WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomed central research

  1. Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on biomes. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  2. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T 2 O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  3. Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lebamba; A. Ngomanda; A. Vincens; D. Jolly; C. Favier; H. Elenga; I. Bentaleb

    2009-01-01

    New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo) including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs) and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1) modern potential biomes and (2) potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new ap...

  4. User's Guide to Biome Information from the United States International Biological Program (IBP). First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, A. Dexter; Haug, Peter T.

    This publication is a guide to the biome research conducted under the International Biological Program. The guide lists biome researchers by interest and by biome as well as a central list. A site list, map, information sources section reporting abstracts, bibliographies, journals, books, evaluations, and data books are also included. Three…

  5. Licensing the future: report on BioMed Central's public consultation on open data in peer-reviewed journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Busch, Stefan; Cockerill, Matthew J

    2013-08-21

    We report the outcomes of BioMed Central's public consultation on implementing open data-compliant licensing in peer-reviewed open access journals. Respondents (42) to the 2012 consultation were six to one in favor (29 in support; 5 against; 8 abstentions) of changing our authors' default open access copyright license agreement, to introduce the Creative Commons CC0 public domain waiver for data published in BioMed Central's journals. We summarize the different questions we received in response to the consultation and our responses to them - matters such as citation, plagiarism, patient privacy, and commercial use were raised. In light of the support for open data in our journals we outline our plans to implement, in September 2013, a combined Creative Commons Attribution license for published articles (papers) and Creative Commons CC0 waiver for published data.

  6. A reconstruction of Atlantic Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lebamba; A. Ngomanda; A. Vincens; D. Jolly; C. Favier; H. Elenga; I. Bentaleb

    2009-01-01

    New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo) including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs) and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1) modern potential biomes and (2) potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a...

  7. 2008 Co2 Assimilation in Plants: Genome to Biome Gordon Research Conference - August 17-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James V. Maroney

    2009-08-12

    Formerly entitled 'CO2 Fixation and Metabolism in Green Plants', this long-standing Gordon Research Conference has been held on a triennial basis since 1976. In 1990 the participants decided to alternate between sites in the U.S. and outside the U.S. The 2005 conference was held in Europe at the Centre Paul Langevin in Aussois, France, so the 2008 conference returns to a U.S. site - the University of New England in Biddeford, Maine. The 2008 conference covers basic plant research related to photosynthesis and the subsequent regulation and engineering of carbon assimilation. Approaches that range from post-genomic technologies and systems biology, through to fundamental biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology are integrated within ecological and agronomic contexts. As such, the meeting provides the rare opportunity of a single venue for discussing all aspects of the 'carbon-side' of photosynthesis - from genome to biome. The 2008 conference will include an emphasis on the central role of carbon assimilation by plants for developing new sources of bioenergy and for achieving a carbon-neutral planet. A special characteristic of this conference is its 'intimacy' with approximately 110 conferees, ranging from beginning graduate students and postdoctoral associates to leading senior plant scientists, engaged in open and forward-thinking discussions in an informal, friendly setting. With extended time devoted to discussion, and the encouragement to challenge dogma, it is unlike other meetings in the U.S. or abroad. Another novel feature of the conference is a session devoted to the latest 'hot off the press' findings by both established and early career scientists, picked from the abstracts. Together with an expanded poster discussion in the evening sessions, this session provides an opportunity for early career scientists to present interesting new data and to 'test drive' hypotheses in a collegial atmosphere.

  8. Toward Understanding Dynamics in Shifting Biomes: An Individual Based Modeling Approach to Characterizing Drought and Mortality in Central Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Foster, A.; Rogers, B. M.; Hogg, T.; Michaelian, M.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Goetz, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic-Boreal zone is known be warming at an accelerated rate relative to other biomes. Persistent warming has already affected the high northern latitudes, altering vegetation productivity, carbon sequestration, and many other ecosystem processes and services. The central-western Canadian boreal forests and aspen parkland are experiencing a decade long drought, and rainfall has been identified as a key factor controlling the location of the boundary between forest and prairie in this region. Shifting biome with related greening and browning trends are readily measureable with remote sensing, but the dynamics that create and result from them are not well understood. In this study, we use the University of Virginia Forest Model Enhanced (UVAFME), an individual-based forest model, to simulate the changes that are occurring across the southern boreal and parkland forests of west-central Canada. We present a parameterization of UVAFME for western central Canadian forests, validated with CIPHA data (Climate Change Impacts on the Productivity and Health of Aspen), and improved mortality. In order to gain a fine-scale understanding of how climate change and specifically drought will continue to affect the forests of this region, we simulated forest conditions following CMIP5 climate scenarios. UVAFME predictions were compared with statistical models and satellite observations of productivity across the landscape. Changes in forest cover, forest type, aboveground biomass, and mortality and recruitment dynamics are presented, highlighting the high vulnerability of this region to vegetation transitions associated with future droughts.

  9. A BiomeBGC-based Evaluation of Dryness Stress of Central European Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Buddenbaum, H.; Hientgen, J.; Dotzler, S.; Werner, W.; Hill, J.

    2015-01-01

    Dryness stress is expected to become a more common problem in central European forests due to the predicted regional climate change. Forest management has to adapt to climate change in time and think ahead several decades in decisions on which tree species to plant at which locations. The summer of 2003 was the most severe dryness event in recent time, but more periods like this are expected. Since forests on different sites react quite differently to drought conditions, we used the ...

  10. Guide to the literature on research in the grassland biome of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tainton, MN

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available the development of an understanding of how these communities can best be managed to ensure their sustained producti¬vity, or indeed to increase their productivity. This publication serves to highlight the main work which has been undertaken in this biome...

  11. Description of the Grassland Biome Project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mentis, MT

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives, organization and research programme of the Grassland Biome Project are described against a background of the biome's ecological characteristics and environmental problems. Four principal research topics wil 1 be focused upon: (i...

  12. Applying plant functional types to construct biome maps from eastern North American pollen data: comparisons with model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John W.; Summers, Robert L.; Webb, Thompson, III

    Global biome models like BIOME1 convert climate-model simulations of past climates into biome distributions and thus facilitate comparison of both climate and biome model results with biomes estimate from paleoecological data. We adapted a biomization method, recently developed for European pollen data, for use with pollen data in eastern North America and then compared its estimated biomes with those derived from applying BIOME1 to the climate simulations from the NCAR CCM1 (National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, Version 1) for 6000 years ago (6 ka). We first tested the biomization method by seeing how well the biomes inferred from modern pollen data match observed biomes. We found that modifications to the method were necessary in part to account for physiological differences between North American and European taxa, and in part to cope with our choice of using just 23 major pollen taxa. Our modifications significantly improved the match between observed modern biomes and pollen-derived biomes, as measured by the kappa statistic. We tested our tuning of the biomization method by matching its inferred 6 ka biomes to biomes estimated from pollen data using the modern analog technique. The degree of agreement at 6 ka is close to that for today, showing that (1) the biomization method and modern analog technique, when applied to the same pollen data, produce consistent results, and (2) the modifications made to the biomization method are robust back to 6 ka. We then used the results of the biomization method to test the biome maps simulated by BIOME1, which derives biome distributions from observed climate values for today and from the climatic simulations of the CCM1 for 6 ka. Only a fair agreement is seen, and significant offsets exist in the placement of biomes by BIOME1. For today BIOME1 simulates the boundary between the temperate deciduous and cool mixed forests to be too far south and the steppe-forest boundary to be too far west

  13. Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Caroline E R; Parr, Catherine L

    2016-09-19

    Tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) are changing rapidly the world over through a coalescence of high rates of land-use change, global change and altered disturbance regimes that maintain the ecosystem structure and function of these biomes. Our theme issue brings together the latest research examining the characterization, complex ecology, drivers of change, and human use and ecosystem services of TGBs. Recent advances in ecology and evolution have facilitated a new perspective on these biomes. However, there continues to be controversies over their classification and state dynamics that demonstrate critical data and knowledge gaps in our quantitative understanding of these geographically dispersed regions. We highlight an urgent need to improve ecological understanding in order to effectively predict the sensitivity and resilience of TGBs under future scenarios of global change. With human reliance on TGBs increasing and their propensity for change, ecological and evolutionary understanding of these biomes is central to the dual goals of sustaining their ecological integrity and the diverse services these landscapes provide to millions of people.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Disturbance and the dynamics of fynbos biome communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cowling, RM

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This volume comprises invited review and research papers dealing with the effects of disturbance on the dynamics of fynbos biome communities. Since fire is the most important disturbance factor in the biome, most contributions concentrate...

  15. Description of the Fynbos Biome Project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, FJ

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives, organization and research programme of the Fynbos Biome Project being undertaken in the south-west and southern Cape are described. The project is a cooperative multi-disciplinary study of the ecological characteristics, structure...

  16. Central Institute for Nuclear Research (1956 - 1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.; Bonitz, M.

    1979-12-01

    The Central Institute for Nuclear Research (ZfK) of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR is presented. This first overall survey covers the development of the ZfK since 1956, the main research activities and results, a description of the departments responsible for the complex implementation of nuclear research, the social services for staff and the activities of different organizations in the largest central institute of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR. (author)

  17. XNAT Central: Open sourcing imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Rick; Horton, William; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; Archie, Kevin A; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    XNAT Central is a publicly accessible medical imaging data repository based on the XNAT open-source imaging informatics platform. It hosts a wide variety of research imaging data sets. The primary motivation for creating XNAT Central was to provide a central repository to host and provide access to a wide variety of neuroimaging data. In this capacity, XNAT Central hosts a number of data sets from research labs and investigative efforts from around the world, including the OASIS Brains imaging studies, the NUSDAST study of schizophrenia, and more. Over time, XNAT Central has expanded to include imaging data from many different fields of research, including oncology, orthopedics, cardiology, and animal studies, but continues to emphasize neuroimaging data. Through the use of XNAT's DICOM metadata extraction capabilities, XNAT Central provides a searchable repository of imaging data that can be referenced by groups, labs, or individuals working in many different areas of research. The future development of XNAT Central will be geared towards greater ease of use as a reference library of heterogeneous neuroimaging data and associated synthetic data. It will also become a tool for making data available supporting published research and academic articles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  19. Las Ciencias instrumentales en la Investigación Biomédica Instrumental Sciences in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Roma Millán

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Hay una serie de ciencias que se hacen imprescindibles para poder investigar e interpretar los resultados científicos, son la ciencias que llamamos instrumentales o auxiliares. Entre ellas se encuentran la Demografía, la Epidemiología y la Bioestadística. Además, hay que tomar en consideración las técnicas de investigación cualitativa, el conjunto de estrategias e instrumentos de búsqueda de información bibliográfica y, también las metodologías de presentación de resultados. Finalmente, no puede olvidarse la ética, en sus dos componentes de bioética y de ética del trabajo científico, si queremos desarrollar un trabajo siguiendo el método científico. Este capítulo explica cuál es la función de estas disciplinas en el seno de la investigación científica y del desarrollo de proyectos.Some scientific disciplines are essential for research and scientific results interpretation. Instrumental or auxiliary sciences include Demography, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics. Also, it is necessary to take into account the techniques for qualitative research, the strategies and instruments for bibliographic information and the methodology for scientific results presentation. Finally, to develop a project according to the scientific method, it is necessary to consider ethics, in its two components: bioethics and the ethics of scientific method. This report explains which is the function of these instrumental and auxiliary sciences in the context of the scientific research and the development of scientific projects.

  20. Consequences of biome depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The human microbiome is an integral part of the superorganism together with their host and they have co-evolved since the early days of the existence of the human species. The modification of the microbiome as a result changes in food and social habits of human beings throughout their life history has led to the emergence of many diseases. In contrast with the Darwinian view of nature of selfishness and competence, new holistic approaches are rising. Under these views, the reconstitution of the microbiome comes out as a fundamental therapy for emerging diseases related to biome depletion.

  1. Central Research Registration at Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Ane Ahrenkiel

    Some five years ago, DTU switched from decentralized research registration, where researchers entered their publications into the DTU research repository themselves to centralized research registration, whereby library staff upload academic publications to the repository on behalf of the research...

  2. Central research registration at Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Ane Ahrenkiel

    Some five years ago, DTU switched from decentralized research registration, where researchers entered their publications into the DTU research repository themselves to centralized research registration, whereby library staff upload academic publications to the repository on behalf of the research...

  3. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Central Asia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Central Asia. Asie centrale. Read more about Harnessing big data to meet the Sustainable Development Goals – Building capacity in the Global South. Language English. Read more about Grants and awards: Gender equality and scaling digital innovation. Language English. Read more about Community access ...

  6. Description of the Karoo Biome project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cowling, RM

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological characteristics and ecological problems of the karoo biome are briefly described. A conceptual basis and guidelines for the development of the Karoo Biome Project are outlined by addressing project goals, project structure...

  7. West and Central African Research and Education Networking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    West and Central African Research and Education Networking (WACREN). For universities and research centres around the world, the Internet has become an important resource for teaching, learning and research. But, African universities have always faced important challenges to accessing cheap and reliable bandwidth ...

  8. Functional requirements for a central research imaging data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Gruetz, Romanus; Dickmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The current situation at many university medical centers regarding the management of biomedical research imaging data leaves much to be desired. In contrast to the recommendations of the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Council of Sciences and Humanities regarding the professional management of research data, there are commonly many individual data pools for research data in each institute and the management remains the responsibility of the researcher. A possible solution for this situation would be to install local central repositories for biomedical research imaging data. In this paper, we developed a scenario based on abstracted use-cases for institutional research undertakings as well as collaborative biomedical research projects and analyzed the functional requirements that a local repository would have to fulfill. We determined eight generic categories of functional requirements, which can be viewed as a basic guideline for the minimum functionality of a central repository for biomedical research imaging data.

  9. Biome engineering?2020

    OpenAIRE

    Br?ssow, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Summary The gut microbiome research is going from a descriptive into an intervention phase. To optimize beneficial microbe?host interaction, we need to understand how to steer the system by modulating the nutrient input with which the system is literally fed (e.g. diets, fibres, prebiotics, human milk oligosaccharides), and we must learn how to modulate the composition of the gut microbiota by adding beneficial microbes (e.g. probiotics, faecal transplants) and by eliminating disturbing micro...

  10. Biosphere 2's Marsh Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Jennifer; Goodridge, Kelven

    1997-01-01

    The Marsh Biome, which was modeled after the mangroves and marshes of southwest Florida, has an area of 441.2 sq m separated into three hydrologically independent sections: the Freshwater, Oligohaline and Salt Marshes. The divisions are made based on their salinity (approximately 0, 4, and 34 ppt. respectively), but they also contain different biological communities. The Freshwater and Oligohaline Marshes are mostly filled with various grasses and several trees, while the Salt Marsh houses regions of red, black, and white mangroves (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Languncularia racemosa respectively). Overall, there are an estimated 80 species of plants within the biome. Water in the Salt Marsh follows a meandering stream from the algal turf scrubbers (apparatuses that clean the water of its nutrients and heavy metals while increasing dissolved oxygen levels) which have an outlet in the Salt Marsh section near sites 4 and 5 to the Fringing Red Mangrove section. The sections of the Salt Marsh are separated by walls of concrete with openings to allow the stream to flow through. Throughout this study, conducted through the months of June and July, many conditions within the biome remained fairly constant. The temperature was within a degree or two of 25 C, mostly depending on whether the sample site was in direct sunlight or shaded. The pH throughout the Salt Marsh was 8.0 +/- 0.2, and the lower salinity waters only dropped below this soon after rains. The water rdepth and dissolved oxygen varied, however, between sites.

  11. Research on centrality of urban transport network nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Fu, Xiufen

    2017-05-01

    Based on the actual data of urban transport in Guangzhou, 19,150 bus stations in Guangzhou (as of 2014) are selected as nodes. Based on the theory of complex network, the network model of Guangzhou urban transport is constructed. By analyzing the degree centrality index, betweenness centrality index and closeness centrality index of nodes in the network, the level of centrality of each node in the network is studied. From a different point of view to determine the hub node of Guangzhou urban transport network, corresponding to the city's key sites and major transfer sites. The reliability of the network is determined by the stability of some key nodes (transport hub station). The research of network node centralization can provide a theoretical basis for the rational allocation of urban transport network sites and public transport system planning.

  12. History of watershed research in the Central Arizona Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchus B. Baker

    1999-01-01

    The Central Arizona Highlands have been the focus of a wide range of research efforts designed to learn more about the effects of natural and human induced disturbances on the functioning, processes, and components of the region's ecosystems. The watershed research spearheaded by the USDA Forest Service and its cooperators continues to lead to a comprehensive...

  13. West and Central African Research and Education Networking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Research and Education Networking Unit of the Association of African Universities (AAU) to take the necessary steps to establish a research and education network for West and Central Africa (WACREN). This will include undertaking feasibility studies, developing a strategic plan, adopting a legal ...

  14. Biome engineering-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüssow, Harald

    2016-09-01

    The gut microbiome research is going from a descriptive into an intervention phase. To optimize beneficial microbe-host interaction, we need to understand how to steer the system by modulating the nutrient input with which the system is literally fed (e.g. diets, fibres, prebiotics, human milk oligosaccharides), and we must learn how to modulate the composition of the gut microbiota by adding beneficial microbes (e.g. probiotics, faecal transplants) and by eliminating disturbing microbial members using, for example, bacteriophages in this highly complex ecosystem. The current status of the field is reviewed together with an outlook what might be expected until 2020, highlighting obstacles to progress and possible solutions to these problems. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yi, C.; Ricciuto, D.; Marek, Michal V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 034007 ISSN 1748-9326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : NEE * climate control * terrestrial carbon sequestration * temperature * dryness * eddy flux * biomes * photosynthesis * respiration * global carbon cycle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2010

  16. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World Dataset, Version 1 describes globally- significant ecological patterns within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained...

  17. Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will assist the Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA) by providing funding for succession planning, recruiting a regional coordinator (to be based in Mali) and strengthening the Network's capacity to mobilize resources with a view to long-term sustainability.

  18. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  19. Research needs for lion conservation in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; De Iongh, Hans H; Princée, Frank P; Ngantou, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    The lion has historically probably been widespread at low densities in West and Central Africa, nowadays they are largely restricted to small isolated populations inside protected areas. The total number is probably between 1200 and 2700, the best possible guesstimate would be 1700. Mankind is the main cause for the suspected decline of lion populations, both inside and outside protected areas. Very little research has been done on West and Central African lions a few examples are summarized here. The international community is slowly becoming aware of threats to lions in the region and some initiatives for lion conservation have started.

  20. Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe, Central Safety Department. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1993-05-01

    The Central Safety Department is responsible for handling all problems of radiation protection, safety and security of the institutes and departments of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, for waste water activity measurements and environmental monitoring of the whole area of the Center, and for research and development work mainly focusing on nuclear safety and radiation protection measures. The research and development work concentrates on the following aspects: Physical and chemical behavior of trace elements in the environment, biophysics of multicellular systems, behavior of tritium in the air/soil-plant system, improvement in radiation protection measurement and personnel dosimetry. This report gives details of the different duties, indicates the results of 1992 routine tasks and reports about results of investigations and developments of the working groups of the Department. The reader is referred to the English translation of Chapter 1 describing the duties and organization of the Central Safety Department. (orig.) [de

  1. The study of landscape units in Pantanal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Siqueira Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The geoecological landscape observation allows the analysis of geosystems fragmentation in small areas or a diagnosis of a particular environment or biome. This geosystemic approach permits the integration of elements that constitutes the environment, allowing the interaction and interdependence analysis of social and ecological elements. The main goal of this work was to elaborate a map of landscape units and a territorial planning for Pantanal biome, using data generated by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE corresponding to morphometric relief units, geology, soils and agricultural capability; the land cover and land use map developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA and the maps of flooded areas and spatial variability of the Pantanal biome. From the crosstab between altitude, slope, spatial variability map and geology we identified 16 landscape units. Additionally, the analysis of Pantanal biome environmental vulnerability of the landscape units considering different types of vegetation, topography and soils units showed that Pantanal has an intermediate environmental fragility, located mainly in the alluvial deposition areas of the Taquari river and in flood plains with altitude between 50 and 250 meters.

  2. Central Institute of Nuclear Research Rossendorf 25 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmuth, K.; Kaun, K.H.; Schmidt, A.; Hennig, K.; Brinckmann, H.F.; Lehmann, E.; Rossbander, W.; Bitterlich, H.; Weibrecht, R.; Fuelle, R.; Nebel, D.; Reetz, T.; Beyer, G.J.; Muenze, R.

    1981-12-01

    A colloquium dedicated the 25th anniversary of the foundation of the Central Institute for Nuclear Research of the GDR Academy of Sciences was held on January, 21st, '81. 13 papers were given which dealt with aspects of the institute's history as well as with modern trends in nuclear and solid state physics, nuclear energy and chemistry, radioisotope production, radiation protection and nuclear information. (author)

  3. User services in the central library of Juelich Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, E.

    1993-01-01

    The central library is a sci/tech special library providing information for the KFA researchers and staff. The library has a large collection of sci/tech materials to meet the information demands of the KFA employees and over 3.000 external users. Among the outside users are students fromthe universities and polytechnics of the region Aachen, Cologne, Duesseldorf, and industry. The library acquires about 8.000 volumes per year and subscribes to 2000 journals. (orig.)

  4. 30 years of Central Institute for Nuclear Research at Rossendorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheler, W.; Flach, G.; Hennig, K.; Collatz, S.; Muenze, R.; Baldeweg, F.

    1986-10-01

    A celebration and a scientific colloquium dedicated the 30th anniversary of the foundation of the Central Institute for Nuclear Research (CINR) of the GDR Academy of Sciences were held on January, 23rd and 24th, '86 at Rossendorf. The speaches and lectures given by the president of the GDR Academy of Sciences and by scientists of the CINR dealt with problems of policy of science, history of the CINR, nuclear methods, microelectronics, nuclear energy research, development and production of radioisotopes and scientific instruments. (author)

  5. Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Central Safety Department. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1994-04-01

    The Central Safety Department is responsible for handling all tasks of radiation protection, safety and security of the institutes and departments of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, for waste water activity measurements and environmental monitoring of the whole area of the Center, and for research and development work mainly focusing on nuclear safety and radiation protection measures. The research and development work concentrates on the following aspects: behavior of trace elements in the environment and decontamination of soil, behavior of tritium in the air/soil-plant system, improvement in radiation protection measurements and personnel dosimetry. This report gives details of the different duties, indicates the results of 1993 routine tasks and reports about results of investigations and developments of the working groups of the Department. (orig.) [de

  6. Temporalités dans la recherche biomédicale : la science au travail saisie par le temps Temporalities in biomedical research: time as a factor in scientific work Temporalidades en la investigación biomédica: el trabajo científico atrapado por el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Brunet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’attache à comprendre et à analyser l’importance prise par le temps dans le travail scientifique. Le plus souvent, étant considérée comme une activité au rythme intrinsèque, la science semble échapper au temps. Pourtant, généré par le phénomène de contextualisation, on montrera que le temps s’installe comme mesure de son procès de travail. À partir de données extraites d’une étude d’un laboratoire développant des recherches en biomédecine, l’analyse permet d’identifier trois temporalités différentes : une temporalité professionnelle intrinsèque, une temporalité sociétale extrinsèque et une temporalité gestionnaire hybride. C’est à l’articulation de ces trois temporalités que des tensions s’exercent sur le procès de travail du laboratoire. Elles ont pour enjeu l’autonomie professionnelle des scientifiques. Dans le cas analysé, la temporalité gestionnaire apparaît alors comme une mesure du temps dans la science, protectrice de cette autonomie.The article seeks to understand and analyse the growing importance of time in scientific work. Science is usually seen as an activity with an intrinsic rhythm that seems to escape time. Based on the phenomenon of contextualisation, however, we will show that time has become a way of measuring work processes. Using data from a biomedical research laboratory study, the analysis identifies three time scales: an intrinsic professional temporality; an extrinsic social temporality; and a hybrid managerial temporality. It is at the interface between these three temporalities that tensions affect laboratory work processes. The main issue at stake is scientists’ professional autonomy. In the case being analysed here, managerial temporality appears as something that measures time in science and protects the autonomy thereof.En este artículo buscamos comprender y analizar la importancia que ha adquirido el tiempo en el trabajo científico. La mayor

  7. BIOME: A scientific data archive search-and-order system using browser-aware, dynamic pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, S. V.; Yow, T. G.; Ng, V. W.

    1997-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is a data archive and distribution center for the National Air and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Both the Earth Observing System (EOS) and EOSDIS are components of NASA's contribution to the US Global Change Research Program through its Mission to Planet Earth Program. The ORNL DAAC provides access to data used in ecological and environmental research such as global change, global warming, and terrestrial ecology. Because of its large and diverse data holdings, the challenge for the ORNL DAAC is to help users find data of interest from the hundreds of thousands of files available at the DAAC without overwhelming them. Therefore, the ORNL DAAC has developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a customized search and order system for the World Wide Web (WWW). BIOME is a public system located at http://www-eosdis. ornl.gov/BIOME/biome.html.

  8. Thresholds for boreal biome transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Hirota, Marina; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H; Chapin, F Stuart

    2012-12-26

    Although the boreal region is warming twice as fast as the global average, the way in which the vast boreal forests and tundras may respond is poorly understood. Using satellite data, we reveal marked alternative modes in the frequency distributions of boreal tree cover. At the northern end and at the dry continental southern extremes, treeless tundra and steppe, respectively, are the only possible states. However, over a broad intermediate temperature range, these treeless states coexist with boreal forest (∼75% tree cover) and with two more open woodland states (∼20% and ∼45% tree cover). Intermediate tree covers (e.g., ∼10%, ∼30%, and ∼60% tree cover) between these distinct states are relatively rare, suggesting that they may represent unstable states where the system dwells only transiently. Mechanisms for such instabilities remain to be unraveled, but our results have important implications for the anticipated response of these ecosystems to climatic change. The data reveal that boreal forest shows no gradual decline in tree cover toward its limits. Instead, our analysis suggests that it becomes less resilient in the sense that it may more easily shift into a sparse woodland or treeless state. Similarly, the relative scarcity of the intermediate ∼10% tree cover suggests that tundra may shift relatively abruptly to a more abundant tree cover. If our inferences are correct, climate change may invoke massive nonlinear shifts in boreal biomes.

  9. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 1 data set describes globally-significant ecological patterns within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained...

  10. Shift of biome patterns due to simulated climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claussen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The variability of simulated equilibrium-response patterns of biomes caused by simulated climate variability and climate shift is analysed. This investigation is based on various realisations of simulated present-day climate and climate shift. It has been found that the difference between biomes computed from three 10-year climatologies and from the corresponding 30-year climatology, simulated by the Hamburg climate model at T21 resolution, amounts to approximately 6% of the total land area, Antarctica excluded. This difference is mainly due to differences in annual moisture availability and winter temperatures. When intercomparing biomes from the 10-year climatologies a 10% difference is seen, but there is no unique difference pattern. In contrast to the interdecadal variability, the shift of conditions favorable for biomes due to a shift in climate in the next 100 years, caused by an increase in sea-surface temperatures and atmospheric CO 2 , reveals a unique trend pattern. It turns out that the strongest and most significant signal is the north-east shift of conditions for boreal biomes. This signal is caused by an increase of annual temperature sums as well as mean temperatures of the coldest and warmest months. Trends in annual moisture availability are of secondary importance globally. Regionally, a decrease in water availability affects biomes in Central and East Europe and an increase of water availability leads to a potential increase in tropical rain forest. In total, all differences amount to roughly 30% of the total land surface, Antarctica excluded. (orig./KW)

  11. The extent of forest in dryland biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Francois Bastin; Nora Berrahmouni; Alan Grainger; Danae Maniatis; Danilo Mollicone; Rebecca Moore; Chiara Patriarca; Nicolas Picard; Ben Sparrow; Elena Maria Abraham; Kamel Aloui; Ayhan Atesoglu; Fabio Attore; Caglar Bassullu; Adia Bey; Monica Garzuglia; Luis G. GarcÌa-Montero; Nikee Groot; Greg Guerin; Lars Laestadius; Andrew J. Lowe; Bako Mamane; Giulio Marchi; Paul Patterson; Marcelo Rezende; Stefano Ricci; Ignacio Salcedo; Alfonso Sanchez-Paus Diaz; Fred Stolle; Venera Surappaeva; Rene Castro

    2017-01-01

    Dryland biomes cover two-fifths of Earth’s land surface, but their forest area is poorly known. Here, we report an estimate of global forest extent in dryland biomes, based on analyzing more than 210,000 0.5-hectare sample plots through a photo-interpretation approach using large databases of satellite imagery at (i) very high spatial resolution and (ii) very high...

  12. Nuclear Research and Development Institutes in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The science and technology (S and T) sector is faced today with complex and diverse challenges. National science budgets are under pressure, and many countries are changing how research and development (R and D) is funded, reducing direct subsidies and introducing competition for both governmental and alternative sources of revenue. On the other hand, the transition toward knowledge-based economies is creating new opportunities in the S and T sector as governments look to it to foster economic growth through innovation. A number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe have recently joined the European Union (EU) which has defined the Lisbon Strategy to create a 'knowledge triangle' of research, education and innovation to underpin the European economic and social model, and economic growth. This strategy seeks to increase investment in science and technology across the EU to a target of 3% of GDP by 2010, with two-thirds of funds coming from the private sector. By comparison, funding for R and D in most Central and Eastern European countries is only around 1% GDP, of which about 90% is provided by the governments. R and D has become more international, reflecting a more interdependent and globalized world. R and D progress is not only of interest to individual countries but also tries to respond to the needs of a broader society. Governments still maintain national networks, but increasingly emphasize international cooperation, both to avoid duplication of expensive infrastructure, and because scientific excellence requires an exchange of ideas and cooperation that crosses borders. These challenges and opportunities directly impact the research and development institutes (RDIs), including the nuclear RDIs. It is important for the nuclear RDIs to take account of these trends in the broader S and T sector in their vision and strategy. Several nuclear RDIs have become very successful, but others are struggling to adapt. The challenges have been particularly severe

  13. Operating The Central Process Systems At Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Carly P.

    2004-01-01

    As a research facility, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) trusts and expects all the systems, controlling their facilities to run properly and efficiently in order for their research and operations to occur proficiently and on time. While there are many systems necessary for the operations at GRC, one of those most vital systems is the Central Process Systems (CPS). The CPS controls operations used by GRC's wind tunnels, propulsion systems lab, engine components research lab, and compressor, turbine and combustor test cells. Used widely throughout the lab, it operates equipment such as exhausters, chillers, cooling towers, compressors, dehydrators, and other such equipment. Through parameters such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc., it performs its primary operations on the major systems of Electrical Dispatch (ED), Central Air Dispatch (CAD), Central Air Equipment Building (CAEB), and Engine Research Building (ERB). In order for the CPS to continue its operations at Glenn, a new contract must be awarded. Consequently, one of my primary responsibilities was assisting the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) with the process of awarding the recertification contract of the CPS. The job of the SEB was to evaluate the proposals of the contract bidders and then to present their findings to the Source Selecting Official (SSO). Before the evaluations began, the Center Director established the level of the competition. For this contract, the competition was limited to those companies classified as a small, disadvantaged business. After an industry briefing that explained to qualified companies the CPS and type of work required, each of the interested companies then submitted proposals addressing three components: Mission Suitability, Cost, and Past Performance. These proposals were based off the Statement of Work (SOW) written by the SEB. After companies submitted their proposals, the SEB reviewed all three components and then presented their results to the SSO. While the

  14. Use of BIOME-BGG to simulate Mediterranean forest carbon stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Chirici G; Barbati A; Salvati R; Maselli F; Chiesi M

    2011-01-01

    BIOME-BGC is a bio-geochemical model capable of estimating the water, carbon and nitrogen fluxes and storages of terrestrial ecosystems. Previous research demonstrated that, after proper calibration of its ecophysiological parameters, the model can reproduce the main processes of Mediterranean forest types. The same investigations, however, indicated a model tendency to overestimate woody biomass accumulation. The current paper aims at modifying BIOME-BGC ecophysiological settings to improve ...

  15. The underestimated biodiversity of tropical grassy biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brett P; Andersen, Alan N; Parr, Catherine L

    2016-09-19

    For decades, there has been enormous scientific interest in tropical savannahs and grasslands, fuelled by the recognition that they are a dynamic and potentially unstable biome, requiring periodic disturbance for their maintenance. However, that scientific interest has not translated into widespread appreciation of, and concern about threats to, their biodiversity. In terms of biodiversity, grassy biomes are considered poor cousins of the other dominant biome of the tropics-forests. Simple notions of grassy biomes being species-poor cannot be supported; for some key taxa, such as vascular plants, this may be valid, but for others it is not. Here, we use an analysis of existing data to demonstrate that high-rainfall tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) have vertebrate species richness comparable with that of forests, despite having lower plant diversity. The Neotropics stand out in terms of both overall vertebrate species richness and number of range-restricted vertebrate species in TGBs. Given high rates of land-cover conversion in Neotropical grassy biomes, they should be a high priority for conservation and greater inclusion in protected areas. Fire needs to be actively maintained in these systems, and in many cases re-introduced after decades of inappropriate fire exclusion. The relative intactness of TGBs in Africa and Australia make them the least vulnerable to biodiversity loss in the immediate future. We argue that, like forests, TGBs should be recognized as a critical-but increasingly threatened-store of global biodiversity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Uso de bases de datos bibliográficas por investigadores biomédicos latinoamericanos hispanoparlantes: estudio transversal The use of bibliographic databases by Spanish-speaking Latin American biomedical researchers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Guillermo Ospina

    2005-04-01

    bases de datos fue similar en todos los países estudiados, sin diferencias significativas en cuanto al tipo de acceso (formal, informal o libre y el grado de habilidad. Del total, 87% reconocieron no haber incluido referencias importantes en artículos publicados por no disponer del texto completo y 56% afirmaron haber citado artículos que no habían leído. Además, 7,6% de los encuestados reconocieron haber consultado bases de datos de acceso restringido mediante claves prestadas o discos copiados. Más de dos tercios de los autores manifestaron que obtenían los textos completos de los artículos mediante fotocopia o directamente de los autores. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario entrenar a los investigadores latinoamericanos en la utilización de las bases de datos de uso más frecuente -especialmente MEDLINE- y mejorar su acceso a las fuentes bibliográficas biomédicas, como medidas esenciales para fomentar el desarrollo de la producción científica en la Región.OBJECTIVE: To describe how Spanish-speaking biomedical professionals in Latin America access and utilize bibliographic databases. METHODS: Based on a MEDLINE search, 2 515 articles published between August 2002 and August 2003 were identified that dealt with and/or had authors from 16 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The search was limited to references to basic science, clinical science, or social medicine. A survey was sent by e-mail to researchers who lived in 15 of the 16 countries (the exception being Nicaragua. The survey asked about the researcher's area of work (basic science, clinical science, or public health, the level of skill in using databases, the frequency and type of access to the databases most utilized, the impact from not having access to the full text of articles when preparing a manuscript, and how the respondent usually obtained the full-text version of

  17. Centralized supercomputer support for magnetic fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, D.; Tull, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    High-speed computers with large memories are vital to magnetic fusion energy research. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), transport, equilibrium, Vlasov, particle, and Fokker-Planck codes that model plasma behavior play an important role in designing experimental hardware and interpreting the resulting data, as well as in advancing plasma theory itself. The size, architecture, and software of supercomputers to run these codes are often the crucial constraints on the benefits such computational modeling can provide. Hence, vector computers such as the CRAY-1 offer a valuable research resource. To meet the computational needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) was established in 1974 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Supercomputers at the central computing facility are linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major fusion laboratories by a satellite communication network. In addition to providing large-scale computing, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes and data among the many fusion researchers in a cost-effective manner

  18. Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    Full Text Available Root to shoot ratio (RS is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP and potential water deficit index (PWDI. Mean annual temperature (MAT also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship.

