 values were not altered. The reductions in soil moisture tended to be greater in more humid areas. Prolonged drought without alterations in the amount of precipitation reduced the soil moisture and Rs by -12% and -6%, respectively, but did not alter Q10. Overall, our synthesis suggests that soil moisture and Rs tend to be more sensitive to increased precipitation in more arid areas and more responsive to decreased precipitation in more humid areas. The responses of Rs and Q10 were predominantly driven by precipitation-induced changes in the soil moisture, whereas changes in the soil temperature had limited impacts. Finally, our synthesis of prolonged drought experiments also emphasizes the importance of the timing and frequency of precipitation events on ecosystem C cycles. Given these

  15. Prevalence, awareness, control, and associations of arterial hypertension in a rural central India population: the Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; Nangia, Vinay; Matin, Arshia; Joshi, Prashant P; Ughade, Suresh N

    2010-04-01

    Because relatively little has been known about the actual prevalence of hypertension in India, particularly for its rural population, we investigated the prevalence of arterial hypertension in a rural Indian population. The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in a rural Central Indian region. It included 4,711 subjects (ages 30+ years) undergoing an ophthalmic and medical examination. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg, and/or self-reported current treatment for hypertension. Arterial hypertension was found in 1,041 (22.1%) subjects. Its prevalence was associated with higher age (P < 0.001), higher body mass index (P < 0.001), body height (P = 0.001), higher blood hemoglobin levels (P < 0.001), and elevated blood urea concentration (P = 0.008). It was not significantly associated with gender, level of education, family income, kind of daily physical activities, type of diet, and serum concentrations of cholesterol and creatinine. Among the hypertensive study participants (n = 1,041), 208 (20.0%) subjects were aware of their disease. A current antihypertensive treatment was reported by 84 subjects of the 1,041 arterial hypertensive subjects (8.1 +/- 0.9%). Out of the treated subjects, 24 (29%) had abnormally high diastolic blood pressure measurements and 44 (52%) participants had abnormally high systolic blood pressure measurements. In a rural Central Indian population of ages 30+ years, the prevalence of arterial hypertension was 22.1 +/- 0.6% with an awareness rate of 20% and a treatment rate of 8%. The low awareness and treatment rate may demand increasing public health efforts.

  16. Propiedades mecánicas de SiC biomórfico poroso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Robledo, M. J.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomorphic SiC (bioSiC materials fabricated by silicon infiltration of chescoal preforms have been studied. As a result of this process, a porous SiC ceramics with remnant silicon partially filling pores is obtained. This remnant silicon can considerably alter the mechanical properties of the bioSiC but it can be effectively removed by reaction with a mixture of HF and HNO3 producing a clean pororus bioSiC. In this work the comparison of the mechanical properties of bioSiC from preforms of beech, eucalyptus and pine, with and without remanent silicon is studied. High temperature mechanical properties were studied from deformation tests in compression at constant strain rate. Microstructural characterization of the samples, before and after the mechanical tests, was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

    Se han estudiado carburos de silicio biomórficos (bioSiC fabricados mediante infiltración reactiva de silicio líquido en una preforma de carbón de origen vegetal. Se obtiene así una cerámica porosa de SiC con silicio remanente en sus poros. Este silicio puede alterar considerablemente las propiedades mecánicas de los bioSiC. Este trabajo preliminar se centra en el estudio de las propiedades mecánicas de los bioSiC fabricados a partir de preformas de haya, eucalipto y pino, tras reacción con una disolución de HF y HNO3 que elimina ostensiblemente el silicio residual. Las propiedades mecánicas a altas temperaturas fueron estudiadas a partir de ensayos de compresión a velocidad de deformación constante. La caracterización microestructural del material resultante, antes y después de los ensayos mecánicos, fue realizada mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (MEB.

  17. Associations of Dispositional Mindfulness with Obesity and Central Adiposity: the New England Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Howe, Chanelle J.; Gutman, Roee; Gilman, Stephen E.; Brewer, Judson; Eaton, Charles B.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether dispositional mindfulness (defined as the ability to attend nonjudgmentally to one’s own physical and mental processes) is associated with obesity and central adiposity. Methods Study participants (n=394) were from the New England Family Study, a prospective birth cohort, with median age 47 years. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Central adiposity was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans with primary outcomes android fat mass and android/gynoid ratio. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Results Multivariable-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that participants with low vs. high MAAS scores were more likely to be obese (prevalence ratio for obesity= 1.34 (95 % confidence limit (CL): 1.02, 1.77)), adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, birth weight, childhood socioeconomic status, and childhood intelligence. Furthermore, participants with low vs. high MAAS level had a 448 (95 % CL 39, 857) g higher android fat mass and a 0.056 (95 % CL 0.003, 0.110) greater android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Prospective analyses demonstrated that participants who were not obese in childhood and became obese in adulthood (n=154) had −0.21 (95 % CL −0.41, −0.01; p=0.04) lower MAAS scores than participants who were not obese in childhood or adulthood (n=203). Conclusions Dispositional mindfulness may be inversely associated with obesity and adiposity. Replication studies are needed to adequately establish whether low dispositional mindfulness is a risk factor for obesity and adiposity. PMID:26481650

  18. Physiology and physiopathology of central type Benzodiazepine receptors: Study in the monkey and in human brain using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantraye, P.

    1987-01-01

    A new non-invasive technique that allows to study in a living subject central type benzodiazepine receptors is developed. A combined approach is applied using a specific positron-emitting radiotracer for the in vivo labelling of the receptors and positron emission tomography allowing, by external detection, a quantitative determination of tissue radioactivity. The radioligand used for the in vivo labelling of benzodiazepine receptors is the antagonist RO 15-1788 labelled with carbon 11. The various stages of the study are described: in vivo characterization in the monkey of central type benzodiazepine receptors; characterization of central type benzodiazepine receptors in human brain using selective molecules for the BZ1 benzodiazepine subclass; demonstration of the heterogeneity of central type benzodiazepine receptors in the brain; study of pathological alteration of benzodiazepine receptors in experimental epilepsy [fr

  19. Nitrogen fertilization in the growth phase of 'Chardonnay' and 'Pinot Noir' vines and nitrogen forms in sandy soil of the Pampa Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Information on nitrogen fertilization in growing vines is still a very limited subject, especially for crops on sandy soils in the Pampa Biome in Rio Grande do Sul, where viticulture has expanded considerably in the last decade. This study aimed to assess the impact of N doses on growth of young plants of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vines and N forms present in sandy soil in the Pampa Biome. The experiment was conducted from October 2011 to December 2012 in a vineyard in Santana do Livramento, in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, in soil with 82 g kg-1 clay in the 0-20 cm layer. Vines of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir varieties were subjected to applications of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg N ha-1 year-1. Total N in leaves, SPAD readings, stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of the pruned material were evaluated in two growth cycles and three times. Soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths at four crop growth stages, in which N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total N were analyzed and the mineral N was calculated. The N levels applied to young vines, although they did not provide relevant changes in the N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and mineral N contents in the soil, were able to increase the N content in the leaves, increasing plant vigor. because the reason is that there was an increase in stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of pruned material in most evaluation periods. These parameters suggest better growth patterns and uniformity of young grapevines with possible positive effects in anticipation of production, demonstrating the importance of nitrogen fertilization strategies to the growing vines in the sandy soil conditions of the Pampa Biome.

  20. Environment, Rural Livelihoods, and Labor Migration: A Case Study in Central Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Sagynbekova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case study in central Kyrgyzstan, this paper examines the links between the environment, rural livelihoods, and labor migration. The low diversity of income-generating activities in rural areas increases vulnerability to climate change impacts, other environmental stresses, and market failures. As a result, additional livelihood strategies such as labor migration and engagement in trade or other business ventures have become essential coping strategies for rural households. Remittances sent by migrants contribute not only to individual rural households but also to rural community development. Remittances help repay loans that have been taken out by households for different purposes, particularly for running or expanding farming and animal husbandry. When remittances are spent to increase livestock herds, the resulting intensive use of nearby pastures often leads to overgrazing and land degradation.

  1. Sensitization study of dogs with atopic dermatitis in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD is a common dermatosis, defined as a genetic-related disease which predisposes to skin inflammation and pruritus, associated to a IgE-specific response in most of cases. Clinical diagnosis may be later complemented by skin allergy and/or serological tests. The aim of these tests is to identify possible allergens in order to enable the clinicians to select candidate antigens for allergen specific immunotherapy. In the present study 58 CAD positive animals were tested. All were submitted to the intradermal test (IDT and screened for the presence of antibodies against different antigens using ELISA. The obtained results show a high prevalence of sensitization among the tested dogs to house dust mites and to pollen ofC. dactylon. With this work it was possible to identify the main allergens involved in immunological response of dogs with CAD living in central area of Rio Grande do Sul.

  2. Hydrogeochemical and Isotopic Studies of Groundwater in the Central Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganyaglo, Samuel Y; Osae, Shiloh; Akiti, Thomas T.; Gibrilla, Abass; Bam, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater development in the Central Region of Ghana is being hindered by poor water quality. High salinity waters have been reported in the area (Armah, 2000). Significant numbers of boreholes have been abandoned because of high salinity. Since the study area is close to the coast, various hypotheses have been advanced for the high salinity of the groundwaters. These include seawater intrusion, marine aerosols, soluble salts in the soil zone and sluggish movement in the groundwater flow system. Even though some investigations have been carried out in the area, the source of the high salinity waters is not well known. In this research, major ions in groundwater and stable isotopes ( 18 O and 2 H) are being used to understand the hydrogeochemical processes controlling the overall chemistry of groundwater in the area.

  3. Land use, salinity and water quality. The case study of a coastal system in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Canfora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the evaluation of soil and groundwater quality was coupled with a T-RFLP and real time qPCR analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes in order to investigate the soil microbial community structure and diversity in a coastal lagoon system of Central Italy. The main aim of the research was to assess the reciprocal effect of the lagoon salinity and of the different land uses both on the inland groundwater and quality, and on the soil microbial community structure and diversity. Results emphasize for the first time the diversity of the microbial communities in environments with a strong salinity gradient, as affected by land use, depth and spatial location.

  4. Optimal location of centralized biodigesters for small dairy farms: A case study from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion technology is available for converting livestock waste to bio-energy, but its potential is far from fully exploited in the United States because the technology has a scale effect. Utilization of the centralized anaerobic digester (CAD concept could make the technology economically feasible for smaller dairy farms. An interdisciplinary methodology to determine the cost minimizing location, size, and number of CAD facilities in a rural dairy region with mostly small farms is described. This study employs land suitability analysis, operations research model and Geographical Information System (GIS tools to evaluate the environmental, social, and economic constraints in selecting appropriate sites for CADs in Windham County, Connecticut. Results indicate that overall costs are lower if the CADs are of larger size and are smaller in number.

  5. The Study for Optimizing of the Electricity Power Supply in Central Java Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdinie, Sc S; Sudi-Ariyanto; Edi-Sartono; Suprapto; Nuryanti

    2004-01-01

    Electricity planning includes identification of electricity generation potential and problem where solution are being planned through the annual program. Due to correlation between electricity growth and economic growth, the sensitivity study for Central Java province has been done using three scenarios of annual electricity growth, i.e.: 6.7 %, 8 % and 10 % within the study period of 2003-2020. The tool used in this sensitivity study is WASP IV. From result the calculation gives total installed capacity in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 3960 MW, 5500 MW and 8620 MW respectively. Total produced energy in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 32301 G Wh, 39619 G Wh and 54374 G Wh. For total fuel required. Coal still predominate in all scenarios, followed by HSD and Gas. According to this study, Nuclear power plant can be introduced in 2020 for scenario of 8 % growth and 2017 for that of 10 % growth. WASP is utilized for projecting electricity supply. (author)

  6. An in vitro study comparing a peripherally inserted central catheter to a conventional central venous catheter: no difference in static and dynamic pressure transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg Bethene L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early goal directed therapy improves survival in patients with septic shock. Central venous pressure (CVP monitoring is essential to guide adequate resuscitation. Use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC is increasing, but little data exists comparing a PICC to a conventional CVP catheter. We studied the accuracy of a novel PICC to transmit static and dynamic pressures in vitro. Methods We designed a device to generate controlled pressures via a column of water allowing simultaneous measurements from a PICC and a standard triple lumen catheter. Digital transducers were used to obtain all pressure readings. Measurements of static pressures over a physiologic range were recorded using 5Fr and 6Fr dual lumen PICCs. Additionally, random repetitive pressure pulses were applied to the column of water to simulate physiologic intravascular pressure variations. The resultant PICC and control waveforms were recorded simultaneously. Results Six-hundred thirty measurements were made using the 5 Fr and 6 Fr PICCs. The average bias determined by Bland-Altman plot was 0.043 mmHg for 5 Fr PICC and 0.023 mmHg for 6 Fr PICC with a difference range of 1.0 to -1.0. The correlation coefficient for both catheters was 1.0 (p-value Conclusion In vitro, no static or dynamic pressure differences were found between the PICC and a conventional CVP catheter. Clinical studies are required to assess whether the novel PICC has bedside equivalence to conventional catheters when measuring central venous pressures.

  7. A Study of Central Asia to Identify Future Threats to Regional Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bednar, Mark

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper will attempt to answer the question: what are the salient challenges to USCENTCOM inherent within the Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan...