  19. Constrained variability of modeled T:ET ratio across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos

    2017-07-01

    A large variability (35-90%) in the ratio of transpiration to total evapotranspiration (referred here as T:ET) across biomes or even at the global scale has been documented by a number of studies carried out with different methodologies. Previous empirical results also suggest that T:ET does not covary with mean precipitation and has a positive dependence on leaf area index (LAI). Here we use a mechanistic ecohydrological model, with a refined process-based description of evaporation from the soil surface, to investigate the variability of T:ET across biomes. Numerical results reveal a more constrained range and higher mean of T:ET (70 ± 9%, mean ± standard deviation) when compared to observation-based estimates. T:ET is confirmed to be independent from mean precipitation, while it is found to be correlated with LAI seasonally but uncorrelated across multiple sites. Larger LAI increases evaporation from interception but diminishes ground evaporation with the two effects largely compensating each other. These results offer mechanistic model-based evidence to the ongoing research about the patterns of T:ET and the factors influencing its magnitude across biomes.

  20. Defining functional biomes and monitoring their change globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steven I; Buitenwerf, Robert; Moncrieff, Glenn R

    2016-11-01

    Biomes are important constructs for organizing understanding of how the worlds' major terrestrial ecosystems differ from one another and for monitoring change in these ecosystems. Yet existing biome classification schemes have been criticized for being overly subjective and for explicitly or implicitly invoking climate. We propose a new biome map and classification scheme that uses information on (i) an index of vegetation productivity, (ii) whether the minimum of vegetation activity is in the driest or coldest part of the year, and (iii) vegetation height. Although biomes produced on the basis of this classification show a strong spatial coherence, they show little congruence with existing biome classification schemes. Our biome map provides an alternative classification scheme for comparing the biogeochemical rates of terrestrial ecosystems. We use this new biome classification scheme to analyse the patterns of biome change observed over recent decades. Overall, 13% to 14% of analysed pixels shifted in biome state over the 30-year study period. A wide range of biome transitions were observed. For example, biomes with tall vegetation and minimum vegetation activity in the cold season shifted to higher productivity biome states. Biomes with short vegetation and low seasonality shifted to seasonally moisture-limited biome states. Our findings and method provide a new source of data for rigorously monitoring global vegetation change, analysing drivers of vegetation change and for benchmarking models of terrestrial ecosystem function. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Centralized digital computer control of a research nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    A hardware and software design for the centralized control of a research nuclear reactor by a digital computer are presented, as well as an investigation of automatic-feedback control. Current reactor-control philosophies including redundancy, inherent safety in failure, and conservative-yet-operational scram initiation were used as the bases of the design. The control philosophies were applied to the power-monitoring system, the fuel-temperature monitoring system, the area-radiation monitoring system, and the overall system interaction. Unlike the single-function analog computers currently used to control research and commercial reactors, this system will be driven by a multifunction digital computer. Specifically, the system will perform control-rod movements to conform with operator requests, automatically log the required physical parameters during reactor operation, perform the required system tests, and monitor facility safety and security. Reactor power control is based on signals received from ion chambers located near the reactor core. Absorber-rod movements are made to control the rate of power increase or decrease during power changes and to control the power level during steady-state operation. Additionally, the system incorporates a rudimentary level of artificial intelligence

  2. Himalayan uplift shaped biomes in Miocene temperate Asia: evidence from leguminous Caragana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Xiao-Guo Xiang; Juan-Juan Xue; Stewart C. Sanderson; Peter W. Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Caragana, with distinctive variation in leaf and rachis characters, exhibits three centers of geographic distribution, i.e., Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), and East Asia, corresponding to distinct biomes. Because Caragana species are often ecologically dominant components of the vegetation in these regions, it is regarded as a key taxon for...

  3. Sub-Saharan centralized biorepository for genetic and genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmelseed, Nagla; Elsir, Afrah Awad; Deblasio, Pasquale; Biunno, Ida

    2012-04-15

    Quality-assessed biomedical samples are essential for academia- and industry driven research on human diseases. The etiologies and the molecular genetic factors relevant in African diseases, including both infections and complex degenerative diseases as well as cancer, need to be studied using well annotated and well-preserved biosamples acquired from native African ethnic groups and compare the results with non-African populations and/or with Afro-Americans. However, a number of difficulties negatively impact on the possibility to obtain clinically annotated biological samples in most Sub-Saharan African countries. This is mainly due to major organizational problems, lack of clinical centres that can dedicate resources to research, as well as lack of facilities in which biomaterials can be properly processed and safely stored. Harmonization of biosample acquisition, storage phenotyping schemes and biocomputer infrastructures are the principal objectives of biological resource centers (BRCs). BRCs comprise biobanks of different formats (collection of blood, DNA, tissues, etc., annotated with medical, environmental, life-style and follow up data) a fundamental tool for molecular epidemiological studies aiming to increase excellence and efficacy of biomedical results, drug development and public health. BRCs provide large and highly controlled biomolecular resources necessary to meet the "omics" scientific platforms. Sudan may be a candidate nation to host such infrastructure, in view of its strategic geographical position and the already existing simple biobanking experiences connected with research groups in Central Sudan. Here, we describe the potential role of biobanks in African genetic studies aiming to dissect the eziopathogenesis of complex diseases in relation to environmental and life-style factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Las publicaciones de investigación biomédica en la Revista de Biología Tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Gutiérrez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis temático de los trabajos de ciencias biomédicas publicados en la Revista de Biología Tropical durante sus 50 años de existencia. Las ciencias biomédicas, principalmente la Parasitología y la Microbiología, fueron el tema predominante en la Revista durante su primera década de existencia, como reflejo del dinámico y productivo ambiente de investigación existente alrededor de la Facultad de Microbiología de la Universidad de Costa Rica y del Hospital San Juan de Dios. El peso relativo de temas de investigación biomédica disminuyó paulatinamente en las décadas subsiguientes, aunque el número absoluto de contribuciones biomédicas se ha mantenido constante, con una media de cerca de 80 trabajos por década. La Parasitología ha sido el tema predominante en las publicaciones de tipo biomédico en la Revista; sin embargo, en las últimas décadas han aparecido publicaciones en una serie de temas como Farmacología de productos naturales, Toxinología, especialmente relacionada con venenos de serpientes y Genética Humana, lo cual ha ampliado el espectro temático de las ciencias biomédicas en los índices de la Revista. Este análisis retrospectivo evidencia claramente que las ciencias biomédicas, particularmente las relacionadas con Medicina Tropical, jugaron un papel fundamental en los primeros años de existencia de la Revista de Biología Tropical y han mantenido una presencia relevante durante las últimas décadas en esta publicación, sin duda la más importante y sólida de la región centroamericana en ciencias naturales.The contributions published in Revista de Biología Tropical in the area of Biomedical Sciences are reviewed in terms of number of contributions and scope of research subjects. Biomedical Sciences, particularly Parasitology and Microbiology, constituted the predominant subject in the Revista during the first decade, reflecting the intense research environment at the

  5. FIFE data analysis: Testing BIOME-BGC predictions for grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) was conducted in a 15 km by 15 km research area located 8 km south of Manhattan, Kansas. The site consists primarily of native tallgrass prairie mixed with gallery oak forests and croplands. The objectives of FIFE are to better understand the role of biology in controlling the interactions between the land and the atmosphere, and to determine the value of remotely sensed data for estimating climatological parameters. The goals of FIFE are twofold: the upscale integration of models, and algorithm development for satellite remote sensing. The specific objectives of the field campaigns carried out in 1987 and 1989 were the simultaneous acquisition of satellite, atmospheric, and surface data; and the understanding of the processes controlling surface energy and mass exchange. Collected data were used to study the dynamics of various ecosystem processes (photosynthesis, evaporation and transpiration, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, etc.). Modelling terrestrial ecosystems at scales larger than that of a homogeneous plot led to the development of simple, generalized models of biogeochemical cycles that can be accurately applied to different biomes through the use of remotely sensed data. A model was developed called BIOME-BGC (for BioGeochemical Cycles) from a coniferous forest ecosystem model, FOREST-BGC, where a biome is considered a combination of a life forms in a specified climate. A predominately C4-photosynthetic grassland is probably the most different from a coniferous forest possible, hence the FIFE site was an excellent study area for testing BIOME-BGC. The transition from an essentially one-dimensional calculation to three-dimensional, landscape scale simulations requires the introduction of such factors as meteorology, climatology, and geomorphology. By using remotely sensed geographic information data for important model inputs, process

  6. Central Asia | Page 94 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Central Asia. Asie centrale. Read more about Initiative Think tank - Fondation Hewlett. Language French. Read more about Apprentissage en collaboration pour la cogestion des ressources naturelles en Mongolie. Language French. Read more about Collaborative Learning for Co-management of Natural Resources in ...

  7. Uso de bases de datos bibliográficas por investigadores biomédicos latinoamericanos hispanoparlantes: estudio transversal The use of bibliographic databases by Spanish-speaking Latin American biomedical researchers: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Guillermo Ospina; Ludovic Reveiz Herault; Andrés Felipe Cardona

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cómo los profesionales biomédicos hispanoparlantes de América Latina acceden a y utilizan las bases de datos bibliográficas. MÉTODOS: A partir de una búsqueda en MEDLINE se identificaron 2 515 artículos publicados entre agosto de 2002 y agosto de 2003 por autores de Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, Uruguay y Venezuela. La búsqueda se limitó a referencias de las ciencias básica...

  8. Rethinking Qualitative Research: Research Participants as Central Researchers and Enacting Ethical Practices as Habitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowhea Elmesky

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that qualitative research group dynamics shape university re­searchers' capacities for expertly enacting ethical practices. Specifically, I assert that when research participants become the researchers, both univer­sity-based and community-based members of the research group have opportunities to deeply experi­ence each other's life worlds. By spending time to­gether as researchers, we can then develop ethical expertise that is fluid, unconscious, and implicitly appropriate for the community in which the re­search is being conducted. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503367

  9. Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S.A. Beck; Glenn P. Juday; Claire Alix; Valerie A. Barber; Stephen E. Winslow; Emily E. Sousa; Patricia Heiser; James D. Herriges; Scott J. Goetz

    2011-01-01

    Global vegetation models predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. This shift would manifest itself first at the biome's margins, with evergreen forest expanding into current tundra while being replaced by grasslands or temperate forest at the biome's southern edge. We evaluated changes in forest...

  10. Global climate and the distribution of plant biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, F I; Lomas, M R; Kelly, C K

    2004-10-29

    Biomes are areas of vegetation that are characterized by the same life-form. Traditional definitions of biomes have also included either geographical or climatic descriptors. This approach describes a wide range of biomes that can be correlated with characteristic climatic conditions, or climatic envelopes. The application of remote sensing technology to the frequent observation of biomes has led to a move away from the often subjective definition of biomes to one that is objective. Carefully characterized observations of life-form, by satellite, have been used to reconsider biome classification and their climatic envelopes. Five major tree biomes can be recognized by satellites based on leaf longevity and morphology: needleleaf evergreen, broadleaf evergreen, needleleaf deciduous, broadleaf cold deciduous and broadleaf drought deciduous. Observations indicate that broadleaf drought deciduous vegetation grades substantially into broadleaf evergreen vegetation. The needleleaf deciduous biome occurs in the world's coldest climates, where summer drought and therefore a drought deciduous biome are absent. Traditional biome definitions are quite static, implying no change in their life-form composition with time, within their particular climatic envelopes. However, this is not the case where there has been global ingress of grasslands and croplands into forested vegetation. The global spread of grasses, a new super-biome, was probably initiated 30-45 Myr ago by an increase in global aridity, and was driven by the natural spread of the disturbances of fire and animal grazing. These disturbances have been further extended over the Holocene era by human activities that have increased the land areas available for domestic animal grazing and for growing crops. The current situation is that grasses now occur in most, if not all biomes, and in many areas they dominate and define the biome. Croplands are also increasing, defining a new and relatively recent component to the

  11. Forgotten forests - issues and prospects in biome mapping using Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särkinen Tiina

    2011-11-01

    biome mapping, and could be particularly useful for mapping poorly known, fragmented, or degraded vegetation. We wish to highlight that biome delimitation is not an exact science, and that transparency is needed on how biomes are used as study units in macroevolutionary and ecological research.

  12. A centralized research data repository enhances retrospective outcomes research capacity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory William; McKiernan, James; Bakken, Suzanne; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes our considerations and methods for implementing an open-source centralized research data repository (CRDR) and reports its impact on retrospective outcomes research capacity in the urology department at Columbia University. We performed retrospective pretest and post-test analyses of user acceptance, workflow efficiency, and publication quantity and quality (measured by journal impact factor) before and after the implementation. The CRDR transformed the research workflow and enabled a new research model. During the pre- and post-test periods, the department's average annual retrospective study publication rate was 11.5 and 25.6, respectively; the average publication impact score was 1.7 and 3.1, respectively. The new model was adopted by 62.5% (5/8) of the clinical scientists within the department. Additionally, four basic science researchers outside the department took advantage of the implemented model. The average proximate time required to complete a retrospective study decreased from 12 months before the implementation to <6 months after the implementation. Implementing a CRDR appears to be effective in enhancing the outcomes research capacity for one academic department.

  13. Evaluating fire danger in Brazilian biomes: present and future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on fire occurrence and activity, particularly in Brazil, a region known to be fire-prone [1]. The Brazilian savanna, commonly referred to as cerrado, is a fire-adapted biome covering more than 20% of the country's total area. It presents the highest numbers of fire events, making it particularly susceptible to changes in climate. It is thus essential to understand the present fire regimes in Brazilian biomes, in order to better evaluate future patterns. The CPTEC/INPE, the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research at the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research developed a fire danger index based on the occurrence of hundreds of thousands of fire events in the main Brazilian biomes [2]: the Meteorological Fire Danger Index (MFDI). This index indicates the predisposition of vegetation to be burned on a given day, for given climate conditions preceding that day. It relies on daily values of air temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation and vegetation cover. In this study we aim to access the capability of the MFDI to accurately replicate present fire conditions for different biomes, with a special focus on cerrado. To this end, we assess the link between the MFDI as calculated by three different reanalysis (ERA-Interim, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 and MERRA-2) and the observed burned area. We further calculate the validated MFDI using a regional climate model, the RCA4 as forced by EC-Earth from CORDEX, to understand the ability of the model to characterize present fire danger. Finally, the need to calibrate the model to better characterize future fire danger was also evaluated. This work was developed within the framework of the Brazilian Fire-Land-Atmosphere System (BrFLAS) Project financed by the Portuguese and Brazilian science foundations, FCT and FAPESP (project references FAPESP/1389/2014 and 2014/20042-2). [1] KRAWCHUK, M.A.; MORITZ, M.A.; PARISIEN, M.A.; VAN DORN, J

  14. On coupling global biome models with climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claussen, M.

    1994-01-01

    The BIOME model of Prentice et al. (1992), which predicts global vegetation patterns in equilibrium with climate, is coupled with the ECHAM climate model of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg. It is found that incorporation of the BIOME model into ECHAM, regardless at which frequency, does not enhance the simulated climate variability, expressed in terms of differences between global vegetation patterns. Strongest changes are seen only between the initial biome distribution and the biome distribution computed after the first simulation period, provided that the climate-biome model is started from a biome distribution that resembles the present-day distribution. After the first simulation period, there is no significant shrinking, expanding, or shifting of biomes. Likewise, no trend is seen in global averages of land-surface parameters and climate variables. (orig.)

  15. Research tracks growing violence against women in Central America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... Violence against women and female homicides or femicide, is escalating across Central America. And despite the efforts of women's organizations, human rights groups, regional governments, and civil society to stem these crimes, incidents of violence against women remain vastly underreported.

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    Asie centrale. Read more about Démarche intégrée pour assurer la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle aux Philippines. Language French. Read more about Strengthening the Indonesia's Health Policy Network to Promote Equity and Social Protection. Language English. Read more about Rendement des entreprises en ...

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    Asie centrale. Read more about Analyzing Financial Flows from Emerging Economies to the Developing World. Language English. Read more about Studying Alcohol Pricing and Taxation Policies in India. Language English. Read more about Centre for Global Development Visiting Fellowship Program. Language English.

  18. Importance of land use update during the calibration period and simulation of water balance response to land use change in the upper Rio das Mortes Catchment (Cerrado Biome, Central-Western Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparter, Gabriele; Kovacs, Kristof; Nobrega, Rodolfo; Gerold, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological balance and following degradation of the water ecosystem services due to large scale land use changes are reported from agricultural frontiers all over the world. Traditionally, hydrological models including vegetation and land use as a part of the hydrological cycle use a fixed distribution of land use for the calibration period. We believe that a meaningful calibration - especially when investigating the effects of land use change on hydrology - demands the inclusion of land use change during the calibration period into the calibration procedure. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a process-based, semi-distributed model calculating the different components of the water balance. The model bases on the definition of hydrological response units (HRUs) which are based on soil, vegetation and slope distribution. It specifically emphasises the role of land use and land management on the water balance. The Central-Western region of Brazil is one of the leading agricultural frontiers, which experienced rapid and radical deforestation and agricultural intensification in the last 40 years (from natural Cerrado savannah to cattle grazing to intensive corn and soya cropland). The land use history of the upper Rio das Mortes catchment (with 17500 km²) is reasonably well documented since the 1970th. At the same time there are almost continuous climate and runoff data available for the period between 1988 and 2011. Therefore, the work presented here shows the model calibration and validation of the SWAT model with the land use update function for three different periods (1988 to 1998, 1998 to 2007 and 2007 to 2011) in comparison with the same calibration periods using a steady state land use distribution. The use of the land use update function allows a clearer identification which changes in the discharge are due to climatic variability and which are due to changes in the vegetation cover. With land use update included into the

  19. The extent of forest in dryland biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Jean-François; Berrahmouni, Nora; Grainger, Alan; Maniatis, Danae; Mollicone, Danilo; Moore, Rebecca; Patriarca, Chiara; Picard, Nicolas; Sparrow, Ben; Abraham, Elena Maria; Aloui, Kamel; Atesoglu, Ayhan; Attore, Fabio; Bassüllü, Çağlar; Bey, Adia; Garzuglia, Monica; García-Montero, Luis G; Groot, Nikée; Guerin, Greg; Laestadius, Lars; Lowe, Andrew J; Mamane, Bako; Marchi, Giulio; Patterson, Paul; Rezende, Marcelo; Ricci, Stefano; Salcedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Alfonso Sanchez-Paus; Stolle, Fred; Surappaeva, Venera; Castro, Rene

    2017-05-12

    Dryland biomes cover two-fifths of Earth's land surface, but their forest area is poorly known. Here, we report an estimate of global forest extent in dryland biomes, based on analyzing more than 210,000 0.5-hectare sample plots through a photo-interpretation approach using large databases of satellite imagery at (i) very high spatial resolution and (ii) very high temporal resolution, which are available through the Google Earth platform. We show that in 2015, 1327 million hectares of drylands had more than 10% tree-cover, and 1079 million hectares comprised forest. Our estimate is 40 to 47% higher than previous estimates, corresponding to 467 million hectares of forest that have never been reported before. This increases current estimates of global forest cover by at least 9%. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Surging wildfire activity in a grassland biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Victoria M.; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2017-06-01

    Rapid changes in wildfire patterns are documented globally, increasing pressure to identify regions that may experience increases in wildfire in future decades. Temperate grassland and savanna biomes were some of the most frequently burned regions on Earth; however, large wildfires have been largely absent from the Great Plains of North America over the last century. In this paper, we conduct an in-depth analysis of changes in large wildfire (>400 ha) regime characteristics over a 30 year period across the Great Plains. For the entire biome, (i) the average number of large wildfires increased from 33.4 ± 5.6 per year from 1985 to 1994 to 116.8 ± 28.8 wildfires per year from 2005 to 2014, (ii) total area burned by large wildfires increased 400%, (iii) over half the ecoregions had greater than a 70% probability of a large wildfire occurring in the last decade, and (iv) seasonality of large wildfires remained relatively similar.

  1. Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brian Pointing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favourable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on polar plant diversity and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks.

  2. O discurso biomédico e o da construção social na pesquisa sobre intersexualidade The biomedical discourse and the social construction in research on intersexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Canguçu-Campinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A intersexualidade se define pela existência de desequilíbrio entre os fatores responsáveis pela determinação do sexo: o indivíduo apresenta caracteres tanto masculinos quanto femininos. A ambiguidade sexual apresenta-se como demarcador da condição de intersexo. Esta revisão de literatura analisou artigos científicos de medicina, psicologia, ciências sociais e direito/ativismo político, acessados através de bancos e portais eletrônicos. As publicações foram analisadas segundo contexto, área/disciplina, tipo de artigo, conteúdo e metodologia do estudo. Os resultados apontaram que os artigos médicos consideraram a intersexualidade como doença crônica, enfatizando as características endocrinológicas e genéticas, efeitos físicos e psicológicos da cirurgia genital. Os artigos de psicologia destacaram aspectos da sexualidade, identidade e orientação sexual. As ciências sociais realizaram uma crítica à visão bipolar do gênero, ressaltando o processo de designação sexual dos intersexuais. Os artigos do campo do direito/ativismo político priorizaram temas como: estigmas sociais, implicações das cirurgias da genitália e mobilização social em prol do direito à saúde. Em relação às metodologias dos estudos, as pesquisas médicas utilizaram predominantemente a abordagem comparativa; os estudos em psicologia utilizaram abordagens qualitativas com entrevistas semi-estruturadas ou questionários; em ciências sociais, os artigos priorizaram pesquisas etnográficas e revisões de literatura; no campo do direito/ativismo político, foram destacadas narrativas e estudos de caso. As narrativas das famílias só foram encontradas em uma publicação, pertencente ao campo da psicologia. Na maioria dos artigos, o conceito de intersexualidade aparece claramente atravessado pelo discurso biomédico. O legado da biomedicina atua diretamente na construção de significados sobre o corpo e gênero.The intersex is defined by the

  3. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  4. Aspectos cualitativos del aprendizaje en el Programa de Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile Aspectos qualitativos da aprendizagem no Programa de Ética da Pesquisa Biomédica e Psicossocial do Centro Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Bioética da Universidade do Chile Learning qualitative aspects of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies on Bioethics, University of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre la experiencia de 10 años en procesos de aprendizaje grupal y adquisición de competencias, de los participantes en el Programa de Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. Considera el papel de la bioética en la formación en su carácter transdisciplinario.O presente trabalho reflete a experiência de 10 anos em processos de aprendizagem em grupo e aquisição de competências dos participantes no Programa de Ética da Pesquisa Biomédica e Psicossocial do Centro Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Bioética da Universidade do Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. Considera o papel da bioética na formação de seu caráter transdisciplinar.This article reflects on the ten years experience of group learning processes and skills acquisition by trainees of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research international training program from the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies on Bioethics of the University of Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. It takes into consideration the role of bioethics in training in its transdisciplinary character.

  5. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  6. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  7. Central Asia | Page 53 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about From Seed to Table : Strengthening Urban Farmers' Organizational and Marketing Skills (Middle East and North Africa). Language English. Read more about MS Swaminathan Research Foundation : Organizational and Research Capacity Building (India). Language English. Read more about Fondation ...

  8. Science and Engineering Research Council Central Laser Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This report covers the work done at, or in association with, the Central Laser Facility during the year April 1980 to March 1981. In the first chapter the major reconstruction and upgrade of the glass laser, which has been undertaken in order to increase the versatility of the facility, is described. The work of the six groups of the Glass Laser Scientific Progamme and Scheduling Committee is described in further chapters entitled; glass laser development, laser plasma interactions, transport and particle emission studies, ablative acceleration and compression studies, spectroscopy and XUV lasers, and theory and computation. Publications based on the work of the facility which have either appeared or been accepted for publication during the year are listed. (U.K.)

  9. Forest decline research in Eastern Central Europe and Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, M.; Kirchner, M.; Kirchinger, E.; Reiter, H.; Roesel, K.; Pfeifer, U.

    1991-07-01

    In 26 conference contributions, the condition of the forest in eastern central Europe (new Federal German laender, CSFR, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Poland) and in Bavaria and Austria is described. The methodics of the countries' comprehensive monitoring and ecosystem analyzes in selected sites with their results are presented, mostly for the 80s. Possibilities and advantages of the modelling of forest ecosystems by computer are indicated as well as the gain of knowledge from extensive screening. For some regions, especially the Sudeten, maps showing the spatial distribution of airborne pollutants are presented. Pollutant concentrations are, in part, related to emittors. In almost all cases, indirect effects of acidic gaseous pollutants via changes in soil chemism are blamed for tree disease jointly with other factors or their outcome (silvicultural mistakes, drought, insect infestation). A striking fact is that in Hungary and Romania, unlike other European countries, oak-trees not conifers are most seriously affected. (UWA) [de

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    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Saharan Africa: Strengthening Research Capacity. Language English. Read more about Soutien au Conseil arabe des sciences sociales. Language French. Read more about Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development ...

  11. A brief botanical survey into Kumbira forest, an isolated patch of Guineo-Congolian biome

    OpenAIRE

    Gon?alves, Francisco M. P.; Goyder, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kumbira forest is a discrete patch of moist forest of Guineo-Congolian biome in Western Angola central scarp and runs through Cuanza Norte and Cuanza Sul province. The project aimed to document the floristic diversity of the Angolan escarpment, a combination of general walk-over survey, plant specimen collection and sight observation was used to aid the characterization of the vegetation. Over 100 plant specimens in flower or fruit were collected within four identified vegetation typ...

  12. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  13. La filatelia biomédica

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio J.A. Roldán; Claudio Zuckerberg

    2011-01-01

    La temática biomédica es un capítulo extendido de la filatelia o coleccionismo de sellos postales. Inaugura la temática la imagen de la diosa Hygeia, en un sello de la isla Nevis de 1861. Los primeros médicos retratados en una estampilla son tres constitucionalistas americanos, en un ejemplar de 1869, pero recién en 1937 aparecen médicos holandeses en reconocimiento específico de sus aportes a la salud. En la Argentina la primera estampilla que oficialmente se ocupa del tema es de 1944, en ay...

  14. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  15. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1800

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1800 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  16. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1900

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1900 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  17. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 2000 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

  18. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1700

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 2: 1700 data set describes anthropogenic transformations within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained direct...

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  20. Transnational Research on Decentralization in West and Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although decentralization keeps coming up in the political discourse, it is fair to question its viability and effectiveness in the hands of local actors. Following on a pilot project in Ghana and Mali (102772), this research project proposes to analyze, evaluate and compare the process of decentralization underway in six ...

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    Read more about Asian Partnership for Avian Influenza Research : Effectiveness of Control Measures. Language English. Read more about Étude du Partenariat de recherche sur l'influenza aviaire en Asie sur l'efficacité des mesures de lutte. Language French. Read more about Startup : Philippine Community eCentres ...

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    Read more about Startup - Philippines Community Electronic Centres Academy. Language English. Read more about Activités de recherche, de diffusion et de réseautage aux fins de la lutte antitabac au Liban. Language French. Read more about Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon.

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    Read more about Enabling Violence-affected Young Adults to Deal with Trauma - Phase II. Language English. Read more about Palestinian Refugee Research Policy Papers. Language English. Read more about Documents d'orientation inspirés de la recherche sur les réfugiés palestiniens. Language French ...

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    Language French. Read more about Éviter la reprise des conflits par des règlements politiques inclusifs. Language French. Read more about Recherche sur les ressources éducatives libres au service du développement. Language French. Read more about Research into Open Educational Resources for Development.

  6. Central Asia | Page 99 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The many connections that “seeds” have or can lead to for improving rural livelihoods and quality of life are fascinating and worth in-depth examination. — Norman Uphoff, Cornell University. Policy makers and plant breeders should read this! — Janice Jiggins, Wageningen University & Research Centre. Read more about ...

  7. Research tracks growing violence against women in Central America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 juin 2016 ... Research coordinated by the Feminist Centre for Information and Action in partnership with Horizons of Friendship Canada, aims to bridge these reporting gaps and to contribute to policies and concrete actions for the ... Évaluation d'un programme de formation professionnelle pour femmes au Brésil.

  8. Central Asia | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Alternative Measure of Wellbeing: Bhutan's Gross National Happiness 2010. Language English. Read more about Mekong Economic Research Network (MERN). Language English. Read more about Technologies omniprésentes et accès au savoir (A2K). Language French. Read more about Pervasive ...

  9. [Progress of Researches on Central Mechanism of Electroacupuncture Tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lu-Ying; Ding, Ming-Xing

    2016-12-25

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has been demonstrated effective for pain relief. However, repeated application may decline analgesic effect of EA, which is termed EA tolerance, that reduces the clinical efficacy of EA. Therefore, it has attracted attention from researchers in recent years and the progresses include:(1) acute and chronic EA tolerance animal models have been established; (2) cross-tolerance between EA and morphine; (3) Anti-opioid substances, including cholecystokinin, orphanin FQ and angiotensin Ⅱ, have been reported to contribute to EA tolerance; (4) glutamate receptors and transporters, 5-hydroxytryptamine and norepinephrine have been revealed involvement in EA tolerance; (5) cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate and Ca 2+ have been reported to be the second messengers cellularly in EA tolerance. The current EA tolerance effect lacks in-depth researches. Therefore, studies on its molecular mechanisms and signaling pathway are necessarily required.

  10. Environmental history of the dry forest biome of Guerrero, Mexico, and human impact during the last c. 2700 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrio, J.C.; Hooghiemstra, H.; van Geel, B.; Ludlow-Wiegers, B.

    2006-01-01

    Two lake sediment cores from Madre del Sur mountain range, Guerrero State, west-central Mexico were studied to examine the past dynamics of the dry forest biome. Pollen, spores of coprophilous fungi, cyanobacteria and lithological changes are presented. The 390-cm Tixtla core (17°30′N, 99°24′W, 1400

  11. Central Asia | Page 40 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    36 · 37 · 38 · 39; 40; 41 · 42 · 43 · 44 … next › · last » · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage. Follow us; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube · Linked In ...

  12. La filatelia biomédica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J.A. Roldán

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La temática biomédica es un capítulo extendido de la filatelia o coleccionismo de sellos postales. Inaugura la temática la imagen de la diosa Hygeia, en un sello de la isla Nevis de 1861. Los primeros médicos retratados en una estampilla son tres constitucionalistas americanos, en un ejemplar de 1869, pero recién en 1937 aparecen médicos holandeses en reconocimiento específico de sus aportes a la salud. En la Argentina la primera estampilla que oficialmente se ocupa del tema es de 1944, en ayuda de las víctimas del terremoto de San Juan. Florentino Ameghino es el primer científico incluido en 1954, y en 1967 se edita un sello conmemorativo de la Dra. Cecilia Grierson. La filatelia argentina luego reconoce varios de nuestros científicos y médicos, congresos, universidades, campañas sanitarias, temas de odontología, farmacia, enfermería y otros, generando un amplio material filatélico en reconocimiento del valor social que la ciencia biomédica argentina ha logrado en el contexto propio e internacional. Posiblemente sea un científico, el Dr. Bernardo Houssay, uno de los argentinos más veces editado en distintos sellos postales de la filatelia mundial.

  13. BioMe: biologically relevant metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tus, Alan; Rakipović, Alen; Peretin, Goran; Tomić, Sanja; Šikić, Mile

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce BioMe (biologically relevant metals), a web-based platform for calculation of various statistical properties of metal-binding sites. Users can obtain the following statistical properties: presence of selected ligands in metal coordination sphere, distribution of coordination numbers, percentage of metal ions coordinated by the combination of selected ligands, distribution of monodentate and bidentate metal-carboxyl, bindings for ASP and GLU, percentage of particular binuclear metal centers, distribution of coordination geometry, descriptive statistics for a metal ion–donor distance and percentage of the selected metal ions coordinated by each of the selected ligands. Statistics is presented in numerical and graphical forms. The underlying database contains information about all contacts within the range of 3 Å from a metal ion found in the asymmetric crystal unit. The stored information for each metal ion includes Protein Data Bank code, structure determination method, types of metal-binding chains [protein, ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), water and other] and names of the bounded ligands (amino acid residue, RNA nucleotide, DNA nucleotide, water and other) and the coordination number, the coordination geometry and, if applicable, another metal(s). BioMe is on a regular weekly update schedule. It is accessible at http://metals.zesoi.fer.hr. PMID:22693222

  14. A Call for Different Styles of Data Management and Institutional Research: Centralized versus Decentralized Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Charles H.; Howard, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    The planning processes at two universities are contrasted as they relate to styles of data management and institutional research required to support two different planning philosophies--centralized planning and decentralized planning. (Author/BH)

  15. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  16. The Traditional Centralized Model of Institutional Research: Its Derivation & Evolution at One College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slark, Julie

    A description is provided of Rancho Santiago College's institutional research program, which uses a traditional centralized research model, augmented with alternative, decentralized approaches. First, background information is presented on the college and the role of the research office in management, decision-making, and educational support.…

  17. Amblyomma sculptum: genetic diversity and rickettsias in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourth, K; Amorim, M; DE Oliveira, S V; Caetano, R L; Voloch, C M; Gazêta, G S

    2017-12-01

    Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Berlese, 1888 is the most important tick vector in Brazil, transmitting the bioagent of the most severe form of spotted fever (SF) in part of the Cerrado (in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo). In another part of the Cerrado (Central-West region of Brazil), a milder form of SF has been recorded. However, neither the rickettsia nor the vector involved have been characterized. The aim of the current study was to analyse genetic variation and the presence of rickettsia in A. sculptum in Cerrado, from silent areas and with the milder form of SF. Samples were subjected to DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit II and D-loop mitochondrial genes (for tick population analyses), and gltA, htrA, ompA and gene D (sca4) genes for rickettsia researches. Exclusive haplotypes with low frequencies, high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity, star-shaped networks and significant results in neutrality tests indicate A. sculptum population expansions in some areas. Rickettsia amblyommatis, Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae and Rickettsia felis were detected. The A. sculptum diversity is not geographically, or biome delimited, pointing to a different potential in vector capacity, possibly associated with differing tick genetic profiles. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Climate-biomes, pedo-biomes and pyro-biomes: which world view explains the tropical forest - savanna boundary in South America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Liam; Higgins, Steven; Scheiter, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Elucidating the drivers of broad vegetation formations improves our understanding of earth system functioning. The biome, defined primarily by the dominance of a particular growth strategy, is commonly employed to group vegetation into similar units. Predicting tropical forest and savanna biome boundaries in South America has proven difficult. Process based DGVMs (Dynamic global vegetation models) are our best tool to simulate vegetation patterns, make predictions for future changes and test theory, however, many DGVMs fail to accurately simulate the spatial distribution or indeed presence of the South American savanna biome which can result in large differences in modelled ecosystem structural properties. Evidence suggests fire plays a significant role in mediating these forest and savanna biome boundaries, however, fire alone does not appear to be sufficient to predict these boundaries in South America using DGVMs hinting at the presence of one or more missing environmental factors. We hypothesise that soil depth, which affects plant available water by determining maximum storage potential and influences temporal availability, may be one of these missing environmental factors. To test our hypothesis we use a novel vegetation model, the aDGVM2. This model has been specifically designed to allow plant trait strategies, constrained by trade-offs between traits, evolve based on the abiotic and biotic conditions where the resulting community trait suites are emergent properties of model dynamics. Furthermore it considers root biomass in multiple soil layers and therefore allows the consideration of alternative rooting strategies, which in turn allows us to explore in more detail the role of soil hydraulic factors in controlling biome boundary distributions. We find that changes in soil depth, interacting with fire, affect the relative dominance of tree and grass strategies and thus the presence and spatial distribution of forest and savanna biomes in South America

  19. An Overview of the BIOMed Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, John; Wageih, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose is to: 1) foster the national BioMedical Informatics (BMI) foundation aligning with the international medical informatics association (IMIA) in order to remodel the national strategies; 2) structure the BMHI strategic plans in Egypt and Jordan as models for other Arab States; 3) define the requirements for new joint EU-Mediterranean BMHI projects and initiatives; and 4) encourage and support the BMHI centres of excellence in Egypt and Jordan. BIOMed will synergistically apply up-to-date European and International methodologies & standards. The pre-defined challenges were integrating multiple segregated BMHI initiatives and policies; overcoming obstructions- socio, political, economic; recommendation adaptation, assessing the current and proposed solutions; defining the national health systems real demands; identifying different European best practices. Political instability in the Middle East after the Arab Spring in 2011 added further challenges as well as improved the importance of the EU-MENA (EU and Middle East and North Africa) cooperation.

  20. [Ethical justification for human stem cell research. The view of the German Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siep, L

    2008-09-01

    According to the German Stem Cell Act the Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research (ZES) advices the competent authority (Robert Koch Institute) as to whether an application to import human embryonic stem-cells for research is "ethically justifiable" ("ethisch vertretbar"). The law does indeed specify some conditions of this justification, but without precisely defining them. This article clarifies the committee's understanding of ethically justifiable research. It deals with misunderstandings of the law and problems involved in its application.

  1. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual Experiências sobre o impacto do Programa de Formação em Ética da Pesquisa Biomédica e Psicossocial no âmbito da saúde mental e pesquisa comportamental Experiences about the impact of the Ethics of Biomedical and Psychosocial Research Training Program in mental health and behavioral research field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Mondragón Barrios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar.O propósito deste trabalho é apresentar o impacto e a integração que os conhecimentos adquiridos no Programa Internacional de Formação em Ética da Pesquisa Biomédica e Psicossocial da Universidade do Chile tiveram em minha experiência profissional no âmbito da pesquisa psicossocial no Instituto de Saúde do México. Para este objetivo, mostrarei três áreas nas quais foi possível evidenciar tal impacto: trabalho nos comitês de ética, desenvolvimento de programas acadêmicos em bioética e pesquisa e publicação sobre ética e bioética. O motivo que me levou a incursionar no Programa foi que o seu aprendizado vincula a pesquisa psicossocial com a ética e a bioética, o que me permitiu dirigir este tipo de reflexão para problemas como violência, suicídio, toxicofilias, depressão e saúde mental, e a novos campos como os estudos comunitários com populações em risco ou vulneráveis, nas quais as diversas implica

  2. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2016-01-01

    According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate and vegetation along the gradient from Siberian tundra via northernmost Fennoscandia to the alpine habitats of European middle-latitude mountains, as well as explored those patterns within Fennoscandian tundra based on climate-vegetation patterns obtained from a fine-scale vegetation map. Our analyses reveal that ecologically meaningful January-February snow and thermal conditions differ between different types of tundra. High precipitation and mild winter temperatures prevail on middle-latitude mountains, low precipitation and usually cold winters prevail on high-latitude tundra, and Scandinavian mountains show intermediate conditions. Similarly, heath-like plant communities differ clearly between middle latitude mountains (alpine) and high-latitude tundra vegetation, including its altitudinal extension on Scandinavian mountains. Conversely, high abundance of snowbeds and large differences in the composition of dwarf shrub heaths distinguish the Scandinavian mountain tundra from its counterparts in Russia and the north Fennoscandian inland. The European tundra areas fall into three ecologically rather homogeneous categories: the arctic tundra, the oroarctic tundra of northern heights and mountains, and the genuinely alpine tundra of middle-latitude mountains. Attempts to divide the tundra into two sub-biomes have resulted in major discrepancies and confusions, as the oroarctic areas are included in the arctic tundra in some biogeographic maps and in the alpine tundra in others. Our analyses based on climate and vegetation criteria thus seem to resolve the long-standing biome

  3. Analytical Estimation of the Central Reflector Impact on Thermal Neutron Flux Density in Research Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdyakov Dmitry V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research was shown an analytical assessment of the impact of the central reflector as an example of spherical reactor in one-group approximation. From the external reflector introduced an effective border that simplifies the mathematical problem of critical task. The validation of the research is done just for one of the IRT-T reactor conditions.

  4. Estimating 40 years of nitrogen deposition in global biomes using the SCIAMACHY NO2 column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Xiuying; Liu, Jinxun; Jin, Jiaxin

    2016-01-01

    Owing to human activity, global nitrogen (N) cycles have been altered. In the past 100 years, global N deposition has increased. Currently, the monitoring and estimating of N deposition and the evaluation of its effects on global carbon budgets are the focus of many researchers. NO2 columns retrieved by space-borne sensors provide us with a new way of exploring global N cycles and these have the ability to estimate N deposition. However, the time range limitation of NO2 columns makes the estimation of long timescale N deposition difficult. In this study we used ground-based NOx emission data to expand the density of NO2columns, and 40 years of N deposition (1970–2009) was inverted using the multivariate linear model with expanded NO2 columns. The dynamic of N deposition was examined in both global and biome scales. The results show that the average N deposition was 0.34 g N m–2 year–1 in the 2000s, which was an increase of 38.4% compared with the 1970s’. The total N deposition in different biomes is unbalanced. N deposition is only 38.0% of the global total in forest biomes; this is made up of 25.9%, 11.3, and 0.7% in tropical, temperate, and boreal forests, respectively. As N-limited biomes, there was little increase of N deposition in boreal forests. However, N deposition has increased by a total of 59.6% in tropical forests and croplands, which are N-rich biomes. Such characteristics may influence the effects on global carbon budgets.

  5. Montane plant environments in the Fynbos Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental data collected at 507 plots on 22 transects, and soil analytical data from 81 of these plots, have been used to describe the plant environments of the mountains in the Fynbos Biome. Two major regional gradients are recognized: a west-east gradient and a coast-interior gradient. Of particular consequence for fynbos-environment studies is the increase in the proportion of fine soil particles from west to east. At least some aspects of soil fertility also increase towards the east. The edaphic changes are paralleled by climatic changes: chiefly a decrease in the severity of summer drought towards the east. On the coast-interior gradient a major non-climatic variable in the gradient is rock cover. High rock cover is a feature of the interior ranges. Soils with organic horizons or with E horizons are a feature on the coastal mountains, but are generally lacking on the interior mountains. The other environmental gradients recognized occur on individual transects and all include edaphic variables. The rockiness-soil depth gradient, on which an increase in rockiness is associated with a decrease in soil depth and usually a decrease in clay content, tends to occur in three situations. Firstly, it is associated with local topographic variation; the shallow, rocky soils being a feature of the steeper slopes. Secondly, it is associated with the aspect gradient; the hot, dry northern aspects having shallow, rocky, less developed soils. Thirdly, it tends to be associated with the altitude-rainfall gradient: shallower soils being found at higher altitudes. It is also at higher altitudes that higher rainfall is found. Variation in oxidizable carbon is chiefly accounted for by the altitude-rainfall gradient. Whereas at a biome-wide level, aspects of soil fertility are related to soil texture, it appears that on individual transects fertility is linked to amounts of plant remains in the soil and to rainfall. Apart from these gradients, which are

  6. Postsecondary Transitions for Youth in Appalachia's Central Subregions: A Review of Education Research, 1995-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannapel, Patricia J.; Flory, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews research on issues surrounding postsecondary transitions for youth in middle (North Central, Central, and South Central) Appalachia, a region that faces numerous education challenges because of its geography, poverty, and economy. Examining published research and data from 1995 to 2015, the review seeks to inform education…

  7. The Economics of Root Distributions of Terrestrial Biomes in Response to Elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M.; Hedin, L. O. O.

    2017-12-01

    Belowground root distributions of terrestrial biomes are central to understanding soil biogeochemical processes and land carbon sink. Yet models are thus far not able to predict root distributions across plant functional groups and major biomes, limiting our ability to predict the response of land systems to elevated CO2 concentration. Of particular concern is the apparent lack of stimulation of the aboveground carbon sink despite 30% increase of atmospheric CO2 over the past half-century, and despite the clear acceleration of the land carbon sink over the same period. This apparent discrepancy in land ecosystem response has led to the proposition that changes in belowground root dynamics might be responsible for the overlooked land sink. We here present a new modeling approach for predicting the response of root biomass and soil carbon storage to increased CO2. Our approach considers the first-principle mechanisms and tradeoffs by which plants and plant roots invest carbon to gain belowground resources, in collaboration with distinct root symbioses. We allow plants to locally compete for nutrients, with the ability to allocate biomass at different depths in the soil profile. We parameterized our model using an unprecedented global dataset of root traits, and validated our biome-level predictions with a recently updated global root biomass database. Our results support the idea that plants "dig deeper" when exposed to increased CO2, and we offer an economic-based mechanism for predicting the plant root response across soil conditions, plant functional groups and major biomes. Our model also recreates the observed responses across a range of free-air CO2 enrichment experiments, including a distinct response between plants associated with ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Most broadly, our findings suggest that roots may be increasingly important in the land carbon sink, and call for a greater effort to quantify belowground responses to elevated

  8. Forest resilience to drought varies across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazol, Antonio; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Emilia; de Luis, Martin; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Novak, Klemen; Rozas, Vicente; Tíscar, Pedro A; Linares, Juan C; Martín-Hernández, Natalia; Martínez Del Castillo, Edurne; Ribas, Montse; García-González, Ignacio; Silla, Fernando; Camisón, Alvaro; Génova, Mar; Olano, José M; Longares, Luis A; Hevia, Andrea; Tomás-Burguera, Miquel; Galván, J Diego

    2018-05-01

    Forecasted increase drought frequency and severity may drive worldwide declines in forest productivity. Species-level responses to a drier world are likely to be influenced by their functional traits. Here, we analyse forest resilience to drought using an extensive network of tree-ring width data and satellite imagery. We compiled proxies of forest growth and productivity (TRWi, absolutely dated ring-width indices; NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for 11 tree species and 502 forests in Spain corresponding to Mediterranean, temperate, and continental biomes. Four different components of forest resilience to drought were calculated based on TRWi and NDVI data before, during, and after four major droughts (1986, 1994-1995, 1999, and 2005), and pointed out that TRWi data were more sensitive metrics of forest resilience to drought than NDVI data. Resilience was related to both drought severity and forest composition. Evergreen gymnosperms dominating semi-arid Mediterranean forests showed the lowest resistance to drought, but higher recovery than deciduous angiosperms dominating humid temperate forests. Moreover, semi-arid gymnosperm forests presented a negative temporal trend in the resistance to drought, but this pattern was absent in continental and temperate forests. Although gymnosperms in dry Mediterranean forests showed a faster recovery after drought, their recovery potential could be constrained if droughts become more frequent. Conversely, angiosperms and gymnosperms inhabiting temperate and continental sites might have problems to recover after more intense droughts since they resist drought but are less able to recover afterwards. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Structural characterization of vegetation in the fynbos biome

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Campbell, BM

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available A proposed system for the standardization of descriptive terminology for structural characterization of vegetation in the Fynbos Biome is presented in tabular form. Specific applications of the system are described and illustrations of some...

  10. Using an Exploratory Internet Activity & Trivia Game to Teach Students about Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in life science classes need an introduction to biomes, including an introduction to the concept, key biotic and abiotic features of biomes, and geographic locations of biomes. In this activity, students in seventh- and eighth-grade science classes used a directed exploratory Internet activity to learn about biomes. The author tested…

  11. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolforo, Henrique Ferraco; Scolforo, Jose Roberto Soares; Mello, Carlos Rogerio; Mello, Jose Marcio; Ferraz Filho, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna.

  12. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Harrison, S. P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, V.; van Boxel, J. H.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J. C.; Burbridge, R.; Björck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M. B.; Cleef, A. M.; Duivenvoorden, J. F.; Flenley, J. R.; de Oliveira, P.; van Geel, B.; Graf, K. J.; Gosling, W. D.; Harbele, S.; van der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B. C. S.; Horn, S. P.; Islebe, G. A.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F. E.; Leyden, B. W.; Lozano-García, S.; Melief, A. B. M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N. T.; Prieto, A.; van Reenen, G. B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.; Schäbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-02-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small. Patterns of change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America also show a change in biome assignment to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucatán peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation that reflects a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland prevalent in southeast Brazil, Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate

  13. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Harrison, S.P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, Vera; Van Boxel, J. H.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J.C.; Burbridge, R.; Bjorck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Flenley, J.R.; De Oliveira, P.; Van Geel, B.; Graf, K.J.; Gosling, W.D.; Harbele, S.; Van Der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B.C.S.; Horn, S.P.; Islebe, G.A.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F.E.; Leyden, B.W.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Melief, A.B.M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N.T.; Prieto, A.; Van Reenen, G. B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.; Schasignbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-01-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small. Patterns of change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America also show a change in biome assignment to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucat??n peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation that reflects a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland prevalent in southeast Brazil, Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate

  14. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for other

  15. Climate sensitivity of shrub growth across the tundra biome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myers-Smith, Isla H; Elmendorf, Sarah C; Beck, Pieter S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid climate warming in the tundra biome has been linked to increasing shrub dominance1–4. Shrub expansion can modify climate by altering surface albedo, energy and water balance, and permafrost2,5–8, yet the drivers of shrub growth remain poorly understood. Dendroecological data consisting...... be incorporated into Earth system models to improve future projections of climate change impacts across the tundra biome....

  16. Geotechnical research in the Hungarian Central Institute for the Development of Mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the geotechnical project of the Hungarian Central Institute for the Development of Mining. The activities of the Department of Geophysics and Nuclear Technology in the field of isotope and radiochemistry for geotechnical research are discussed in detail. (Sz.J.)

  17. Structural development and web service based sensitivity analysis of the Biome-BGC MuSo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, Dóra; Balogh, János; Churkina, Galina; Haszpra, László; Horváth, Ferenc; Ittzés, Péter; Ittzés, Dóra; Ma, Shaoxiu; Nagy, Zoltán; Pintér, Krisztina; Barcza, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Studying the greenhouse gas exchange, mainly the carbon dioxide sink and source character of ecosystems is still a highly relevant research topic in biogeochemistry. During the past few years research focused on managed ecosystems, because human intervention has an important role in the formation of the land surface through agricultural management, land use change, and other practices. In spite of considerable developments current biogeochemical models still have uncertainties to adequately quantify greenhouse gas exchange processes of managed ecosystem. Therefore, it is an important task to develop and test process-based biogeochemical models. Biome-BGC is a widely used, popular biogeochemical model that simulates the storage and flux of water, carbon, and nitrogen between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, and within the components of the terrestrial ecosystems. Biome-BGC was originally developed by the Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) of University of Montana (http://www.ntsg.umt.edu/project/biome-bgc), and several other researchers used and modified it in the past. Our research group developed Biome-BGC version 4.1.1 to improve essentially the ability of the model to simulate carbon and water cycle in real managed ecosystems. The modifications included structural improvements of the model (e.g., implementation of multilayer soil module and drought related plant senescence; improved model phenology). Beside these improvements management modules and annually varying options were introduced and implemented (simulate mowing, grazing, planting, harvest, ploughing, application of fertilizers, forest thinning). Dynamic (annually varying) whole plant mortality was also enabled in the model to support more realistic simulation of forest stand development and natural disturbances. In the most recent model version separate pools have been defined for fruit. The model version which contains every former and new development is referred as Biome-BGC MuSo (Biome

  18. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankenbrand, Markus J; Terhoeven, Niklas; Hohlfeld, Sonja; Förster, Frank; Keller, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability: https://github.com/molbiodiv/biojs-io-biom, https://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.218277.

  19. A regulação do uso de animais no Brasil do século XX e o processo de formação do atual regime aplicado à pesquisa biomédica Regulation of the use of animals in Brazil in the twentieth century and the process of forming the current regime applied to biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Saldanha Machado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a política pública e regulatória do Brasil sobre o uso de animais no ensino e na pesquisa biomédica. Aborda o arcabouço institucional-legal e a situação jurídica da proteção dos animais no país, além do debate legislativo que resultou na promulgação da lei 11.794/2008, que estabelece procedimentos para o uso científico de animais. Ressalta algumas características do atual regime regulatório e tece considerações de ordem teórico-metodológica, voltadas para a ampliação do entendimento do fenômeno investigado.The article analyzes Brazilian public policy and legislation concerning the use of animals in teaching and biomedical research. It examines the institutional and judicial framework and legal status of animal protection in Brazil, including the legislative debate that preceded enactment of Law 11.794/2008, which defined procedures to be employed in the scientific use of animals. It underscores certain features of current regulatory practice and also explores considerations of a theoretical and methodological nature, with a view to broadening our understanding of the question.

  20. Teacher Researchers in Action Research in a Heavily Centralized Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci

    2015-01-01

    Action research is characterized by a new paradigm of empowering teachers to monitor their own practices in a more autonomous manner with a vision of challenging and improving their own techniques of teaching through their own participatory research. Yet in spite of this apparently radical shift in the function of the teacher from the constant…

  1. The birds of Uaso Narok Forest Reserve, Central Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. The birds of the Uaso Narok Forest, Central Kenya, were surveyed between. June 2008 and April 2009. We recorded 161 species representing 49 families in total. Of these species, 34 were representative of the Afrotropical Highland. Biome, representing 51% of all Kenyan species of this biome; two species were.

  2. Multiband radar characterization of forest biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, M. Craig; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1990-01-01

    The utility of airborne and orbital SAR in classification, assessment, and monitoring of forest biomes is investigated through analysis of orbital synthetic aperature radar (SAR) and multifrequency and multipolarized airborne SAR imagery relying on image tone and texture. Preliminary airborne SAR experiments and truck-mounted scatterometer observations demonstrated that the three dimensional structural complexity of a forest, and the various scales of temporal dynamics in the microwave dielectric properties of both trees and the underlying substrate would severely limit empirical or semi-empirical approaches. As a consequence, it became necessary to develop a more profound understanding of the electromagnetic properties of a forest scene and their temporal dynamics through controlled experimentation coupled with theoretical development and verification. The concatenation of various models into a physically-based composite model treating the entire forest scene became the major objective of the study as this is the key to development of a series of robust retrieval algorithms for forest biophysical properties. In order to verify the performance of the component elements of the composite model, a series of controlled laboratory and field experiments were undertaken to: (1) develop techniques to measure the microwave dielectric properties of vegetation; (2) relate the microwave dielectric properties of vegetation to more readily measured characteristics such as density and moisture content; (3) calculate the radar cross-section of leaves, and cylinders; (4) improve backscatter models for rough surfaces; and (5) relate attenuation and phase delays during propagation through canopies to canopy properties. These modeling efforts, as validated by the measurements, were incorporated within a larger model known as the Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS) Model.

  3. Annual report 1995 of the Central Safety Department, Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1996-04-01

    The Central Safety Department is responsible for supervising, monitoring and, to some extent, also executing measures of radiation protection, industrial health and safety as well as physical protection and security at and for the institutes and departments of the Karlsruhe Research Center (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH), and for monitoring liquid effluents and the environment of all facilities and nuclear installations on the premises of the Research Center. In addition, research and development work is carried out in the fields of behavior of tritium in the air/soil/plant system, tritium balances for nuclear fusion fuel cycles, and assessments of mining and ore dressing spoils. This report gives details of the different duties and reports the results of 1995 routine tasks, investigations and developments of the working groups of the Department. The reader is referred to the English translation of Chapter 1 describing the duties and organization of the Central Safety Department. (orig.) [de

  4. Measures of central tendency in chaplaincy, health care, and related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Katherine R B; Flannelly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    The three measures of central tendency are discussed in this article: the mode, the median, and the mean. These measures of central tendency describe data in different and important ways, in relation to the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) used to obtain the data. The results of published research studies, thought experiments, and graphs of frequency and percentage distributions of data are used as examples to demonstrate and explain the similarities and differences among these summary measures of data. The examples include the application of nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratios scales to measure pain, anxiety, chaplaincy services, religious behaviors, and treatment-related preferences, and their respective measures of central tendency. Examples of unimodal and bimodal distributions, and differences in the relative locations of the median and mean in symmetrical and skewed distributions are also presented and discussed.

  5. The validity of the schizophrenia diagnosis in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register is good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggerby, Peter; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Røge, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) has been used extensively for research purposes during the past decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 schizophrenia diagnosis in the DPCRR...... all 300 case records, the validity of the schizophrenia diagnosis was 89.7%. CONCLUSION: According to this assessment of patient case records, the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the DPCRR has a high validity and is well-suited for research. FUNDING: Aalborg Psychiatric Hospital funded the study...

  6. Biomass Allocation Patterns across China’s Terrestrial Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limei; Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; Tian, Xin; Wang, Xiaoke; Luo, Geping

    2014-01-01

    Root to shoot ratio (RS) is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China’s terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm) for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP) and potential water deficit index (PWDI). Mean annual temperature (MAT) also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship. PMID:24710503

  7. Toolbox for Research, or how to facilitate a central data management in small-scale research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialke, Martin; Rau, Henriette; Thamm, Oliver C; Schuldt, Ronny; Penndorf, Peter; Blumentritt, Arne; Gött, Robert; Piegsa, Jens; Bahls, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2018-01-25

    In most research projects budget, staff and IT infrastructures are limiting resources. Especially for small-scale registries and cohort studies professional IT support and commercial electronic data capture systems are too expensive. Consequently, these projects use simple local approaches (e.g. Excel) for data capture instead of a central data management including web-based data capture and proper research databases. This leads to manual processes to merge, analyze and, if possible, pseudonymize research data of different study sites. To support multi-site data capture, storage and analyses in small-scall research projects, corresponding requirements were analyzed within the MOSAIC project. Based on the identified requirements, the Toolbox for Research was developed as a flexible software solution for various research scenarios. Additionally, the Toolbox facilitates data integration of research data as well as metadata by performing necessary procedures automatically. Also, Toolbox modules allow the integration of device data. Moreover, separation of personally identifiable information and medical data by using only pseudonyms for storing medical data ensures the compliance to data protection regulations. This pseudonymized data can then be exported in SPSS format in order to enable scientists to prepare reports and analyses. The Toolbox for Research was successfully piloted in the German Burn Registry in 2016 facilitating the documentation of 4350 burn cases at 54 study sites. The Toolbox for Research can be downloaded free of charge from the project website and automatically installed due to the use of Docker technology.

  8. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N₂-fixing plants in cold biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D; Reed, Sasha C; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Körner, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem's capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  9. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N2-fixing plants in cold biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D.; Reed, Sasha C.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Körner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem’s capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  10. The Central Institute for Brain Research in Amsterdam and its directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Paul; Hofman, Michel A

    2014-01-01

    The Central Institute for Brain Research was founded in Amsterdam in 1908 as part of an international effort to study the nervous system with multiple institutions and various disciplines. The development of research in the past hundred years at the Brain Institute has hardly been documented. We analyze the history of this institute by means of brief portraits of its directors and their main research topics. It appears that each director introduced his own branch of neuroscience into the institute. Initially, mainly comparative neuroanatomical data were collected. Following the Second World War, the multidisciplinary approach slowly developed with research programs on systems neuroscience, neuroendocrinology, and brain disorders. Every new director introduced new approaches to the study of the brain and thus played an important role in keeping brain research in the Netherlands at the international forefront where it has been ever since its foundation in 1908.

  11. How research on marketing in Central and Eastern Europe can advance international marketing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold Schuh

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of how research on marketing issues in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) can contribute to the international marketing theory. Regional studies provide valuable insights into business environments, marketing systems and practices in specific countries and geographical areas, which explain their high appeal among marketing practitioners. While contributing to the general body of knowledge in marketing, they often lack a strong role in theory development. Two a...

  12. Safeguards at the Central Institute for Nuclear Research at Rossendorf/GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helming, M.; Rehak, W.; Schillert, B.

    1989-01-01

    Experience in the implementation of domestic and international safeguards at the Central Institute for Nuclear Research at Rossendorf is reported covering the following topics: overview of the main nuclear installations belonging to the Institute; structure of its material balance areas; responsibilities for the different aspects of accounting for and control of nuclear material at facility level; the various types of nuclear materials handled and their flow, accessibility and strategic significance; the assessment of IAEA safeguards effectiveness. 2 tabs., 2 figs. (author)

  13. Accounting for and control of nuclear material at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research, Rossendorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidel, S.; Rossbander, W.; Helming, M.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of the system of accounting for and control of nuclear material at the Central Institute for Nuclear Research, Rossendorf. It includes 3 material balance areas. Control is implemented at both the institute and the MBA levels on the basis of concepts which are coordinated with the national control authority of the IAEA. The system applied enables national and international nuclear material control to be carried out effectively and economically at a minimum of interference with operational procedures. (author)

  14. The Central Adriatic Shelf – Important Research and Data Processing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Jašić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodological approach in the analyses of the seawater oceanographic states is determined by the purpose of the paper and general purpose of the research. In the recent decades the scientific work in this area has advanced thanks to computer data processing, particularly owing to modern technical and technological achievements that allow us to obtain important results, which significantly augment application of scientific results. This paper is a review of the research on the Central Adriatic shelf. Until now, papers dealing with geographical and oceanographic features regularly used the terms Palagruža Shelf and Jabuka concavity in the meaning of independent entities in the Adriatic basin which partly define physicogeographic features of water masses. However, such perception should be corrected. The Central Adriatic shelf is situated between the north Adriatic and the south Adriatic basin. Its length is greater than the width. Therefore, it deserves more attention and more cautious scientific approach. In this paper there are also evaluations of some methodologies used in the research and in the measuring of oceanographic parameter values, and also new technical solutions are proposed. The purpose of this paper is to analyse some methods of approach in the presentation of oceanographic states of seawater in the area of the Central Adriatic shelf. The purpose is also to introduce a succession of articles in which this maritime zone should be given its deserving significance from the geographic and oceanological aspects.

  15. Duke Surgery Research Central: an open-source Web application for the improvement of compliance with research regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Henrique

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although regulatory compliance in academic research is enforced by law to ensure high quality and safety to participants, its implementation is frequently hindered by cost and logistical barriers. In order to decrease these barriers, we have developed a Web-based application, Duke Surgery Research Central (DSRC, to monitor and streamline the regulatory research process. Results The main objective of DSRC is to streamline regulatory research processes. The application was built using a combination of paper prototyping for system requirements and Java as the primary language for the application, in conjunction with the Model-View-Controller design model. The researcher interface was designed for simplicity so that it could be used by individuals with different computer literacy levels. Analogously, the administrator interface was designed with functionality as its primary goal. DSRC facilitates the exchange of regulatory documents between researchers and research administrators, allowing for tasks to be tracked and documents to be stored in a Web environment accessible from an Intranet. Usability was evaluated using formal usability tests and field observations. Formal usability results demonstrated that DSRC presented good speed, was easy to learn and use, had a functionality that was easily understandable, and a navigation that was intuitive. Additional features implemented upon request by initial users included: extensive variable categorization (in contrast with data capture using free text, searching capabilities to improve how research administrators could search an extensive number of researcher names, warning messages before critical tasks were performed (such as deleting a task, and confirmatory e-mails for critical tasks (such as completing a regulatory task. Conclusion The current version of DSRC was shown to have excellent overall usability properties in handling research regulatory issues. It is hoped that its

  16. Conserving the Brazilian semiarid (Caatinga) biome under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Rangel, Thiago Fernado

    2012-01-01

    to assess changes in climate suitability across individual species ranges, ensemble forecasting was used based on seven bioclimatic envelope models, three atmosphere–ocean general circulation models, and two greenhouse emission gas scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080. We found that most species will gain...... additional threats to the biome’s biodiversity. Here, we ask if the remnants of natural vegetation in Caatinga biome, where endemic terrestrial vertebrate species occur, are likely to retain more climatic suitability under climate change scenarios than other less pristine areas of the biome. In order......The Caatinga is a semiarid biome of the northeast of Brazil with only 1 % of its territory currently conserved. The biome’s biodiversity is highly threatened due to exposure to land conversion for agricultural and cattle ranch. Climate forecasts predict increases in aridity, which could pose...

  17. Tropical grassy biomes: misunderstood, neglected, and under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Catherine L; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Bond, William J; Hoffmann, William A; Andersen, Alan N

    2014-04-01

    Tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) are globally extensive, provide critical ecosystem services, and influence the earth-atmosphere system. Yet, globally applied biome definitions ignore vegetation characteristics that are critical to their functioning and evolutionary history. Hence, TGB identification is inconsistent and misinterprets the ecological processes governing vegetation structure, with cascading negative consequences for biodiversity. Here, we discuss threats linked to the definition of TGB, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation schemes (REDD+), and enhanced atmospheric CO2, which may facilitate future state shifts. TGB degradation is insidious and less visible than in forested biomes. With human reliance on TGBs and their propensity for woody change, ecology and evolutionary history are fundamental to not only the identification of TGBs, but also their management for future persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. La prosodia como identificador biométrico

    OpenAIRE

    Farrús i Cabeceran, Mireia

    2011-01-01

    La biometría tiene como objetivo el reconocimiento de personas mediante uno o más identificadores biométricos como la voz, la cara o las huellas dactilares, entre otros. Gracias a la buena aceptación social y el poco intrusismo en los individuos, la voz ha sido, tradicionalmente, uno de los identificadores más utilizados en los sistemas biométricos. Estos sistemas de reconocimiento basados en la voz utilizan, habitualmente, características relacionadas con el espectro de la voz. No obstante, ...

  19. Sex-biased parasitism is not universal: evidence from rodent-flea associations from three biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Stanko, Michal; Morand, Serge; Khokhlova, Irina S; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Hawlena, Hadas; Krasnov, Boris R

    2013-11-01

    The distribution of parasites among individual hosts is characterised by high variability that is believed to be a result of variations in host traits. To find general patterns of host traits affecting parasite abundance, we studied flea infestation of nine rodent species from three different biomes (temperate zone of central Europe, desert of Middle East and tropics of East Africa). We tested for independent and interactive effects of host sex and body mass on the number of fleas harboured by an individual host while accounting for spatial clustering of host and parasite sampling and temporal variation. We found no consistent patterns of the effect of host sex and body mass on flea abundance either among species within a biome or among biomes. We found evidence for sex-biased flea infestation in just five host species (Apodemus agrarius, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Gerbillus andersoni, Mastomys natalensis). In six rodent species, we found an effect of body mass on flea abundance (all species mentioned above and Meriones crassus). This effect was positive in five species and negative in one species (Microtus arvalis). In M. glareolus, G. andersoni, M. natalensis, and M. arvalis, the relationship between body mass and flea abundance was mediated by host sex. This was manifested in steeper change in flea abundance with increasing body mass in male than female individuals (M. glareolus, G. andersoni, M. natalensis), whereas the opposite pattern was found in M. arvalis. Our findings suggest that sex and body mass are common determinants of parasite infestation in mammalian hosts, but neither of them follows universal rules. This implies that the effect of host individual characteristics on mechanisms responsible for flea acquisition may be manifested differently in different host species.

  20. Data gaps in anthropogenically driven local-scale species richness change studies across the Earth's terrestrial biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Grace E P; Romanuk, Tamara N

    2016-05-01

    There have been numerous attempts to synthesize the results of local-scale biodiversity change studies, yet several geographic data gaps exist. These data gaps have hindered ecologist's ability to make strong conclusions about how local-scale species richness is changing around the globe. Research on four of the major drivers of global change is unevenly distributed across the Earth's biomes. Here, we use a dataset of 638 anthropogenically driven species richness change studies to identify where data gaps exist across the Earth's terrestrial biomes based on land area, future change in drivers, and the impact of drivers on biodiversity, and make recommendations for where future studies should focus their efforts. Across all drivers of change, the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests and the tropical moist broadleaf forests are the best studied. The biome-driver combinations we have identified as most critical in terms of where local-scale species richness change studies are lacking include the following: land-use change studies in tropical and temperate coniferous forests, species invasion and nutrient addition studies in the boreal forest, and warming studies in the boreal forest and tropics. Gaining more information on the local-scale effects of the specific human drivers of change in these biomes will allow for better predictions of how human activity impacts species richness around the globe.

  1. BOREAS RSS-08 BIOME-BGC Model Simulations at Tower Flux Sites in 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: BIOME-BGC is a general ecosystem process model designed to simulate biogeochemical and hydrologic processes across multiple scales. BIOME-BGC is used to...