  8. Leishmaniasis in Yemen: a clinicoepidemiological study of leishmaniasis in central Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in Yemen. This study was designed to identify clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in Yemen. The study was conducted at the Regional Leishmaniasis Control Center in central Yemen. Data sourced from the medical records of 152 patients with confirmed active leishmaniasis, managed during April-August 2013, were analyzed. A total of 94.1% of patients were rural residents. Al Bayda was the most endemic governorate (59.9%). Children represented the group at highest risk (57.2%), followed by adult females (32.9%); together these groups accounted for 90.1% of all patients. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was the most prevalent form (49.3%), followed by cutaneous leishmaniasis (47.4%), and visceral leishmaniasis (3.3%). The wet ulcer was the most common type of lesion (49.7%) and the single lesion (69.4%) represented the most common presentation. All patients were ignorant of the nature of the disease, and 55.9% had a history of using "popular" treatments. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniases have significant endemicity in Yemen, especially in central areas. Al Bayda is the governorate with the highest endemicity, and rural children and women represent the populations at highest risk. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis seems to be the most prevalent form and a single wet ulcer is the most common presentation. Infected refugees may represent new foci for imported Leishmania species. Ecology, geography, climate change, cultural gender- and age-specific duties, urban night activities, and use of popular treatments are among proven risk factors. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Study of attenuation structure for central Anatolia region, Turkey based on Keskin seismic array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, K. U.; Ozel, N. M.

    2011-12-01

    Central Anatolia is bounded in the north by the well-known north Anatolian fault system (NAFS) and on the south-southwest is bounded by the east Anatolian fault system (EAFS). The central area does not have major faults and acts as a single block moving westward. This region is not considered as seismically active as the NAFS or EAFS but the recent moderate-size Bala earthquakes (Ml=5.7, Ml= 5.5) on 20 and 27 December 2007 near the Tuz golu fault may be an indication of future seismic activity. In order to get a better picture of the crustal structure of this region we applied Coda Normalization method for the measurement of Qs-1 as a function of frequency for the frequencies 1.5, 3, 6, 8 Hz. 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala earthquakes (Ml magnitude 5.6 an 5.5) and their aftershocks recorded by the Keskin seismic array (International Monitoring System code BRTR) is analyzed in this study. Keskin seismic array has a small aperture circular design with 6 vertical short period and 1 broadband borehole seismometers. In addition, Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method was applied to the data for the separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation inm the region at the same frequencies. MLTWA method allowed a separation between the intrinsic attenuation and scattering attenuation. Preliminary results show a relatively low attenuation compared to western and eastern anatolia regions. This might be explained by the less seismicity in the region. A study of the regional and site attenuation of seismic waves of earthquakes in this area will contribute in predicting earthquake generated ground-motion and becomes vital in making decisions for earthquake regulations, building codes and to monitoring nuclear explosions.

  10. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Petschow

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels.13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ and higher (E = 640 mJ target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale.No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex.Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  11. Diffusion MR imaging with PSIF and SPLICE. Experiences in phantom studies and the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Masato; Ueda, Takashi; Kaji, Yasushi

    2001-01-01

    Studies have shown that diffusion MR imaging is a reliable method for the diagnosis of central nervous system diseases, especially acute cerebral infarction. Although echo planar imaging (EPI) is a promising tool for that purpose, it is vulnerable to susceptibility artifacts that are responsible for image distortion or signal loss. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion MR imaging with PSIF (reversed fast imaging SSFP) and split acquisition of fast-spin-echo signals for diffusion imaging (SPLICE) in the central nervous system (CNS). First, PSIF and SPLICE were applied to the phantoms. Each phantom, including acetone, acetic acid, and water, was analyzed for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) based on SPLICE and for diffusion-related coefficient (DRC) based on PSIF. The ADCs based on SPLICE were 4.36±0.89 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec, 1.25±0.04 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec, and 2.35±0.04 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec, and the DRCs based on PSIF were 0.353±0.25, 0.178±0.07, and 0.273±0.018 for acetone, acetic acid, and water, respectively. These calculated ADCs based on SPLICE were well correlated with known diffusion coefficients, showing a correlation coefficient of 0.995. Second, PSIF and SPLICE were applied to the CNS. The advantage of PSIF and SPLICE was that susceptibility artifacts were reduced in the images of spinal cord and brain stem. PSIF was especially useful for diffusion MR imaging in the spinal cord. The disadvantage of SPLICE was the decreased SN ratio. We conclude that PSIF or SPLICE may be helpful when EPI diffusion MR imaging is insufficient. (author)

  12. Evolution of Philodendron (Araceae) species in Neotropical biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Sakuragui, Cassia; Soares, Maria de Lourdes; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade....

  13. The Effects of Work Values and Work Centrality on Job Satisfaction. A study with older spanish workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Orgambídez-Ramos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since workforces are ageing throughout Europe, interest in the role of age in the workplace is increasing. Older workers with high work centrality are more likely to negotiate a relational contract and express higher levels of job satisfaction than older workers with low work centrality (Armstrong-Stassen and Schlosser, 2008. This study examines the role of work centrality and valued work outcomes as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 203 Spanish employees (M age = 55.78, SD = 3.01. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by needed income and work centrality. When work is not an important part of older workers’ lives, they will prefer extrinsic outcomes and will not invest in the relationship with their organization (Grant & Wade-Benzoni, 2009. Implications for research and theory are explored in the conclusion.

  14. Hanging Fatalities in Central Bangkok, Thailand: A 13-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapong Tulapunt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hanging is violent asphyxial death. The objective of this study is to assess the data of hanging cases. A descriptive-retrospective study was conducted. We studied 244 hanging cases autopsied in Forensic Division, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, between January 2001 and December 2013. The study included 197 men (80.7% and 47 women (19.2%. Their age ranged from 14 to 93 years. Most of these cases were incomplete hanging (83.6%. Features of hanging victims, such as tongue protrusion; congestion of face; petechial hemorrhage of face, conjunctiva, and internal organs; and neck injuries, significantly correlated with complete hanging. The predominant occupation of hanging victims was in the service industry (63.1%. Suicides usually occurred in private homes or apartments (84.8%. A suicide note was found in 6.1% of cases. The most common ligature material used was nylon rope, found in 61.1% of cases. The most underlying diseases of the victims in hanging cases were tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection, 9 cases each. Blood ethanol levels of 29 cases (11.8% were detected to be higher than 150 mg%. Methamphetamine and benzodiazepine were detected in 5.3% and 3.3% of cases, respectively. This study provides comprehensive baseline data of hanging cases in central Bangkok.

  15. A prospective study of centralization of lumbar and referred pain. A predictor of symptomatic discs and anular competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, R; Aprill, C; Medcalf, R; Grant, W

    1997-05-15

    The presence or absence of rapidly centralizing, peripheralizing, or abolishing low back and radiating pain, as identified during a McKenzie mechanical lumbar assessment of patients with chronic lumbar pain, was compared prospectively with discographic pain provocation and anular competency. To evaluate any relation between the responses of centralization and peripheralization with discographic findings. Centralization of referred pain has been reported as a very common occurrence during McKenzie assessment and treatment. Patients whose pain centralizes have been shown to achieve superior treatment outcomes. A dynamic internal disc model has been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for centralization that has not been studied previously. Patients with chronically disabling low back pain who were referred for discography underwent preliminary blinded McKenzie clinical assessment and were categorized into three groups by their pain response. Patterns, or lack thereof, of pain response were then compared with blinded discographic pain provocation and anular findings. During the McKenzie assessment, the referred pain of 50% centralized with 74% having positive discograms, of which 91% had an intact anulus. The pain of 25% peripheralized only (would not centralize); 69% of these had positive discograms, but only 54% had an intact anulus. The distal pain of 25% did not respond at all, and only 12.5% of these had positive discograms. The McKenzie assessment process reliably differentiated discogenic from nondiscogenic pain (P painful from nonpainful discs.

  16. Gully erosion in the Caatinga biome, Brazil: measurement and stochastic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Alencar, Pedro Henrique; de Araújo, José Carlos; Nonato Távora Costa, Raimundo

    2017-04-01

    In contrast with inter-rill erosion, which takes a long time to modify the terrain form, gully erosion can fast and severely change the landscape. In the Brazilian semiarid region, a one-million km2 area that coincides with the Caatinga biome, inter-rill erosion prevails due to the silty shallow soils. However, gully erosion does occur in the Caatinga, with temporal increasing severity. This source of sediment impacts the existing dense network of small dams, generating significant deleterious effects, such as water availability reduction in a drought-prone region. This study focuses on the Madalena basin (124 km2, state of Ceará, Brazil), a land-reform settlement with 20 inhabitants per km2, whose main economic activities are agriculture (especially Zea mays), livestock and fishing. In the catchment area, where there are 12 dams (with storage capacity ranging from 6.104 to 2.107 m3), gully erosion has become an issue due to its increasing occurrence. Eight gully-erosion sites have been identified in the basin, but most of them have not yet reached great dimensions (depth and/or width), nor interacted with groundwater, being therefore classified as ephemeral gullies. We selected the three most relevant sites and measured the topography of the eroded channels, as well as the neighboring terrain relief, using accurate total stations and unmanned aerial vehicle. The data was processed with the help of software, such as DataGeosis (Office 7.5) and Surfer (11.0), providing information on gully erosion in terms of (μ ± σ): projection area (317±165 m2), eroded mass (61±36 Mg) and volume (42±25 m3), length (38±6 m), maximum depth (0.58±0.13 m) and maximum width (6.00±2.35 m). The measured data are then compared with those provided by the Foster and Lane model (1986). The model generated results with considerable scatter. This is possibly due to uncertainties in the field parameters, which are neglected in the deterministic approach of most physically-based models

  17. Key Edaphic Properties Largely Explain Temporal and Geographic Variation in Soil Microbial Communities across Four Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, Hannah M.; Espinosa, Noelle; Gebhardt, Martha; Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; Gutknecht, Jessica L. M.; Maes, Patrick W.; Mott, Brendon M.; Parnell, John Jacob; Purdy, Gayle; Rodrigues, Pedro A. P.; Stanish, Lee F.; Walser, Olivia N.

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play a critical role in nutrient transformation and storage in all ecosystems. Quantifying the seasonal and long-term temporal extent of genetic and functional variation of soil microorganisms in response to biotic and abiotic changes within and across ecosystems will inform our understanding of the effect of climate change on these processes. We examined spatial and seasonal variation in microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition across four biomes: a tropical broadleaf forest (Hawaii), taiga (Alaska), semiarid grassland-shrubland (Utah), and a subtropical coniferous forest (Florida). In this study, we used a team-based instructional approach leveraging the iPlant Collaborative to examine publicly available National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) 16S gene and PLFA measurements that quantify microbial diversity, composition, and growth. Both profiling techniques revealed that microbial communities grouped strongly by ecosystem and were predominately influenced by three edaphic factors: pH, soil water content, and cation exchange capacity. Temporal variability of microbial communities differed by profiling technique; 16S-based community measurements showed significant temporal variability only in the subtropical coniferous forest communities, specifically through changes within subgroups of Acidobacteria. Conversely, PLFA-based community measurements showed seasonal shifts in taiga and tropical broadleaf forest systems. These differences may be due to the premise that 16S-based measurements are predominantly influenced by large shifts in the abiotic soil environment, while PLFA-based analyses reflect the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community, which is more sensitive to local disturbances and biotic interactions. To address the technical issue of the response of soil microbial communities to sample storage temperature, we compared 16S-based community

  18. Holocene evolution of lakes in the forest-tundra biome of northern Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, William O.; Edlund, Mark B.; Umbanhowar, Charles E.; Camill, Philip; Lynch, Jason A.; Geiss, Christoph; Stefanova, Vania

    2017-03-01

    The late-Quaternary paleoenvironmental history of the western Hudson Bay region of Subarctic Canada is poorly constrained. Here, we present a regional overview of the post-glacial history of eight lakes which span the forest-tundra biome in northern Manitoba. We show that during the penultimate drainage phase of Lake Agassiz the lake water had an estimated pH of ∼6.0, with abundant quillwort (Isöetes spp.) along the lakeshore and littoral zone and some floating green algae (Botryococcus spp. and Pediastrum sp.). Based on multiple sediment proxies, modern lake ontogeny in the region commenced at ∼7500 cal yrs BP. Pioneering diatom communities were shaped by the turbid, higher alkalinity lake waters which were influenced by base cation weathering of the surrounding till following Lake Agassiz drainage. By ∼7000 cal yrs BP, soil development and Picea spp. establish and the lakes began a slow trajectory of acidification over the remaining Holocene epoch. The natural acidification of the lakes in this region is slow, on the order of several millennia for one pH unit. Each of the study lakes exhibit relatively stable aquatic communities during the Holocene Thermal Maximum, suggesting this period is a poor analogue for modern climatic changes. During the Neoglacial, the beginning of the post-Little Ice Age period represents the most significant climatic event to impact the lakes of N. Manitoba. In the context of regional lake histories, the rate of diatom floristic change in the last 200-300 years is unprecedented, with the exception of post-glacial lake ontogeny in some of the lakes. For nearly the entire history of the lakes in this region, there is a strong linkage between landscape development and the aquatic ecosystems; however this relationship appears to become decoupled or less strong in the post-LIA period. Significant 20th century changes in the aquatic ecosystem cannot be explained wholly by changes in the terrestrial ecosystem, suggesting that future