  2. BOREAS RSS-08 BIOME-BGC Model Simulations at Tower Flux Sites in 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BIOME-BGC is a general ecosystem process model designed to simulate biogeochemical and hydrologic processes across multiple scales. BIOME-BGC is used to estimate...

  3. Research into properties of dust from domestic central heating boiler fired with coal and solid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczyński Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the content and composition of the pollutants emitted by domestic central heating boilers equipped with an automatic underfeed fuel delivery system for the combustion chamber. The comparative research was conducted. It concerned fuel properties, flue gas parameters, contents of dust (fl y ash and gaseous substances polluting the air in the flue gases emitted from a domestic CH boiler burning bituminous coal, pellets from coniferous wood, cereal straw, miscanthus, and sunflower husks, coniferous tree bark, and oats and barley grain. The emission factors for dust and gaseous air pollutants were established as they are helpful to assess the contribution of such boilers in the atmospheric air pollution. When assessing the researched boiler, it was found out that despite the development in design and construction, flue gases contained fly ash with a significant EC content, which affected the air quality.

  4. How research on marketing in Central and Eastern Europe can advance international marketing theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Schuh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of how research on marketing issues in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE can contribute to the international marketing theory. Regional studies provide valuable insights into business environments, marketing systems and practices in specific countries and geographical areas, which explain their high appeal among marketing practitioners. While contributing to the general body of knowledge in marketing, they often lack a strong role in theory development. Two approaches which link regional studies to the advancement of international marketing theory are presented and discussed: research on CEE has to be either integrated into existing theories or used as a starting point for the building of new theories. The choice of an inductive or deductive research approach is rather secondary as long as unique marketing phenomena are addressed. Unique marketing phenomena originating from a CEE context bring forth innovative insights and have a large potential to add value to the international marketing theory.

  5. Importance of soil-water to the Caatinga biome, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro, Everton; Metselaar, Klaas; Jong van Lier, de Quirijn; Araújo, de José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Northeastern Brazil is hydrologically characterized by recurrent droughts leading to a highly vulnerable natural water resource system. The region contains the Caatinga biome, covering an area of approximately 800000km2. To increase insight in water balance components for this sparsely

  6. South African Red Data Book: Plants - fynbos and Karoo biomes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report a list is given of 1 808 rare, threatened and recently extinct plants in the fynbos and karoo biomes in the Cape Province of South Africa. The area covers the south-western and southern Cape, Namaqualand and the Karoo. Following...

  7. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuixiang Yi; Daniel Ricciuto; Runze Li; John Wolbeck; Xiyan Xu; Mats Nilsson; John Frank; William J. Massman

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes...

  8. Anthropogenic biomes: a key contribution to earth-system science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilian Alessa; F. Stuart Chapin

    2008-01-01

    Human activities now dominate most of the ice-free terrestrial surface. A recent article presents a classification and global map of human-influenced biomes of the world that provides a novel and potentially appropriate framework for projecting changes in earth-system dynamics.

  9. Remotely sensed phenology for mapping biomes and vegetation functional types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used remotely-sensed phenology data derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), in a fully supervised decision-tree classification based on the new biome map of South Africa. The objectives were: (i) to investigate...

  10. Karoo biome: a preliminary sythesis. Part 1 - physical environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cowling, RM

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available . It is a multi-authored publication covering a wide range of topics. This first volume summarizes what is currently known on the physical environment of the biome; namely geology, soils, climate, hydrology, geohydrology and soil erosion. Other aspects...

  11. Do arthropod assemblages fit the grassland and savanna biomes of South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Botha; Stefan J. Siebert; Johnnie van den Berg

    2016-01-01

    The long-standing tradition of classifying South Africa's biogeographical area into biomes is commonly linked to vegetation structure and climate. Because arthropod communities are often governed by both these factors, it can be expected that arthropod communities would fit the biomes. To test this hypothesis, we considered how well arthropod species assemblages fit South Africa's grassy biomes. Arthropod assemblages were sampled from six localities across the grassland and savanna biomes by ...

  12. USING LUDIC ACTIVITIES TO EXPLAIN THE BIOME CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Riccioni de Melos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to research on the role of ludic activities in teaching and learning physical geography content during the last four years of primary school. We question the discourse that identifies students’ lack of interest as the obstacle to teaching physical geography. This study contributes by questioning this obstacle. We note that few studies exist on this topic, according to the CAPES (Coordination for higher Education Staff Development dissertation database, in 2011 only five were completed. The theoretical basis for the study considers work by Graciolli (2009, Silva et al. (2010, Rupel (2011 and Freitas and Salvi (2011, authors who defend the use of ludic activities in teaching methodology. In 2010, the “Biome Game” for 6th year students was developed based on this theoretical framework as part of the required course “Supervised Practice”. The goal of the activity was to think about how the concept of biome was created, and the methodology used valued recreational approaches. The empirical results of this experiment, which involved developing and implementing the game during the Supervised Practice course, demonstrate the importance of ludic pedagogical strategies for teaching physical geography in Brazilian primary education. O presente artigo traz contribuições de pesquisa sobre a função da ludicidade no ensino-aprendizagem de conteúdos da geografia física, no segundo segmento do ensino fundamental. Tal questão problematiza o discurso sobre o desinteresse dos alunos, como significativo obstáculo para a didática da geografia física. A pertinência do presente estudo está em reconhecer esta questão, tendo em vista que existem poucos estudos na área, totalizando em 2011, segundo o banco de dissertações da CAPES, somente cinco trabalhos concluídos. Nossa investigação dialoga com Graciolli (2009, Silva et al. (2010, Rupel (2011 e Freitas e Salvi (2011, autores dedicados à defesa da utilização de

  13. Birth of a biome: insights into the assembly and maintenance of the Australian arid zone biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M; Yeates, D K; Joseph, L; Kearney, M; Bowler, J; Williams, M A J; Cooper, S; Donnellan, S C; Keogh, J S; Leys, R; Melville, J; Murphy, D J; Porch, N; Wyrwoll, K-H

    2008-10-01

    The integration of phylogenetics, phylogeography and palaeoenvironmental studies is providing major insights into the historical forces that have shaped the Earth's biomes. Yet our present view is biased towards arctic and temperate/tropical forest regions, with very little focus on the extensive arid regions of the planet. The Australian arid zone is one of the largest desert landform systems in the world, with a unique, diverse and relatively well-studied biota. With foci on palaeoenvironmental and molecular data, we here review what is known about the assembly and maintenance of this biome in the context of its physical history, and in comparison with other mesic biomes. Aridification of Australia began in the Mid-Miocene, around 15 million years, but fully arid landforms in central Australia appeared much later, around 1-4 million years. Dated molecular phylogenies of diverse taxa show the deepest divergences of arid-adapted taxa from the Mid-Miocene, consistent with the onset of desiccation. There is evidence of arid-adapted taxa evolving from mesic-adapted ancestors, and also of speciation within the arid zone. There is no evidence for an increase in speciation rate during the Pleistocene, and most arid-zone species lineages date to the Pliocene or earlier. The last 0.8 million years have seen major fluctuations of the arid zone, with large areas covered by mobile sand dunes during glacial maxima. Some large, vagile taxa show patterns of recent expansion and migration throughout the arid zone, in parallel with the ice sheet-imposed range shifts in Northern Hemisphere taxa. Yet other taxa show high lineage diversity and strong phylogeographical structure, indicating persistence in multiple localised refugia over several glacial maxima. Similar to the Northern Hemisphere, Pleistocene range shifts have produced suture zones, creating the opportunity for diversification and speciation through hybridisation, polyploidy and parthenogenesis. This review highlights

  14. Bone marrow transplantation for research and regenerative therapies in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, David; Alonso, José Ramón; Weruaga, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells are probably the best known stem cell type and have been employed for more than 50 years, especially in pathologies related to the hematopoietic and immune systems. However, their potential for therapeutic application is much broader (because these cells can differentiate into hepatocytes, myocytes, cardiomyocytes, pneumocytes or neural cells, among others), and they can also presumably be employed to palliate neural diseases. Current research addressing the integration of bone marrow -derived cells in the neural circuits of the central nervous system together with their features and applications are hotspots in current Neurobiology. Nevertheless, as in other leading research lines the efficacy and possibilities of their therapeutic application depend on the technical procedures employed, which are still far from being standardized. In this chapter we shall explain one of these procedures in depth, namely the transplantation of whole bone marrow from harvested bone marrow stem cells for subsequent integration into the encephalon.

  15. Proposal for research and education: joint lectures and practicals on central nervous system anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Ken; Satoh, Yoshihide; Nanayakkara, Chinthani D; Pallegama, Ranjith W; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    We coordinated anatomy and physiology lectures and practicals to facilitate an integrated understanding of morphology and function in a basic medical science program for dental students and to reduce the time spent on basic science education. This method is a means to provide the essential information and skills in less time. The overall impression was that the practice of joint central nervous system lectures and practicals was an efficient method for students, which suggests that joint lectures might also be useful for clinical subjects. About two-thirds of students felt that the joint anatomy and physiology lecture on the central nervous system was useful and necessary in understanding the relationship between morphology and function, at least for this subject. One-third of students were neutral on the effectiveness of this method. However, the survey results suggest that improvements are needed in the method and timing of joint lectures and practicals. The present teaching approach can be further improved by conducting combined lectures in which the form and function of anatomic structures are presented by the relevant departments during the same lecture. Finally, joint lecturers and practicals offer an opportunity to increase student understanding of the importance of new research findings by the present authors and other researchers.

  16. Potentials for Horizontal Cooperation in a Centralized Setting: Empirical Research on Hungarian Civil Servants’ Perceptions on Public Administration Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Márton GELLÉN

    2016-01-01

    The article describes empirical findings regarding the perceptions of the Hungarian central civil service on outsourcing and other forms of cooperation. The findings summarized in this article are part of a vast empirical research effort that took place in 2014 – shortly after the wave of a comprehensive centralization that affected the entire corpus of Hungarian public administration from the local level to the ministerial level. The complete research design consisted of qualitative and quan...

  17. SHIA COMMUNITY (A RESEARCH EVERYDAY LIVES OF THE SHIA COMMUNITY IN SALATIGA, CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retnowati Retnowati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to explain the existence of Shia community at Pancuran village, in  Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesa, and how their strategies to survive in the midst society in that region. To obtain data on the Shia community at Pancuran, Salatiga, it was done through in-depth interviews, and observations are preceded by a close observation prior to the study. This research also examines some relevant literatures and documents to the research problem as the secondary data. The theory of religious freedom and cultural identity of religious pluralism in the Shia community are used to describe and to analyze the problem of research based on the obtained data. The results show that the Shia community in Salatiga is not discriminated, and they can live in Salatiga freely along with other religious communities and Salatiga society at large. This is supported by an inclusive attitude among Shia community and society Salatiga in building relationships and communication with people of other faiths. Local knowledge possessed by people of Salatiga can be a social capital for implementing inter-religious harmony.

  18. Soil quality in anthropized ecosystem located in two biomes in Campinas city / SP-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márcia Longo, Regina; Corcovia, Marina; Gomes, Raissa Caroline; Bettine, Sueli C.; Demamboro, Antonio Carlos; Fengler, Felipe H.; Irio Ribeiro, Admilson

    2017-04-01

    The rapid growth of large urban centers and the expansion of agricultural activities promote direct pressures on natural ecosystems. These actions have led to constant discussions by researchers and society as a whole in relation to preservation and quality of terrestrial ecosystems, and soil and vegetation components of vital importance to maintain these. In this context, the present study was to evaluate the anthropogenic interferences on soil properties in areas in two forest fragments located in the remaining urban areas in different biomes of Campinas-SP , Brazil. Both have their edges significantly disturbed by the proximity to urban centers , highways, sugarcane cultivation, among others. The remnant of the Atlantic Forest has an area of 250.36 ha is found in a so called protected area of ecological interest (A.R.I.E). This site access is restricted and has conservation measures, but is near major highways. The remnant of savanna has an approximate area of 40 ha there and has no conservation measure, finding it quite degraded. The physical properties and chemical soil in the two situations were collected throughout the border area totaling 28 points in the remaining savanna and 40 in the Atlantic Forest. The results were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the main soil properties that reflect the quality of the ecosystems studied. It can be seen that most of the physical-chemical soil parameters were impacted in some way related to each other and in two ecosystems that is, the size of the vectors and the distance between them are studied in corresponding situations. The bulk density parameter has different behavior between the two biomes, since the particle density is presented close to each other but have different vector sizes. Some of the parameters have been identified with strong relationship between biomes: the Exchange Capacity Cationic (ECC) and the amounts of copper (Cu) by its close proximity of the vectors and the

  19. Central gender theoretical concepts in health research: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Anne; Johansson, Klara; Annandale, Ellen; Ahlgren, Christina; Aléx, Lena; Christianson, Monica; Elwér, Sofia; Eriksson, Carola; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Gilenstam, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Per E; Harryson, Lisa; Lehti, Arja; Stenberg, Gunilla; Verdonk, Petra

    2014-02-01

    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of gender perspectives in health science, there is conceptual confusion regarding the meaning and the use of central gender theoretical concepts. We argue that it is essential to clarify how central concepts are used within gender theory and how to apply them to health research. We identify six gender theoretical concepts as central and interlinked-but problematic and ambiguous in health science: sex, gender, intersectionality, embodiment, gender equity and gender equality. Our recommendations are that: the concepts sex and gender can benefit from a gender relational theoretical approach (i.e., a focus on social processes and structures) but with additional attention to the interrelations between sex and gender; intersectionality should go beyond additive analyses to study complex intersections between the major factors which potentially influence health and ensure that gendered power relations and social context are included; we need to be aware of the various meanings given to embodiment, which achieve an integration of gender and health and attend to different levels of analyses to varying degrees; and appreciate that gender equality concerns absence of discrimination between women and men while gender equity focuses on women's and men's health needs, whether similar or different. We conclude that there is a constant need to justify and clarify our use of these concepts in order to advance gender theoretical development. Our analysis is an invitation for dialogue but also a call to make more effective use of the knowledge base which has already developed among gender theorists in health sciences in the manner proposed in this paper.

  20. Reference equilibrium core with central flux irradiation facility for Pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israr, M.; Shami, Qamar-ud-din; Pervez, S.

    1997-11-01

    In order to assess various core parameters a reference equilibrium core with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel for Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-1) was assembled. Due to increased volume of reference core, the average neutron flux reduced as compared to the first higher power operation. To get a higher neutron flux an irradiation facility was created in centre of the reference equilibrium core where the advantage of the neutron flux peaking was taken. Various low power experiments were performed in order to evaluate control rods worth and neutron flux mapping inside the core. The neutron flux inside the central irradiation facility almost doubled. With this arrangement reactor operation time was cut down from 72 hours to 48 hours for the production of the required specific radioactivity. (author)

  1. Specifics of IFRS Adoption by Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procházka David

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews recent literature on the specifics of adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS by the new EU members from the Central and Eastern Europe. Despite being members of the EU or OECD, the transition to a standard developed economy has not yet finished. The first part of the paper presents macroeconomic statistics and capital market data, which underline a unique economic structure of the region (relative unimportance of capital markets for raising capital, strong dependence on foreign direct investments combined with the lacks in institutional environment. Under such conditions, the economic consequences of IFRS adoption can be unpredictable and adverse. The second part of the paper analyses the reflection of specifics of the IFRS adoption in the CEE region in research studies covered by the Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science database. The analysis reveals (a cross-country disproportion in the research coverage of the area; (b relatively low coverage of the IFRS research focusing on these transition countries in top journals.

  2. Pennsylvanian coniferopsid forests in sabkha facies reveal the nature of seasonal tropical biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Jud, N.A.; John, Nelson W.; DiMichele, W.A.; Chaney, D.S.; Lucas, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Pennsylvanian fossil forests are known from hundreds of sites across tropical Pangea, but nearly all comprise remains of humid Coal Forests. Here we report a unique occurrence of seasonally dry vegetation, preserved in growth position along >5 km of strike, in the Pennsylvanian (early Kasimovian, Missourian) of New Mexico (United States). Analyses of stump anatomy, diameter, and spatial density, coupled with observations of vascular traces and associated megaflora, show that this was a deciduous, mixed-age, coniferopsid woodland (~100 trees per hectare) with an open canopy. The coniferopsids colonized coastal sabkha facies and show tree rings, confirming growth under seasonally dry conditions. Such woodlands probably served as the source of coniferopsids that replaced Coal Forests farther east in central Pangea during drier climate phases. Thus, the newly discovered woodland helps unravel biome-scale vegetation dynamics and allows calibration of climate models. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  3. Multiple nutrient stresses at intersecting Pacific Ocean biomes detected by protein biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mak A; McIlvin, Matthew R; Moran, Dawn M; Goepfert, Tyler J; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Post, Anton F; Lamborg, Carl H

    2014-09-05

    Marine primary productivity is strongly influenced by the scarcity of required nutrients, yet our understanding of these nutrient limitations is informed by experimental observations with sparse geographical coverage and methodological limitations. We developed a quantitative proteomic method to directly assess nutrient stress in high-light ecotypes of the abundant cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus across a meridional transect in the central Pacific Ocean. Multiple peptide biomarkers detected widespread and overlapping regions of nutritional stress for nitrogen and phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and iron in the equatorial Pacific. Quantitative protein analyses demonstrated simultaneous stress for these nutrients at biome interfaces. This application of proteomic biomarkers to diagnose ocean metabolism demonstrated Prochlorococcus actively and simultaneously deploying multiple biochemical strategies for low-nutrient conditions in the oceans. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Cleef, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, V.; van Boxel, J.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J. C.; Burbridge, R.; Björck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Flenley, J.; de Oliveira, P.; van Geel, B.; Graf, K.; Gosling, W. D.; Harbele, S.; van der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B.; Horn, S.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F.; Leyden, B.; Lozano-García, S.; Melief, A. M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N. T.; Prieto, A.; van Reenen, G.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-12-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small; change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America show a change in biome assignment, but to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucatán peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation reflecting a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland is prevalent in southeast Brazil whereas Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate rain

  5. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marchant

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation.

    At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small; change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America show a change in biome assignment, but to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucatán peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded.

    At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation reflecting a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland is prevalent in southeast Brazil whereas Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America

  6. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Cleef, A.; Harrison, S.P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, Vera; Van Boxel, J.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J.C.; Burbridge, R.; Bjorck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Flenley, J.; De Oliveira, P.; Van Gee, B.; Graf, K.; Gosling, W.D.; Harbele, S.; Van Der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B.; Horn, S.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F.; Leyden, B.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Melief, A.M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N.T.; Prieto, A.; Van Reenen, G.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Schabitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-01-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000??500 and 18 000??1000 radiocarbon years before present ( 14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000??500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000??500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small; change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America show a change in biome assignment, but to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucat??n peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000??1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation reflecting a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland is prevalent in southeast Brazil whereas Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate rain

  7. Mapping Foliar Traits Across Biomes Using Imaging Spectroscopy: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. A.; Singh, A.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    One of the great promises of imaging spectroscopy - also known as hyperspectral remote sensing - is the ability to map the spatial variation in foliar functional traits, such as nitrogen concentration, pigments, leaf structure, photosynthetic capacity and secondary biochemistry, that drive terrestrial ecosystem processes. A remote-sensing approach enables characterization of within- and between-biome variations that may be crucial to understanding ecosystem responses to pests, pathogens and environmental change. We provide a synthesis of the foliar traits that can be mapped from imaging spectroscopy, as well as an overview of both the major applications of trait maps derived from hyperspectral imagery and current gaps in our knowledge and capacity. Specifically, we make the case that a global imaging spectroscopy mission will provide unique and urgent measurements necessary to understand the response of agricultural and natural systems to rapid global changes. Finally, we present a quantitative framework to utilize imaging spectroscopy to characterize spatial and temporal variation in foliar traits within and between biomes. From this we can infer the dynamics of vegetation function across ecosystems, especially in transition zones and environmentally sensitive systems. Eventual launch of a global imaging spectroscopy mission will enable collection of narrowband VSWIR measurements that will help close major gaps in our understanding of biogeochemical cycles and improve representation of vegetated biomes in Earth system process models.

  8. A review of bioinformatics training applied to research in molecular medicine, agriculture and biodiversity in Costa Rica and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Allan; Morera, Jessica; Jiménez, Sergio; Boza, Ricardo

    2013-09-01

    Today, Bioinformatics has become a scientific discipline with great relevance for the Molecular Biosciences and for the Omics sciences in general. Although developed countries have progressed with large strides in Bioinformatics education and research, in other regions, such as Central America, the advances have occurred in a gradual way and with little support from the Academia, either at the undergraduate or graduate level. To address this problem, the University of Costa Rica's Medical School, a regional leader in Bioinformatics in Central America, has been conducting a series of Bioinformatics workshops, seminars and courses, leading to the creation of the region's first Bioinformatics Master's Degree. The recent creation of the Central American Bioinformatics Network (BioCANET), associated to the deployment of a supporting computational infrastructure (HPC Cluster) devoted to provide computing support for Molecular Biology in the region, is providing a foundational stone for the development of Bioinformatics in the area. Central American bioinformaticians have participated in the creation of as well as co-founded the Iberoamerican Bioinformatics Society (SOIBIO). In this article, we review the most recent activities in education and research in Bioinformatics from several regional institutions. These activities have resulted in further advances for Molecular Medicine, Agriculture and Biodiversity research in Costa Rica and the rest of the Central American countries. Finally, we provide summary information on the first Central America Bioinformatics International Congress, as well as the creation of the first Bioinformatics company (Indromics Bioinformatics), spin-off the Academy in Central America and the Caribbean.

  9. A dated phylogeny and collection records reveal repeated biome shifts in the African genus Coccinia (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renner Susanne S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conservatism in climatic tolerance may limit geographic range expansion and should enhance the effects of habitat fragmentation on population subdivision. Here we study the effects of historical climate change, and the associated habitat fragmentation, on diversification in the mostly sub-Saharan cucurbit genus Coccinia, which has 27 species in a broad range of biota from semi-arid habitats to mist forests. Species limits were inferred from morphology, and nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data, using multiple individuals for the widespread species. Climatic tolerances were assessed from the occurrences of 1189 geo-referenced collections and WorldClim variables. Results Nuclear and plastid gene trees included 35 or 65 accessions, representing up to 25 species. The data revealed four species groups, one in southern Africa, one in Central and West African rain forest, one widespread but absent from Central and West African rain forest, and one that occurs from East Africa to southern Africa. A few individuals are differently placed in the plastid and nuclear (LFY trees or contain two ITS sequence types, indicating hybridization. A molecular clock suggests that the diversification of Coccinia began about 6.9 Ma ago, with most of the extant species diversity dating to the Pliocene. Ancestral biome reconstruction reveals six switches between semi-arid habitats, woodland, and forest, and members of several species pairs differ significantly in their tolerance of different precipitation regimes. Conclusions The most surprising findings of this study are the frequent biome shifts (in a relatively small clade over just 6 - 7 million years and the limited diversification during and since the Pleistocene. Pleistocene climate oscillations may have been too rapid or too shallow for full reproductive barriers to develop among fragmented populations of Coccinia, which would explain the apparently still ongoing hybridization between certain

  10. Neutron Environment Characterization of the Central Cavity in the Annular Core Research Reactor *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parma Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the neutron environment in the central cavity of the Sandia National Laboratories' Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR is important in order to provide experimenters with the most accurate spectral information and maintain a high degree of fidelity in performing reactor experiments. Characterization includes both modeling and experimental efforts. Building accurate neutronic models of the ACRR and the central cavity “bucket” environments that can be used by experimenters is important in planning and designing experiments, as well as assessing the experimental results and quantifying uncertainties. Neutron fluence characterizations of two bucket environments, LB44 and PLG, are presented. These two environments are used frequently and represent two extremes in the neutron spectrum. The LB44 bucket is designed to remove the thermal component of the neutron spectrum and significantly attenuate the gamma-ray fluence. The PLG bucket is designed to enhance the thermal component of the neutron spectrum and attenuate the gamma-ray fluence. The neutron characterization for each bucket was performed by irradiating 20 different activation foil types, some of which were cadmium covered, resulting in 37 different reactions at the peak axial flux location in each bucket. The dosimetry results were used in the LSL-M2 spectrum adjustment code with a 640-energy group MCNP-generated trial spectrum, self-shielding correction factors, the SNLRML or IRDFF dosimetry cross-section library, trial spectrum uncertainty, and trial covariance matrix, to generate a least-squares adjusted neutron spectrum, spectrum uncertainty, and covariance matrix. Both environment character-izations are well documented and the environments are available for use by experimenters.

  11. The beetle Costalimaita ferruginea (Coleoptera: Chysomelidae) in Eucalyptus plantations in transition area of Amazon and Cerrado Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, T K R; Pires, E M; Souza, A P; Tanaka, A A; Monteiro, E B; Wilcken, C F

    2018-02-01

    Costalimaita ferruginea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) attacks Eucalyptus plants causing severe damage through netting of the leaves. Recently, this Coleoptera has been reported attacking Myrtaceae in Mato Grosso State and, studies about the occurrence of this beetle in commercial plantations of eucalypts has been the subject of researchers through monitoring programmes in the forest protection area. With the beginning of the rainy season, adults were observed causing damage in eucalypt plantations in four cities that are part of the transition region of Amazon and Cerrado Biomes. The spots where these insects were observed are located in Feliz Natal, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso and Vera. The purpose of this study was to report the new occurrences and to characterize the attack period of the beetle C. ferruginea in Eucalyptus plantations in Middle-North region of Mato Grosso State, region of Biomes Transition.

  12. The validity of the schizophrenia diagnosis in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register is good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggerby, Peter; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Røge, Rasmus; Correll, Christoph U; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2013-02-01

    The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) has been used extensively for research purposes during the past decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 schizophrenia diagnosis in the DPCRR. A random sample of 300 patients with a first-time diagnosis of schizophrenia (ICD-10 codes F20.0-F20.3 and F20.9) in 2009 was drawn from the register to assess its validity. The case records were reviewed by a Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry-certified psychiatric resident using the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria as reference. The sample of 300 patients with schizophrenia represented 23.3% of all incident cases (n = 1,288) registered in 2009. We obtained 291 (97.0%) of the case records (nine were lost or inaccessible). Two case records (0.7%) were excluded because of foreign citizenship as these patients had prior episodes in other countries. Thirteen cases (4.3%) were erroneously registered as schizophrenia in the DPCRR. Of the remaining 276 patients, 269 (97.5%) fulfilled the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. In a worst case model including all 300 case records, the validity of the schizophrenia diagnosis was 89.7%. According to this assessment of patient case records, the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the DPCRR has a high validity and is well-suited for research. Aalborg Psychiatric Hospital funded the study, but the institution had no influence on the planning of the study or the preparation of the manuscript. not relevant.

  13. Antiviral and Antioxidant Activities of Sulfated Galactomannans from Plants of Caatinga Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Mendes Marques

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue represents a serious social and economic public health problem; then trying to contribute to improve its control, the objective of this research was to develop phytoterapics for dengue treatment using natural resources from Caatinga biome. Galactomannans isolated from Adenanthera pavonina L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tull were chemically sulfated in order to evaluate the antioxidant, and antiviral activities and the role in the inhibition of virus DENV-2 in Vero cells. A positive correlation between the degree of sulfation, antioxidant and antiviral activities was observed. The sulfated galactomannans showed binding to the virus surface, indicating that they interact with DENV-2. The sulfated galactomannans from C. ferrea showed 96% inhibition of replication of DENV-2 followed by D. gardneriana (94% and A. pavonina (77% at 25 µg/mL and all sulfated galactomannans also showed antioxidant activity. This work is the first report of the antioxidant and antiviral effects of sulfated galactomannans against DENV-2. The results are very promising and suggest that these sulfated galactomannans from plants of Caatinga biome act in the early step of viral infection. Thus, sulfated galactomannans may act as an entry inhibitor of DENV-2.

  14. Lumped Parameter Models of the Central Nervous System for VIIP Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, J.; Mulugeta, L.; Nelson, E. S.; Raykin, J.; Feola, A.; Gleason, R.; Samuels, B.; Myers, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit, such as to Mars and asteroids, expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome [1]. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn induces VIIP syndrome through biomechanical pathways [1, 2]. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the realted IWS abstracts submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al. METHODS: We have developed a nine compartment CNS model (Figure 1) capable of both time-dependent and steady state fluid transport simulations, based on the works of Stevens et al. [3]. The breakdown of compartments within the model includes: vascular (3), CSF (2), brain (1) and extracranial (3). The boundary pressure in the Central Arteries [A] node is prescribed using an oscillating pressure function PA(t) simulating the carotid pulsatile pressure wave as developed by Linninger et al. [4]. For each time step, pressures are integrated through time using an adaptive-timestep 4th and 5th order Runga-Kutta solver. Once pressures are found, constitutive equations are used to solve for flowrates (Q) between each compartment. In addition to fluid flow between the different compartments, compliance (C) interactions between neighboring compartments are represented. We are also developing a second CNS model based on the works of Linninger et al. [4] which takes a more granular approach to represent the interactions of the

  15. Estimation of relative groundwater age in the granite at the Tono research site, central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwatsuki, T. E-mail: iwatsuki@tono.jnc.go.jp; Xu, S.; Itoh, S.; Abe, M.; Watanabe, M

    2000-10-01

    Isotopic studies have been conducted to develop a method to estimate subsurface hydraulic conditions in the granite at the Tono research site, central Japan. The groundwaters were classified into three groups according to residence time, based on the {sup 3}H concentration: (1) modern water recharged from the surface within the last 40 years, (2) a mixture between modern water and relatively old groundwaters, and (3) relatively old groundwater which is devoid of {sup 3}H. An attempt was made to date the {sup 3}H-free groundwater using {sup 14}C. The relative groundwater age estimated by simple model, which assumes no addition of dead carbon ranges from 6500 to 14,000 years B.P. The calcite precipitations on the fracture surface are also classified into three groups, based on carbon isotope compositions: (1) precipitation from groundwater within the last 50,000 years, (2) precipitation from the solution with different {delta}{sup 13}C values from groundwater in the past more than 50,000 years, and (3) mixture of new calcite partly precipitated within the last 50,000 years and relatively old calcite. These data suggest the possibility that the conductive (open) fractures connected to the surface can be estimated by {sup 14}C determination in the calcite on fracture surfaces.

  16. Estimation of relative groundwater age in the granite at the Tono research site, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, T.; Xu, S.; Itoh, S.; Abe, M.; Watanabe, M.

    2000-10-01

    Isotopic studies have been conducted to develop a method to estimate subsurface hydraulic conditions in the granite at the Tono research site, central Japan. The groundwaters were classified into three groups according to residence time, based on the 3H concentration: (1) modern water recharged from the surface within the last 40 years, (2) a mixture between modern water and relatively old groundwaters, and (3) relatively old groundwater which is devoid of 3H. An attempt was made to date the 3H-free groundwater using 14C. The relative groundwater age estimated by simple model, which assumes no addition of dead carbon ranges from 6500 to 14,000 years B.P. The calcite precipitations on the fracture surface are also classified into three groups, based on carbon isotope compositions: (1) precipitation from groundwater within the last 50,000 years, (2) precipitation from the solution with different δ 13C values from groundwater in the past more than 50,000 years, and (3) mixture of new calcite partly precipitated within the last 50,000 years and relatively old calcite. These data suggest the possibility that the conductive (open) fractures connected to the surface can be estimated by 14C determination in the calcite on fracture surfaces.

  17. Air Pollution and Watershed Research in the Central Sierra Nevada of California: Nitrogen and Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Hunsaker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining healthy forests is the major objective for the Forest Service scientists and managers working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Air pollution, specifically ozone (O3 and nitrogenous (N air pollutants, may severely affect the health of forest ecosystems in the western U.S. Thus, the monitoring of air pollution concentration and deposition levels, as well as studies focused on understanding effects mechanisms, are essential for evaluation of risks associated with their presence. Such information is essential for development of proper management strategies for maintaining clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems on land managed by the Forest Service. We report on two years of research in the central Sierra Nevada of California, a semi-arid forest at elevations of 1100–2700 m. Information on O3 and N air pollutants is obtained from a network of 18 passive samplers. We relate the atmospheric N concentration to N concentrations in streams, shallow soil water, and bulk deposition collectors within the Kings River Experimental Watershed. This watershed also contains an intensive site that is part of a recent Forest Service effort to calculate critical loads for N, sulfur, and acidity to forest ecosystems. The passive sampler design allows for extensive spatial measurements while the watershed experiment provides intensive spatial data for future analysis of ecosystem processes.

  18. Central nervous system remyelination in culture — A tool for multiple sclerosis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jarjour, Andrew A.; Boyd, Amanda; Williams, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which only affects humans. This makes it difficult to study at a molecular level, and to develop and test potential therapies that may change the course of the disease. The development of therapies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis is a key research aim, to both aid restoration of electrical impulse conduction in nerves and provide neuroprotection, reducing disability in patients. Testing a remyelination therapy in the many and various in vivo models of multiple sclerosis is expensive in terms of time, animals and money. We report the development and characterisation of an ex vivo slice culture system using mouse brain and spinal cord, allowing investigation of myelination, demyelination and remyelination, which can be used as an initial reliable screen to select the most promising remyelination strategies. We have automated the quantification of myelin to provide a high content and moderately-high-throughput screen for testing therapies for remyelination both by endogenous and exogenous means and as an invaluable way of studying the biology of remyelination. PMID:21515259

  19. Central nervous system remyelination in culture--a tool for multiple sclerosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jarjour, Andrew A; Boyd, Amanda; Williams, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which only affects humans. This makes it difficult to study at a molecular level, and to develop and test potential therapies that may change the course of the disease. The development of therapies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis is a key research aim, to both aid restoration of electrical impulse conduction in nerves and provide neuroprotection, reducing disability in patients. Testing a remyelination therapy in the many and various in vivo models of multiple sclerosis is expensive in terms of time, animals and money. We report the development and characterisation of an ex vivo slice culture system using mouse brain and spinal cord, allowing investigation of myelination, demyelination and remyelination, which can be used as an initial reliable screen to select the most promising remyelination strategies. We have automated the quantification of myelin to provide a high content and moderately-high-throughput screen for testing therapies for remyelination both by endogenous and exogenous means and as an invaluable way of studying the biology of remyelination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in biological activity research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić, A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants consists of more than 300.000 species around the world, out of which a small percentage has been sufficiently investigated from phytochemical and biological activity aspects. Plant diversity of the Balkans is very rich, but still poorly investigated. The aim of this paper is survey of current status and trends in research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans. Many aromatic plants are investigated from morphological, physiological, ecological, systematic and phytochemical aspects. However, traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants can also be considered from applicative aspects, concerning their health effects, and from wide range of usage in cosmetics, and as food, agrochemical and pharmaceutical products. In order to achieve all planned objectives, following methodology has been applied: field research, taxonomic authentication and, comparative biologically assayed phytochemical investigations. The total herbal extracts, postdistillation waste (deodorized extracts, essential oils and individual compounds of some autochthonous plants have been considered as potential source of antibacterial, antifungal, anti-biofilm, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents. In this manuscript, composition of essential oils and extracts were evaluated in a number of species, from the Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Asteraceae families. Extracts which were rich in phenols mostly of flavonoids, often showed high antioxidant potential. Also, phenolic compounds identified in essential oils and extracts were mostly responsible for expected antimicrobial activity. Current worldwide demand is to reduce or, if possible, eliminate chemically synthesized food additives. Plant-produced compounds are becoming of interest as a source of more effective and safe substances than synthetically produced antimicrobial agents (as inhibitors, growth reducers or even inactivators that control growth of microorganisms. Many different pathogens have

  1. Vegetation structure of the biomes in southwestern Africa And their precipitation patterns

    OpenAIRE

    OKITSU, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Southwestern Africa contains diverse biomes. The amount of the annual precipitation of this area has been traditionally thought to be the most important controlling factor to the differentiation of the biomes. However, this territory experiences the summer rain type and winter rain type. Those two different precipitation patterns should result in the different mechanisms to control the distribution of the biomes. This study intends to clarify the relationships between the distribution of the ...

  2. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Chuixiang; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li, Runze

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate–carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between...... climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems...

  3. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Central Repositories: A Valuable Resource for Nephrology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolkar, Beena; Spain, Lisa M.; Guill, Michael H.; Del Vecchio, Corey T.; Carroll, Leslie E.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), are an important resource available to researchers and the general public. The Central Repositories house samples, genetic data, phenotypic data, and study documentation from >100 NIDDK-funded clinical studies, in areas such as diabetes, digestive disease, and liver disease research. The Central Repositories also have an exceptionally rich collection of studies related to kidney disease, including the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease landmark study and recent data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort and CKD in Children Cohort studies. The data are carefully curated and linked to the samples from the study. The NIDDK is working to make the materials and data accessible to researchers. The Data Repositories continue to improve flexible online searching tools that help researchers identify the samples or data of interest, and NIDDK has created several different paths to access the data and samples, including some funding initiatives. Over the past several years, the Central Repositories have seen steadily increasing interest and use of the stored materials. NIDDK plans to make more collections available and do more outreach and education about use of the datasets to the nephrology research community in the future to enhance the value of this resource. PMID:25376765

  4. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Central Repositories: a valuable resource for nephrology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Rebekah S; Akolkar, Beena; Spain, Lisa M; Guill, Michael H; Del Vecchio, Corey T; Carroll, Leslie E

    2015-04-07

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), are an important resource available to researchers and the general public. The Central Repositories house samples, genetic data, phenotypic data, and study documentation from >100 NIDDK-funded clinical studies, in areas such as diabetes, digestive disease, and liver disease research. The Central Repositories also have an exceptionally rich collection of studies related to kidney disease, including the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease landmark study and recent data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort and CKD in Children Cohort studies. The data are carefully curated and linked to the samples from the study. The NIDDK is working to make the materials and data accessible to researchers. The Data Repositories continue to improve flexible online searching tools that help researchers identify the samples or data of interest, and NIDDK has created several different paths to access the data and samples, including some funding initiatives. Over the past several years, the Central Repositories have seen steadily increasing interest and use of the stored materials. NIDDK plans to make more collections available and do more outreach and education about use of the datasets to the nephrology research community in the future to enhance the value of this resource. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Research on central heating system control strategy based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sa; Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wei; Duan, Zhipeng

    2017-03-01

    The central heating is a major way of warming in northeast China in winter, however, the traditional heating method is inefficient, intensifying the energy consumption. How to improve the heating efficiency and reduce energy waste attracts more and more attentions in our country. In this paper, the mathematical model of heat transfer station temperature control system was established based on the structure of central heating system. The feedforward-feedback control strategy was used to overcome temperature fluctuations caused by the pressurized heating exchange system. The genetic algorithm was used to optimize the parameters of PID controller and simulation results demonstrated that central heating temperature achieved well control effect and meet stabilization requirements.

  6. Long-term geomorphological evolution in the Abruzzo area, Central Italy: twenty years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miccadei Enrico

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most recent research studies into the long-term landscape evolution of the Abruzzo area, carried out over the last twenty years at the “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, are based on an integrated approach incorporating structural geology and geomorphology and, in particular, the geomorphometry of topographic and hydrographic aspects, geological and structural-geomorphological surveys and mapping supported by morpho-stratigraphic and chronological constraints. The geomorphological analyses have allowed us to outline the main stages of geomorphological evolution and to identify the factors that have contributed to the landscape shaping of the Apennine Chain, the Adriatic Piedmont and the fluvial plains and coastal sectors, up to the Tremiti islands. In the Apennine Chain, landscape evolution — in a ridge, valley and basin system — is connected to the regional uplift, local tectonic subsidence and local base level variations, which have led to changes in the drainage systems, from exoreic to endorheic (in the intermontane basins and then to exoreic again. In the Adriatic Piedmont, landscape shaping is connected to uplifting and eustatic sea-level fluctuations, which have induced the formation of a structure-controlled drainage system and the shaping of systems of entrenched alluvial fans and large consequent river valleys, with flights of river terraces. In the coastal Adriatic area — composed of a coastal plain-coastal slope system (northern and southern coast and of a cliffed rocky coast (central coast, Tremiti interrupted by river valleys — landscape shaping is the result of selective erosion due to the interaction between marine geomorphic processes and slope processes connected to Late Quaternary eustatic fluctuations.

  7. Long-term geomorphological evolution in the Abruzzo area, Central Italy: twenty years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccadei, Enrico; Piacentini, Tommaso; Buccolini, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    The most recent research studies into the long-term landscape evolution of the Abruzzo area, carried out over the last twenty years at the "G. d'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, are based on an integrated approach incorporating structural geology and geomorphology and, in particular, the geomorphometry of topographic and hydrographic aspects, geological and structural-geomorphological surveys and mapping supported by morpho-stratigraphic and chronological constraints. The geomorphological analyses have allowed us to outline the main stages of geomorphological evolution and to identify the factors that have contributed to the landscape shaping of the Apennine Chain, the Adriatic Piedmont and the fluvial plains and coastal sectors, up to the Tremiti islands. In the Apennine Chain, landscape evolution — in a ridge, valley and basin system — is connected to the regional uplift, local tectonic subsidence and local base level variations, which have led to changes in the drainage systems, from exoreic to endorheic (in the intermontane basins) and then to exoreic again. In the Adriatic Piedmont, landscape shaping is connected to uplifting and eustatic sea-level fluctuations, which have induced the formation of a structure-controlled drainage system and the shaping of systems of entrenched alluvial fans and large consequent river valleys, with flights of river terraces. In the coastal Adriatic area — composed of a coastal plain-coastal slope system (northern and southern coast) and of a cliffed rocky coast (central coast, Tremiti) interrupted by river valleys — landscape shaping is the result of selective erosion due to the interaction between marine geomorphic processes and slope processes connected to Late Quaternary eustatic fluctuations.

  8. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  9. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review we describe in detail the successes, challenges and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  10. Ticks parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012 and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013. Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1, Nothoaspis (n = 1 and Ornithodoros (n = 407. Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

  11. Ticks parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso de; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN) located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1), Nothoaspis (n = 1) and Ornithodoros (n = 407). Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

  12. The fog problem in Central Asia - Deficiencies in international community research to support water and food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froebrich, J.; Wegerich, K.

    2007-01-01

    Central Asian water planning following international policy recommendations and `blue prints¿ has caused more harm rather than benefiting local communities. International research has not been sufficient to contribute in practical terms to water and food security. This paper reflects potential

  13. Ética e investigación biomédica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Torres

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Se hacen algunas consideraciones de carácter ético acerca de la ciencia y su cultor, el científico. La investigación biomédica, que toca directamente con los intereses más valiosos del hombre –su vida y su salud– tiene alcances fácticos de tanta trascendencia que han sumido en honda preocupación a teólogos, filósofos, políticos, juristas, y hasta a los mismos hombres de ciencia. De ahí que el investigador biomédico sea objeto de un cuidadoso seguimiento por parte de la sociedad, con miras a juzgar y cuestionar la validez ética de su trabajo. Con el objeto de proteger los derechos y el bienestar de los pacientes motivo de investigación se han dictado normas internacionales, a las cuales se hace referencia.The author reflects on science and its exponent, the scientist, from an ethical point of view. Biomedical research, which relates directly to the most valuable interests of humankind – life and health –, has such factual implications that it has plunged theologians, philosophers, politicians, jurists, and even men of science into deep preoccupation. Consequently, society has monitored biomedical researchers to judge and question the ethical validity of their job. In order to protect the rights and welfare of the patients who are participating in the research, many international regulations, which are mentioned here, have been enacted.

  14. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucchese Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  15. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Ankenbrand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability: https://github.com/molbiodiv/biojs-io-biom, https://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.218277

  16. Himalayan uplift shaped biomes in Miocene temperate Asia: evidence from leguminous Caragana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Xue, Juan-Juan; Sanderson, Stewart C; Fritsch, Peter W

    2016-11-09

    Caragana, with distinctive variation in leaf and rachis characters, exhibits three centers of geographic distribution, i.e., Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), and East Asia, corresponding to distinct biomes. Because Caragana species are often ecologically dominant components of the vegetation in these regions, it is regarded as a key taxon for the study of floristic evolution in the dry regions of temperate Asia. Based on an expanded data set of taxa and gene regions from those previously generated, we employed molecular clock and biogeographical analyses to infer the evolutionary history of Caragana and link it to floristic patterns, paleovegetation, and paleoclimate. Results indicate that Caragana is of arid origin from the Junggar steppe. Diversification of crown group Caragana, dated to the early Miocene ca. 18 Ma and onwards, can be linked to the Himalayan Motion stage of QTP uplift. Diversification of the major clades in the genus corresponding to taxonomic sections and morphological variation is inferred to have been driven by the uplift, as well as Asian interior aridification and East Asian monsoon formation, in the middle to late Miocene ca. 12~6 Ma. These findings demonstrate a synchronous evolution among floristics, vegetation and climate change in arid Central Asia, cold arid alpine QTP, and mesophytic East Asia.

  17. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri Kalervo; Oksanen, Tarja Maarit; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C.; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This is the published version of the article. Published source: http://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1837. According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate...

  18. S2Biom database with logistical components of the biomass value chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Groot, de H.L.E.; Shah, N.; Giarola, S.; Pantaleo, M.; Anttila, P.; Vis, Martijn; Raa, te Rik; Berg, van den Douwe; Gabrielle, B.

    2015-01-01

    The S2Biom project (www.s2biom.eu) - Delivery of sustainable supply of non-food biomass to support
    a resource-efficient Bioeconomy in Europe - supports sustainable delivery chains of non-food biomass feedstock.
    This poses a logistical challenge because the quality and handling

  19. Pollen-based biome reconstruction for southern Europe and Africa 18,000 yr BP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elenga, H; Peyron, O; Bonnefille, R; Jolly, D; Cheddadi, R; Guiot, J; Andrieu, [No Value; Bottema, S; Buchet, G; de Beaulieu, JL; Hamilton, AC; Maley, J; Marchant, R; Perez-Obiol, R; Reille, M; Riollet, G; Scott, L; Straka, H; Taylor, D; Van Campo, E; Vincens, A; Laarif, F; Jonson, H

    Pollen data from 18,000 C-14 yr sp were compiled in order to reconstruct biome distributions at the last glacial maximum in southern Europe and Africa. Biome reconstructions were made using the objective biomization method applied to pollen counts using a complete list of dryland taxa wherever

  20. Australia's City Food Bowls: Fertile Ground for Investigating Biomes and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel; Sheridan, Jen

    2017-01-01

    Australia's major state capitals are surrounded by highly productive food bowls, which are an important source of fresh foods for their growing populations. These food producing biomes are a rich resource for investigating key themes related to Biomes and food security, one of two Year 9 units of study in the Australian Curriculum: Geography. This…

  1. Mid- to Late-Holocene pollen-based biome reconstructions for Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.; Behling, H.; Berrío, J.C.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Kuhry, P.; Melief, B.; Geel, van B.; Hammen, van der T.; Reenen, van T.; Wille, M.

    2001-01-01

    The assignment of Colombian pollen data to biomes allows the data to be synthesised at 10 `time windows' from the present-day to 6000 radiocarbon years before present (BP). The modern reconstructed biomes are compared to a map of modern potential vegetation to check the applicability of the method

  2. Climate and biome simulations for the past 21,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzbach, J.; Gallimore, R.; Harrison, S.; Behling, P.; Selin, R.; Laarif, F.

    This paper reports on a set of paleoclimate simulations for 21, 16, 14, 11 and 6 ka (thousands of years ago) carried out with the Community Climate Model, Version 1 (CCM1) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). This climate model uses four interactive components that were not available in our previous simulations with the NCAR CCM0 ( COHMAP, 1988Science, 241, 1043-1052; Wright et al., 1993Global Climate Since the Last Glocial Maximum, University of Minnesota Press, MN): soil moisture, snow hydrology, sea-ice, and mixed-layer ocean temperature. The new simulations also use new estimates of ice sheet height and size from ( Peltier 1994, Science, 265, 195-201), and synchronize the astronomically dated orbital forcing with the ice sheet and atmospheric CO 2 levels corrected from radiocarbon years to calendar years. The CCM1 simulations agree with the previous simulations in their most general characteristics. The 21 ka climate is cold and dry, in response to the presence of the ice sheets and lowered CO 2 levels. The period 14-6 ka has strengthened northern summer monsoons and warm mid-latitude continental interiors in response to orbital changes. Regional differences between the CCM1 and CCM0 simulations can be traced to the effects of either the new interactive model components or the new boundary conditions. CCM1 simulates climate processes more realistically, but has additional degrees of freedom that can allow the model to 'drift' toward less realistic solutions in some instances. The CCM1 simulations are expressed in terms of equilibrium vegetation using BIOME 1, and indicate large shifts in biomes. Northern tundra and forest biomes are displaced southward at glacial maximum and subtropical deserts contract in the mid-Holocene when monsoons strengthen. These vegetation changes could, if simulated interactively, introduce additional climate feedbacks. The total area of vegetated land remains nearly constant through time because the exposure of

  3. Flammable biomes dominated by eucalypts originated at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Michael D; Burrows, Geoffrey E; Cook, Lyn G; Thornhill, Andrew H; Bowman, David M J S

    2011-02-15

    Fire is a major modifier of communities, but the evolutionary origins of its prevalent role in shaping current biomes are uncertain. Australia is among the most fire-prone continents, with most of the landmass occupied by the fire-dependent sclerophyll and savanna biomes. In contrast to biomes with similar climates in other continents, Australia has a tree flora dominated by a single genus, Eucalyptus, and related Myrtaceae. A unique mechanism in Myrtaceae for enduring and recovering from fire damage likely resulted in this dominance. Here, we find a conserved phylogenetic relationship between post-fire resprouting (epicormic) anatomy and biome evolution, dating from 60 to 62 Ma, in the earliest Palaeogene. Thus, fire-dependent communities likely existed 50 million years earlier than previously thought. We predict that epicormic resprouting could make eucalypt forests and woodlands an excellent long-term carbon bank for reducing atmospheric CO(2) compared with biomes with similar fire regimes in other continents.

  4. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H

    2013-08-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesised litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~ 37%). [corrected]. However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Identification of biomes affected by marginal expansion of agricultural land use induced by increased crop consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper Hedal

    2009-01-01

    or potential grassland/steppe, whereas expansion on land suited for grazing but not for crop cultivation (grazable land) typically occurs on potential shrubland or a few other biomes depending on the region. Some uncertainty applies to the results but it is concluded that it is feasible to identify biomes...... to characterise these areas. The present study ascribes so-called biomes (natural potential vegetation) to the areas affected by agricultural expansion in order to provide a basis for assessing the environmental impacts from land use in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The methodology builds...... on agricultural statistics and maps of global agricultural areas and the global distribution of biomes. The application of the method is illustrated with four examples. The results indicate that agricultural expansion on land suited for crop cultivation (cultivable land) typically affects forest biomes...

  6. BioM2MetDisease: a manually curated database for associations between microRNAs, metabolites, small molecules and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Haixiu; Wu, Tan; Dong, Qun; Sun, Zeguo; Shang, Desi; Li, Feng; Xu, Yingqi; Su, Fei; Liu, Siyao; Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, Xia

    2017-01-01

    BioM2MetDisease is a manually curated database that aims to provide a comprehensive and experimentally supported resource of associations between metabolic diseases and various biomolecules. Recently, metabolic diseases such as diabetes have become one of the leading threats to people’s health. Metabolic disease associated with alterations of multiple types of biomolecules such as miRNAs and metabolites. An integrated and high-quality data source that collection of metabolic disease associated biomolecules is essential for exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms and discovering novel therapeutics. Here, we developed the BioM2MetDisease database, which currently documents 2681 entries of relationships between 1147 biomolecules (miRNAs, metabolites and small molecules/drugs) and 78 metabolic diseases across 14 species. Each entry includes biomolecule category, species, biomolecule name, disease name, dysregulation pattern, experimental technique, a brief description of metabolic disease-biomolecule relationships, the reference, additional annotation information etc. BioM2MetDisease provides a user-friendly interface to explore and retrieve all data conveniently. A submission page was also offered for researchers to submit new associations between biomolecules and metabolic diseases. BioM2MetDisease provides a comprehensive resource for studying biology molecules act in metabolic diseases, and it is helpful for understanding the molecular mechanisms and developing novel therapeutics for metabolic diseases. http://www.bio-bigdata.com/BioM2MetDisease/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Gouveia, Célia; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Beguería, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; López-Moreno, Juan I; Azorín-Molina, César; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jesús; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2013-01-02

    We evaluated the response of the Earth land biomes to drought by correlating a drought index with three global indicators of vegetation activity and growth: vegetation indices from satellite imagery, tree-ring growth series, and Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP) records. Arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and we suggest that the persistence of the water deficit (i.e., the drought time-scale) could be playing a key role in determining the sensitivity of land biomes to drought. We found that arid biomes respond to drought at short time-scales; that is, there is a rapid vegetation reaction as soon as water deficits below normal conditions occur. This may be due to the fact that plant species of arid regions have mechanisms allowing them to rapidly adapt to changing water availability. Humid biomes also respond to drought at short time-scales, but in this case the physiological mechanisms likely differ from those operating in arid biomes, as plants usually have a poor adaptability to water shortage. On the contrary, semiarid and subhumid biomes respond to drought at long time-scales, probably because plants are able to withstand water deficits, but they lack the rapid response of arid biomes to drought. These results are consistent among three vegetation parameters analyzed and across different land biomes, showing that the response of vegetation to drought depends on characteristic drought time-scales for each biome. Understanding the dominant time-scales at which drought most influences vegetation might help assessing the resistance and resilience of vegetation and improving our knowledge of vegetation vulnerability to climate change.

  8. EV-TRACK: transparent reporting and centralizing knowledge in extracellular vesicle research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, Jan; Mestdagh, Pieter; Agostinis, Patrizia; Akay, Özden; Anand, Sushma; Anckaert, Jasper; Martinez, Zoraida Andreu; Baetens, Tine; Beghein, Els; Bertier, Laurence; Berx, Geert; Boere, Janneke; Boukouris, Stephanie; Bremer, Michel; Buschmann, Dominik; Byrd, James B; Casert, Clara; Cheng, Lesley; Cmoch, Anna; Daveloose, Delphine; De Smedt, Eva; Demirsoy, Seyma; Depoorter, Victoria; Dhondt, Bert; Driedonks, Tom A P; Dudek, Aleksandra; Elsharawy, Abdou; Floris, Ilaria; Foers, Andrew D; Gärtner, Kathrin; Garg, Abhishek D; Geeurickx, Edward; Gettemans, Jan; Ghazavi, Farzaneh; Giebel, Bernd; Kormelink, Tom Groot; Hancock, Grace; Helsmoortel, Hetty; Hill, Andrew F; Hyenne, Vincent; Kalra, Hina; Kim, David; Kowal, Joanna; Kraemer, Sandra; Leidinger, Petra; Leonelli, Carina; Liang, Yaxuan; Lippens, Lien; Liu, Shu; Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Martin, Shaun; Mathivanan, Suresh; Mathiyalagan, Prabhu; Matusek, Támas; Milani, Gloria; Monguió-Tortajada, Marta; Mus, Liselot M; Muth, Dillon C; Németh, Andrea; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Palmulli, Roberta; Pfaffl, Michael W; Primdal-Bengtson, Bjarke; Romano, Erminia; Rousseau, Quentin; Sahoo, Susmita; Sampaio, Natalia; Samuel, Monisha; Scicluna, Benjamin; Soen, Bieke; Steels, Anneleen; Swinnen, Johannes V; Takatalo, Maarit; Thaminy, Safia; Théry, Clotilde; Tulkens, Joeri; Van Audenhove, Isabel; van der Grein, Susanne; Van Goethem, Alan; van Herwijnen, Martijn J; Van Niel, Guillaume; Van Roy, Nadine; Van Vliet, Alexander R; Vandamme, Niels; Vanhauwaert, Suzanne; Vergauwen, Glenn; Verweij, Frederik; Wallaert, Annelynn; Wauben, Marca; Witwer, Kenneth W; Zonneveld, Marijke I; De Wever, Olivier; Vandesompele, Jo; Hendrix, An

    2017-02-28

    We argue that the field of extracellular vesicle (EV) biology needs more transparent reporting to facilitate interpretation and replication of experiments. To achieve this, we describe EV-TRACK, a crowdsourcing knowledgebase (http://evtrack.org) that centralizes EV biology and methodology with the goal of stimulating authors, reviewers, editors and funders to put experimental guidelines into practice.

  9. EV-TRACK : transparent reporting and centralizing knowledge in extracellular vesicle research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deun, Jan; Mestdagh, Pieter; Agostinis, Patrizia; Akay, Özden; Anand, Sushma; Anckaert, Jasper; Martinez, Zoraida Andreu; Baetens, Tine; Beghein, Els; Bertier, Laurence; Berx, Geert; Boere, Janneke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371593050; Boukouris, Stephanie; Bremer, Michel; Buschmann, Dominik; Byrd, James B; Casert, Clara; Cheng, Lesley; Cmoch, Anna; Daveloose, Delphine; De Smedt, Eva; Demirsoy, Seyma; Depoorter, Victoria; Dhondt, Bert; Driedonks, Tom A P; Dudek, Aleksandra; Elsharawy, Abdou; Floris, Ilaria; Foers, Andrew D; Gärtner, Kathrin; Garg, Abhishek D; Geeurickx, Edward; Gettemans, Jan; Ghazavi, Farzaneh; Giebel, Bernd; Kormelink, Tom Groot|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31413137X; Hancock, Grace; Helsmoortel, Hetty; Hill, Andrew F; Hyenne, Vincent; Kalra, Hina; Kim, David; Kowal, Joanna; Kraemer, Sandra; Leidinger, Petra; Leonelli, Carina; Liang, Yaxuan; Lippens, Lien; Liu, Shu; Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Martin, Shaun; Mathivanan, Suresh; Mathiyalagan, Prabhu; Matusek, Támas; Milani, Gloria; Monguió-Tortajada, Marta; Mus, Liselot M; Muth, Dillon C; Németh, Andrea; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Palmulli, Roberta; Pfaffl, Michael W; Primdal-Bengtson, Bjarke; Romano, Erminia; Rousseau, Quentin; Sahoo, Susmita; Sampaio, Natalia; Samuel, Monisha; Scicluna, Benjamin; Soen, Bieke; Steels, Anneleen; Swinnen, Johannes V; Takatalo, Maarit; Thaminy, Safia; Théry, Clotilde; Tulkens, Joeri; Van Audenhove, Isabel; van der Grein, Susanne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412755211; Van Goethem, Alan; van Herwijnen, Martijn J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313936021; Van Niel, Guillaume; Van Roy, Nadine; Van Vliet, Alexander R; Vandamme, Niels; Vanhauwaert, Suzanne; Vergauwen, Glenn; Verweij, Frederik; Wallaert, Annelynn; Wauben, Marca|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112675735; Witwer, Kenneth W; Zonneveld, Marijke I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338042202; De Wever, Olivier; Vandesompele, Jo; Hendrix, An

    2017-01-01

    We argue that the field of extracellular vesicle (EV) biology needs more transparent reporting to facilitate interpretation and replication of experiments. To achieve this, we describe EV-TRACK, a crowdsourcing knowledgebase (http://evtrack.org) that centralizes EV biology and methodology with the

  10. Softball Games Bring NCI and Leidos Biomed Employees Together | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI and Leidos Biomed employees took to the fields at Nallin Pond for the third annual slow-pitch softball games on August 26. The series attracted 54 employees who were divided into four teams, Red, Blue, Gray, and White, and they were cheered on by about 40 enthusiastic spectators. In the first set of games, the Gray team defeated the Blue team, 15–8, and the White team pulled out a win against the Red team, 17–15. After a brief rest, the two winning teams and the two losing teams faced each other in a second set of games. On Field 1, the “winners” match-up of the Gray and White teams was a nail biter, with a close score throughout the game. Daylight was a factor, however, and the team captains decided to call the game for safety reasons. With a lead of 15 to 13, the Gray team was declared the overall winner.

  11. Varying influence of environmental gradients on vegetation patterns across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.; Mascaro, J.; Taylor, P.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental gradients, like elevation, slope, aspect, and soil properties, filter vegetation types at the local scale. These `environmental filters' create conditions that are conducive to the success or failure of different plant types, influencing landscape-scale heterogeneity in taxonomic diversity, functional diversity, biomass accumulation, greenness, and more. Niche-based models implicitly assume that environmental filtering is the dominant process controlling plant distributions. While environmental filtering is a well understood process, its importance relative to other drivers of heterogeneity, like disturbance, human impacts, and plant-animal interactions, remains unknown and likely varies between biomes. Here we synthesize results from several studies using data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory - a fused LiDAR and imaging spectroscopy system - that mapped a vegetation patterns in multiple biomes and associated these with environmental gradients. The study sites range from Panama to California, and the patterns range from aboveground carbon to foliar chemistry. We show that at fine spatial scales environmental filtering is a strong predictor of aboveground biomass in a dry system (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, California - Dahlin et al 2012) but a weak predictor of plant functional traits in that same system (Dahlin et al 2014), a weak predictor of aboveground carbon in the tropics (Barro Colorado Island, Panama - Mascaro et al 2011; Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica - Taylor et al 2015), and a weak predictor of greenness (NDVI) in a disturbed dry system (Santa Cruz Island, California - Dahlin et al 2014). Collectively, these results suggest that while environmental filtering is an important driver of landscape-scale heterogeneity, it is not the only, or often even the most important, driver for many of these systems and patterns.

  12. Trans-biome diversity in Australian grass-specialist lizards (Diplodactylidae: Strophurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Rebecca J; Nielsen, Stuart V; Rosauer, Dan F; Oliver, Paul M

    2017-10-01

    Comparisons of biodiversity patterns within lineages that occur across major climate gradients and biomes, can provide insights into the relative roles that lineage history, landscape and climatic variation, and environmental change have played in shaping regional biotas. In Australia, while there has been extensive research into the origins and patterns of diversity in the Australian Arid Zone (AAZ), how diversity is distributed across this biome and the Australian Monsoonal Tropics (AMT) to the north, has been less studied. We compared the timing and patterns of diversification across this broad aridity gradient in a clade of lizards (Strophurus: phasmid geckos) that only occur in association with a unique Australian radiation of sclerophyllous grasses (Triodia: spinifex). Our results indicate that overall genetic diversity is much higher, older and more finely geographically structured within the AMT, including distantly related clades endemic to the sandstone escarpments of the Kimberley and Arnhem Plateau. Niche modelling analyses also suggest that the distribution of taxa in the AMT is more strongly correlated with variation in topographic relief than in the AAZ. The two broad patterns that we recovered - (i) lineage endemism increases as latitude decreases, and (ii) endemism is tightly correlated to rocky regions - parallel and corroborate other recent studies of habitat generalists and specialised saxicoline lineages occurring across these same regions. Early Miocene diversification estimates also suggest that, soon after Triodia grasses colonised Australia and began to diversify in the Miocene, phasmid geckos with Gondwanan ancestry shifted into these grasses, and have subsequently remained closely associated with this unique vegetation type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. U.S. Tundra Biome-International Biological Program. U.S. Tundra Biome Publication List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    forage. Journal of Mammalogy, 60(4): 740-750. /Bib 35-989/ Batzli, G.O., R.G. White and F.L. Bunnell (1981) Herbivory : A strategy of tundra consum...Treat (1977) Root growth, respira- tion, and carbon dioxide evolution in an arctic tundra soil. Arctic andAlpine Research, 9(2): 129-137. (4020 and...MacLean, Jr. (1974) Ecology and evolution of social organization in arctic sandpipers. American Zoologist, 14: 185-204. (2504) /Bib 32-2828/ " Prentki, R.T

  14. A Comparison of the Aged to the Bayesian Ideal Observer Model for Cueing Tasks with Peripheral and Central Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor F Swan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies investigating automatic (peripheral cues and voluntary (central cues attention decline with age have produced inconsistent findings. The present study investigated automatic and voluntary attention in the aged by comparing performance in 15 younger (18–25 years and 15 older (65–78 years observers to the Bayesian Ideal Observer Model (BIOM. The BIOM predicts cueing effects by the optimal differential weighting of likelihoods of targets appearing at each location (cue validity. It also allows the measure of bias in the responses and accounts for the detectability of targets, a factor that influences the predicted size of the cueing effect in the BIOM (Shimozaki et al 2003, Journal of Vision 3 209–229 and thus may explain some of the inconsistencies in previous research. Observers performed a yes/no cueing task of 2D Gaussian targets (60 ms, eccentricity 8 deg appearing at one of two locations. Pre-cues (150 ms were 70% valid and appeared either in peripheral (2 deg squares, Experiment 1 or central (shapes symbolizing left or right, Experiment 2 locations. Detectability was controlled across observers with a staircase, and difficulty was manipulated (contrast = threshold or one-octave below threshold. Both age groups showed cueing effects whether the cue appeared in peripheral or central locations, suggesting that automatic and voluntary attention are preserved in older adults. Both groups weighted the valid cue optimally at both levels of detectability (threshold and 1-octave below. However, for centrally located cues (voluntary attention, older adults were less accurate and exhibited more bias than their younger counterparts.

  15. Model prediction of biome-specific global soil respiration from 1960 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengyong; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Qi; Meng, Fan-Rui; Song, Xinzhang; Chen, Shutao; Epule, Terence Epule; Li, Peng; Zhu, Qiuan

    2017-07-01

    Biome-specific soil respiration (Rs) has important yet different roles in both the carbon cycle and climate change from regional to global scales. To date, no comparable studies related to global biome-specific Rs have been conducted applying comprehensive global Rs databases. The goal of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models capable of spatially estimating global Rs and to evaluate the effects of interannual climate variations on 10 major biomes. We used 1976 annual Rs field records extracted from global Rs literature to train and test the ANN models. We determined that the best ANN model for predicting biome-specific global annual Rs was the one that applied mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and biome type as inputs (r2 = 0.60). The ANN models reported an average global Rs of 93.3 ± 6.1 Pg C yr-1 from 1960 to 2012 and an increasing trend in average global annual Rs of 0.04 Pg C yr-1. Estimated annual Rs increased with increases in MAT and MAP in cropland, boreal forest, grassland, shrubland, and wetland biomes. Additionally, estimated annual Rs decreased with increases in MAT and increased with increases in MAP in desert and tundra biomes, and only significantly decreased with increases in MAT (r2 = 0.87) in the savannah biome. The developed biome-specific global Rs database for global land and soil carbon models will aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying variations in soil carbon dynamics and in quantifying uncertainty in the global soil carbon cycle.

  16. Climate adaptation - 5 key research themes; Denmark; Klimatilpasning - 5 centrale forskningstemaer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Bent; Binnerup, S.; Bijl, L. van der; Villholth, K.G.; Drews, M.; Strand, I.F.; Henrichs, T.; Larsen, Niels; Timmermann, T.; Moseholm, L.

    2009-06-15

    The report proposes five key research themes under the heading 'Future climate and climate adaptation' which can support the Danish climate adaptation efforts. These themes underpin climate adaptation in the light of research needs identified by the research environments and sectors under the government's strategy on adaptation to climate change in Denmark from March 2008. The paper has been prepared within the framework of RESEARCH2015-proposal by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation in order to bring about the knowledge and tools that are demanded by sectors and authorities to implement the government's climate adaptation strategy. This concept paper for research themes is a thorough, holistic and inter-sectoral suggestion for future research priorities in climate adaptation with anchoring in both the research community as well as in the political-administrative system. The five key themes are; 1. Models and climate adaptation; 2. Communities and climate adaptation; 3. Construction and climate adaptation; 4. Landscape and climate adaptation; 5. Climate adaptation in the coastal zone. The overall research needs over a 5 year period is estimated at 700 million DKK, of which 85 million DKK yearly can be estimated to be financed primarily through national basic funds and research council funds. Research is assumed to be coupled to external financing, for which the EU's 7th Framework Program and the Nordic excellence and innovation program in the energy, climate and environment will be significant sources.

  17. Research progress of HIV-associated central nervous system infections and neurosyphilis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying PENG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and syphilis are widely epidemic all over the world, which has seriously jeopardized public health security. In China, studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated central nervous system (CNS damage and neurosyphilis are increasing. This paper reviews related literatures on HIV-associated CNS infection and neurosyphilis, and summarizes the epidemiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment strategies, so as to provide new clues for further exploration into clinical diagnosis and treatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.07.003

  18. Procesamiento de señales biomédicas mediante instrumento virtual desarrollado con matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Márquez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una alternativa para el estudio y desarrollo de prototipos biomédicos y de instrumentación, mediante el uso de la plataforma de Matlab para el procesamiento de señales biomédicas reales. Las señales biomédicas son continuas en el tiempo y son de pequeña amplitud, del orden de los mV, que presentan ruido corporal, ruido del equipo, ruido del ambiente, sin dejar de contar con el ruido acoplado de la red de 60 Hz. En ese sentido, la adquisición de datos se puede hacer medi...