  19. Key Edaphic Properties Largely Explain Temporal and Geographic Variation in Soil Microbial Communities across Four Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Kathryn M; Borton, Hannah M; Espinosa, Noelle; Gebhardt, Martha; Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; Gutknecht, Jessica L M; Maes, Patrick W; Mott, Brendon M; Parnell, John Jacob; Purdy, Gayle; Rodrigues, Pedro A P; Stanish, Lee F; Walser, Olivia N; Gallery, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play a critical role in nutrient transformation and storage in all ecosystems. Quantifying the seasonal and long-term temporal extent of genetic and functional variation of soil microorganisms in response to biotic and abiotic changes within and across ecosystems will inform our understanding of the effect of climate change on these processes. We examined spatial and seasonal variation in microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition across four biomes: a tropical broadleaf forest (Hawaii), taiga (Alaska), semiarid grassland-shrubland (Utah), and a subtropical coniferous forest (Florida). In this study, we used a team-based instructional approach leveraging the iPlant Collaborative to examine publicly available National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) 16S gene and PLFA measurements that quantify microbial diversity, composition, and growth. Both profiling techniques revealed that microbial communities grouped strongly by ecosystem and were predominately influenced by three edaphic factors: pH, soil water content, and cation exchange capacity. Temporal variability of microbial communities differed by profiling technique; 16S-based community measurements showed significant temporal variability only in the subtropical coniferous forest communities, specifically through changes within subgroups of Acidobacteria. Conversely, PLFA-based community measurements showed seasonal shifts in taiga and tropical broadleaf forest systems. These differences may be due to the premise that 16S-based measurements are predominantly influenced by large shifts in the abiotic soil environment, while PLFA-based analyses reflect the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community, which is more sensitive to local disturbances and biotic interactions. To address the technical issue of the response of soil microbial communities to sample storage temperature, we compared 16S-based community

  20. Key Edaphic Properties Largely Explain Temporal and Geographic Variation in Soil Microbial Communities across Four Biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Docherty

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities play a critical role in nutrient transformation and storage in all ecosystems. Quantifying the seasonal and long-term temporal extent of genetic and functional variation of soil microorganisms in response to biotic and abiotic changes within and across ecosystems will inform our understanding of the effect of climate change on these processes. We examined spatial and seasonal variation in microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA composition across four biomes: a tropical broadleaf forest (Hawaii, taiga (Alaska, semiarid grassland-shrubland (Utah, and a subtropical coniferous forest (Florida. In this study, we used a team-based instructional approach leveraging the iPlant Collaborative to examine publicly available National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON 16S gene and PLFA measurements that quantify microbial diversity, composition, and growth. Both profiling techniques revealed that microbial communities grouped strongly by ecosystem and were predominately influenced by three edaphic factors: pH, soil water content, and cation exchange capacity. Temporal variability of microbial communities differed by profiling technique; 16S-based community measurements showed significant temporal variability only in the subtropical coniferous forest communities, specifically through changes within subgroups of Acidobacteria. Conversely, PLFA-based community measurements showed seasonal shifts in taiga and tropical broadleaf forest systems. These differences may be due to the premise that 16S-based measurements are predominantly influenced by large shifts in the abiotic soil environment, while PLFA-based analyses reflect the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community, which is more sensitive to local disturbances and biotic interactions. To address the technical issue of the response of soil microbial communities to sample storage temperature, we compared 16S

  1. Aplicaciones del SiC biomórfico como reforzante estructural en hormigones refractarios

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    Sepúlveda, R.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of the time and temperature dependence of the static grain growth in YTZP 4 mol %, with an average grain size within the submicrometric range (> 0.1 μm. Also, the mechanical response in the temperature interval between 1200 ºC and 1500 ºC is analysed. The grain growth is controlled by the yttria segregation at the grain boundaries, which plays a key role in the cationic diffusion processes. Microstructural characterization of both as-received and deformed samples allows to conclude that plastic deformation is due to grain boundary sliding (GBS, with stress exponents increasing with the flow stress, but in all cases they are lower than n = 2.

    Una posible aplicación del SiC biomórfico (bioSiC son los reforzante estructural en hormigones refractarios. En este caso se han fabricado piezas de bioSiC con forma de cilindros alargados, 3-4 mm de diámetro y 30-35 mm de longitud, mediante infiltración reactiva de Si líquido en piezas de carbón obtenidas por pirolización de madera de haya de calidad comercial. Hemos estudiado las características microestructurales y las propiedades mecánicas de los reforzantes, como paso previo al estudio de la aplicación mencionada, de la que se ofrece un avance en este trabajo. Para caracterizar la calidad del material y del proceso de fabricación, la microestructura de las piezas se ha estudiado mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los reforzantes de bioSiC fueron ensayados a compresión uniaxial y flexión en cuatro puntos a temperatura ambiente y a alta temperatura (1250-1400ºC para la determinación de sus propiedades mecánicas, y se realizaron estudios fractográficos en el segundo tipo de ensayos. Subsecuentemente, se prepararon ladrillos refractarios con un 3% en peso de reforzantes de bioSiC, que fueron curados a diferentes temperaturas (máx. 1600ºC. Estos ladrillos se han ensayado en compresión y flexión en tres puntos, a temperatura ambiente

  2. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, and Central America: a population-based study.

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    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Brenner, Hermann; Chen, Kexin; Chia, Kee Seng; Chen, Jian Guo; Law, Stephen C K; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Xiang, Yong Bing; Yeole, Balakrishna B; Shin, Hai Rim; Shanta, Viswanathan; Woo, Ze Hong; Martin, Nimit; Sumitsawan, Yupa; Sriplung, Hutcha; Barboza, Adolfo Ortiz; Eser, Sultan; Nene, Bhagwan M; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathiamma; Dikshit, Rajesh; Wabinga, Henry; Esteban, Divina B; Laudico, Adriano; Bhurgri, Yasmin; Bah, Ebrima; Al-Hamdan, Nasser

    2010-02-01

    Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are not widely available from countries in Africa, Asia, and Central America. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss cancer survival in these regions. Survival analysis was done for 341 658 patients diagnosed with various cancers from 1990 to 2001 and followed up to 2003, from 25 population-based cancer registries in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (The Gambia, Uganda), Central America (Costa Rica), and Asia (China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey). 5-year age-standardised relative survival (ASRS) and observed survival by clinical extent of disease were determined. For cancers in which prognosis depends on stage at diagnosis, survival was highest in China, South Korea, Singapore, and Turkey and lowest in Uganda and The Gambia. 5-year ASRS ranged from 76-82% for breast cancer, 63-79% for cervical cancer, 71-78% for bladder cancer, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancers in China, Singapore, South Korea, and Turkey. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia; in Uganda, survival did not exceed 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%). Variations in survival correlated with early detection initiatives and level of development of health services. The wide variation in cancer survival between regions emphasises the need for urgent investments in improving awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources. Association for International Cancer Research (AICR; St Andrews, UK), Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer (ARC, Villejuif, France), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Seattle, USA). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study

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    Soares, J.E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Ventura, D.B.R.

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. End expiratory oxygen concentrations to predict central venous oxygen saturation: an observational pilot study

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    Steuerwald Michael

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A non-invasive surrogate measurement for central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2 would be useful in the ED for assessing therapeutic interventions in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that either linear or nonlinear mathematical manipulation of the partial pressure of oxygen in breath at end expiration (EtO2 would accurately predict ScVO2. Methods Prospective observational study of a convenience sample of hemodialysis patients age > 17 years with existing upper extremity central venous catheters were enrolled. Using a portable respiratory device, we collected both tidal breathing and end expiratory oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, volume and flow on each patient. Simultaneous ScVO2 measurements were obtained via blood samples collected from the hemodialysis catheter. Two models were used to predict ScVO2: 1 Best-fit multivariate linear regression equation incorporating all respiratory variables; 2 MathCAD to model the decay curve of EtO2 versus expiratory volume using the least squares method to estimate the pO2 that would occur at Results From 21 patients, the correlation between EtO2 and measured ScVO2 yielded R2 = 0.11. The best fit multivariate equation included EtCO2 and EtO2 and when solved for ScVO2, the equation yielded a mean absolute difference from the measured ScVO2 of 8 ± 6% (range -18 to +17%. The predicted ScVO2 value was within 10% of the actual value for 57% of the patients. Modeling of the EtO2 curve did not accurately predict ScVO2 at any lung volume. Conclusion We found no significant correlation between EtO2 and ScVO2. A linear equation incorporating EtCO2 and EtO2 had at best modest predictive accuracy for ScVO2.

  5. Central pain processing in chronic chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

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    Elaine G Boland

    Full Text Available Life expectancy in multiple myeloma has significantly increased. However, a high incidence of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN can negatively influence quality of life during this period. This study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare areas associated with central pain processing in patients with multiple myeloma who had chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (MM-CIPN with those from healthy volunteers (HV. Twenty-four participants (n = 12 MM-CIPN, n = 12 HV underwent Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD fMRI at 3T whilst noxious heat-pain stimuli were applied to the foot and then thigh. Patients with MM-CIPN demonstrated greater activation during painful stimulation in the precuneus compared to HV (p = 0.014, FWE-corrected. Patients with MM-CIPN exhibited hypo-activation of the right superior frontal gyrus compared to HV (p = 0.031, FWE-corrected. Significant positive correlation existed between the total neuropathy score (reduced version and activation in the frontal operculum (close to insular cortex during foot stimulation in patients with MM-CIPN (p = 0.03, FWE-corrected; adjusted R2 = 0.87. Painful stimuli delivered to MM-CIPN patients evoke differential activation of distinct cortical regions, reflecting a unique pattern of central pain processing compared with healthy volunteers. This characteristic activation pattern associated with pain furthers the understanding of the pathophysiology of painful chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. Functional MRI provides a tool for monitoring cerebral changes during anti-cancer and analgesic treatment.

  6. Decreasing troponin turnaround time in the emergency department using the central laboratory: A process improvement study.

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    Boelstler, Arlene M; Rowland, Ralph; Theoret, Jennifer; Takla, Robert B; Szpunar, Susan; Patel, Shraddha P; Lowry, Andrew M; Pena, Margarita E

    2015-03-01

    To implement collaborative process improvement measures to reduce emergency department (ED) troponin turnaround time (TAT) to less than 60min using central laboratory. This was an observational, retrospective data study. A multidisciplinary team from the ED and laboratory identified opportunities and developed a new workflow model. Process changes were implemented in ED patient triage, staffing, lab collection and processing. Data collected included TAT of door-to-order, order-to-collect, collect-to-received, received-to-result, door-to-result, ED length of stay, and hemolysis rate before (January-August, 2011) and after (September 2011-June 2013) process improvement. After process improvement and implementation of the new workflow model, decreased median TAT (in min) was seen in door-to-order (54 [IQR43] vs. 11 [IQR20]), order-to-collect (15 [IQR 23] vs. 10 [IQR12]), collect-to-received (6 [IQR8] vs. 5 [IQR5]), received-to-result (30 [IQR12] vs. 24 [IQR11]), and overall door-to-result (117 [IQR60] vs. 60 [IQR40]). A troponin TAT of <60min was realized beginning in May 2012 (59 [IQR39]). Hemolysis rates decreased (14.63±0.74 vs. 3.36±1.99, p<0.0001), as did ED length of stay (5.87±2.73h vs. 5.15±2.34h, p<0.0001). Conclusion Troponin TAT of <60min using a central laboratory was achieved with collaboration between the ED and the laboratory; additional findings include a decreased ED length of stay. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of irrigations on simulated convective activity over Central Greece: A high resolution study

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    Kotsopoulos, S.; Tegoulias, I.; Pytharoulis, I.; Kartsios, S.; Bampzelis, D.; Karacostas, T.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of irrigations in the characteristics of convective activity simulated by the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1), under different upper air synoptic conditions in central Greece. To this end, 42 cases equally distributed under the six most frequent upper air synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, were utilized considering two different soil moisture scenarios. In the first scenario, the model was initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the second scenario, the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area was modified to the field capacity for the irrigated cropland. Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. The model numerical results indicate a strong dependence of convective spatiotemporal characteristics from the soil moisture difference between the two scenarios. Acknowledgements: This research is co-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek national funds, through the action "COOPERATION 2011: Partnerships of Production and Research Institutions in Focused Research and Technology Sectors" (contract number 11SYN_8_1088 - DAPHNE) in the framework of the operational programme "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" and Regions in Transition (OPC II, NSRF 2007-2013).

  8. Synthetic vision and memory model for virtual human - biomed 2010.

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    Zhao, Yue; Kang, Jinsheng; Wright, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and case studies of a novel synthetic vision and memory model for virtual human. The synthetic vision module simulates the biological / optical abilities and limitations of the human vision. The module is based on a series of collision detection between the boundary of virtual humans field of vision (FOV) volume and the surface of objects in a recreated 3D environment. The memory module simulates a short-term memory capability by employing a simplified memory structure (first-in-first-out stack). The synthetic vision and memory model has been integrated into a virtual human modelling project, Intelligent Virtual Modelling. The project aimed to improve the realism and autonomy of virtual humans.

  9. The mirror neuron system simply. An hypothesis? - biomed 2013.

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    Pascolo, Paolo B

    2013-01-01

    The announcement that mirror neurons (MNs) had been found in macaques was made in 1996. The ensuing MN System theory (MNST) was based on the “nearly simultaneous” activity of some neurons detected both when the macaque observed an investigator's action and when it performed the action (e.g. grasp to eat). Studying the seminal investigations on macaques published in the literature, we realized that poorly defined time-scales could lead to multiple interpretations. We also noticed that in the original experimental protocol the synchronization between the observed event and the neural activity hypothetically related to the event itself was not investigated. In spite of this criticism, the MNST has enjoyed an extraordinary popularity in general media as well as in the scientific community, and monkeys have, almost magically, acquired the functional ability of MNs. In this paper, we analyze some recent studies about the MNST, specifically those about direct measurements on humans by means of implanted electrodes performed by Mukamel and colleagues in 2010. We also consider some experiments performed on monkeys by Rochat et al. in 2010 and some indirect measurements on humans made by Kujala et al. in 2012. We find the conclusions of the authors of these works to be quite simplistic relative to the inherent complexity of neural networks, reinforcing our interpretation against the MNST. We suggest the reported measurements are the result of conventional neural activity related to the events considered (i.e. grasping, both observed and executed) and are not necessarily imputable to the hypothetical MNs.

  10. Study of water use in the central sands of Wisconsin at high spatiotemporal resolution

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    The Central Sands region, located in Central Wisconsin, is a mosaic of cropland, managed grasslands and scattered woodlots of pine, oak, and aspen. Water issues have loomed over the region for years, but concerns heightened in 2012 when drought conditions spurred massive increases in groundwater pum...

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in central giant cell lesion of the jaws: an immunohistochemical study.

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    Nogueira, Renato Luiz Maia; Faria, Mário Henrique Girão; Osterne, Rafael Lima Verde; Cavalcante, Roberta Barroso; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

    2012-02-01

    Central Giant Cell Lesion (CGCL) is an uncommon benign jaw lesion, with uncertain etiology, and a variable clinical behavior. Studies of molecular markers of CGCL, may help understanding better the nature and behavior of this lesion, and eventually may represent a definitive target to pharmacological approach in the treatment of CGCL. Chronic inflammation has been found to mediate a wide variety of diseases including neoplasms. Among the gene products involved in the induction of the inflammatory process, Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been shown to have a close relationship with tumorigenesis, however COX-2 expression has never been evaluated in CGCL. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of COX-2 in CGCL. Immunohistochemical assessment for COX-2 expression was performed in 18 patients previously diagnosed with CGCL. Multinucleated giant cells (MGC) and mononucleated stromal cells (MSC) were used in the slide analysis. Among the patients studied, 10 were male and 8 were female, with a median age of 15.4 years. Lesions in the mandible were observed in 11 cases and 7 were found in the maxilla. There were 9 aggressive and 9 non-aggressive CGCLs. COX-2 immunopositivity was present in only 3 cases stained in both MGC and MSC. All 3 cases presented with ulcerations in the mucosa lesion, suggesting that the COX-2 expression is due to the presence of inflammation. This study does not support the involvement of COX-2 in the etiophatogenesis of CGCL.

  12. Developmental study of tripeptidyl peptidase I activity in the mouse central nervous system and peripheral organs.

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    Dimitrova, Mashenka; Deleva, Denislava; Pavlova, Velichka; Ivanov, Ivaylo

    2011-11-01

    Tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPPI) - a lysosomal serine protease - is encoded by the CLN2 gene, mutations that cause late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) connected with profound neuronal loss, severe clinical symptoms and early death at puberty. Developmental studies of TPPI activity levels and distribution have been done in the human and rat central nervous systems (CNS) and visceral organs. Similar studies have not been performed in mouse. In this paper, we follow up on the developmental changes in the enzyme activity and localization pattern in the CNS and visceral organs of mouse over the main periods of life - embryonic, neonate, suckling, infantile, juvenile, adult and aged - using biochemical assays and enzyme histochemistry. In the studied peripheral organs (liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and lung) TPPI is present at birth but further its pattern is not consistent in different organs over different life periods. TPPI activity starts to be expressed in the brain at the 10th embryonic day but in most neuronal types it appears at the early infantile period, increases during infancy, reaches high activity levels in the juvenile period and is highest in adult and aged animals. Thus, in mice TPPI activity becomes crucial for the neuronal functions later in development (juvenile period) than in humans and does not decrease with aging. These results are essential as a basis for comparison between normal and pathological TPPI patterns in mice. They can be valuable in view of the use of animal models for studying LINCL and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. Earnings management: estudo de caso do Banco Nacional Earnings management: Central Bank's case study

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    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo promove um estudo de caso de uma das maiores instituições financeiras brasileiras da década de 90: o Banco Nacional S.A. (BNSA. O BNSA teve sua intervenção decretada pelo Banco Central do Brasil em 1995, após ser identificada a existência de ativos insolventes, originados por gerenciamento fraudulento dos lucros da entidade. O estudo visa investigar a gestão fraudulenta de lucros do Banco Nacional S.A., tanto nos seus aspectos motivadores, quanto em relação aos seus efeitos na composição patrimonial da entidade. A abordagem metodológica contempla: (i pesquisa explicativa, quanto aos objetivos do estudo; (ii estudo de caso, quanto aos procedimentos aplicados e (iii pesquisa qualitativa, quanto à abordagem do problema. Constatou-se que pode haver interesses inconciliáveis entre o agente e o principal, conforme disciplinado pela teoria da agência. O artigo, ainda, ressalta a importância do conhecimento dos dados financeiros na identificação dos fatos de interesse, dos ajustes pertinentes e da correta evidenciação da situação patrimonial da entidade.This paper features a case study of one of the main Brazilian banks of the 90's: Banco Nacional S/A (BNSA. The bank had its intervention decreed by Central Bank of Brazil in 1995, after the existence of insolvent assets, originated by fraudulent earnings management, were identified. The study aims to investigate the fraudulent earnings management of BNSA, both in motivational aspects and in relation of the effects in its balance sheet structure. The methodological approach of the study encompasses: (i an explanatory research, regarding the intended aim of the study; (ii case study, regarding the applied procedures; and (iii a qualitative research, regarding the approach to the problem. It was concluded that irreconcilable conflicts of interest might occur between the agent and the principal, according to the Agency Theory. The paper also emphasizes the importance of

  14. Consequences of biodiversity loss for litter decomposition across biomes.

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    Handa, I Tanya; Aerts, Rien; Berendse, Frank; Berg, Matty P; Bruder, Andreas; Butenschoen, Olaf; Chauvet, Eric; Gessner, Mark O; Jabiol, Jérémy; Makkonen, Marika; McKie, Brendan G; Malmqvist, Björn; Peeters, Edwin T H M; Scheu, Stefan; Schmid, Bernhard; van Ruijven, Jasper; Vos, Veronique C A; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2014-05-08

    The decomposition of dead organic matter is a major determinant of carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, and of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Decomposition is driven by a vast diversity of organisms that are structured in complex food webs. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of biodiversity on decomposition is critical given the rapid loss of species worldwide and the effects of this loss on human well-being. Yet despite comprehensive syntheses of studies on how biodiversity affects litter decomposition, key questions remain, including when, where and how biodiversity has a role and whether general patterns and mechanisms occur across ecosystems and different functional types of organism. Here, in field experiments across five terrestrial and aquatic locations, ranging from the subarctic to the tropics, we show that reducing the functional diversity of decomposer organisms and plant litter types slowed the cycling of litter carbon and nitrogen. Moreover, we found evidence of nitrogen transfer from the litter of nitrogen-fixing plants to that of rapidly decomposing plants, but not between other plant functional types, highlighting that specific interactions in litter mixtures control carbon and nitrogen cycling during decomposition. The emergence of this general mechanism and the coherence of patterns across contrasting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggest that biodiversity loss has consistent consequences for litter decomposition and the cycling of major elements on broad spatial scales.

  15. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

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    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested

  16. Latent heat exchange in the boreal and arctic biomes.

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    Kasurinen, Ville; Alfredsen, Knut; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Alekseychik, Pavel; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Bernier, Pierre; Boike, Julia; Langer, Moritz; Belelli Marchesini, Luca; van Huissteden, Ko; Dolman, Han; Sachs, Torsten; Ohta, Takeshi; Varlagin, Andrej; Rocha, Adrian; Arain, Altaf; Oechel, Walter; Lund, Magnus; Grelle, Achim; Lindroth, Anders; Black, Andy; Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Lohila, Annalea; Berninger, Frank

    2014-11-01

    In this study latent heat flux (λE) measurements made at 65 boreal and arctic eddy-covariance (EC) sites were analyses by using the Penman-Monteith equation. Sites were stratified into nine different ecosystem types: harvested and burnt forest areas, pine forests, spruce or fir forests, Douglas-fir forests, broadleaf deciduous forests, larch forests, wetlands, tundra and natural grasslands. The Penman-Monteith equation was calibrated with variable surface resistances against half-hourly eddy-covariance data and clear differences between ecosystem types were observed. Based on the modeled behavior of surface and aerodynamic resistances, surface resistance tightly control λE in most mature forests, while it had less importance in ecosystems having shorter vegetation like young or recently harvested forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra. The parameters of the Penman-Monteith equation were clearly different for winter and summer conditions, indicating that phenological effects on surface resistance are important. We also compared the simulated λE of different ecosystem types under meteorological conditions at one site. Values of λE varied between 15% and 38% of the net radiation in the simulations with mean ecosystem parameters. In general, the simulations suggest that λE is higher from forested ecosystems than from grasslands, wetlands or tundra-type ecosystems. Forests showed usually a tighter stomatal control of λE as indicated by a pronounced sensitivity of surface resistance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit. Nevertheless, the surface resistance of forests was lower than for open vegetation types including wetlands. Tundra and wetlands had higher surface resistances, which were less sensitive to vapor pressure deficits. The results indicate that the variation in surface resistance within and between different vegetation types might play a significant role in energy exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. These results suggest the need

  17. Pseudoexfoliation: normative data and associations. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

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    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation (PEX and its associations in a population-based setting. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: The Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 individuals. All study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination. After medical pupil dilation, PEX was assessed by an experienced ophthalmologist using slit-lamp based biomicroscopy. RESULTS: Slit lamp examination results were available for 4646 (98.6% study participants with a mean age of 49.3 ± 13.3 years (range: 30-100 years. PEX was detected in 87 eyes (prevalence: 0.95 ± 0.10% (95%CI: 0.75, 1.15 of 69 subjects (prevalence: 1.49 ± 0.18% (95%CI: 1.14, 1.83. PEX prevalence increased significantly (P<0.001 from 0% in the age group of 30-39 years, to 2.85 ± 0.56% in the age group of 60-69 years, to 6.60 ± 1.21% in the age group of 70-79 years, and to 12.3 ± 4.11% in the age group of 80+ years. In multivariate analysis, PEX prevalence was associated with higher age (P<0.001; regression coefficient B:0.11; odds ratio (OR: 1.11 (95%CI: 1.09, 1.13, lower body mass index (P = 0.001; B: -0.12; OR: 0.88 (95CI: 0.82, 0.95 and higher diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.002; B: 0.02; OR: 1.03 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.04. In the multivariate analysis, PEX was not associated with retinal nerve fiber layer cross section area (P = 0.76 and presence of open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.15. CONCLUSIONS: In a rural Central Indian population aged 30+ years, PEX prevalence (mean: 1.49 ± 0.18% was significantly associated with older age, lower body mass index and higher diastolic blood pressure. It was not significantly associated with optic nerve head measurements, refractive error, any ocular biometric parameter, nuclear cataract, early age-related macular degeneration and retinal vein occlusion, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and dyslipidemia.

  18. Self-reported adverse tattoo reactions: a New York City Central Park study.

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    Brady, Bobbi G; Gold, Heidi; Leger, Elizabeth A; Leger, Marie C

    2015-08-01

    Although permanent tattoos are becoming increasingly commonplace, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on adverse tattoo reactions. Several European studies have indicated that tattoo reactions may be relatively common, although the extent of this phenomenon in the United States is largely unknown. To provide insights into the prevalence and nature of adverse tattoo reactions. We administered a survey about adverse tattoo reactions to 300 randomly selected tattooed people in Central Park, New York City. Of 300 participants, 31 (10.3%) reported experiencing an adverse tattoo reaction, 13 (4.3%) reported acute reactions, and 18 (6.0%) suffered from a chronic reaction involving a specific colour lasting for >4 months. Forty-four per cent of colour-specific reactions were to red ink, which was only slightly higher than the frequency of red ink in the sampled population (36%). Twenty-five per cent of chronic reactions were to black ink, which was less than expected based on the number of respondents with black tattoos (90.3%). Study participants with chronic, colour-specific reactions had more tattoo colours than those without reactions. This study shows that tattoo reactions are relatively common, and that further investigation into the underlying causes is merited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Who Benefits from Ecosystem Services? A Case Study for Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwarno, Aritta; Hein, Lars; Sumarga, Elham

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing experience with the valuation of ecosystem services. However, to date, less attention has been devoted to who is actually benefiting from ecosystem services. This nevertheless is a key issue, in particular, if ecosystem services analysis and valuation is used to support environmental management. This study assesses and analyzes how the monetary benefits of seven ecosystem services are generated in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, are distributed to different types of beneficiaries. We analyze the following ecosystem services: (1) timber production; (2) rattan collection; (3) jelutong resin collection; (4) rubber production (based on permanent agroforestry systems); (5) oil palm production on three management scales (company, plasma farmer, and independent smallholder); (6) paddy production; and (7) carbon sequestration. Our study shows that the benefits generated from these services differ markedly between the stakeholders, which we grouped into private, public, and household entities. The distribution of these benefits is strongly influenced by government policies and in particular benefit sharing mechanisms. Hence, land-use change and policies influencing land-use change can be expected to have different impacts on different stakeholders. Our study also shows that the benefits generated by oil palm conversion, a main driver for land-use change in the province, are almost exclusively accrued by companies and at this point in time are shared unequally with local stakeholders.