  19. 1989 annual report of the Rossendorf Central Institute of Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, W.; Kaun, K.H.; Moeller, K.; Naehring, F.; Schulz, H.; Winter, G.; Heidel, I.; Breiter, S.

    1990-01-01

    The research and development results are classified by research lines. Each section starts with an introduction summing up the developments of the particular field of work, followed by progress reports on specific projects, contributions on partial results not published so far, and summaries of 1989 publications. Research priorities are, among others, the fields of nuclear spectroscopy; ion-beam solid state physics; positron emission tomography; nuclear trace technology; neutron doping, and accelerator development. (DG) [de

  20. Management of urbanizing watersheds: Central tendencies, outliers, and the art of the possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Urban watersheds pose numerous challenges for environmental management, and many of these challenges involve well-known examples of degraded water quality and altered hydrologic flow paths. These impacts, such as the widely studied "urban stream syndrome" that has been linked to impervious surfaces, describe the central tendencies of urbanized systems to undergo some sort of degradation as a function of the intensity of the human footprint on the landscape. More people, or more pavement, or more nitrogen inputs are all known to lead to progressive water quality degradation. These central tendencies can result in useful management prescriptions, such as reducing impervious surfaces to reduce impacts on stream hydrology, but they may also result in large investments with a relatively weak scientific underpinning or management prescriptions ("less people") that are not particularly practical. I suggest that as a research community, we should explicitly embrace a research agenda that aggressively continues to describe these central tendencies, but places more emphasis on understanding outliers from the central tendency, and quantifying the impacts of management solutions through experimental observations. Fruitful areas for research include understanding how the impacts of urbanization vary by biome; do the central tendencies of urbanized watersheds vary independent of biome and climate? Better understanding of outlier watersheds can be highly informative for management, as these watersheds are ones in which urban impacts are much more or much less than expected, and thus can provide strong evidence for practical management suggestions. Finally, what is actually possible to achieve through improved physical infrastructure and management practices should be determined experimentally through the development of a network of experimental urban and suburban watersheds.

  1. Nuclear instrument and measurement researches at the Measurement Automation Department of KFKI (Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest (Hungary))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellionisz, P.; Peter, A.; Varhalmi, L.; Zsido, J.

    1982-01-01

    Two main fields of electronic instrument and measurement research: development of nuclear instrument modules and material testing are discussed. From the modules developed applying also an Intelligent Crate Controller microcomputer, reactor instrumentation and control devices, systems for radiation protection etc. can be assembled. In acoustic emission technique, a new field for the on-line surveillance and monitoring of nuclear power plants a new movable defect-localization laboratory with a 32-channel acoustic detector system has been developed. (Sz.J.)

  2. Public values: core or confusion? Introduction to the centrality and puzzlement of public values research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck Jørgensen, T.; Rutgers, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public administration

  3. The Migration of Researchers from Central Europe during the Transition Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernard, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2008), s. 191-214 ISSN 0049-1225 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2E06015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : brain drain * researcher migration * highly qualified migrants Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.175, year: 2008

  4. La filatelia biomédica Biomedicine philately

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J.A. Roldán

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La temática biomédica es un capítulo extendido de la filatelia o coleccionismo de sellos postales. Inaugura la temática la imagen de la diosa Hygeia, en un sello de la isla Nevis de 1861. Los primeros médicos retratados en una estampilla son tres constitucionalistas americanos, en un ejemplar de 1869, pero recién en 1937 aparecen médicos holandeses en reconocimiento específico de sus aportes a la salud. En la Argentina la primera estampilla que oficialmente se ocupa del tema es de 1944, en ayuda de las víctimas del terremoto de San Juan. Florentino Ameghino es el primer científico incluido en 1954, y en 1967 se edita un sello conmemorativo de la Dra. Cecilia Grierson. La filatelia argentina luego reconoce varios de nuestros científicos y médicos, congresos, universidades, campañas sanitarias, temas de odontología, farmacia, enfermería y otros, generando un amplio material filatélico en reconocimiento del valor social que la ciencia biomédica argentina ha logrado en el contexto propio e internacional. Posiblemente sea un científico, el Dr. Bernardo Houssay, uno de los argentinos más veces editado en distintos sellos postales de la filatelia mundial.Biomedicine is a vast field in philately or stamp collecting. It opens the topic the image of the goddess Hygeia, issued in a stamp from Nevis Island dated 1861. The first physicians to appear printed in stamps, in 1869, were three American constitutionalists, but only in 1937 there appear Dutch physicians as an acknowledgement of their contribution to public health. In Argentina the first stamp officially related to the topic was issued in 1944, to raise funds for the victims of the San Juan earthquake. Florentino Ameghino was the first scientist included in 1954, and in 1967 a stamp was issued in honour of Dr. Cecilia Grierson. Afterwards, Argentinean philately has recognized several of our scientists and physicians, congresses, universities, health campaigns, dentistry topics

  5. A research on bread consumption of families living in the central district of Tokat province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep EKMEKCİ BAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bread consumption statuses of families living in the central district of Tokat province were identified. Data were obtained from 272 consumers in November 2012. According to the findings, the amount of per capita bread consumption is 291.95 g which is lower than the national average consumption. The most frequently consumed bread type of families was loaf bread with 70.59%. Consumers were mainly purchased bread from supermarkets (80.51% and oven (25.37%. More than half of consumers think that the quality of bread sold in the market is insufficient. Several families cannot consume a significant portion of bread purchased during the day; they re-used some of the staled bread and wasted the rest of staled bread. Measures should be taken to prevent the waste of bread. The quality of the bread produced should be increased and a necessary care for hygiene should be taken during production and sales stages.

  6. Global trends in biome-level plant water-use efficiency in the past 25 years from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang Soh, Wuu; Yiotis, Charilaos; Murray, Michelle; Batke, Sven; McElwain, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will likely alter future ecosystems functioning however the magnitude and direction of such changes are unpredictable and difficult to quantify. One notable aspect of ecosystem functioning is the carbon and hydrologic cycles which are closely tied by gas exchange via plant stomata. Uncertainties in the magnitude and direction of the physiological responses of plants to elevated CO2 at biome level hamper modelling of terrestrial water cycling and carbon storage. One of the important physiological traits is water-use efficiency which is the ratio of water loss to carbon gain. This is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Many existing studies have focused on long-term centennial effects of elevated CO2 on plant water-use efficiency of a relatively few species within narrow ecosystem range but short-term effect on much broader ecosystem coverage is unknown. Here we assessed the impact of a short-term (25 years: between 1988/89 and 2013/15) increase in CO2 (c. 40 ppm) on plant intrinsic water-use efficiency inferred from leaf stable carbon isotope (δ13C), encompassing a broader coverage to include seven world biome and 229 woody angiosperm species. To substantiate the result from the leaf stable carbon isotope data, we also conducted gas-exchange analyses experiments. We show that the magnitude of plant intrinsic water-use efficiency change varied among biomes and plant functional types. Our finding is important because it shows that short-term increase in atmospheric CO2 can potentially alter hydrologic cycle and its magnitude may differ among biome-plant functional type compositions.

  7. RESEARCH IN AID OF TEACHER TRAINING AS A CENTRAL COMPONENT IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sarmento

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bologna process introduced changes in teacher’s training process in Portugal, forcing a reorganization of its syllabi. The training must occur in two study cycles: undergraduate and master. Master graduation integrates the research component, understood as 'research service practices'. In this paper, after a documentary contextualization, we analyzed narratives of eight teachers, about their representations of the influence of research in decision-making in the pedagogical routine as well as the relevance of this training component to the increase of awareness in the process of professional learning. The initial findings of this study point out the progressive awareness of Masters students of how research helps to support professional learning and to promote their commitment to a continuous search path in a permanent professionalization process.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2 mars 2015 ... Sportive, Université du Sud, France. &Corresponding author: Jean-Marie Falola, Laboratoire de Biomécanique et Performance (Labiop), Institut National de la Jeunesse, de l'Education. Physique et du Sport (INJEPS), Porto-Novo, Benin. Key words: Posture, chevilles, genoux, chaussures à talons.

  9. Bite-size research: BMC Research Notes goes back to its roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Dirk; Marshall, Diana M

    2017-02-14

    Since it first launched in 2008, BMC Research Notes has been a place where researchers can publish short notes and observations, research outputs which are useful for the community but which can end up hidden in the lab notebook or as a footnote in a dataset. In order to re-affirm the importance of publishing these kinds of outputs, the journal is renewing its focus on publishing note articles as well as other potentially dark data such as short null results. Publishing these articles is useful for many researchers, therefore we are also expanding the scope to all scientific and clinical disciplines including health sciences, life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics and all engineering disciplines. With this refocusing of BMC Research Notes back to its original vision, BioMed Central is offering a home for short communications to make dark data and single observations widely available to the global research community.

  10. Evolution of Philodendron (Araceae species in Neotropical biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Loss-Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade. A thorough evaluation of the phylogeny and timescale of these lineages is thus necessary to elucidate the tempo and mode of evolution of this large Neotropical genus and to unveil the biogeographic history of Philodendron evolution along the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests as well as open dry forests of South America. To this end, we have estimated the molecular phylogeny for 68 Philodendron species, which consists of the largest sampling assembled to date aiming the study of the evolutionary affinities. We have also performed ancestral reconstruction of species distribution along biomes. Finally, we contrasted these results with the inferred timescale of Philodendron and Homalomena lineage diversification. Our estimates indicate that American Homalomena is the sister clade to Philodendron. The early diversification of Philodendron took place in the Amazon forest from Early to Middle Miocene, followed by colonization of the Atlantic forest and the savanna-like landscapes, respectively. Based on the age of the last common ancestor of Philodendron, the species of this genus diversified by rapid radiations, leading to its wide extant distribution in the Neotropical region.

  11. Evolution of Philodendron (Araceae) species in Neotropical biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Sakuragui, Cassia; Soares, Maria de Lourdes; Schrago, Carlos G

    2016-01-01

    Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade. A thorough evaluation of the phylogeny and timescale of these lineages is thus necessary to elucidate the tempo and mode of evolution of this large Neotropical genus and to unveil the biogeographic history of Philodendron evolution along the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests as well as open dry forests of South America. To this end, we have estimated the molecular phylogeny for 68 Philodendron species, which consists of the largest sampling assembled to date aiming the study of the evolutionary affinities. We have also performed ancestral reconstruction of species distribution along biomes. Finally, we contrasted these results with the inferred timescale of Philodendron and Homalomena lineage diversification. Our estimates indicate that American Homalomena is the sister clade to Philodendron. The early diversification of Philodendron took place in the Amazon forest from Early to Middle Miocene, followed by colonization of the Atlantic forest and the savanna-like landscapes, respectively. Based on the age of the last common ancestor of Philodendron, the species of this genus diversified by rapid radiations, leading to its wide extant distribution in the Neotropical region.

  12. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Chuixiang; Wolbeck, John; Xu Xiyan; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li Runze; Nilsson, Mats; Aires, Luis; Albertson, John D; Ammann, Christof; Arain, M Altaf; De Araujo, Alessandro C; Aubinet, Marc; Aurela, Mika; Barcza, Zoltan; Barr, Alan; Berbigier, Paul; Beringer, Jason; Bernhofer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 deg. N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ∼ 16 deg. C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO 2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  13. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Chuixiang; Wolbeck, John; Xu Xiyan [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College, City University of New York, NY 11367 (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Li Runze [Department of Statistics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nilsson, Mats [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Aires, Luis [CESAM and Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (Portugal); Albertson, John D [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 22708-0287 (United States); Ammann, Christof [Federal Research Station Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Arain, M Altaf [School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); De Araujo, Alessandro C [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Programa LBA, Campus-II, Manaus-Amazonas 69060 (Brazil); Aubinet, Marc [University of Liege, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Unit of Biosystem Physics, 2 Passage des Deportes, 5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Aurela, Mika [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate Change Research, FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Barcza, Zoltan [Department of Meteorology, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany setany 1/A (Hungary); Barr, Alan [Climate Research Division, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Berbigier, Paul [INRA, UR1263 EPHYSE, Villenave d' Ornon F-33883 (France); Beringer, Jason [School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bernhofer, Christian [Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Dresden University of Technology, Pienner Strasse 23, D-01737, Tharandt (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO{sub 2} exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 deg. N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at {approx} 16 deg. C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO{sub 2} uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  14. Biome-BGC: Modeling Effects of Disturbance and Climate (Thornton et al. 2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running Biome-BGC, Version 4.1.1, to recreate the results of the...

  15. Biome-BGC: Terrestrial Ecosystem Process Model, Version 4.1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biome-BGC is a computer program that estimates fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen for the vegetation and soil components of terrestrial...

  16. LiDAR-based Biomass Estimates, Boreal Forest Biome, Eurasia, 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB) for defined land cover types within World Wildlife Fund (WWF) ecoregions across the boreal biome of...

  17. Biome-BGC: Terrestrial Ecosystem Process Model, Version 4.1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biome-BGC is a computer program that estimates fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen for the vegetation and soil components of...

  18. Biome-BGC: Modeling Carbon Dynamics in Ponderosa Pine Stands (Law et al. 2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running Biome-BGC, Version 4.1.2, to recreate the results of the following...

  19. Literature-Derived Parameters for the BIOME-BGC Terrestrial Ecosystem Mode

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Various aspects of primary production of a variety of plant species found in natural temperate biomes were compiled from literature and presented for use...

  20. NACP LiDAR-based Biomass Estimates, Boreal Forest Biome, North America, 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB) for defined land cover types within World Wildlife Fund (WWF) ecoregions across the boreal biome of...

  1. Biome-BGC: Modeling Effects of Disturbance and Climate (Thornton et al. 2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running Biome-BGC, Version 4.1.1, to recreate the results of the following...

  2. Biome-BGC: Modeling Carbon Dynamics in Ponderosa Pine Stands (Law et al. 2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running Biome-BGC, Version 4.1.2, to recreate the results of the...

  3. NPP Multi-Biome: Summary Data from Intensive Studies at 125 Sites, 1936-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, NPP Multi-Biome: Summary Data from Intensive Studies at 125 Sites, 1936-2006, contains a single shapefile that provides site-level summary statistics...

  4. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots, IBP Tundra Biome, Barrow, Alaska, 1972-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides vegetation cover and environmental plot data collected as part of the International Biological Program (IBP), U. S. Tundra Biome Program, in...

  5. Remotely sensed vegetation phenology for describing and predicting the biomes of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available What are the patterns of remotely sensed vegetation phenology, including their inter-annual variability, across South Africa? What are the phenological attributes that contribute most to distinguishing the different biomes? How well can...

  6. NACP Biome-BGC Modeled Ecosystem Carbon Balance, Pacific Northwest, USA, 1986-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Biome-BGC modeled estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for the years 1986-2010. Fluxes include net ecosystem...

  7. Simulating economics and environmental impacts of beef and soybean systems in Brazil's Pamas and Amozon Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reductions in the deforestation of the Amazon biome have highlighted the need for the sustainable intensification of beef and commodity crop production in Brazil to increase agricultural productivity without accelerating adverse environmental impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, eutro...

  8. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.

  9. Temporal profiles of vegetation indices for characterizing grazing intensity on natural grasslands in Pampa biome

    OpenAIRE

    Junges,Amanda Heemann; Bremm,Carolina; Fontana,Denise Cybis; Oliveira,Carlos Alberto Oliveira de; Schaparini,Laura Pigatto; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Pampa biome is an important ecosystem in Brazil that is highly relevant to livestock production. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential use of vegetation indices to discriminate grazing intensities on natural grasslands in the Pampa biome. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) images from Jan to Dec, 2000 to 2013 series, were analyzed for natural grassland experimen...

  10. Advances in the utilisation of renewable energy resources and research in the Central and Western Regions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubu, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text. An overview of the renewable energy development and research in the Central and Western regions of Ghana is presented. A focus is made on the growing awareness of a necessary change in the Ghanaian energy scene by the introduction of solar photovoltaic systems into the telecommunication industry, rural health centres and hospitals. A survey of installed solar photovoltaic systems and their impact on the society as a whole is undertaken. Also, attention is drawn to educational and training programmes in renewable energy at the University of Cape Coast, other institutions and NGOs. Finally, the prospects of solar thermal, wind and mini-hydro in the two regions are also discussed. (author)

  11. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.; Waymire, Russell L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  12. Validation study of the early onset schizophrenia diagnosis in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernal, Ditte Lammers; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Staal, Nina

    2018-01-01

    on classification. Compared to diagnoses made in outpatient settings, EOS diagnoses during hospitalizations were more likely to be valid and had fewer registration errors. Diagnosed in inpatient settings, EOS diagnoses are reliable and valid for register-based research. Schizophrenia diagnosed in children...... and adolescents in outpatient settings were found to have a high number of false-positives, both due to registration errors and diagnostic practice. Utilizing this knowledge, it is possible to reduce the number of false-positives in register-based research of EOS....

  13. Context in caves, caves in context : Experimental geophysical research in four caves in Central Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Neef, Wieke

    2017-01-01

    Archaeological cave research is a highly specialized discipline with a strong focus on local detail, in which geophysical methods are only marginally applied for prospection. This article presents an experimental project to test the application of two common geophysical techniques, ground

  14. The centrality of the dead human body for teaching and research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of the cadaver is integral to both medical education and research, but how is cadaveric material to be obtained in the 21st-century world? Historical precedents are of little assistance, built as they are on the most unethical of practices, including body snatching and murder. This constitutes a major challenge for modern ...

  15. Line focus solar thermal central receiver research study. Final report, April 30, 1977-March 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Canio, D.G.; Treytl, W.J.; Jur, F.A.; Watson, C.D.

    1979-04-01

    The results of a study to examine the line focus central receiver alternative for solar thermal generation of electric power on a commercial scale are presented. The baseline concept consists of the following elements: (1) a solar collector (heliostat) whose geometry is the equivalent of a focused parabolic cylinder. The heliostat reflecting surface is composed of an array of flexible rectangular mirror panels supported along their long edges by a framework which rotates about an axis parallel to the ground plane. The mirror panels in one section (18.3 meters by 3.05 meters (60 feet by 10 feet)) are defocused in unison by a simple mechanism under computer control to achieve the required curvature. Two sections (110 meters/sup 2/(591 feet/sup 2/)) are controlled and driven in elevation by one control/drive unit. (2) A linear cavity receiver, composed of 61-meter (200-foot) sections supported by towers at an elevation of 61 meters (200 feet). Each section receives feedwater and produces turbine-rated steam. The cavity is an open cylinder 1.83 meters (6 feet) in inside diameter, with a 1.22 meter (4 foot) aperture oriented at 45 degrees to the collector field. (3) Heliostat control, consisting of a local controller at each heliostat module which communicates with a master control computer to perform elevation tracking and focal length adjustment. The control logic is open-loop, with sun position computer by the master computer with an algorithm. Image sensors, mounted above and below the receiver aperture, are used to monitor the collector field and provide feedback to the master computer for detection of misaligned heliostats. (WHK)

  16. Long-term geomorphological evolution in the Abruzzo area, Central Italy: twenty years of research

    OpenAIRE

    Miccadei Enrico; Piacentini Tommaso; Buccolini Marcello

    2017-01-01

    The most recent research studies into the long-term landscape evolution of the Abruzzo area, carried out over the last twenty years at the “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, are based on an integrated approach incorporating structural geology and geomorphology and, in particular, the geomorphometry of topographic and hydrographic aspects, geological and structural-geomorphological surveys and mapping supported by morpho-stratigraphic and chronological constraints. The geomorphologi...

  17. Integrated ecological research of catchment-lake ecosystems in the Bohemian Forest (Central Europe): A preface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl. 20 (2006), S363-S370 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/97/0072; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/0063; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/1583 Grant - others:EC(XE) EVK1-CT-1999-00018; EC(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-505540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : recovery from acidification * long-term trends Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.213, year: 2006

  18. Hydrology of a Water‐Limited Forest under Climate Change Scenarios: The Case of the Caatinga Biome, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the strong interactions between climate and vegetation, climate change effects on natural and agricultural ecosystems are common objects of research. Reduced water availability is predicted to take place across large regions of the globe, including Northeastern Brazil. The Caatinga, a complex tropical water‐limited ecosystem and the only exclusively Brazilian biome, prevails as the main natural forest of this region. The aim of this study was to examine the soil‐water balance for this biome under a climate‐warming scenario and with reduced rainfall. Climate change projections were assessed from regional circulation models earlier applied to the Brazilian territory. A statistical climate data generator was used to compose a synthetic weather dataset, which was later integrated into a hydrological model. Compared to simulations with current climate for the same site, under the scenario with climate change, transpiration was enhanced by 36%, and soilwater evaporation and interception were reduced by 16% and 34%, respectively. The greatest change in soil‐water components was observed for deep drainage, accounting only for 2% of the annual rainfall. Soil‐plant‐atmosphere fluxes seem to be controlled by the top layer (0.0-0.2 m, which provides 80% of the total transpiration, suggesting that the Caatinga forest may become completely soil‐water pulse dominated under scenarios of reduced water availability.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  20. PERMANENCE OF WATER EFFECTIVENESS IN THE ROOT ZONE OF THE CAATINGA BIOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALEXANDRE GOMES COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important water compartment into a watershed scale, mainly due to its role in providing water to plants and to the influence of antecedent moisture on the runoff initiation. The aim of this research is to assess the permanence of water effectiveness in the soil under preserved-vegetation constraints in the Caatinga biome, in the semiarid northeastern Brazil. For this purpose, hourly soil moisture measurements were collected with TDR and analyzed between 2003 and 2010 for three soil-vegetation associations in the Aiuaba Experimental Basin. The results showed that in nine months per year soil moisture was below wilting point for two associations, whose soils are Chromic Luvisol and Haplic Lixisol (Abruptic. In the third association, where the shallow soil Lithic Leptosol prevails, water was found non-effective four months per year. A possible reason for the high water permanence in the shallowest soil is the percolation process, generating sub-surface flow, which barely occurs in the deeper soils. In situ observations indicates that the long period of soil moisture below the wilting point was not enough to avoid the blooming season of the Caatinga vegetation during the rainy periods. Indeed, after the beginning of each rainy season, there is a growth of dense green vegetation, regardless of the long period under water shortage.

  1. Abiotic and biotic determinants of leaf carbon exchange capacity from tropical to high boreal biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land represent the two largest fluxes of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. As such, the Earth System Models that are used to project climate change are high sensitive to these processes. Studies have found that much of this uncertainty is due to the formulation and parameterization of plant photosynthetic and respiratory capacity. Here, we quantified the abiotic and biotic factors that determine photosynthetic and respiratory capacity at large spatial scales. Specifically, we measured the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and leaf dark respiration (Rd) in >600 individuals of 98 plant species from the tropical to high boreal biomes of Northern and Central America. We also measured a bevy of covariates including plant functional type, leaf nitrogen content, short- and long-term climate, leaf water potential, plant size, and leaf mass per area. We found that plant functional type and leaf nitrogen content were the primary determinants of Vcmax, Jmax, and Rd. Mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were not significant predictors of these rates. However, short-term climatic variables, specifically soil moisture and air temperature over the previous 25 days, were significant predictors and indicated that heat and soil moisture deficits combine to reduce photosynthetic capacity and increase respiratory capacity. Finally, these data were used as a model benchmarking tool for the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM 4.5). The benchmarking analyses determined errors in the leaf nitrogen allocation scheme of CLM 4.5. Under high leaf nitrogen levels within a plant type the model overestimated Vcmax and Jmax. This result suggested that plants were altering their nitrogen allocation patterns when leaf nitrogen levels were high, an effect that was not being captured by the model. These data, taken with models in mind

  2. Social wasps (Polistinae from Pampa Biome: South Brazil, Northeastern Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to determine social wasps’ species from Pampa Biome. Were examined samples of social wasps from south-central of Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, parts of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé and La Pampa provinces (Argentina and in Uruguay maintained in the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brazil, American Museum of Natural History (USA, Natural History Museum (London-United Kingdom and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-France. Thirty species were recorded: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 and Protonectarina (01. Vespas sociais do Bioma Pampa: sul do Brasil, nordeste da Argentina e Uruguai. Resumo. Este estudo objetivou determinar as espécies de vespas sociais provenientes do Bioma Pampa. Foram examinadas vespas sociais provenientes de coletas da região centro-sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, parte das províncias de Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé e La Pampa (Argentina e Uruguai depositadas na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brasil, American Museum of Natural History (Nova Iorque-USA, Natural History Museum (Londres-Reino Unido e Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-França. Trinta espécies foram registradas: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 e Protonectarina (01.

  3. Use of Orbital LIDAR in the Brazilian Cerrado Biome: Potential Applications and Data Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Guimarães Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS data availability over the 2 million km2 Cerrado, the Brazilian central savanna biome and one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. Overall, about 2.5 million laser shots, distributed along the seven years of ICESat operation (2003–2009 and comprising three major seasonal domains, were acquired, from which, 206,026 and 176,035 screened footprints are coincident with the remnant vegetation and cultivated pasture areas (the dominant land-use form in the Cerrado. Although these points are well distributed over the entire Cerrado, the ICESat track data collection results in substantial data gaps. In relation to the 15,612 Cerrado watersheds (6th order Otto basin system, 8,369 and 4,415 watersheds are completely deprived of data points over their remnant vegetation and pasture covers, respectively. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR availability was also evaluated in relation to specific targets of interest, including both fully-protected conservation units as well as areas impacted by fire and deforestation. In spite of the very few occurrences, our assessments indicate that enough LIDAR data is available for retrieving structural and functional properties of a variety of Cerrado physiognomies, as well as to assess how these physiognomies respond to anthropogenic induced changes. In fact, the comprehensive data availability analysis conducted in this study corroborate the potential of GLAS LIDAR waveforms for the retrieval of biophysical properties at both local and regional scales, particularly concerning remnant carbon stocks and pasture conditions, key information for the conservation of the fast-changing and severely threatened Cerrado.

  4. Environmental noise and annoyance in adults: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Lekaviciute

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work on the adverse effects of noise on annoyance in adults is well documented in Western Europe, but there is a knowledge gap concerning this type of research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The objective of this review was to present findings and to propose future research directions for the studies on the effects of environmental noise on annoyance in adults conducted in these countries. After systematic search in accessible databases, scientific journals, conference proceedings, international and national reports in English and other languages, the authors identified 29 papers to be included to this review: 24 papers related to annoyance due to road traffic noise and 5 papers related to annoyance from other noise sources. In most of the identified studies, a cross-sectional design prevailed and the evaluations were mainly performed subjectively. The lack of recent annoyance studies related to railway and aircraft traffic noise was identified. Only two studies from NIS countries used noise exposure data for the evaluation of population annoyance according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END. Capacity building in CEE, SEE, and NIS countries is necessary to acquire the "know-how" on how to implement and use the different scenarios for evaluating population annoyance by environmental noise, depending on the availability and suitability of noise exposure data. Particular attention should be given to the possible use of END noise exposure data, where applicable.

  5. Noise and children′s health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children′s health in relation to noise exposure.

  6. The Interaction of Snow Physical Processes With Vegetation in Open and Forested Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    It is well accepted that the physical processes which drive snowcover accumulation, redistribution, transformation and ablation are intimately governed by their interaction with the properties of both local and regional vegetation. It is more recently accepted that the type, structure and spatial distribution of vegetation are themselves affected by snow processes such that natural snow-vegetation-climate systems have evolved distinctive characteristics in various cold regions biomes. The human ecology of snow-vegetation systems is less well known, but extremely important as vegetation is managed to promote beneficial snow characteristics for the purposes of agricultural management in many snowy cultivated farming regions of the world. This paper will review recent field observations and descriptions of characteristic snow process-vegetation interactions and phenomena in various circumpolar biomes and the potential transferability of observed processes and snow-vegetation relationships amongst biomes in the circumpolar world. The spatial distributions of processes and states within a biome are shown to have important implications for aggregated descriptions of snow at the biome scale; the stability of these distributions will be emphasised.

  7. The research station "Vaskiny Dachi", Central Yamal, West Siberia, Russia – a review of 25 years of permafrost studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina O. Leibman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research station "Vaskiny Dachi" on the Yamal Peninsula was established in 1988. Activities aimed at monitoring of permafrost and related environmental features under a relatively low level of nature disturbances caused by gas field development. Cryogenic processes that may affect the environment and their structures have been of primary interest. Landslides are the most common cryogenic processes in Central Yamal in general and also in the proximity of the station. Field surveys of numerous landslides, analysis of their dependence on climatic parameters and their fluctuations resulted in novel classification of cryogenic landslides based on mechanisms of their development. Dating by radiocarbon and dendrochronology allows the separation of cycles of landslide activation. Cryogenic landslides control the development of other processes, such as thermal erosion, river channel erosion and thermokarst. It also affects topography, vegetation pattern, geochemistry of vegetation, ground water and soils. As a result, permafrost parameters, specifically active layer depth and ground temperature, moisture and ice content in the active layer, depend indirectly on landsliding. Monitoring within the framework of the main programs of the International Permafrost Association, such as Circumarctic Active Layer Monitoring (CALM, since 1993 and Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP, since 2011, play an important role among the research activities. From the collected data one can conclude that ground temperature increased on average by about 1 °C since the 1990s. At the same time, active layer fluctuations do not exactly follow the air temperature changes. Spatial changes in ground temperature are controlled by the redistribution of snow which is resulting from strong winds characteristic for tundra environments and the highly dissected relief of Central Yamal. Temporal variations rather depend on air temperature fluctuations but the rate differs in various

  8. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristovska, Gordana; Lekaviciute, Jurgita

    2013-01-01

    Countries from South-East Europe (SEE), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Newly Independent States (NIS) are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight ) for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study). Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  9. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  10. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African Schools of Public Health: strengthening human and financial resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite its importance in providing evidence for health-related policy and decision-making, an insufficient amount of health systems research (HSR) is conducted in low-income countries (LICs). Schools of public health (SPHs) are key stakeholders in HSR. This paper, one in a series of four, examines human and financial resources capacities, policies and organizational support for HSR in seven Africa Hub SPHs in East and Central Africa. Methods Capacity assessment done included document analysis to establish staff numbers, qualifications and publications; self-assessment using a tool developed to capture individual perceptions on the capacity for HSR and institutional dialogues. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with Deans from each SPH and Ministry of Health and non-governmental officials, focusing on perceptions on capacity of SPHs to engage in HSR, access to funding, and organizational support for HSR. Results A total of 123 people participated in the self-assessment and 73 KIIs were conducted. Except for the National University of Rwanda and the University of Nairobi SPH, most respondents expressed confidence in the adequacy of staffing levels and HSR-related skills at their SPH. However, most of the researchers operate at individual level with low outputs. The average number of HSR-related publications was only capacity. This study underscores the need to form effective multidisciplinary teams to enhance research of immediate and local relevance. Capacity strengthening in the SPH needs to focus on knowledge translation and communication of findings to relevant audiences. Advocacy is needed to influence respective governments to allocate adequate funding for HSR to avoid donor dependency that distorts local research agenda. PMID:24888371

  11. A central support system can facilitate implementation and sustainability of a Classroom-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatto, David; Hauser, Charles; Jones, Christopher J; Paetkau, Don; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Dunbar, David; MacKinnon, Christy; Stamm, Joyce; Alvarez, Consuelo; Barnard, Daron; Bedard, James E J; Bednarski, April E; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John M; Burg, Martin; Chung, Hui-Min; DeJong, Randall J; DiAngelo, Justin R; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T; Emerson, Julia; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Johnson, Diana; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S Catherine Silver; Kokan, Nighat P; Kopp, Olga R; Kuleck, Gary A; Lopilato, Jane; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan C; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul J; Parrish, Susan; Preuss, Mary L; Reed, Laura D; Regisford, E Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklien-Canfield, Jennifer A; Rosenwald, Anne G; Rubin, Michael R; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim A; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D; Smith, Mary; Smith, Sheryl T; Spana, Eric P; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Wawersik, Matthew; Wolyniak, Michael J; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine; Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Threlfall, Jennifer; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2014-01-01

    In their 2012 report, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated "replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses"-a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the Genomics Education Partnership, a nationwide faculty consortium that aims to provide undergraduates with a research experience in genomics through a scheduled course (a classroom-based undergraduate research experience, or CURE). We examine the common barriers encountered in implementing a CURE, program elements of most value to faculty, ways in which a shared core support system can help, and the incentives for and rewards of establishing a CURE on our diverse campuses. While some of the barriers and rewards are specific to a research project utilizing a genomics approach, other lessons learned should be broadly applicable. We find that a central system that supports a shared investigation can mitigate some shortfalls in campus infrastructure (such as time for new curriculum development, availability of IT services) and provides collegial support for change. Our findings should be useful for designing similar supportive programs to facilitate change in the way we teach science for undergraduates. © 2014 D. Lopatto et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Combining climatic and soil properties better predicts covers of Brazilian biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Daniel M.; Fernandes-Filho, Elpídio I.; Solar, Ricardo R. C.; Schaefer, Carlos E. G. R.

    2017-04-01

    Several techniques have been used to model the area covered by biomes or species. However, most models allow little freedom of choice of response variables and are conditioned to the use of climate predictors. This major restriction of the models has generated distributions of low accuracy or inconsistent with the actual cover. Our objective was to characterize the environmental space of the most representative biomes of Brazil and predict their cover, using climate and soil-related predictors. As sample units, we used 500 cells of 100 km2 for ten biomes, derived from the official vegetation map of Brazil (IBGE 2004). With a total of 38 (climatic and soil-related) predictors, an a priori model was run with the random forest classifier. Each biome was calibrated with 75% of the samples. The final model was based on four climate and six soil-related predictors, the most important variables for the a priori model, without collinearity. The model reached a kappa value of 0.82, generating a highly consistent prediction with the actual cover of the country. We showed here that the richness of biomes should not be underestimated, and that in spite of the complex relationship, highly accurate modeling based on climatic and soil-related predictors is possible. These predictors are complementary, for covering different parts of the multidimensional niche. Thus, a single biome can cover a wide range of climatic space, versus a narrow range of soil types, so that its prediction is best adjusted by soil-related variables, or vice versa.