  20. Who Benefits from Ecosystem Services? A Case Study for Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwarno, Aritta; Hein, Lars; Sumarga, Elham

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing experience with the valuation of ecosystem services. However, to date, less attention has been devoted to who is actually benefiting from ecosystem services. This nevertheless is a key issue, in particular, if ecosystem services analysis and valuation is used to support environmental management. This study assesses and analyzes how the monetary benefits of seven ecosystem services are generated in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, are distributed to different types of beneficiaries. We analyze the following ecosystem services: (1) timber production; (2) rattan collection; (3) jelutong resin collection; (4) rubber production (based on permanent agroforestry systems); (5) oil palm production on three management scales (company, plasma farmer, and independent smallholder); (6) paddy production; and (7) carbon sequestration. Our study shows that the benefits generated from these services differ markedly between the stakeholders, which we grouped into private, public, and household entities. The distribution of these benefits is strongly influenced by government policies and in particular benefit sharing mechanisms. Hence, land-use change and policies influencing land-use change can be expected to have different impacts on different stakeholders. Our study also shows that the benefits generated by oil palm conversion, a main driver for land-use change in the province, are almost exclusively accrued by companies and at this point in time are shared unequally with local stakeholders.

  1. Thermal modeling and parametric studies of a greenhouse fish pond in the Central Himalayan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Bikash; Tiwari, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the thermal modeling and its validation of greenhouse fish pond systems. Numerical computations have been performed for a typical day in the month of June, 2005, for the climatic condition of Champawat in the Central Himalayan Region. The energy balance equations have been written considering the effects of conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation and ventilation. The governing equations are numerically solved with Matlab 7.0 software to predict the water temperature. A parametric study has also been performed to find the effects of various parameters, namely the number of air changes per hour, the transmissivity (τ) and the isothermal mass and height of the greenhouse. It is observed that there is no significant effect in the parametric studies on water temperature due to the larger isothermal mass. The model has been validated with experimental data. On an average, the even span passive greenhouse fish pond can increase the inside temperature 4.14 deg. C higher than the temperature of an outdoor pond. Statistical analysis shows that the predicted and experimental values of water temperature exhibited fair agreement with a coefficient of correlation r = 0.90 and root mean square percent deviation e = 1.67%

  2. [A three dimensional finite element study on stress distribution in maxillary central incisor restored with fiber post].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cheng-rong; Wei, Su-hua; Zhang, Mei-chao; Zhang, Xin-chun

    2008-08-01

    To study the stress changes of maxillary central incisor restored with or without fiber post using three dimensional finite element method, and analysis the role of fiber post in determining the stress distribution in dentin. Three dimensional finite element models of maxillary central incisor with various remaining tooth structure were established by spiral CT, Mimics software and ANSYS software. Test samples were restored with all-ceramic crown and fiber post all-ceramic crown, respectively. The von Mises stress and maximal tensile stress of dentin were recorded. The stress level in dentin of maxillary central incisor restored with fiber post all-ceramic crown was smaller than that restored with all-ceramic crown, the stress distribution of both were similar. The apply of fiber post can reduce the stress level in dentin of maxillary central incisor and decrease the risk of tooth breakage, but not change the stress pattern.

  3. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Gonçalves Morato

    Full Text Available The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1 to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2 to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs, 3 to design corridors among priority areas, and 4 to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU. Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1 as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7 desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  4. Global soil-climate-biome diagram: linking soil properties to climate and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Yang, Y.; Fang, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a critical component of the Earth system, soils interact strongly with both climate and biota and provide fundamental ecosystem services that maintain food, climate, and human security. Despite significant progress in digital soil mapping techniques and the rapidly growing quantity of observed soil information, quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale remain unclear. By compiling a large global soil database, we mapped seven major soil properties (bulk density [BD]; sand, silt and clay fractions; soil pH; soil organic carbon [SOC] density [SOCD]; and soil total nitrogen [STN] density [STND]) based on machine learning algorithms (regional random forest [RF] model) and quantitatively assessed the linkage between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale. Our results demonstrated a global soil-climate-biome diagram, which improves our understanding of the strong correspondence between soils, climate and biomes. Soil pH decreased with greater mean annual precipitation (MAP) and lower mean annual temperature (MAT), and the critical MAP for the transition from alkaline to acidic soil pH decreased with decreasing MAT. Specifically, the critical MAP ranged from 400-500 mm when the MAT exceeded 10 °C but could decrease to 50-100 mm when the MAT was approximately 0 °C. SOCD and STND were tightly linked; both increased in accordance with lower MAT and higher MAP across terrestrial biomes. Global stocks of SOC and STN were estimated to be 788 ± 39.4 Pg (1015 g, or billion tons) and 63 ± 3.3 Pg in the upper 30-cm soil layer, respectively, but these values increased to 1654 ± 94.5 Pg and 133 ± 7.8 Pg in the upper 100-cm soil layer, respectively. These results reveal quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale, suggesting co-evolution of the soil, climate and biota under conditions of global environmental change.

  5. Morphofunctional diversity of equine of varied genetic compositions raised in the Pantanal biome of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Marcos Paulo Gonçalves; de Souza, Julio Cesar; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Bozzi, Riccardo; Jardim, Rodrigo Jose Delgado; Malhado, Carlos Henrique Mendes

    2018-02-07

    Evaluating phenotypic diversity makes it possible to identify discrepancies in aptitudes among animals of different genetic bases, which is an indicator of adaptive or selective differences between populations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphofunctional diversity of 452 male and female adult equines (Arabian, Quarter Mile, Pantaneiro, and Criollo breeds, and undefined crossbreeds of horses and mules) raised in the Pantanal biome (Brazil). Linear measurements were performed to estimate conformation indexes. Initially, a discriminant analysis was performed, regardless of the animal's size, followed by factor analysis. The factors were characterized and used as new variables. The diversity among equines and their relationship with the factors were evaluated using multivariate analysis. The factors were classified according to their decreasing importance: balance, rusticity, and robustness for the measurement factors; and load, ability, conformation, and equilibrium for the index factors. The genetic groups of equines have well-defined morphofunctional characteristics. The main differences are based on the rusticity and ability typologies in relation to those based on performance. Equines introduced to the Pantanal biome presented a more robust and compact body with good conformation. As a result, these horses may have superior athletic performance during equestrian activities when compared to the Pantaneiro local breed. However, this biotype may represent less rusticity (less adaptive capacity). Therefore, the regional breed can be equal or better in equestrian activities than breeds introduced to the Pantanal biome. Thus, breeders may cross horses from local breeds as an alternative to those introduced. Undefined crossbred male equines presented a different profile from the Pantaneiro breed, which may indicate little use of crossbreeds in breeding.

  6. A comparative study of five centrally acting drugs on the pharmacological treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, H; Boguszewski, C L; dos Santos, C M C; do Desterro de Figueiredo, M; Cunha, D R; Radominski, R

    2014-08-01

    No long-term studies have compared centrally acting drugs for treating obesity. To compare the efficacy and safety of diethylpropion (DEP), fenproporex (FEN), mazindol (MZD), fluoxetine (FXT) and sibutramine (SIB) in promoting weight loss. A prospective, randomized, placebo (PCB)-controlled study conducted at a single academic institution. A total of 174 obese premenopausal women. Participants randomly received DEP 75 mg (n=28), FEN 25 mg (n=29), MZD 2 mg (n=29), SIB 15 mg (n=30), FXT 20 mg (n=29) or PCB (n=29) daily over 52 weeks. Diet and physical activity were encouraged. The primary endpoints were changes in body weight and the proportion of women who achieved at least 5% weight loss by week 52 in the intent-to-treat population. Other measurements included anthropometry, safety, metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Weight loss was greater than PCB (-3.1±4.3 kg) with DEP (-10.0±6.4 kg; Pobese premenopausal women, with a satisfactory benefit-risk profile.

  7. Exposure to hepatitis C virus in homeless men in Central Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Martins Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless men are highly vulnerable to acquisition of the hepatitis C virus (HCV compared to the general population. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the extent of HCV infection in this population remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological profile of exposure to HCV in homeless men in Central Brazil. Methods A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 men aged over 18 years attending therapeutic communities specialized in the recovery and reintegration of homeless people. Participants were tested for anti-HCV markers using rapid tests. Poisson regression analysis was used to verify the risk factors associated with exposure to HCV. Results The prevalence of HCV exposure was 2.5% (95.0% CI: 1.4 to 4.3% and was associated with age, absence of family life, injection drug use, number of sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI. Participants reported multiple risk behaviors, such as alcohol (78.9%, cocaine (37.1% and/or crack use (53.1%, and inconsistent condom use (82.6%. Injection drug use was reported by 8.7% of participants. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV infection among homeless men was relatively high. Several risk behaviors were commonly reported, which shows the high vulnerability of this population. These findings emphasize the need for the development of specific strategies to reduce the risk of HCV among homeless men.

  8. Laboratory rainfall simulator studies of selected open-cut coal mine overburden spoils from Central Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.G.; Loch, R.J.; Aspinall, T.O.; Bell, L.C. [Eros and Hydrology Group, Jabiru, NT (Australia)

    1997-05-01

    Data on the erodibility of overburden spoils resulting from open-cut coal mining are limited. These data are required to derive parameters for erosion prediction models which can be used in the design of re-formed landscapes after mining. In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation data were used to derive CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems) interfill erodibility parameters K and n{sub bov} for Central Queensland coal mine overburden spoils. For the spoils studied, K values ranged from 0.0111 to 0.1398 Mg ha h/(ha MJ mm) and n{sub bov} values ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0081. Sediment yield was transport controlled. Results for 1 spoil, South Blackwater Terang, showed that total soil loss increased linearly with slope, and both K and n{sub bov} varied non-linearly with slope. If a constant set of K and n{sub bov} values is used in modelling, CREAMS over-predicts spoil loss for slopes greater than that for which the parameter values were determined, and under-predicts spoil loss for slopes less than that for which the parameter values were determined.

  9. The Benefits and Risks of Prophylactic Central Neck Dissection for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doh Young Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study evaluated the benefits of performing prophylactic central neck dissection (CND with total thyroidectomy (TT in management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC patients who were clinically node-negative at presentation. Methods. A total of 257 patients with stage T1 or T2 PTC and without preoperative evidence of lymph node involvement (N0 were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: (1 a total thyroidectomy (TT group (n=104 or (2 a TT plus CND group (n=153. The two groups were compared for their perioperative data, complication rates, disease recurrence rates, and clinical outcomes. Results. The two groups of patients were similar in age, sex ratio, follow-up duration, and tumor size (P=0.227, 0.359, 0.214, and 0.878, resp.. The two groups showed similar rates of disease recurrence (3.9% in the TT group versus 3.3% in the TT plus CND group; however, complications occurred more frequently in the TT plus CND group; especially transient hypocalcemia (P=0.043. Conclusions. Patients treated with TT plus CND had a higher rate of complications with similar recurrence rate. We believe that CND may not be routinely recommended when treating patients with PTC.

  10. A comparative study of golf industry between Yangtze River Delta, China and Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yangfan; Jin, Pingbin; Gong, Huiwen

    2018-03-01

    As a competition event of the 2016 Olympic Game, golf sport has aroused great attention around the world. And the Yangtze River Delta(YRD) in China, has already got certain basis and qualifications of developing golf industry, but somehow far from meeting the great potential demand of the market. This research selects the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Central Japan (CJ), which are indifferent golf developing stages, as the objectives. Comparative studies are being carried out with an aim of revealing the discrepancies of golf industry in selected regions. The correlations between golf industry and regional economic developing level have been explored as well. Mainly based on a geographical perspective, this research presents an initial effort to combine approaches of setting comparative indexes and spatial analysis, so that golf industry of selected regions will be compared in all directions. The results reveal that great gaps exist in YRD and CJ in terms of golf construction, service, and golf consumption. Problems in developing golf industry in YRD are identified based on the empirical results. A long-term golf development in YRD that deviating from the realistic demand is attributed to both government policies and the operational principles that the market subjects hold. Based on a comparative empirical study, suggestions relating to the government as well as the market players are put forward, with an aim of guiding the golf industry to develop in a sustainable way.

  11. Librarians' Role in Development and Achievement of Central Library Users' Information Literacy (a Case Study: Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan; Shahrabi, Afsaneh

    2013-12-01

    Due to the development of technologies, communications, databases and information resource varieties in today's information age, our various social, economic, cultural and political needs cannot be fulfilled by relying merely on past knowledge and skills as done previously. Information literacy (IL) as a set of necessary skills for all of us is an effective way of treating new technologies and their effective application in our lives. The study aimed to survey the library users' views in the Central Library of Babol University of Medical Sciences (The Library), Iran, on the role and influences of librarians on their IL development and improvement. This analytical survey used a researcher-made questionnaire for data collection. Research population consisted of all users referring Information Unit of The Library during 22 September - 20 December 2010. Of them, 150 users participating in at least 5 workshops held by The Library were selected as the study sample. Based on the findings, 52.7 percent of the subjects rated the influence of the librarians on their IL development much and very much. 44.7 percent claimed that they more acquired IL skills from librarians rather than others. 100 (63.3%) subjects preferred workshops held by the librarian to other workshops. The users of Information Unit of The Library perceived the training IL skills by librarians as a main influencing factor in their IL development and achievement. This emphasized the necessity of teaching IL to users and training the librarians in better teaching IL skills to library user.

  12. Retrospective study of 48 cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an infrequent form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma restricted to the CNS. More than 90% are type B and mainly affect patients aged 50-70 years. Immunodeficiency is the most important risk factor. The aim of our study was to evaluate the immune status, clinical presentation and findings in complementary studies of PCNSL patients. A retrospective analysis of 48 cases treated in our center between January 1992 and May 2015 was performed. Median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 25-84; with male predominance (2.1:1. Forty one cases (85% were immunocompetent patients. Brain MRI findings showed parenchymal involvement in 45 cases (94%, 43% with frontal lobe and 35% basal ganglia, 4% had meningeal involvement and 2% had ophthalmic involvement at diagnosis. Fifty-five percent had restricted signal on diffusion weighted imaging and contrast enhancement was found in 89%. Pyramidal syndrome was the main initial clinical manifestation (56%. There were abnormal findings in 62% of CSF samples, but in only 11.1% positive cytology results were detected. The most frequent type was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (83%, being B-cell type the most common form between them (96%. In our series PCNSL was more frequent in immunocompetent elderly male subjects. At initial evaluation, clinical manifestations and MRI findings were variable. The initial suspicion of this entity would allow an early diagnosis, avoiding empirical treatments that may confuse or delay diagnosis

  13. Testing bird response to roads on a rural environment: A case study from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federico; Jerzak, Leszek; Pruscini, Fabio; Santolini, Riccardo; Benedetti, Yanina; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The construction of roads is currently well spread in many parts of our world and impacts strongly on wildlife distribution. Some bird species avoid, while other prefer to be in the vicinity of these human structures. However, studies on roads effects on birds, in terms of strength or direction of these effects, are scarce. Therefore, in a study carried out in Central Italy we tested the responses of different bird species to roads at a local spatial scale, using generalized linear models (GLM). Analysis were conducted on a large dataset (more than 1400 sampled sites, mainly on rural environments). Both positive and negative effects of roads on birds were found for bird species of close or semi-close environments, while the negative effects of roads were negligible for bird species of open and semi-open environments. This fact suggest that roads can be a source of "functional heterogeneity" on semi-open environments, providing marginal habitats, hedgerows and residual vegetation typical of roadsides, offering breeding and feeding habitat for some bird species. The proposed methodology provide a useful explorative tool, in order to develop conservation policies to preserve the biodiversity, mainly in rural landscapes. The outputs of GLM can be used as inputs in ecological planning: direction and strength of the effects of roads on bird species are adequate to estimate the response of bird community, up front to the presence of new structures, or identifying which of them should be mitigated to reduce negative effects on the biodiversity.

  14. The Böhler’s angle in population of central Serbia - a radiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović-Mačužić Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The values of the Böhler’s angle (BA are relevant parameters for diagnosis, management and prognosis of the calcaneal fracture and the outcome. Range of normal values of Böhler’s angle (BA in adults varies depending on the examined population, age, gender or ethnicity. The aim of this study was to determine the range of normal values of the Böhler’s angle in the central part of Serbia. Methods. The lateral foot radiographs of 225 subjects (111 males and 114 females without calcaneal fractures, divided into 6 age groups were observed to determine the normal values of the Böhler’s angle by using the IMPAX 6.5.2.114 Enterprise software. Obtained values for Böhler’s angle were compared among gender and groups using appropriate statistical tests. Results. The mean of Böhler’s angle in observed population was 34.06°, ranging from 25.1° to 49.5° and was higher in males than in females included in our study. Gender difference was statistically significant. The distribution of the mean BA across the age groups showed tendency of decreasing with age and the highest BA was found in the youngest group. Conclusion. The findings presented in this paper confirmed the existence of wide range of BA values as well as its gender and age differences.

  15. Usefulness of Totally Implantable Central Venous Access Devices in Elderly Patients: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Ogawa, Yoshiteru

    2018-01-01

    The need for totally implantable central venous access devices (TICVADs) has increased with increased opportunities in the use of chemotherapy and parenteral nutrition. This study aimed to determine the outcomes of TICVAD implantation and use in patients aged ≥85 years. Between January 2010 and August 2016, 117 patients underwent TICVAD implantation and their records were retrospectively reviewed. Participants were divided into 2 groups (plus-85 and sub-85 groups). Fifty-five patients (47.0%) had solid organ cancer alone; 35 patients (29.9%) had cerebrovascular or cranial nerve disease. The average follow-up period was 201 (2-1,620) days. Major complications were identified in 6 (14.6%) plus-85 patients and 11 (14.5%) sub-85 patients (p = 0.9813). Catheter-related infections developed in 3 plus-85 (7.3%) and 4 sub-85 patients (5.3%; p = 0.6549). There were no significant group differences in hematoma, pneumothorax, occlusion, and removal rates. In plus-85 patients examined just before surgery and a month after surgery, increased rates of serum albumin and Onodera's prognostic nutritional index were observed in 48% (14/39) and 41% (12/39), respectively. The use of TICVADs in the plus-85 group resulted in effective outcomes. The results of this retrospective study support the wider use of TICVADs in patients aged ≥85 years. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Migration to Alma/Primo: A Case Study of Central Washington University

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    Ping Fu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how Central Washington University Libraries (CWUL interacted and collaborated with the Orbis Cascade Alliance (OCA Shared Integrated Library System’s (SILS Implementation Team and Ex Libris to process systems and data migration from Innovative Interfaces Inc.’s Millennium integrated library system to Alma/Primo, Ex Libris’ next-generation library management solution and discovery and delivery solution. A chronological review method was used for this case study to provide an overall picture of key migration events, tasks, and implementation efforts, including pre-migration cleanup, migration forms, integration with external systems, testing, cutover, post-migration cleanup, and reporting and fixing outstanding issues. A three-phase migration model was studied, and a questionnaire was designed to collect data from functional leads to determine staff time spent on the migration tasks. Staff time spent on each phase was analyzed and quantitated, with some top essential elements for the success of the migration identified through the case review and data analysis. An analysis of the Ex Libris’ Salesforce cases created during the migration and post-migration was conducted to be used for identifying roles of key librarians and staff functional leads during the migration.

  17. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  18. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  19. Chemical analyses and basic wood density in the root, stem and branch portions of barbatimão [(Stryphnodendron adstringens Coville] from the cerrado biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Lopes Goulart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado region has been a major provider to meet the growing demand of vegetal, animal or agribusiness consumer goods. However, studies on the vegetation of this biome are still incipient and that has been preventing use of Cerrado species, whether for economic purposes or as a way of restoring and recovering devastated areas. Due to lack of information concerning species of the Cerrado biome, this study was conducted in an attempt to gather information about the chemical constitution and basic wood density of the root, stem and branch portions of Stryphnodendron adstringens, also known as ‘barbatimão’. To that end, material was collected from the root and along stem and branch portions of three specimens of barbatimão. An increasing tendency was observed in holocellulose contents in the root-to-stem and root-to-branch direction. The opposite occurred with lignin and extractive contents. The lowest ash content was found in the stem portion. Values of basic density did not differ statistically between the root, stem and branch portions.

  20. Desenvolvimento de revestimentos autolubrificantes para vedantes em borracha de componentes biomédicos

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Mariana Borges da Silva

    2014-01-01

    No âmbito dos materiais biomédicos que utilizam a borracha como vedante, é importante que a função que estes apresentam de estancar líquidos não seja perdida, mas atuem de forma eficaz, demonstrando um baixo coeficiente de atrito durante o contacto com outra superfície. É então que surge este projeto e a ideia de aplicar um revestimento fino auto-lubrificante sobre as borrachas de modo a melhorar a sua ação, como no caso da aplicação em seringas. Foram realizadas diferentes ...

  1. Cesarean Section Is Associated with Increased Peripheral and Central Adiposity in Young Adulthood: Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise N Mesquita

    Full Text Available Cesarean section (CS has been associated with obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI, in some studies. It has been hypothesized that this association, if causal, might be explained by changes in gut microbiota. However, little is known about whether CS is also associated with increased adiposity as measured by indicators other than BMI.To assess the association between CS and indicators of peripheral and central adiposity in young adults.The study was conducted on 2,063 young adults aged 23 to 25 years from the 1978/79Ribeirão Preto birth cohort, São Paulo, Brazil. CS was the independent variable. The anthropometric indicators of adiposity were: waist circumference (WC, waist-height ratio (WHtR, waist-hip ratio (WHR, tricipital skinfold (TSF, and subscapular skinfold (SSF. The association between CS and indicators of adiposity was investigated using a Poisson model, with robust adjustment of variance and calculation of incidence rate ratio (IRR with 95% confidence interval (95%CI, and adjustment for birth variables.Follow-up rate was 31.8%. The CS rate was 32%. Prevalences of increased WC, WHtR, WHR were 32.1%, 33.0% and 15.2%, respectively. After adjustment for birth variables, CS was associated with increased risk of adiposity when compared to vaginal delivery: 1.22 (95%CI 1.07; 1.39 for WC, 1.25 (95%CI 1.10;1.42 for WHtR, 1.45 (95%CI 1.18;1.79 for WHR, 1.36 (95%CI 1.04;1.78 for TSF, and 1.43 (95%CI 1.08;1.91 for SSF.Subjects born by CS had a higher risk for increased peripheral and central adiposity during young adult age compared to those born by vaginal delivery. The association of CS with adiposity was consistently observed for all indicators and was robust after adjustment for a variety of early life confounders.

  2. Archaeomagnetic studies in central Mexico—dating of Mesoamerican lime-plasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueda-Tanabe, Y.; Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Barba, L.; Manzanilla, L.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.

    2004-11-01

    For the first time results of an archaeomagnetic study of unburned lime-plasters from Teotihuacan and Tenochtitlan in central Mesoamerica are presented. Plasters made of lime, lithic clasts and water, appear during the Formative Period and were used for a variety of purposes in floors, sculptures, ceramics and supporting media for mural paintings in the Oaxaca and Maya area. In Central Mexico, grinded volcanic scoria rich in iron minerals is incorporated into the lime-plasters mixture. Samples were selected from two archaeological excavation projects in the Teopancazco residential compound of Teotihuacan and the large multi-stage structure of Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan, where chronological information is available. The intensity of remanent magnetization (natural remanent magnetization (NRM)) and low-field susceptibility are weak reflecting low relative content of magnetic minerals. NRM directions are well grouped and alternating field demagnetization shows single or two-component magnetizations. Rockmagnetic experiments point to fine-grained titanomagnetites with pseudo-single domain behavior. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements document a depositional fabric, with normal to free-surface minimum AMS axes. Characteristic mean site directions were correlated to the paleosecular variation curve for Mesoamerica. Data from Templo Mayor reflect recent tilting of the structures. Teopancazco mean site declinations show good correspondence with the reference curve, in agreement with the radiocarbon dating. Dates for four stages of Teotihuacan occupancy based on the study of lime-plasters range from AD 350 to 550. A date for a possible Mazapa occupation around AD 850 or 950 is also suggested based on the archaeomagnetic correlation. The archaeomagnetic record of a plaster floor in Teopancazco differed from the other nearby sites pointing to a thermoremanent magnetization; comparison with the reference curve suggests dates around AD 1375 or 1415. The

  3. Understanding the Effect of Land Cover Classification on Model Estimates of Regional Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John; Kang, Sinkyu

    2003-01-01

    The original objectives of this proposed 3-year project were to: 1) quantify the respective contributions of land cover and disturbance (i.e., wild fire) to uncertainty associated with regional carbon source/sink estimates produced by a variety of boreal ecosystem models; 2) identify the model processes responsible for differences in simulated carbon source/sink patterns for the boreal forest; 3) validate model outputs using tower and field- based estimates of NEP and NPP; and 4) recommend/prioritize improvements to boreal ecosystem carbon models, which will better constrain regional source/sink estimates for atmospheric C02. These original objectives were subsequently distilled to fit within the constraints of a 1 -year study. This revised study involved a regional model intercomparison over the BOREAS study region involving Biome-BGC, and TEM (A.D. McGuire, UAF) ecosystem models. The major focus of these revised activities involved quantifying the sensitivity of regional model predictions associated with land cover classification uncertainties. We also evaluated the individual and combined effects of historical fire activity, historical atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and climate change on carbon and water flux simulations within the BOREAS study region.