  13. Combining climatic and soil properties better predicts covers of Brazilian biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Daniel M; Fernandes-Filho, Elpídio I; Solar, Ricardo R C; Schaefer, Carlos E G R

    2017-04-01

    Several techniques have been used to model the area covered by biomes or species. However, most models allow little freedom of choice of response variables and are conditioned to the use of climate predictors. This major restriction of the models has generated distributions of low accuracy or inconsistent with the actual cover. Our objective was to characterize the environmental space of the most representative biomes of Brazil and predict their cover, using climate and soil-related predictors. As sample units, we used 500 cells of 100 km 2 for ten biomes, derived from the official vegetation map of Brazil (IBGE 2004). With a total of 38 (climatic and soil-related) predictors, an a priori model was run with the random forest classifier. Each biome was calibrated with 75% of the samples. The final model was based on four climate and six soil-related predictors, the most important variables for the a priori model, without collinearity. The model reached a kappa value of 0.82, generating a highly consistent prediction with the actual cover of the country. We showed here that the richness of biomes should not be underestimated, and that in spite of the complex relationship, highly accurate modeling based on climatic and soil-related predictors is possible. These predictors are complementary, for covering different parts of the multidimensional niche. Thus, a single biome can cover a wide range of climatic space, versus a narrow range of soil types, so that its prediction is best adjusted by soil-related variables, or vice versa.

  14. Classroom Research: Assessment of Student Understanding of Sampling Distributions of Means and the Central Limit Theorem in Post-Calculus Probability and Statistics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, M. Leigh; Rowell, Ginger Holmes; Goodson-Espy, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    We applied a classroom research model to investigate student understanding of sampling distributions of sample means and the Central Limit Theorem in post-calculus introductory probability and statistics courses. Using a quantitative assessment tool developed by previous researchers and a qualitative assessment tool developed by the authors, we…

  15. Telemetria : aplicação de rede de sensores biomédicos sem fio

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Eduardo Mamani

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo desta dissertação consiste no desenvolvimento de um protótipo de instrumentação biomédica, baseado na tecnologia de redes de sensores sem fio, para aquisição, transmissão e processamento simultâneos de sinais biomédicos. A instrumentação permite o acompanhamento clínico de pacientes por meio do monitoramento de sinais de eletrocardiograma, eletromiograma, temperatura cutânea, e resistência galvânica da pele; para este objetivo foram implementados circuitos eletrônicos. Os sinais re...

  16. Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: role in the global carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.S. Zimov; S.A. Zimov; A.E. Zimova; G.M. Zimova; V.I. Chuprynin; F.S. Chapin

    2009-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in preindustrial times. At that time steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some authors assume that C storage in that biome was very small, similar to today's deserts, and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the...

  17. Colombian dry moist forest transitions in the Llanos Orientales - A comparison of model and pollen-based biome reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.A.; Berrio, J.C.; Behling, H.; Boom, A.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Colombian vegetation, at the ecological level of the biome, is reconstructed at six sites using pollen data assigned a priori to plant functional types and biomes. The chosen sites incorporate four savanna sites (Laguna Sardinas, Laguna Angel, El Piñal and Laguna Carimagua), a site on the

  18. Developing a Fracture Model of the Granite Rocks Around the Research Tunnel at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, E.; Hadgu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is located in Tono area in Central Japan. It is operated by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) with the main purpose of providing scientific basis for the research and development of technologies needed for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured crystalline rocks. The current work is focused on the research and experiments in the tunnel located at 500 m depth. The data collected in the tunnel and exploratory boreholes were shared with the participants of the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments (DECOVALEX), an international research and model comparison collaboration. This study describes the development of the fracture model representing granite rocks around the research tunnel. The model domain is 100x150x100m with the main experimental part of the tunnel, Closure Test Drift, located approximately in the center. The major input data were the fracture traces measured on the tunnel walls (total of 2,023 fractures), fractures observed in the horizontal borehole parallel to the tunnel, and the packer tests conducted in this borehole and one vertical borehole located within the modeling domain. 78 fractures (the ones with the inflow) in the tunnel were incorporated in the development of the fracture model. Fracture size was derived from the fracture trace analysis. It was shown that the fracture radius followed lognormal distributions. Fracture transmissivity was estimated from an analytical solution of inflow into the tunnel through an individual fracture and the total measured inflow into the tunnel. 16 fractures were incorporated in the model along the horizontal borehole. The packer test data in the different well intervals were used to estimate the range in fracture transmissivity. A relationship between the fracture transmissivity and fracture radius was developed. The fractures in the tunnel and borehole were used to derive fracture orientation and

  19. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the design of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, has focused on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt-level central-station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat-plate central-station or other large-scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost-effective configurations. The Central Station Research Forum addressed design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central-station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory research activities. Technical issues were examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect-engineer and laboratory researcher. The forum included presentations on optimum source-circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements and array operation and maintenance. The Research Forum focused on current capabilities as well as design difficulties requiring additional technological thrusts and/or continued research emphasis. Session topic summaries highlighting major points during group discussions, identifying promising technical approaches or areas of future research, are presented.

  20. [Results from the Central Laboratory for Streptococci Research in Kiel from 1965 to 1977 - a survey (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, G; Tolle, A

    1979-09-01

    At the Central Laboratory for Streptococci Research at the Institute for Hygiene of the Federal Dairy Research Centre in Kiel a data bank has been established which comprises as well bibliographical data (until now more than 8000 titles out of the international literature concerning streptococci) as laboratory data of all strains which have been identified since 1965. For this present publication as a survey the total material covering 34,935 strains was analyzed and interpreted. Besides a short introduction describing the general examination procedure for streptococci and the encoding of results for the data bank the material is condensed in different tables considering the incidence of pathogenic species occuring mainly in man and animals. In addition findings of enterococci and lactic streptococci are presented. 41.8% of the strains examined were isolated from human specimens, 46.7% from cattle and the remaining ones from pigs, horses, dogs, laboratory animals and others. Only 2.0% of all cultures could not be identified as one of the known species. Remarkable observations are - the high incidence of group B-Streptococci in man - the unexpected frequency of typical "human" streptococci as those of group F and G and also Sc. milleri and Sc. MG in different animals - the possible interrelation of group L- and P-streptococci in pigs and cattle - the overlap of Sc. faecalis and Sc. faecium in man and animals showing no typical distribution as it is postulated in the literature - the high percentage of unidentifiable streptococci from pigs and laboratory animals as an eventual indication for some new species. In consecuting papers some problems emerging from the presented material and own experiments will be discussed as - interrelation of group B-Streptococci in man and cattle - incidence and importance of enterococci in humans, animals and foodstuffs and - classification of species not to identify by serological grouping.

  1. Genetic diversity of Burkholderia (Proteobacteria) species from the Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, A C; Santos, H R M; Gross, E; Corrêa, R X

    2013-03-11

    The genus Burkholderia (β-Proteobacteria) currently comprises more than 60 species, including parasites, symbionts and free-living organisms. Several new species of Burkholderia have recently been described showing a great diversity of phenotypes. We examined the diversity of Burkholderia spp in environmental samples collected from Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes of Bahia, Brazil. Legume nodules were collected from five locations, and 16S rDNA and recA genes of the isolated microorganisms were analyzed. Thirty-three contigs of 16S rRNA genes and four contigs of the recA gene related to the genus Burkholderia were obtained. The genetic dissimilarity of the strains ranged from 0 to 2.5% based on 16S rDNA analysis, indicating two main branches: one distinct branch of the dendrogram for the B. cepacia complex and another branch that rendered three major groups, partially reflecting host plants and locations. A dendrogram designed with sequences of this research and those designed with sequences of Burkholderia-type strains and the first hit BLAST had similar topologies. A dendrogram similar to that constructed by analysis of 16S rDNA was obtained using sequences of the fragment of the recA gene. The 16S rDNA sequences enabled sufficient identification of relevant similarities and groupings amongst isolates and the sequences that we obtained. Only 6 of the 33 isolates analyzed via 16S rDNA sequencing showed high similarity with the B. cepacia complex. Thus, over 3/4 of the isolates have potential for biotechnological applications.

  2. FLUXAPYROXAD IN THE ASIAN SOYBEAN RUST CONTROL IN THE CERRADO BIOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL MENEZES SILVA DE FREITAS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiologic agent of the Asian soybean rust is the Phakopsora pachyrhizi, which causes a reduction in the photosynthetic leaf area and, consequently, in the crop yield. Chemical control is one of the main measures for its management. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the fluxapyroxad fungicide on controlling the Asian soybean rust, under the edaphoclimatic conditions of the Cerrado biome. The experiment was conducted in an area under no-tillage system, in the Agricultural Research Center, Rio Verde, Goias, Brazil, during the 2012/2013 crop season, using the cultivar NA7337. A randomized block experimental design was used, with twelve treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of applications of fluxapyroxad (FX, pyraclostrobin (PT, epoxiconazole (EX and metconazole (MZ. The average severity of the disease in the plants reached 37% in the Control. All treatments with fungicides differed from the Control. Treatments 9, 10, 11 and 12 provided the greatest rates of soybean rust control. The treatments 10, 11 and 12 had the highest thousand grain weights, and the yields of the treatments 2, 3 and 11, despite higher than the Control, were lower than the treatments 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12, which had statistically equal yields. The increasing in yield, compared to the Control, ranged from 10.05% (pyraclostrobin, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin + mineral oil to 30.55% (pyraclostrobin, pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad + mineral oil and pyraclostrobin + metconazole + mineral oil. The highest rates of soybean rust control were presented by fungicides containing fluxapyroxad.

  3. Selection of native trees for intercropping with coffee in the Atlantic Rainforest biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.; Cardoso, I.M.; Fernandes, J.M.; Garcia, F.C.P.; Bonfim, V.R.; Santos, A.C.; Carvalho, A.F.; Mendonca, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge in establishing agroforestry systems is ensuring that farmers are interested in the tree species, and are aware of how to adequately manage these species. This challenge was tackled in the Atlantic Rainforest biome (Brazil), where a participatory trial with agroforestry coffee systems

  4. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  5. Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alden, C.B.; Miller, J.B.; Gatti, L.V.; Gloor, M.M.; Laan-Luijkx, van der I.T.; Krol, M.C.; Guan, K.; Michalak, A.M.; Touma, T.; Andrew, A.; Basso, L.S.; Correia, C.S.C.; Domingues, L.G.; Joiner, J.; Lyapustin, A.; Peters, W.; Shiga, Y.P.; Thoning, K.; Velde, van der I.R.; Leeuwen van, T.T.; Yadav, V.; Diffenbaugh, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate–carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance
    for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2

  6. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.

  7. Assessing the Urban Heat Island Effect Across Biomes in the Continental USA Using Landsat and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, L.; Zhang, Ping; Wolfe, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the Landsat TM and land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) skin temperature amplitude and its relationship to development intensity, size, and ecological setting for 38 of the most populous cities in the continental United States. Development intensity zones based on %ISA are defined across urban gradients and used to stratify sampling of LST and NDVI. We find that ecological context significantly influences the amplitude of summer daytime UHI (urban - rural temperature difference) with the largest 8 C (average) for cities built in mixed forest biomes. For all cities ISA is the primary driver for increase in temperature explaining 70% of the total variance. Annually, urban areas are warmer than the non-urban fringe by 2.9 C, except in biomes with arid and semiarid climates. The average amplitude of the UHI is asymmetric with a 4.3 C difference in summer and 1.3 C in winter. In desert environments, UHI's point to a possible heat sink effect. Results show that the urban heat island amplitude increases with city size and is seasonally asymmetric for a large number of cities across most biomes. The implications are that for urban areas developed within forested ecosystems the summertime UHI can be quite high relative to the wintertime UHI suggesting that the residential energy consumption required for summer cooling is likely to increase with urban growth within those biomes.

  8. Extreme precipitation patterns and reductions of terrestrial ecosystem production across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongguang Zhang; M. Susan Moran; Mark A. Nearing; Guillermo E. Ponce Campos; Alfredo R. Huete; Anthony R. Buda; David D. Bosch; Stacey A. Gunter; Stanley G. Kitchen; W. Henry McNab; Jack A. Morgan; Mitchel P. McClaran; Diane S. Montoya; Debra P.C. Peters; Patrick J. Starks

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation regimes are predicted to shift to more extreme patterns that are characterized by more heavy rainfall events and longer dry intervals, yet their ecological impacts on vegetation production remain uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. This in situ study investigated the effects of these climatic conditions on aboveground net primary...

  9. Vegetation productivity responds to sub-annual climate conditions across semiarid biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Southwestern United States (SW), the current prolonged warm drought is similar to the predicted future climate change scenarios for the region. This study aimed to determine patterns in vegetation response to the early 21st century drought across multiple biomes. We hypothesized that differen...

  10. Explicit Not Implicit Preferences Predict Conservation Intentions for Endangered Species and Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, Alejandra; Callahan, Megan M; Chan, Kai M A; Satterfield, Terre; Zhao, Jiaying

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity is determined in part by human preferences. Preferences relevant to conservation have been examined largely via explicit measures (e.g., a self-reported degree of liking), with implicit measures (e.g., preconscious, automatic evaluations) receiving relatively less attention. This is the case despite psychological evidence from other contexts that implicit preferences are more informative of behavior. Thus, the type of measure that predicts conservation intentions for biodiversity is unknown. We conducted three studies to examine conservation intentions in light of people's explicit and implicit preferences toward four endangered species (sea otter, American badger, caribou, yellow-breasted chat) and four biomes (forest, ocean, grassland, tundra). In Study 1 (n = 55), we found that people implicitly preferred caribou most, but explicitly preferred sea otter most, with a significant multiple regression where participants' explicit preferences dictated their stated intended donations for conservation of each species. In Study 2 (n = 57) we found that people implicitly and explicitly preferred forest and ocean over grassland and tundra. Explicit rather than implicit preferences predicted the intended donation for conservation of the ocean biome. Study 3 involved a broader online sample of participants (n = 463) and also found that explicit preferences dictated the intended donations for conservation of biomes and species. Our findings reveal discrepancies between implicit and explicit preferences toward species, but not toward biomes. Importantly, the results demonstrate that explicit rather than implicit preferences predict conservation intentions for biodiversity. The current findings have several implications for conservation and the communication of biodiversity initiatives.

  11. The Biome Project: Developing a Legitimate Parallel Curriculum for Physical Education and Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Peter Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the outcomes of a parallel curriculum project between life sciences and physical education. Throughout a 6-week period, students in grades two through five became members of teams that represented different animal species and biomes, and concurrently participated in a season of gymnastics skills and…

  12. A reconstruction of Colombian biomes derived from modern pollen data along an altitude gradient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.A.; Behling, H.; Berrio Mogollon, J.C.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; van Geel, B.; van der Hammen, T.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Kuhry, P.; Melief, B.M.; van Reenen, G.B.A.; Wille, M.

    2001-01-01

    Biomes are reconstructed in Colombia from modern (core-top) pollen data derived from twenty-two sites along an altitudinal gradient (2000 to 4100 m) that encompasses the tree line. The 'biomization' methodology is described in a stepwise manner that details the reconstruction of vegetation along an

  13. A reconstruction of Colombian biomes derived from modern pollen data along an altitude gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.; Berrío, J.C.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Helmens, K.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Kuhry, P.; Melief, B.; Schreve-Brinkman, E.; Geel, van B.; Reenen, van G.; Hammen, van der T.

    2001-01-01

    Biomes are reconstructed in Colombia from modern (core-top) pollen data derived from 22 sites along an altitudinal gradient (2000–4100 m) that encompasses the tree line. The `biomization' methodology is described in a stepwise manner that details the reconstruction of vegetation along an altitudinal

  14. Water balance in paired watersheds with eucalyptus and degraded grassland in Pampa biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands of the Pampa biome, which cover regions of Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil (176,496 km2 – 2.07% of Brazilian territory and 63% of Rio Grande do Sul State territory, southern region of Brazil) in South America (total area of 750,000 km2), are being substituted by crops and commercial eucalyp...

  15. Description of major vegetation categories in and adjacent to the Fynbos biome

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moll, EJ

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available A scheme of major categories of the vegetation in and adjacent to the fynbos biome is given as a second approximation after Acocks1 Veld Types (1953). A four tier hierarchy is presented with nineteen categories of vegetation. The major subdivisions...

  16. Environmental Literacy through Relationships: Connecting Biomes and Society in a Sustainable City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkos, Kimberly; Bautista, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a project developed and implemented in an eighth-grade science classroom in which students apply what they have learned about biomes to create sustainable cities. This project promotes environmental literacy through helping students understand the interrelated elements of sustainable environmental systems and how…

  17. The freezer defrosting: global warming and litter decomposition rates in cold biomes. Essay review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    1 Decomposition of plant litter, a key component of the global carbon budget, is hierarchically controlled by the triad: climate > litter quality > soil organisms. Given the sensitivity of decomposition to temperature, especially in cold biomes, it has been hypothesized that global warming will lead

  18. Late Quaternary and future biome simulations for Alaska and Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Amy S.

    Arctic biomes across a region including Alaska and Eastern Russia were investigated using the BIOME4 biogeochemical and biogeography vegetation model. This study investigated past (the last 21,000 years), present, and future vegetation distributions in the study area, using climate forcing from five CMIP5 models (CCSM4, GISS-E2-R, MIROC-ESM, MPI-ESM, and MRI-CGCM3). The present-day BIOME4 simulations were generally consistent with current vegetation observations in the study region characterized by evergreen and deciduous taiga and shrub tundras. Paleoclimatological simulations were compared with pollen data samples collected in the study region. Pre-industrial biome simulations are generally similar to the modern reconstruction but differ by having more shrub tundra in both Russia and Alaska to the north, as well as less deciduous taiga in Alaska. Pre-industrial simulations were in good agreement with the pollen data. Mid-Holocene simulations place shrub tundras along the Arctic coast, and in some cases along the eastern coast of Russia. Simulations for the Mid-Holocene are in good agreement with pollen-based distributions of biomes. Simulations for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) show that the Bering Land Bridge was covered almost entirely by cushion forb, lichen and moss tundra, shrub tundra, and graminoid tundra. Three out of the five models' climate data produce evergreen and deciduous taiga in what is now southwestern Alaska, however the pollen data does not support this. The distributions of cushion forb, lichen, and moss tundra and graminoid tundra differ noticeably between models, while shrub tundra distributions are generally similar. Future simulations of BIOME4 based on the RCP8.5 climate scenario indicate a northward shift of the treeline and a significant areal decrease of shrub tundra and graminoid tundra regions in the 21st century. Intrusions of cool mixed, deciduous, and conifer forests above 60°N, especially in southwest Alaska, were notable

  19. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Colombia at 3000, 6000, 15 000 and 18 000 14C yr ago : Late Quaternary tropical vegetation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.; Behling, H.; Berrío, J.C.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Kuhry, P.; Melief, B.; Schreve-Brinkman, E.; Geel, van B.; Hammen, van der T.; Reenen, van G.

    2002-01-01

    Colombian biomes are reconstructed at 45 sites from the modern period extending to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The basis for our reconstruction is pollen data assigned to plant functional types and biomes at six 3000-yr intervals. A reconstruction of modern biomes is used to check the treatment

  20. Aura-biomes are present in the water layer above coral reef benthic macro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin; Haggerty, J Matthew; Doane, Michael P; Hansen, John J; Morris, Megan M; Moreira, Ana Paula B; de Oliveira, Louisi; Leomil, Luciana; Garcia, Gizele D; Thompson, Fabiano; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    As coral reef habitats decline worldwide, some reefs are transitioning from coral- to algal-dominated benthos with the exact cause for this shift remaining elusive. Increases in the abundance of microbes in the water column has been correlated with an increase in coral disease and reduction in coral cover. Here we investigated how multiple reef organisms influence microbial communities in the surrounding water column. Our study consisted of a field assessment of microbial communities above replicate patches dominated by a single macro-organism. Metagenomes were constructed from 20 L of water above distinct macro-organisms, including (1) the coral Mussismilia braziliensis , (2) fleshy macroalgae ( Stypopodium , Dictota and Canistrocarpus ), (3) turf algae, and (4) the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum and were compared to the water microbes collected 3 m above the reef. Microbial genera and functional potential were annotated using MG-RAST and showed that the dominant benthic macro-organisms influence the taxa and functions of microbes in the water column surrounding them, developing a specific "aura-biome". The coral aura-biome reflected the open water column, and was associated with Synechococcus and functions suggesting oligotrophic growth, while the fleshy macroalgae aura-biome was associated with Ruegeria , Pseudomonas, and microbial functions suggesting low oxygen conditions. The turf algae aura-biome was associated with Vibrio, Flavobacterium, and functions suggesting pathogenic activity, while zoanthids were associated with Alteromonas and functions suggesting a stressful environment. Because each benthic organism has a distinct aura-biome, a change in benthic cover will change the microbial community of the water, which may lead to either the stimulation or suppression of the recruitment of benthic organisms.

  1. Forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noojipady, Praveen; Morton, C. Douglas; Macedo, N. Marcia; Victoria, C. Daniel; Huang, Chengquan; Gibbs, K. Holly; Edson Bolfe, L.

    2017-02-01

    Land use, land use change, and forestry accounted for two-thirds of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions profile in 2005. Amazon deforestation has declined by more than 80% over the past decade, yet Brazil’s forests extend beyond the Amazon biome. Rapid expansion of cropland in the neighboring Cerrado biome has the potential to undermine climate mitigation efforts if emissions from dry forest and woodland conversion negate some of the benefits of avoided Amazon deforestation. Here, we used satellite data on cropland expansion, forest cover, and vegetation carbon stocks to estimate annual gross forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado biome. Nearly half of the Cerrado met Brazil’s definition of forest cover in 2000 (≥0.5 ha with ≥10% canopy cover). In areas of established crop production, conversion of both forest and non-forest Cerrado formations for cropland declined during 2003-2013. However, forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion increased over the past decade in Matopiba, a new frontier of agricultural production that includes portions of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Gross carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado averaged 16.28 Tg C yr-1 between 2003 and 2013, with forest-to-cropland conversion accounting for 29% of emissions. The fraction of forest carbon emissions from Matopiba was much higher; between 2010-2013, large-scale cropland conversion in Matopiba contributed 45% of total Cerrado forest carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from Cerrado-to-cropland transitions offset 5%-7% of the avoided emissions from reduced Amazon deforestation rates during 2011-2013. Comprehensive national estimates of forest carbon fluxes, including all biomes, are critical to detect cross-biome leakage within countries and achieve climate mitigation targets to reduce emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry.

  2. Temporal Changes in Coupled Vegetation Phenology and Productivity are Biome-Specific in the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhui Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has greatly stimulated vegetation growth through both extending the growing season and promoting photosynthesis in the Northern Hemisphere (NH. Analyzing the combined dynamics of such trends can potentially improve our current understanding on changes in vegetation functioning and the complex relationship between anthropogenic and climatic drivers. This study aims to analyze the relationships (long-term trends and correlations of length of vegetation growing season (LOS and vegetation productivity assessed by the growing season NDVI integral (GSI in the NH (>30°N to study any dependency of major biomes that are characterized by different imprint from anthropogenic influence. Spatial patterns of converging/diverging trends in LOS and GSI and temporal changes in the coupling between LOS and GSI are analyzed for major biomes at hemispheric and continental scales from the third generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset for a 32-year period (1982–2013. A quarter area of the NH is covered by converging trends (consistent significant trends in LOS and GSI, whereas diverging trends (opposing significant trends in LOS and GSI cover about 6% of the region. Diverging trends are observed mainly in high latitudes and arid/semi-arid areas of non-forest biomes (shrublands, savannas, and grasslands, whereas forest biomes and croplands are primarily characterized by converging trends. The study shows spatially-distinct and biome-specific patterns between the continental land masses of Eurasia (EA and North America (NA. Finally, areas of high positive correlation between LOS and GSI showed to increase during the period of analysis, with areas of significant positive trends in correlation being more widespread in NA as compared to EA. The temporal changes in the coupled vegetation phenology and productivity suggest complex relationships and interactions that are induced

  3. A pesquisa médica e biomédica no Brasil: comparações com o desempenho científico brasileiro e mundial Medical and biomedical research in Brazil: a comparison of Brazilian and international scientific performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Guimarães

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto coloca o Brasil no interior dos países que fazem investimento em C&T, de forma comparada, no que concerne a pesquisas básicas, à aplicação do conhecimento e à formação de pesquisadores. Evidencia elevada correlação entre o (PIB e o desempenho científico e tecnológico de países desenvolvidos como EUA, Japão, Alemanha, Inglaterra, França, Canadá, Itália, China, Rússia e Espanha, e mostra como isso se realiza em países de médio desenvolvimento como México, Índia e Brasil. Os dados apresentados foram extraídos de diversas fontes: Diretório dos Grupos de Pesquisa e Plataforma Lattes, CNPq-MCT; Science Indicators; Institute for Scientific Information (ISI; World Development Indicators (WDI; Web of Science do ISI, acordo Capes ­ Fapesp, Brasil. A comparação com os países de mais elevado desempenho possibilita melhor situar o desafio a ser vencido pela pesquisa brasileira na área da saúde, para colocá-la no patamar dos índices de citação que melhor qualifica a pesquisa feita na área.This article compares Brazil's performance in science and technology investment to that of other countries, in relation to basic research, application of knowledge, and researcher training. The article shows a high correlation between GDP and scientific and technological performance in developed countries such as the United States, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Canada, Italy, China, Russia, and Spain, and demonstrates how this occurs in medium development countries like Mexico, India, and Brazil. The data presented were obtained from various sources: the Research Group Directory and Lattes Platform of the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq-MCT; Science Indicators; Institute for Scientific Information (ISI; World Development Indicators (WDI; Web of Science of the ISI; and the CAPES ­ FAPESP agreement, Brazil. The comparison to higher-performance countries gave a clearer grasp of Brazil's health research challenge

  4. The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format or: how I learned to stop worrying and love the ome-ome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM, pronounced “biome” format: a JSON-based file format for representing arbitrary observation by sample contingency tables with associated sample and observation metadata. As the number of categories of comparative omics data types (collectively, the “ome-ome” grows rapidly, a general format to represent and archive this data will facilitate the interoperability of existing bioinformatics tools and future meta-analyses. Findings The BIOM file format is supported by an independent open-source software project (the biom-format project, which initially contains Python objects that support the use and manipulation of BIOM data in Python programs, and is intended to be an open development effort where developers can submit implementations of these objects in other programming languages. Conclusions The BIOM file format and the biom-format project are steps toward reducing the “bioinformatics bottleneck” that is currently being experienced in diverse areas of biological sciences, and will help us move toward the next phase of comparative omics where basic science is translated into clinical and environmental applications. The BIOM file format is currently recognized as an Earth Microbiome Project Standard, and as a Candidate Standard by the Genomic Standards Consortium.

  5. Consistent shifts in spring vegetation green-up date across temperate biomes in China, 1982-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan

    2013-03-01

    Understanding spring phenology changes in response to the rapid climate change at biome-level is crucial for projecting regional ecosystem carbon exchange and climate-biosphere interactions. In this study, we assessed the long-term changes and responses to changing climate of the spring phenology in six temperate biomes of China by analyzing the global inventory monitoring and modeling studies (GIMMS) NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and concurrent mean temperature and precipitation data for 1982-2006. Results show that the spring phenology trends in the six temperate biomes are not continuous throughout the 25 year period. The spring phenology in most areas of the six biomes showed obvious advancing trends (ranging from -0.09 to -0.65 day/yr) during the 1980s and early 1990s, but has subsequently suffered consistently delaying trends (ranging from 0.22 to 1.22 day/yr). Changes in spring (February-April) temperature are the dominating factor governing the pattern of spring vegetation phenology in the temperate biomes of China. The recently delayed spring phenology in these temperate biomes has been mainly triggered by the stalling or reversal of the warming trend in spring temperatures. Results in this study also reveal that precipitation during November-January can explain 16.1% (P biomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Appraisal of the Effectiveness of CODE; The Coordinated Delivery System for the South Central Research Library Council, January to December 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faibisoff, Sylvia G.

    A major concern of the South Central Research Library Council in establishing an interlibrary loan network was the development of a Coordinated Delivery system (CODE). Several means of delivery were considered--the U.S. mails, commercial trucking (Greyhound, United Parcel Service), and use of the public library system's delivery services. A…

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN STUDENTS’ INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY. RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN ROMANIA, HUNGARY AND SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamburg Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study is meant to be an extension of and completion to a former research paper entitled “The Role of Foreign Language Teachers in Developing Students’ Intercultural Communication Skills” concluding that students of the University of Oradea, Romania, generally lack intercultural sensitivity and it falls to a great extent to foreign language teachers to change this state of affairs. When the former study came up with proposals for methods of enhancing students’ cultural awareness (see simulation games on cultural differences like Barnga, BaFá BaFá, Randömia Balloon Factory and others, the present study focuses on an international comparison, though limited to only three academic institutions in three countries, regarding Eastern and Central European students’ intercultural sensitivity. The initial idea was to see to what extent students of the University of Oradea, Romania, studying Economics, Medicine and Law dispose of intercultural skills. For this reason a Likert-type scale questionnaire was applied to more than 200 students of the above mentioned faculties. The survey was extended in the second round in Oradea, Romania, also to the Faculty of Environmental Protection and that of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, respectively to an international level asking students of the University of Debrecen, Hungary and the University of Maribor, Slovenia, the same questions. Although we are aware of the limitations of present study, – only three institutions included in the research, having in Debrecen and Maribor less respondents than in Oradea and only from some fields of study, Slovenian students not getting a Slovenian version of the questionnaire, which may have influenced their level of understanding issues, responses not always being consistent – its results have still an informative value. They confirm the author’s initial hypothesis that in spite of the extended international relations and

  8. Future changes in South American biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra is dependent on applied atmospheric forcings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Liam; Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven

    2017-04-01

    It remains poorly understood why the position of the forest-savanna biome boundary, in a domain defined by precipitation and temperature, differs in South America, Africa and Australia. Process based Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are a valuable tool to investigate the determinants of vegetation distributions, however, many DGVMs fail to predict the spatial distribution or indeed presence of the South American savanna biome. Evidence suggests fire plays a significant role in mediating forest-savanna biome boundaries, however, fire alone appear to be insufficient to predict these boundaries in South America. We hypothesize that interactions between precipitation, constraints on tree rooting depth and fire, affect the probability of savanna occurrence and the position of the savanna-forest boundary. We tested our hypotheses at tropical forest and savanna sites in Brazil and Venezuela using a novel DGVM, aDGVM2, which allows plant trait spectra, constrained by trade-offs between traits, to evolve in response to abiotic and biotic conditions. Plant hydraulics is represented by the cohesion-tension theory, this allowed us to explore how soil and plant hydraulics control biome distributions and plant traits. The resulting community trait distributions are emergent properties of model dynamics. We showed that across much of South America the biome state is not determined by climate alone. Interactions between tree rooting depth, fire and precipitation affected the probability of observing a given biome state and the emergent traits of plant communities. Simulations where plant rooting depth varied in space provided the best match to satellite derived biomass estimates and generated biome distributions that reproduced contemporary biome maps well. Future projections showed that biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra will change, however, the magnitude of these changes are highly dependent on the applied atmospheric forcings.

  9. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect Across Biomes in the Continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Zhang, Ping; Wolfe, Robert E.; Bounoua, Lahouari

    2010-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the Landsat TM-based NLCD 2001 dataset and land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) skin temperature amplitude and its relationship to development intensity, size, and ecological setting for 38 of the most populous cities in the continental United States. Development intensity zones based on %ISA are defined for each urban area emanating outward from the urban core to the nonurban rural areas nearby and used to stratify sampling for land surface temperatures and NDVI. Sampling is further constrained by biome and elevation to insure objective intercomparisons between zones and between cities in different biomes permitting the definition of hierarchically ordered zones that are consistent across urban areas in different ecological setting and across scales. We find that ecological context significantly influences the amplitude of summer daytime UHI (urban-rural temperature difference) the largest (8 C average) observed for cities built in biomes dominated by temperate broadleaf and mixed forest. For all cities combined, ISA is the primary driver for increase in temperature explaining 70% of the total variance in LST. On a yearly average, urban areas are substantially warmer than the non-urban fringe by 2.9 C, except for urban areas in biomes with arid and semiarid climates. The average amplitude of the UHI is remarkably asymmetric with a 4.3 C temperature difference in summer and only 1.3 C in winter. In desert environments, the LST's response to ISA presents an uncharacteristic "U-shaped" horizontal gradient decreasing from the urban core to the outskirts of the city and then increasing again in the suburban to the rural zones. UHI's calculated for these cities point to a possible heat sink effect. These observational results show that the urban heat island amplitude both increases with city size and is seasonally

  10. Habitat use and home range of brown-nosed coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guilherme Trovati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua is a carnivorous species found in all the Brazilian biomes, some of which are endangered areas. The aim of this work was to determine the habitat use and selection, home range and core area of N. nasua in the Cerrado biome, central region of Tocantins, Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of approximately 20 000ha from May 2000 to July 2002. A total of seven box traps were placed in the area for 13 months, three of 11 captured animals were followed and monitored by radio-tracking during 13 months. The monitoring was conducted once a day, three times a week using a car and walking through the study area (radio-tracking and visual contact. The results demonstrate that these three males used more frequently the gallery forest formation, followed by cerrado and wetlands. The use of gallery forest by these animals indicated an habitat selection (Proportion test, z=12.98, p< 0.01. Besides, adult males used the gallery forest more frequently (Fisher’s exact test, p<0.01 and wetlands less frequently (Fisher’s exact test, p<0.01 than juvenile males, without significant differences between animal ages for cerrado percentage of habitat use. Besides, results also showed a gallery forest selection by adult (Proportion test z= 13.62, p<0.01 and juvenile (Proportion test z=2.68, p<0.01 males, and a wetland selection by the juvenile male (Proportion test z=3.90, p<0.01. The home ranges varied from 2.20 to 7.55km² for the Minimum Convex Polygon 100% (MCP 100% and from 4.38 to 13.32km² for the Harmonic Mean 95% (HM 95%. The smallest home range overlap occurred between the adult males (Nm1 and Nm3, and the greatest between the juvenile Njm2 and the adult Nm1. The average of the core area (HM 75% for the three monitored animals represented 21.29% of the home range calculated with HM 95%. No overlap between core areas was observed for adult males, but, it was an overlap between the core area of the juvenile male and

  11. Habitat use and home range of brown-nosed coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Roberto Guilherme; Brito, Bernardo Alves de; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2010-09-01

    The brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua) is a carnivorous species found in all the Brazilian biomes, some of which are endangered areas. The aim of this work was to determine the habitat use and selection, home range and core area of N. nasua in the Cerrado biome, central region of Tocantins, Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of approximately 20 000ha from May 2000 to July 2002. A total of seven box traps were placed in the area for 13 months, three of 11 captured animals were followed and monitored by radio-tracking during 13 months. The monitoring was conducted once a day, three times a week using a car and walking through the study area (radio-tracking and visual contact). The results demonstrate that these three males used more frequently the gallery forest formation, followed by cerrado and wetlands. The use of gallery forest by these animals indicated an habitat selection (Proportion test, z=12.98, pgallery forest more frequently (Fisher's exact test, pgallery forest selection by adult (Proportion test z=13.62, p<0.01) and juvenile (Proportion test z=2.68, p<0.01) males, and a wetland selection by the juvenile male (Proportion test z=3.90, p<0.01). The home ranges varied from 2.20 to 7.55km2 for the Minimum Convex Polygon 100% (MCP 100%) and from 4.38 to 13.32km2 for the Harmonic Mean 95% (HM 95%). The smallest home range overlap occurred between the adult males (Nm1 and Nm3), and the greatest between the juvenile Njm2 and the adult Nm1. The average of the core area (HM 75%) for the three monitored animals represented 21.29% of the home range calculated with HM 95%. No overlap between core areas was observed for adult males, but, it was an overlap between the core area of the juvenile male and its band with that of the two adult males. The present study provides new data on core area size and frequency habitat use by adult and juvenile males of N. nasua in the Brazilian Cerrado, that may support conservation efforts.