  4. Comparative study on fixation of central venous catheter by suture versus adhesive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mazón, C S; Martín-Cerezo, X; Domene-Nieves de la Vega, G; Asensio-Flores, S; Adamuz-Tomás, J

    2018-03-27

    To assess the efficacy of a central venous catheter adhesive fixation device (CVC) to prevent associated complications. To establish the need for dressing changes, number of days' catheterization and reasons for catheter removal in both study groups. To assess the degree of satisfaction of personnel with the adhesive system. A, randomized, prospective and open pilot study, of parallel groups, with comparative evaluation between CVC fixation with suture and with an adhesive safety system. The study was performed in the Coronary Unit of the Universitari de Bellvitge Hospital, between April and November 2016. The population studied were patients with a CVC. The results were analyzed using SPSS Statistics software. The study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee. 100 patients (47 adhesive system and 53 suture) were analyzed. Both groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic variables, anticoagulation and days of catheterization. The frequency of complications in the adhesive system group was 21.3%, while in the suture group it was 47.2% (P=.01). The suture group had a higher frequency of local signs of infection (p=.006), catheter displacement (p=.005), and catheter-associated bacteraemia (P=.05). The use of adhesive fixation was associated with a lower requirement for dressing changes due to bleeding (P=.006). Ninety-six point seven percent of the staff recommended using the adhesive safety system. The catheters fixed with adhesive systems had fewer infectious complications and less displacement. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Ella; Sanina, Irina; Ivanchenko, Galina; Nesterkina, Margarita; Konstantinovskaya, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    A measurement system for location seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform is situated within the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the RAS Institute of Geospheres Dynamics and consists of 12 seismic stations. One vertical station is located in the center of the group in a shaft tunnel. The other stations are located on the periphery in three concentric circles and are almost equally spaced with regard to the terrain to ensure full azimuth coverage to the maximum extent possible. The unique array identifies events with a magnitude up to 3 at the distances until 1000 km within the Central Part of East European platform. Most of the events recorded by the Mikhnevo array at a distance of 60-500 km are man-made events represented by explosions in quarries during the development of mineral deposits. Long-term seismic records of explosions in quarries have been processed for the period from 2004 to 2014 to generate a database containing standard waveforms for each quarry. Some events of unknown origin appear in the records for this period; these do not correspond to the identified seismic forms for explosions in known quarries. Epicenter coordinates for these events do not match the coordinates of the known quarries. A cosmotectonic map of the Central Part of East European Platform was compiled during the studies using the LESSA software package (Lineament Extraction and Stripe Statistical Analysis) and data on the deep crustal structure, which made it possible to define the morphostructural plan and evaluate the geodynamic conditions in the area. The deep basement structure through the sedimentary cover is expressed in the surface texture of the area under study. The region's neotectonics is closely related to the history of deep structures, in particular, aulacogens extending in different directions, which may show in the contemporary morphostructural plan, mainly as inversion and partially inherited forms. Out of events of unknown nature

  6. Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data: a general method and its application to European pollen data at 0 and 6 ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, I.C. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology; Guiot, J. [Lab. de Botanique Historique et Palynologie, CNRS, Marseille (France); Huntley, B. [Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Jolly, D. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology; Cheddadi, R. [European Pollen Data Base, Centre Universitaire d`Arles (France)

    1996-02-01

    Biome models allow the results of experiments with atmospheric general circulation models to be translated into global maps of potential natural vegetation. The use of biome models as a diagnostic tool for palaeoclimate simulations can yield maps that are directly comparable with palaeoecological (pollen and plant macrofossil) records provided these records are ``biomized``, i.e. assigned to biomes in a consistent way. This article describes a method for the objective biomization of pollen samples based on fuzzy logic. Pollen types (taxa) are assigned to one or more plant functional types (PFTs), then affinity scores are calculated for each biome in turn based on its list of characteristic PFTs. The pollen sample is assigned to the biome to which it has the highest affinity, subject to a tie-breaking rule. Modern pollen data from surface samples, reflecting present vegetation across Europe, are used to validate the method. Pollen data from dated sediment cores are then used to reconstruct European vegetation patterns for 6 ka. The reconstruction shows systematic differences from present that are consistent with previous interpretations. The method has proved robust with respect to human impacts on vegetation, and provides a rational way to interpret combinations of pollen types that do not have present-day analogs. The method demands minimal prior information and is therefore equally suitable for use in other regions with richer floras, and/or lower densities of available modern and fossil pollen samples, than Europe. (orig.). With 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Torque Control During Intrusion on Upper Central Incisor in Labial and Lingual bracket System - A 3D Finite Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Tejas R; Vandekar, Meghna; Patil, Anuradha; Desai, Sanjana; Shetty, Vikram; Hazarika, Saptarshi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the difference of torque control during intrusive force on upper central incisors with normal, under and high torque in lingual and labial orthodontic systems through 3D finite element analysis. Six 3D models of an upper right central incisor with different torque were designed in Solid Works 2006. Software ANSYS Version 16.0 was used to evaluate intrusive force on upper central incisor model . An intrusive force of 0.15 N was applied to the bracket slot in different torque models and the displacements along a path of nodes in the upper central incisor was assessed. On application of Intrusive force on under torqued upper central incisor in Labial system produce labial crown movement but in Lingual system caused lingual movement in the apical and incisal parts. The same intrusive force in normal-torqued central incisor led to a palatal movement in apical and labial displacement of incisal edge in Lingual system and a palatal displacement in apical area and a labial movement in the incisal edge in Labial systemin. In overtorqued upper central incisor, the labial crown displacement in Labial system is more than Lingual system. In labial and lingual system on application of the same forces in upper central incisor with different inclinations showed different responses. The magnitudes of torque Loss during intrusive loads in incisors with normal, under and over-torque were higher in Labial system than Lingual orthodontic appliances. Key words: FEM, lingual orthodontics, intrusion, torque control, labial bracket systems.

  8. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: A case study for Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihast, A.K.; Herold, M.; Avitabile, V.; Bruin, de S.; Bartholomeus, H.; Souza Jr., C.M.; Ribbe, L.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring

  9. Textural studies of beach sediments from Sadashivagad and Karwar, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Antao, F.B.

    Analysis of textural parameters such as mean grain size, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis was done for 48 surface sediment samples of two close but separate beaches, namely Sadashivagad and Karwar, in the Central West Coast of India...

  10. Geothermal energy and the public: A case study on deliberative citizens’ engagement in central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzone, Anna; Allansdottir, Agnes; De Franco, Roberto; Muttoni, Giovanni; Manzella, Adele

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study on the citizens’ engagement with developments towards the harnessing of geothermal energy in central Italy. The research has been conducted within the framework of a larger project on the feasibility of further geothermal developments in Italy, funded by the Italian government. The aims of the case study research were first to explore the role of public and stakeholder engagement in the processes of innovation in the geothermal energy sector. Second, to design, implement and consolidate a methodological framework for comparative analysis of case studies on citizens’ engagement, thus bringing a social scientific perspective into geothermal energy research. The results show general support for renewable energy but knowledge and understanding of the potential of geothermal is remarkably low. Lack of trust in politics and unsure public communication emerged as prominent themes where the common good and community developments are sharply contrasted with corporate and private interests. As geothermal energy is included and encouraged under the European Strategic Energy Plan and in the Paris agreement on halting climate change, the results can make significant input into future policy making, by providing concrete guidelines on citizens’ engagement in processes of culturally sustainable innovation. - Highlights: • Original research, case study on citizens’ engagement with geothermal energy. • Considerable public uncertainty over geothermal energy. • Information is a key issue for all stakeholder and citizens cooperation in the energy sector. • Everyday notions of “the common good” strongly shape community discussions about energy. • Geothermal energy developments need to take the views of communities into account.

  11. Distribution of Central Corneal Thickness and its Association with Ocular Parameters in a Large Central European Cohort: The Gutenberg Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Esther M.; Lamparter, Julia; Mirshahi, Alireza; Elflein, Heike; Hoehn, René; Wolfram, Christian; Lorenz, Katrin; Adler, Max; Wild, Philipp S.; Schulz, Andreas; Mathes, Barbara; Blettner, Maria; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Main objective To evaluate the distribution of central corneal thickness (CCT) in a large German cohort and to analyse its relationship with intraocular pressure and further ocular factors. Design Population-based, prospective, cohort study. Methods The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) cohort included 4,698 eligible enrollees of 5,000 subjects (age range 35–74 years) who participated in the survey from 2007 to 2008. All participants underwent an ophthalmological examination including slitlamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, central corneal thickness measurement, fundus examination, and were given a questionnaire regarding glaucoma history. Furthermore, all subjects underwent fundus photography and visual field testing using frequency doubling perimetry. Results Mean CCT was 557.3±34.3 µm (male) and 551.6±35.2 µm in female subjects (Mean CCT from right and left eyes). Younger male participants (35–44 years) presented slightly thicker CCT than those older. We noted a significant CCT difference of 4 µm between right and left eyes, but a high correlation between eyes (Wilcoxon test for related samples: p<0.0001). Univariable linear regression stratified by gender showed that IOP was correlated with CCT (p<0.0001). A 10 µm increase in CCT led to an increase in IOP between 0.35–0.38 mm Hg, depending on the eye and gender. Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed correlations between gender, spherical equivalent (right eyes), and CCT (p<.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusions We observed positive correlations between CCT and IOP and gender. CCT was not correlated with age, contact lens wear, positive family history for glaucoma, lens status, or iris colour. PMID:23936291

  12. Distribution of central corneal thickness and its association with ocular parameters in a large central European cohort: the Gutenberg health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M Hoffmann

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distribution of central corneal thickness (CCT in a large German cohort and to analyse its relationship with intraocular pressure and further ocular factors. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective, cohort study. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS cohort included 4,698 eligible enrollees of 5,000 subjects (age range 35-74 years who participated in the survey from 2007 to 2008. All participants underwent an ophthalmological examination including slitlamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, central corneal thickness measurement, fundus examination, and were given a questionnaire regarding glaucoma history. Furthermore, all subjects underwent fundus photography and visual field testing using frequency doubling perimetry. RESULTS: Mean CCT was 557.3 ± 34.3 µm (male and 551.6±35.2 µm in female subjects (Mean CCT from right and left eyes. Younger male participants (35-44 years presented slightly thicker CCT than those older. We noted a significant CCT difference of 4 µm between right and left eyes, but a high correlation between eyes (Wilcoxon test for related samples: p<0.0001. Univariable linear regression stratified by gender showed that IOP was correlated with CCT (p<0.0001. A 10 µm increase in CCT led to an increase in IOP between 0.35-0.38 mm Hg, depending on the eye and gender. Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed correlations between gender, spherical equivalent (right eyes, and CCT (p<.0001 and p=0.03, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We observed positive correlations between CCT and IOP and gender. CCT was not correlated with age, contact lens wear, positive family history for glaucoma, lens status, or iris colour.

  13. Microestructura y propiedades mecánicas del SiC biomórfico obtenido a partir de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presas, M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of cellular ceramics with a biological structure, like bones and wood, has been a matter of interest in recent years. A low density highly interconnected structure, perfected by evolution, rises as the principal advantage of these materials. In the case of biomimetic SiC (biomorphic SiC, or bioSiC, the fabrication process technique is quite simple: a piece of wood is pyrolysed and is infiltrated with molten silicon after, the final product is a composite Si/SiC, which replicates the wood anisotropic microstructure This work focus on the mechanical properties of bioSiC fabricated using eucalyptus wood as precursor (hard wood with a bimodal channel distribution. It has been studied the mechanical behavior of this bioSiC (compression strength, flexure strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus between 25 and 1350 oC. It is also discussed the relationship between mechanical behavior of the material and its microstructure.

    El desarrollo de materiales cerámicos con una estructura de tipo celular, similar a la del hueso o la madera, ha sido una cuestión que ha suscitado un gran interés en los últimos años. Su atractivo se debe al hecho de poseer una estructura porosa altamente interconectada de baja densidad, perfeccionada por la evolución. En el caso del SiC biomórfico (bio-SiC el proceso de fabricación es sencillo: se piroliza una pieza de madera y a continuación se inyecta con silicio líquido, el material así obtenido es un compuesto Si/SiC en el que el SiC mimetiza la estructura de la madera original. En este trabajo se estudian las propiedades mecánicas del SiC biomórfico fabricado a partir de eucalipto (madera dura con una distribución bimodal de poros. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento mecánico del mismo (resistencia a compresión, resistencia a flexión, tenacidad de fractura y módulo de elasticidad entre 25 y 1350 oC. Asimismo, se discute la relación entre el comportamiento mecánico del material y

  14. Fabricación y propiedades del carburo de silicio biomórfico: maderas cerámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela Feria, F. M.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the fabrication of materials with biomorphic microstructure. In particular, the fabrication of biomorphic ceramics would be of high interest because its high-temperature structural applications. The ceramics presented in this research were fabricated by the pyrolysis and infiltration with molten silicon of wood preforms. The final product is SiC with the same microstructure of the wood precursor. Wood is a natural composite that present an anisotropic porous microstructure with excellent elasticity, strength, and damage tolerance. Some of this properties will remain improved in the ceramic product. Biomorphic ceramics reach high strengths (700 MPa at 1150 oC for biomorphic SiC made from eucalyptus wood. The influence of the wood precursor and fabrication process in the mechanical and microstructural properties has been studied. The correlation microstructure-mechanical properties is discussed, as well as the application of the cellular theory of solids.

    En los últimos años se ha puesto de manifiesto un considerable interés en la fabricación y optimización de materiales de microestructura biomórfica. En particular, la fabricación de cerámicas biomórficas es especialmente importante ya que éstas pueden ser utilizadas en aplicaciones estructurales a temperaturas elevadas. Los materiales objeto de esta investigación se fabrican mediante la pirólisis e infiltración de silicio fundido en preformas de madera. El resultado final es SiC con la misma microestructura que la madera precursora. La madera es un material natural compuesto que presenta una morfología porosa anisotrópica con una excelente elasticidad, resistencia y tolerancia al daño; algunas de estas propiedades se trasladarán y amplificarán al pasar a la cerámica que se elabora a partir de la misma. Se ha estudiado la influencia de la madera seleccionada y el proceso de fabricación en las propiedades mecánicas y microestructurales

  15. Bioavailability of Metals in Sediments of the Dogger Bank (Central North Sea): A Mesocosm Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, W. J.; Burt, G. R.; Pope, N. D.

    1999-05-01

    There are conflicting arguments surrounding the nature and origins of metal enrichment in sediments from the Dogger Bank (central North Sea) and much speculation as to its biological significance. To help resolve this controversy, a mesocosm approach was evaluated to test whether metal loadings in sediments from the Dogger Bank region display enhanced bioavailability, relative to reference sites off south-west England. This involved the combination of physicochemical characterization of sediments (including porewaters) with bioaccumulation studies, using sediment cores seeded with benthic organisms (bivalves Spisula solida and Venus striatula, the gastropod Turritella communis and the polychaete Melinna palmata). There was little evidence of As, Cu, Hg or Pb bioaccumulation from Dogger cores. In contrast, all species accumulated Cd; Ag concentrations rose by up to fourfold in most bioindicators; and Ni, Cr and Mn burdens also increased, occasionally by as much as 10-fold. Variable, but generally smaller increases in Fe and Zn were observed. Physiological variations in metal bioaccumulation processes, including the ability to regulate essential elements, were responsible for species differences in response—a feature which may contribute to uncertainty in the interpretation and comparison of biomonitoring data. Mesocosm results nevertheless complement earlier field reports of unexpectedly enriched levels of certain metals (notably Cd) in biota from this part of the central North Sea. Characterization of sediments provided some physicochemical explanations for enhanced metal uptake in biota and helped, partly, to define bioavailable and anthropogenic fractions. Thus, whilst total sediment-metal concentrations were not exceptional in Dogger samples, for some metals there was a significant proportion in non-refractory (readily extractable) form, together with relatively high concentrations in interstitial waters—both presumably available for assimilation

  16. Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaka, Lydia A., E-mail: lydiaolaka@gmail.com [Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Wilke, Franziska D.H. [Geoforschungs Zentrum, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Olago, Daniel O.; Odada, Eric O. [Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Mulch, Andreas [Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Institut für Geowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Musolff, Andreas [UFZ-Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02–75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5 mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F{sup −} concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2–9.2 mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27–75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ{sup 18}O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from − 6.2 to + 5.8‰ and − 31.3 to + 33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750–6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (< 1000 ppm). Thus, geochemical F{sup −} enrichment in regional groundwater is mainly due to a) rock alteration, i.e. through long residence times and natural discharge and/or enhanced leakages of deep seated geothermal water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management

  17. A mixed methods study of ruminant brucellosis in central-eastern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkallah, Mohamed; Gharbi, Yaakoub; Zormati, Sonia; Karkouch, Nesrine; Mallek, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fendri, Imen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we conducted an investigation to determine the true prevalence of bovine and ovine brucellosis in central-eastern Tunisia. A total of 1134 veterinary samples taken from 130 ruminant herds were screened for brucellosis using IS711-based real-time PCR assay. Sera collected from the ruminants were tested using the Rose Bengal test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on serological and molecular results, the true adjusted animal population level prevalence was 23.5 % in cattle, against 13.5 % in sheep. In addition, the true adjusted herd level prevalence of brucellosis was 55.6 % in cattle and 21.8 % in sheep. A statistically significant association was found between vaginal and milk shedding for ruminants. In addition, our results showed that Brucella abortus could be responsible for bovine and ovine brucellosis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis at the animal population level indicated that age and origin variables were important risk factors for cattle. However, age and abortion variables were found to be associated with ovine brucellosis. At the herd level, risk factors for Brucella positivity were as follows: abortion and herd composition for cattle against herd composition, mortality rates, and hygiene for sheep. Animal hygiene, food quality, and sanitary practices on the farm should be applied as strategies to control brucellosis in herds.

  18. A preliminary study of paraoxonase-1 in infected patients with an indwelling central venous catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimie, Simona; García-Heredia, Anabel; Pujol, Isabel; Ballester, Frederic; Fort-Gallifa, Isabel; Simó, Josep M; Joven, Jorge; Castro, Antoni; Camps, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Identification of biochemical markers to diagnose bloodstream infections in patients with a central venous catheter (CVC) inserted is an active research pursuit. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme participating in the innate immune system protecting against toxic substances and infectious agents. We investigated the relationships between serum PON1 alterations and the characteristics of infection in a group of patients with a CVC implant. Patients (n=114) who had had an inserted CVC removed because of infection or because the usefulness was at an end, and 407 healthy volunteers were recruited. In all participants we measured serum PON1 lactonase and paraoxonase activities, PON1 concentration and genetic polymorphisms, together with levels of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients with an acute concomitant infection (ACI) had higher CCL2, CRP and procalcitonin concentrations than the control group, together with lower paraoxonase and lactonase activities and specific activities. The areas under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic plots for paraoxonase and lactonase specific activities in the discrimination between patients with or without and ACI were 0.81 (0.73-0.89) and 0.81 (0.71-0.89), respectively, indicating the high diagnostic accuracy of these parameters. This preliminary study suggests that the measurement of PON1 may be useful as a tool for the diagnosis of ACI in patients with an indwelling CVC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  20. Exploring the expression of depression and distress in aboriginal men in central Australia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression.

  1. Epidemiological study of hazelnut bacterial blight in central Italy by using laboratory analysis and geostatistics.

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    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010-2012. The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1% to very high (almost 75% across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease.

  2. Heparin for clearance of peripherally inserted central venous catheter in newborns: an in vitro study

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    Balaminut, Talita; Venturini, Danielle; da Silva, Valéria Costa Evangelista; Rossetto, Edilaine Giovanini; Zani, Adriana Valongo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of two concentrations of heparin to clear the lumen of in vitro clotted neonatal peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Methods: This is an in vitro, experimental quantitative study of 76 neonatal 2.0-Fr PICCs coagulated in vitro. The catheters were divided into two groups of 38 PICCs each. In both groups an infusion of low molecular weight heparin was administered with a dose of 25IU/mL for Group 1 and 50IU/mL for Group 2. The negative pressure technique was applied to the catheters of both groups at 5, 15 and 30min and at 4h to test their permeability. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to verify the outcome of the groups according to time intervals. Results: The comparison between both groups in the first 5min showed that more catheters from Group 2 were cleared compared to Group 1 (57.9 vs. 21.1%, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that less time was needed to clear catheters treated with 50IU/mL of heparin (p<0.001). Conclusions: The use of low molecular weight heparin at a concentration of 50IU/mL was more effective in restoring the permeability of neonatal PICCs occluded in vitro by a clot, and the use of this concentration is within the safety margin indicated by scientific literature. PMID:26116325

  3. Morphometric analysis in basaltic Terrain of Central India using GIS techniques: a case study

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    Sahu, Nisha; Obi Reddy, G. P.; Kumar, Nirmal; Nagaraju, M. S. S.; Srivastava, Rajeev; Singh, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    Morphometric analysis is significant for investigation and management of the watershed. This study depicts the morphometric analysis of Miniwada Watershed in Nagpur district, Maharashtra, Central India using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, which has been carried out through measurement of various aspects like linear, aerial and relief aspects of watershed. The drainage network of the watershed was generated from Cartosat-I DEM (10 m) using ESRI Software ArcGIS (ver.10.2). The analysis reveals that drainage pattern is dendritic and the stream order in the watershed varies from 1 to 4. The total number of stream segments of all orders counted as 37, out of which the majority of orders (70.27 %) was covered by 1st order streams and 4th order stream segments covers only 2.70 %. The bifurcation ratio reflects the geological and tectonic characteristics of the watershed and estimated as 3.08. The drainage density of the watershed is 3.63 km/sq km and it indicates the closeness of spacing of channels. The systematic analysis of various parameters in GIS helps in better understanding the soil resources distribution, watersheds prioritization, planning and management.

  4. Central supermassive black hole study of our galaxy and its environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trap, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    This thesis gathers a series of observational and phenomenological studies pertaining to compact objects at the center of our Galaxy, i.e. the central supermassive black hole, SagittariusA * , and neutron stars hosted by X-ray bursters. The first part deals with SgrA * , which is subject to daily flares of unknown origins, both from the point of view of the triggers and the radiation mechanisms. This flaring activity has been probed by several extensive multiwavelength campaigns (in gamma-rays, X-rays, infrared and submillimeter) conducted between 2007 and 2009. Data recorded simultaneously by the XMM-Newton/EPIC, INTEGRAL/ISGRI+JEM-X, Fermi/LAT, VLT/NACO+VISIR, and APEX/LABOCA instruments, during new major flares, have helped characterize in detail the spectral and temporal behaviors of these eruptions, and constrain the non-thermal emission models of the radiative medium (synchrotron, inverse Compton, expanding plasmoid, etc). In a second section, a score of type I X-ray bursts from two low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galactic nucleus, GRS 1741.9-2853 and AXJ1745.6-2901, have been examined through the data of various low-energy X-ray satellites (2-30 keV). These observations have then been discussed in the relatively well established theoretical frame of thermonuclear explosions in a plasma of hydrogen and helium, built up at the surfaces of accreting neutron stars. (author) [fr

  5. Habitat Patch Diversity Evaluation for Sustainability: a Case Study of a Rural Area in Central Italy

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    Roberto Mancinelli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscape analysis is regarded as a new tool for monitoring and judging land use patterns in terms of sustainability of human activity systems at local level. A case study of evaluation for sustainability based on habitat patch diversity in an ecoregion of Central Italy is presented. In this region, ongoing land use patterns reflect both historical adaptation to local environmental constraints and positive, social-oriented management. More protective land use patterns are mostly widespread in fragile physiographic conditions like those of the mountain areas, where woodland, shrub, and grassland patches are larger and cover more than 90% of the land. This situation is regarded as a positive outcome of the traditional public ownership regime, because public lands amount to more than 70% in the mountain areas. The hilly areas, where public property drops to 28%, presents landscape metrics showing a well balanced situation between agricultural land use and protective native woods and grasslands, which provides a finegrained and harmonious Mediterranean landscape. In the low-land areas, with anthropic pressure and more favourable conditions for crop productivity, there is much more agricultural land, even if some mitigation in terms of biodiversity maintenance is offered by the presence of hedgerow ecotones. In these areas, landscape analysis is not able to supply meaningful information about cropping system design and practices which can maintain a sustainable level of soil fertility and quality of natural resources and processes, and further analysis at cropping system level should be carried out.

  6. Estimating the Rainwater Potential per Household in an Urban Area: Case Study in Central Mexico

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    Liliana Lizárraga-Mendiola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In cities with problems of aridity and a shortage of drinking water supply, there is an urgent need to establish alternatives for an adequate water management program. This study proposes an estimation through which users can select a rainwater harvesting system for non-drinking water consumption. For the cities of Pachuca and Mineral de la Reforma, State of Hidalgo, Central Mexico, the historical record of rainfall analyzed covers a period of 33 years (1980–2013. We calculated the monthly volume of rainwater harvestable from roof areas (VR, m3 with household roof areas (Hra of 45 m2, 50 m2, 100 m2 and 200 m2. It is proposed to replace in each single house the flush toilets and washing machine with ecological devices with consumptions of 4.8 L/flush and 70 L/load, respectively. Furthermore, a maximum and a minimum consumption of eight and six flushes/day/person (flush toilets and five and four loads/week (washing machine, respectively, are proposed. From these considerations, our estimations of the harvestable rainwater showed that households with Hra of 45 m2 and 50 m2 would depend on the water supply system of the public network during part of the year. On the other hand, households with Hra of 100 m2 and 200 m2 might be able to store enough water to meet other needs besides toilet flushing and laundry.

  7. An assessment of leaf-litter and epigaeic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae living in different landscapes of the Atlantic Forest Biome in the State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Roberta de Jesus Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest has a rich biodiversity increasingly threatened by human activities. Since the colonial period, the coast of the state of Bahia is among the most affected regions of Brazil by anthropic pressure. Bahia encloses Atlantic Forest remnants distributed in an area reaching 100-200 km along the east-west axis, by 1,000 km along the north-south axis, parallel to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. We report hereafter the results of an intensive field survey of leaf litter and epigaeic ants realized in forest remnants of the Atlantic Forest landscapes within the original extension of the biome in 11 localities distributed along four degrees of latitude in the state of Bahia. In each site, 16 plots were collected using pitfall and eight using Winkler traps. We identified 391 ant species belonging to 71 genera and nine subfamilies. Among all species recorded, 21 were common to the whole 11 localities, while 98 species were recorded in a single locality. This study highlights the richness and diversity of epigaeic and leaf-litter ants living in the northern part of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and is one of the most representative soil ants’ inventories ever done in this biome for a single state of Brazil.

  8. Copula Multivariate analysis of Gross primary production and its hydro-environmental driver; A BIOME-BGC model applied to the Antisana páramos

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    Minaya, Veronica; Corzo, Gerald; van der Kwast, Johannes; Galarraga, Remigio; Mynett, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Simulations of carbon cycling are prone to uncertainties from different sources, which in general are related to input data, parameters and the model representation capacities itself. The gross carbon uptake in the cycle is represented by the gross primary production (GPP), which deals with the spatio-temporal variability of the precipitation and the soil moisture dynamics. This variability associated with uncertainty of the parameters can be modelled by multivariate probabilistic distributions. Our study presents a novel methodology that uses multivariate Copulas analysis to assess the GPP. Multi-species and elevations variables are included in a first scenario of the analysis. Hydro-meteorological conditions that might generate a change in the next 50 or more years are included in a second scenario of this analysis. The biogeochemical model BIOME-BGC was applied in the Ecuadorian Andean region in elevations greater than 4000 masl with the presence of typical vegetation of páramo. The change of GPP over time is crucial for climate scenarios of the carbon cycling in this type of ecosystem. The results help to improve our understanding of the ecosystem function and clarify the dynamics and the relationship with the change of climate variables. Keywords: multivariate analysis, Copula, BIOME-BGC, NPP, páramos

  9. Ants of three adjacent habitats of a transition region between the cerrado and caatinga biomes: the effects of heterogeneity and variation in canopy cover.

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    Neves, F S; Queiroz-Dantas, K S; da Rocha, W D; Delabie, J H C

    2013-06-01

    Habitat heterogeneity and complexity associated with variations in climatic conditions are important factors determining the structure of ant communities in different terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to describe the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of the ant community associated with three adjacent habitats in a transition area between the Cerrado and Caatinga