  12. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Pereira de Castro

    Full Text Available The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  13. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  14. Central nervous system antiretroviral efficacy in HIV infection: a qualitative and quantitative review and implications for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cysique Lucette A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is conflicting information as to whether antiretroviral drugs with better central nervous system (CNS penetration (neuroHAART assist in improving neurocognitive function and suppressing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF HIV RNA. The current review aims to better synthesise existing literature by using an innovative two-phase review approach (qualitative and quantitative to overcome methodological differences between studies. Methods Sixteen studies, all observational, were identified using a standard citation search. They fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: conducted in the HAART era; sample size > 10; treatment effect involved more than one antiretroviral and none had a retrospective design. The qualitative phase of review of these studies consisted of (i a blind assessment rating studies on features such as sample size, statistical methods and definitions of neuroHAART, and (ii a non-blind assessment of the sensitivity of the neuropsychological methods to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND. During quantitative evaluation we assessed the statistical power of studies, which achieved a high rating in the qualitative analysis. The objective of the power analysis was to determine the studies ability to assess their proposed research aims. Results After studies with at least three limitations were excluded in the qualitative phase, six studies remained. All six found a positive effect of neuroHAART on neurocognitive function or CSF HIV suppression. Of these six studies, only two had statistical power of at least 80%. Conclusions Studies assessed as using more rigorous methods found that neuroHAART was effective in improving neurocognitive function and decreasing CSF viral load, but only two of those studies were adequately statistically powered. Because all of these studies were observational, they represent a less compelling evidence base than randomised control trials for assessing treatment effect. Therefore

  15. Towards secondary use of heterogeneous radio-oncological data for retrospective clinical trials: service-oriented connection of a central research database with image analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougatf, Nina; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Our overall objective is the utilization of heterogeneous and distributed radio-oncological data in retrospective clinical trials. Previously, we have successfully introduced a central research database for collection of heterogeneous data from distributed systems. The next step is the integration of image analysis tools in the standard retrieval process. Hence, analyses for complex medical questions can be processed automatically and facilitated immensely. In radiation oncology recurrence analysis is a central approach for the evaluation of therapeutic concepts. However, various analysis steps have to be performed like image registration, dose transformation and dose statistics. In this paper we show the integration of image analysis tools in the standard retrieval process by connecting them with our central research database using a service-oriented approach. A concrete problem from recurrence analysis has been selected to prove our concept exemplarily. We implemented service-oriented data collection and analysis tools to use them in a central analysis platform, which is based on a work flow management system. An analysis work flow has been designed that, at first, identifies patients in the research database fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Then the relevant imaging data is collected. Finally the imaging data is analyzed automatically. After the successful work flow execution, the results are available for further evaluation by a physician. As a result, the central research database has been connected successfully with automatic data collection and image analysis tools and the feasibility of our service-oriented approach has been demonstrated. In conclusion, our approach will simplify retrospective clinical trials in our department in future.

  16. Biom stepí: Severopanonské stepi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, A.; Lacina, Jan

    -, č. 17 (2006), s. 2-6 ISSN 1213-0699 Grant - others:EU(XE) Program Evropské unie LIFE-Nature Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Pannonian steppe grasslands * conservation of the nature * South Moravia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Biogeographical distribution analysis of hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing genes suggests that near-equatorial biomes have higher abundance of genes with potential for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge S; Araújo, Wydemberg J; Figueiredo, Ricardo M; Silva-Portela, Rita C B; de Brito Guerra, Alaine; da Silva Araújo, Sinara Carla; Minnicelli, Carolina; Carlos, Aline Cardoso; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2017-07-27

    Bacterial and Archaeal communities have a complex, symbiotic role in crude oil bioremediation. Their biosurfactants and degradation enzymes have been in the spotlight, mainly due to the awareness of ecosystem pollution caused by crude oil accidents and their use. Initially, the scientific community studied the role of individual microbial species by characterizing and optimizing their biosurfactant and oil degradation genes, studying their individual distribution. However, with the advances in genomics, in particular with the use of New-Generation-Sequencing and Metagenomics, it is now possible to have a macro view of the complex pathways related to the symbiotic degradation of hydrocarbons and surfactant production. It is now possible, although more challenging, to obtain the DNA information of an entire microbial community before automatically characterizing it. By characterizing and understanding the interconnected role of microorganisms and the role of degradation and biosurfactant genes in an ecosystem, it becomes possible to develop new biotechnological approaches for bioremediation use. This paper analyzes 46 different metagenome samples, spanning 20 biomes from different geographies obtained from different research projects. A metagenomics bioinformatics pipeline, focused on the biodegradation and biosurfactant-production pathways, genes and organisms, was applied. Our main results show that: (1) surfactation and degradation are correlated events, and therefore should be studied together; (2) terrestrial biomes present more degradation genes, especially cyclic compounds, and less surfactation genes, when compared to water biomes; and (3) latitude has a significant influence on the diversity of genes involved in biodegradation and biosurfactant production. This suggests that microbiomes found near the equator are richer in genes that have a role in these processes and thus have a higher biotechnological potential. In this work we have focused on the

  18. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  19. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Nieri-Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63 and 66.7% (2/3 of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  20. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-04-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  1. Sensitivity of the Amazon biome to high resolution climate change projections

    OpenAIRE

    LYRA,Andre de Arruda; CHOU,Sin Chan; SAMPAIO,Gilvan de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Despite the reduction in deforestation rate in recent years, the impact of global warming by itself can cause changes in vegetation cover. The objective of this work was to investigate the possible changes on the major Brazilian biome, the Amazon Rainforest, under different climate change scenarios. The dynamic vegetation models may simulate changes in vegetation distribution and the biogeochemical processes due to climate change. Initially, the Inland dynamic vegetation model was f...

  2. Ceracis zarathustrai sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Ciidae) from the Atlantic Forest biome

    OpenAIRE

    Pecci-Maddalena,Ítalo S.C.; Sandoval-Gómez,Vivian Eliana; Lopes-Andrade,Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    Ceracis Mellié, 1849 is the second most speciose genus of Ciidae, with 51 described species. Here we describe Ceracis zarathustrai sp. nov. based on adult individuals collected in three remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome (states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). We provide information on its host fungi and briefly discuss the morphological affinities with other species of the genus.

  3. Ceracis zarathustrai sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Ciidae from the Atlantic Forest biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo S.C. Pecci-Maddalena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceracis Mellié, 1849 is the second most speciose genus of Ciidae, with 51 described species. Here we describe Ceracis zarathustrai sp. nov. based on adult individuals collected in three remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome (states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. We provide information on its host fungi and briefly discuss the morphological affinities with other species of the genus.

  4. Fishes from Parque Estadual de Itapeva, Rio Grande do Sul state, Atlantic Forest biome, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Marco; Bertaco, Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    The ichthyofauna herein presented was collected in streams, lake, and swamps from the Parque Estadual de Itapeva, Rio Mampituba basin. The protected area is located in the northernmost part of the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul state. Samplings resulted in 26 species, in 20 genera, 15 families, and six orders. Two species are listed as threatened and one near threatened in Rio Grande do Sul. This study represents the first fish survey in the protected area, Atlantic Forest biome.

  5. SOIL COVER AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN OXISOL IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST BIOME

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Almeida Bertossi; Paulo Roberto da Rocha Júnior; Paulo Henrique Ribeiro; João Paulo Cunha de Menezes; Roberto Avelino Cecílio; Felipe Vaz Andrade

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical and physical attributes of different soil cover in a Oxisol with a strong wavy relief in the Atlantic Forest Biome, in which were selected three watersheds, employed with grazing (watershed P), forest (watershed M) and coffee (watershed C). Deformed and not deformed samples were collected in three depths for physical and chemical characterization. The chemical characteristics of soil in different watershed studies presented low...

  6. Direct environmental impacts of solar power in two arid biomes: An initial investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Justine Rudman; Paul Gauch; Karen J. Esler

    2017-01-01

    According to recent national energy plans and policy documents, the number of renewable energy developments is expected to increase in South Africa, thus contributing to the diversification of the country’s energy system. Consequently, numerous solar power developments are being deployed in the sunny arid interior – areas generally represented by the Nama-Karoo and Savanna Biomes. These developments come with a range of novel environmental impacts, providing opportunities for multidimensional...

  7. Genetic diversity of bats coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest hotspot biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Campos, Angélica Cristine de Almeida; Carvalho, Cristiano de; Ambar, Guilherme; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo Pereira; Munir, Muhammad; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Bats are notorious reservoirs of genetically-diverse and high-profile pathogens, and are playing crucial roles in the emergence and re-emergence of viruses, both in human and in animals. In this report, we identified and characterized previously unknown and diverse genetic clusters of bat coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest Biome, Brazil. These results highlight the virus richness of bats and their possible roles in the public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The deforestation story: testing for anthropogenic origins of Africa's flammable grassy biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, William; Zaloumis, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Africa has the most extensive C4 grassy biomes of any continent. They are highly flammable accounting for greater than 70% of the world's burnt area. Much of Africa's savannas and grasslands occur in climates warm enough and wet enough to support closed forests. The combination of open grassy systems and the frequent fires they support have long been interpreted as anthropogenic artefacts caused by humans igniting frequent fires. True grasslands, it was believed, would be restricted to climat...

  9. Aura-biomes are present in the water layer above coral reef benthic macro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Walsh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As coral reef habitats decline worldwide, some reefs are transitioning from coral- to algal-dominated benthos with the exact cause for this shift remaining elusive. Increases in the abundance of microbes in the water column has been correlated with an increase in coral disease and reduction in coral cover. Here we investigated how multiple reef organisms influence microbial communities in the surrounding water column. Our study consisted of a field assessment of microbial communities above replicate patches dominated by a single macro-organism. Metagenomes were constructed from 20 L of water above distinct macro-organisms, including (1 the coral Mussismilia braziliensis, (2 fleshy macroalgae (Stypopodium, Dictota and Canistrocarpus, (3 turf algae, and (4 the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum and were compared to the water microbes collected 3 m above the reef. Microbial genera and functional potential were annotated using MG-RAST and showed that the dominant benthic macro-organisms influence the taxa and functions of microbes in the water column surrounding them, developing a specific “aura-biome”. The coral aura-biome reflected the open water column, and was associated with Synechococcus and functions suggesting oligotrophic growth, while the fleshy macroalgae aura-biome was associated with Ruegeria, Pseudomonas, and microbial functions suggesting low oxygen conditions. The turf algae aura-biome was associated with Vibrio, Flavobacterium, and functions suggesting pathogenic activity, while zoanthids were associated with Alteromonas and functions suggesting a stressful environment. Because each benthic organism has a distinct aura-biome, a change in benthic cover will change the microbial community of the water, which may lead to either the stimulation or suppression of the recruitment of benthic organisms.

  10. BiomeNet: a Bayesian model for inference of metabolic divergence among microbial communities.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Shafiei; Katherine A Dunn; Hugh Chipman; Hong Gu; Joseph P Bielawski

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics yields enormous numbers of microbial sequences that can be assigned a metabolic function. Using such data to infer community-level metabolic divergence is hindered by the lack of a suitable statistical framework. Here, we describe a novel hierarchical Bayesian model, called BiomeNet (Bayesian inference of metabolic networks), for inferring differential prevalence of metabolic subnetworks among microbial communities. To infer the structure of community-level metabolic interactions...

  11. A global change-induced biome shift in the Montseny mountains (NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Peñuelas, Josep

    2003-01-01

    Shifts in plant species and biome distribution in response to warming have been described in past climate changes. However, reported evidence of such shifts under current climate change is still scarce. By comparing current and 1945 vegetation distribution in the Montseny mountains (Catalonia, NE Spain), we report here a progressive replacement of cold-temperate ecosystems by Mediterranean ecosystems. Beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest has shifted altitudinally upwards by ca. 70 m at the highest ...

  12. Ethical aspects of biomedical animal experimentation Aspectos éticos de la experimentación biomédica en animales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Estrada

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This article analyzes the ethical aspects of our relationship with animals specially as it concerns their use for biomedical research. A historical view on the subject is given and the opinions of the vivisectionists and antivivisectionists are discussed. Alternatives for the use of animals in biomedical research and toxicity testing are presented. A .complete bibliography is Included for those who want to further explore this subject.

    En el presente artículo se analizan los aspectos éticos de nuestra relación con los animales, con énfasis en la experimentación biomédica en los mismos. Se presenta una revisión histórica del tema y se discuten las opiniones de las dos corrientes, a favor y en contra, que hayal respecto, así como las alternativas para el uso de animales en investigación biomédica y en pruebas de toxicidad. Se incluye una amplia bibliografía que permite profundizar en el tema. 

  13. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond the climate envelope: using trait filtering models to predict biome boundaries from plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R.; Hoffmann, W. A.; Muszala, S.

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of second-generation dynamic vegetation models - which simulate the distribution of light resources between plant types along the vertical canopy profile, and therefore facilitate the representation of plant competition explicitly - is a large increase in the complexity and fidelity with which the terrestrial biosphere is abstracted into Earth System Models. In this new class of model, biome boundaries are predicted as the emergent properties of plant physiology, and are therefore sensitive to the high-dimensional parameterizations of plant functional traits. These new approaches offer the facility to quantitatively test ecophysiological hypotheses of plant distribution at large scales, a field which remains surprisingly under-developed. Here we describe experiments conducted with the Community Land Model Ecosystem Demography component, CLM(ED), in which we reduce the complexity of the problem by testing how individual plant functional trait changes to control the location of biome boundaries between functional types. Specifically, we investigate which physiological trade-offs determine the boundary between frequently burned savanna and forest biomes, and attempt to distinguish how each strategic life-history trade-off (carbon storage, bark investment, re-sprouting strategy) contributes towards the maintenance of sharp geographical gradients between fire adapted and typically inflammable closed canopy ecosystems. This study forms part of the planning for a model-inspired fire manipulation experiment at the cerrado-forest boundary in South-Eastern Brazil, and the results will be used to guide future data-collection and analysis strategies.

  15. Federal Conservation Units in Brazil: The Situation of Biomes and Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pacca Luna Mattar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Federal conservation units (FCU are areas legally established by the government, in order to meet the needs of protection and sustainable exploitation of biodiversity. A way to ensure the efficiency of public management is to systematize data. Therefore, the present study grouped and analyzed public data about FCU. Brazil has 309 federal conservation units, which represent 9.06% of the national territory and 45305 residents households. The Northern Region covers 84.80% of these families and 79.20% of its area belongs to FCU. The Amazônia biome has 14.57% of its territory occupied by FCU; on the other hand, Pantanal has only 0.98% of its area protected. There is a higher concentration of public agents in the FCU of the Southeastern region and in the Mata Atlântica biome. The analysis of this information reveals significant differences between the biomes and the federation units, a fact that reflects the importance of the organization of public data.

  16. Diversity and molecular characterization of novel hemoplasmas infecting wild rodents from different Brazilian biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Matos, Carlos Antonio; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; Olmos, Isabella Delamain Fernandez; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2015-12-01

    Although hemoplasma infection in domestic animals has been well documented, little is known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of these bacteria in wild rodents. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in wild rodents from five Brazilian biomes, assessing the 16S rRNA phylogenetic position of hemoplasma species by molecular approach. Spleen tissues were obtained from 500 rodents, comprising 52 different rodent species trapped between 2000 and 2011. DNA samples were submitted to previously described PCR protocols for amplifying Mycoplasma spp. based on 16S rRNA, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic inferences. Among 457 rodent spleen samples showing absence of inhibitors, 100 (21.9%) were PCR positive to Mycoplasma spp. The occurrence of hemotropic mycoplasmas among all sampled rodents was demonstrated in all five biomes and ranged from 9.3% (7/75) to 26.2% (38/145). The Blastn analysis showed that amplified sequences had a percentage of identity ranging from 86 to 99% with other murine hemoplasmas. The ML phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene of 24 positive randomly selected samples showed the presence of ten distinct groups, all clustering within the Mycoplasma haemofelis. The phylogenetic assessment suggests the circulation of novel hemoplasma species in rodents from different biomes in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global negative vegetation feedback to climate warming responses of leaf litter decomposition rates in cold biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Johannes H C; van Bodegom, Peter M; Aerts, Rien; Callaghan, Terry V; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Alatalo, Juha; Chapin, F Stuart; Gerdol, Renato; Gudmundsson, Jon; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Hartley, Anne E; Hik, David S; Hofgaard, Annika; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Karlsson, Staffan; Klein, Julia A; Laundre, Jim; Magnusson, Borgthor; Michelsen, Anders; Molau, Ulf; Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Quested, Helen M; Sandvik, Sylvi M; Schmidt, Inger K; Shaver, Gus R; Solheim, Bjørn; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Stenström, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Wada, Naoya; Welker, Jeffrey M; Zhao, Xinquan

    2007-07-01

    Whether climate change will turn cold biomes from large long-term carbon sinks into sources is hotly debated because of the great potential for ecosystem-mediated feedbacks to global climate. Critical are the direction, magnitude and generality of climate responses of plant litter decomposition. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of the major climate-change-related drivers of litter decomposition rates in cold northern biomes worldwide. Leaf litters collected from the predominant species in 33 global change manipulation experiments in circum-arctic-alpine ecosystems were incubated simultaneously in two contrasting arctic life zones. We demonstrate that longer-term, large-scale changes to leaf litter decomposition will be driven primarily by both direct warming effects and concomitant shifts in plant growth form composition, with a much smaller role for changes in litter quality within species. Specifically, the ongoing warming-induced expansion of shrubs with recalcitrant leaf litter across cold biomes would constitute a negative feedback to global warming. Depending on the strength of other (previously reported) positive feedbacks of shrub expansion on soil carbon turnover, this may partly counteract direct warming enhancement of litter decomposition.

  18. Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, Mary A; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Penillard, Aurore; Egerton, John J G; Creek, Danielle; Bloomfield, Keith J; Xiang, Jen; Sinca, Felipe; Stangl, Zsofia R; Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Griffin, Kevin L; Huntingford, Chris; Hurry, Vaughan; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2016-04-05

    Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration-temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates.

  19. Intrinsic climate dependency of ecosystem light and water-use-efficiencies across Australian biomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Hao; Li, Longhui; Eamus, Derek; Cleverly, James; Huete, Alfredo; Yu, Qiang; Beringer, Jason; Van Gorsel, Eva; Hutley, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) to availability of water and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) differs among biomes. Here we investigated variations of ecosystem light-use-efficiency (eLUE: GPP/PAR) and water-use-efficiency (eWUE: GPP/evapotranspiration) among seven Australian eddy covariance sites with differing annual precipitation, species composition and temperature. Changes to both eLUE and eWUE were primarily correlated with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at multiple temporal scales across biomes, with minor additional correlations observed with soil moisture and temperature. The effects of leaf area index on eLUE and eWUE were also relatively weak compared to VPD, indicating an intrinsic dependency of eLUE and eWUE on climate. Additionally, eLUE and eWUE were statistically different for biomes between summer and winter, except eWUE for savannas and the grassland. These findings will improve our understanding of how light- and water-use traits in Australian ecosystems may respond to climate change. (letter)

  20. Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, Mary A.; O’Sullivan, Odhran S.; Reich, Peter B.; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Penillard, Aurore; Egerton, John J. G.; Creek, Danielle; Bloomfield, Keith J.; Xiang, Jen; Sinca, Felipe; Stangl, Zsofia R.; Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Griffin, Kevin L.; Huntingford, Chris; Hurry, Vaughan; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H.; Atkin, Owen K.

    2016-01-01

    Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration–temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates. PMID:27001849

  1. Modelling the carbon budget of intensive forest monitoring sites in Germany using the simulation model BIOME-BGC

    OpenAIRE

    Jochheim, H.; Puhlmann, M.; Beese, F.; Berthold, D.; Einert, P.; Kallweit, R.; Konopatzky, A.; Meesenburg, H.; Meiwes, K.-J.; Raspe, S.; Schulte-Bisping, H.; Schulz, C.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that by calibrating the simulation model BIOME-BGC with mandatory and optional Level II data, within the ICP Forest programme, a well-founded calculation of the carbon budget of forest stands is achievable and, based on succeeded calibration, the modified BIOME-BGC model is a useful tool to assess the effect of climate change on forest ecosystems. peerReviewed

  2. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF NATIVE PLANTS FROM THE CAATINGA BIOME AGAINST Staphylococcus spp. ISOLATES FROM SMALL RUMINANTS WITH MASTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    PEIXOTO, RODOLFO DE MORAES; SILVA, WELLINGTON ERASMO LIMA E; ALMEIDA, JACKSON ROBERTO GUEDES SILVA; BRANCO, ALEXSANDRO; COSTA, MATEUS MATIUZZI DA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to assess the antibacterial potential of plants from the Caatinga biome of the semi-arid region of Pernambuco, against Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of subclinical mastitis in small ruminants, such as goats and ewes. Ethanolic extracts of the following plants from the Caatinga biome were used: Encholirium spectabile Mart., Bromelia laciniosa Mart., Neoglaziovia variegata Mez., Amburana cearensis (Fr. Allem.) A. C. Smith, Hymenaea martiana Hay...

  3. Key Edaphic Properties Largely Explain Temporal and Geographic Variation in Soil Microbial Communities across Four Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, Hannah M.; Espinosa, Noelle; Gebhardt, Martha; Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; Gutknecht, Jessica L. M.; Maes, Patrick W.; Mott, Brendon M.; Parnell, John Jacob; Purdy, Gayle; Rodrigues, Pedro A. P.; Stanish, Lee F.; Walser, Olivia N.

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play a critical role in nutrient transformation and storage in all ecosystems. Quantifying the seasonal and long-term temporal extent of genetic and functional variation of soil microorganisms in response to biotic and abiotic changes within and across ecosystems will inform our understanding of the effect of climate change on these processes. We examined spatial and seasonal variation in microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition across four biomes: a tropical broadleaf forest (Hawaii), taiga (Alaska), semiarid grassland-shrubland (Utah), and a subtropical coniferous forest (Florida). In this study, we used a team-based instructional approach leveraging the iPlant Collaborative to examine publicly available National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) 16S gene and PLFA measurements that quantify microbial diversity, composition, and growth. Both profiling techniques revealed that microbial communities grouped strongly by ecosystem and were predominately influenced by three edaphic factors: pH, soil water content, and cation exchange capacity. Temporal variability of microbial communities differed by profiling technique; 16S-based community measurements showed significant temporal variability only in the subtropical coniferous forest communities, specifically through changes within subgroups of Acidobacteria. Conversely, PLFA-based community measurements showed seasonal shifts in taiga and tropical broadleaf forest systems. These differences may be due to the premise that 16S-based measurements are predominantly influenced by large shifts in the abiotic soil environment, while PLFA-based analyses reflect the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community, which is more sensitive to local disturbances and biotic interactions. To address the technical issue of the response of soil microbial communities to sample storage temperature, we compared 16S-based community

  4. Key Edaphic Properties Largely Explain Temporal and Geographic Variation in Soil Microbial Communities across Four Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Kathryn M; Borton, Hannah M; Espinosa, Noelle; Gebhardt, Martha; Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; Gutknecht, Jessica L M; Maes, Patrick W; Mott, Brendon M; Parnell, John Jacob; Purdy, Gayle; Rodrigues, Pedro A P; Stanish, Lee F; Walser, Olivia N; Gallery, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play a critical role in nutrient transformation and storage in all ecosystems. Quantifying the seasonal and long-term temporal extent of genetic and functional variation of soil microorganisms in response to biotic and abiotic changes within and across ecosystems will inform our understanding of the effect of climate change on these processes. We examined spatial and seasonal variation in microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition across four biomes: a tropical broadleaf forest (Hawaii), taiga (Alaska), semiarid grassland-shrubland (Utah), and a subtropical coniferous forest (Florida). In this study, we used a team-based instructional approach leveraging the iPlant Collaborative to examine publicly available National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) 16S gene and PLFA measurements that quantify microbial diversity, composition, and growth. Both profiling techniques revealed that microbial communities grouped strongly by ecosystem and were predominately influenced by three edaphic factors: pH, soil water content, and cation exchange capacity. Temporal variability of microbial communities differed by profiling technique; 16S-based community measurements showed significant temporal variability only in the subtropical coniferous forest communities, specifically through changes within subgroups of Acidobacteria. Conversely, PLFA-based community measurements showed seasonal shifts in taiga and tropical broadleaf forest systems. These differences may be due to the premise that 16S-based measurements are predominantly influenced by large shifts in the abiotic soil environment, while PLFA-based analyses reflect the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community, which is more sensitive to local disturbances and biotic interactions. To address the technical issue of the response of soil microbial communities to sample storage temperature, we compared 16S-based community

  5. Key Edaphic Properties Largely Explain Temporal and Geographic Variation in Soil Microbial Communities across Four Biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Docherty

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities play a critical role in nutrient transformation and storage in all ecosystems. Quantifying the seasonal and long-term temporal extent of genetic and functional variation of soil microorganisms in response to biotic and abiotic changes within and across ecosystems will inform our understanding of the effect of climate change on these processes. We examined spatial and seasonal variation in microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA composition across four biomes: a tropical broadleaf forest (Hawaii, taiga (Alaska, semiarid grassland-shrubland (Utah, and a subtropical coniferous forest (Florida. In this study, we used a team-based instructional approach leveraging the iPlant Collaborative to examine publicly available National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON 16S gene and PLFA measurements that quantify microbial diversity, composition, and growth. Both profiling techniques revealed that microbial communities grouped strongly by ecosystem and were predominately influenced by three edaphic factors: pH, soil water content, and cation exchange capacity. Temporal variability of microbial communities differed by profiling technique; 16S-based community measurements showed significant temporal variability only in the subtropical coniferous forest communities, specifically through changes within subgroups of Acidobacteria. Conversely, PLFA-based community measurements showed seasonal shifts in taiga and tropical broadleaf forest systems. These differences may be due to the premise that 16S-based measurements are predominantly influenced by large shifts in the abiotic soil environment, while PLFA-based analyses reflect the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community, which is more sensitive to local disturbances and biotic interactions. To address the technical issue of the response of soil microbial communities to sample storage temperature, we compared 16S

  6. Interactive remote medical curriculum through creative technology integration - biomed 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, Brent; Waite, Gabi

    2013-01-01

    By combining traditional classroom instruction with web-based educational technologies, distance education has been a reality for many years. However, limitations remain in established technologies that restrict the types of courses offered through this medium. This was the motivation for the Interactive Remote Course Delivery (IRCD) system at the Indiana University School of Medicine and our work aimed to overcome these limitations in order to allow a more interactive learning experience. What began as a need to deliver an interactive remote physiology course spurred several developments that may have the power to change the ways in which people learn, collaborate and communicate remotely. The result of extensive research brought stimulating discoveries leading to a new approach integrating separate technologies, including the combination of web-based collaborative software Adobe Connect with Polycom videoconferencing. By experimenting with the integration of these technologies we have enhanced the level of interactivity allowing the medical school curriculum to be delivered remotely.

  7. Profile of central research and application laboratory of Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türkoğlu, Emir Alper, E-mail: eaturkoglu@yandex.com [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Ağrı (Turkey); Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Central Research and Application Laboratory, Ağrı (Turkey); Kurt, Murat, E-mail: muratkurt60@hotmail.com; Tabay, Dilruba, E-mail: dtabay@agri.edu.tr [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Central Research and Application Laboratory, Ağrı (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University built a central research and application laboratory (CRAL) in the east of Turkey. The CRAL possesses 7 research and analysis laboratories, 12 experts and researchers, 8 standard rooms for guest researchers, a restaurant, a conference hall, a meeting room, a prey room and a computer laboratory. The CRAL aims certain collaborations between researchers, experts, clinicians and educators in the areas of biotechnology, bioimagining, food safety & quality, omic sciences such as genomics, proteomics and metallomics. It also intends to develop sustainable solutions in agriculture and animal husbandry, promote public health quality, collect scientific knowledge and keep it for future generations, contribute scientific awareness of all stratums of society, provide consulting for small initiatives and industries. It has been collaborated several scientific foundations since 2011.

  8. Profile of central research and application laboratory of Aǧrı İbrahim Çeçen University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoǧlu, Emir Alper; Kurt, Murat; Tabay, Dilruba

    2016-04-01

    Aǧrı İbrahim Çeçen University built a central research and application laboratory (CRAL) in the east of Turkey. The CRAL possesses 7 research and analysis laboratories, 12 experts and researchers, 8 standard rooms for guest researchers, a restaurant, a conference hall, a meeting room, a prey room and a computer laboratory. The CRAL aims certain collaborations between researchers, experts, clinicians and educators in the areas of biotechnology, bioimagining, food safety & quality, omic sciences such as genomics, proteomics and metallomics. It also intends to develop sustainable solutions in agriculture and animal husbandry, promote public health quality, collect scientific knowledge and keep it for future generations, contribute scientific awareness of all stratums of society, provide consulting for small initiatives and industries. It has been collaborated several scientific foundations since 2011.

  9. Profile of central research and application laboratory of Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Türkoğlu, Emir Alper; Kurt, Murat; Tabay, Dilruba

    2016-01-01

    Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University built a central research and application laboratory (CRAL) in the east of Turkey. The CRAL possesses 7 research and analysis laboratories, 12 experts and researchers, 8 standard rooms for guest researchers, a restaurant, a conference hall, a meeting room, a prey room and a computer laboratory. The CRAL aims certain collaborations between researchers, experts, clinicians and educators in the areas of biotechnology, bioimagining, food safety & quality, omic sciences such as genomics, proteomics and metallomics. It also intends to develop sustainable solutions in agriculture and animal husbandry, promote public health quality, collect scientific knowledge and keep it for future generations, contribute scientific awareness of all stratums of society, provide consulting for small initiatives and industries. It has been collaborated several scientific foundations since 2011.

  10. Emerging Areas in Research on Higher Education for Sustainable Development:Management education, sustainable consumption and perspectives from Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Adomßent, Maik; Fischer, Daniel; Godemann, Jasmin; Otte, Insa; Rieckmann, Marco; Timm, Jana-Michaela; Herzig, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Management education for sustainable development, sustainable consumption in higher education institutions, and higher education for sustainable development in Central and Eastern Europe can be considered as three highly relevant emerging areas in research on higher education for sustainable development. The transformation of management education to meet the increasing societal demands for responsible business has been reinforced in the light of the current economic situation. In this context...

  11. [The "Instituto de Salud Carlos III" and the public health in Spain. Origin of laboratory medicine and of the central laboratories and research in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera Morrondo, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    The "Instituto de Salud Carlos III" is the Central Public Health Laboratory in Spain with an important component of scientific research in health related areas, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases and environmental health. The article describes the development of the Public Health Institutes. arising from the introduction and development of scientific and laboratory based medicine and the introduction of vaccination and sanitation with the control of water and food. At about the same time, the discoveries in microbiology and immunology were produced, being the research activities incardinated with the practical advances in the control of products. To cope with the practical needs, Institutions were created with the responsibility of providing smallpox vaccine but incorporating very soon production of sera and other vaccines and water and sanitation control and foods control. At the same time. colonization of countries specially in Africa, South East Asia and explorations in Central America confront the Europeans with new diseases and the need of laboratories where to study them. These circumstances gave rise to the birth of the Central Public Health Laboratories and the National institutes of Health at the beginning of the XX century in many countries. In Spain, the Spanish Civil War was a breaking point in the development of such an institution that finally was reinvented with the creation of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, in 1986, incorporating research and epidemiological surveillance and control of diseases and also the responsibilities of the Food and Drug Control, lately separated from it.

  12. Forest meteorology research within the Oak Ridge site, eastern deciduous forest biome, USIBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Matt, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The data presented here indicate that the diurnal trends in forest microclimate are dominated by the diurnal trend in incident solar radiation amounts and the diurnal changes in solar elevations. Absolute values of these microclimatic variables, on the other hand, reflect strongly, the synoptic climatic conditions present and, to a lesser degree, the interactions among synoptic climatic parameters, forest structure, forest physiology, and soil moisture conditions. The seasonal changes in forest microclimate are the result of changes in incident radiation amounts, earth-sun geometry, and phenological change in forest structure along with seasonal changes in synoptic climatic parameters. The temporal and spatial variations of solar radiation within and above a deciduous forest composed predominately of tulip poplar (biriodendron tulipifera) were documented and on attempt was made to relate the variations to forest structure

  13. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested

  14. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus carcasses, and the experiments were conducted in areas of pasture and semideciduous forest. A total of 85,694 adult flesh flies belonging to 57 species were collected from all carcasses. New records for nine species of Sarcophaginae are provided, including the first record of Blaesoxipha (Acridiophaga caridei (Brèthes, 1906 to Brazil, and new occurrences of the following species for the Cerrado and/or for the state of Minas Gerais: Blaesoxipha (Acanthodotheca acridiophagoides (Lopes & Downs, 1951, Malacophagomyia filamenta (Dodge, 1964, Nephochaetopteryx orbitalis (Curran & Walley, 1934, Nephochaetopteryx cyaneiventris Lopes, 1936, Nephochaetopteryx pallidiventris Townsend, 1934, Oxysarcodexia occulta Lopes, 1946, Ravinia effrenata (Walker, 1861 and Sarcophaga (Neobellieria polistensis (Hall, 1933.

  15. Fabricación y propiedades del carburo de silicio biomórfico: maderas cerámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela Feria, F. M.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the fabrication of materials with biomorphic microstructure. In particular, the fabrication of biomorphic ceramics would be of high interest because its high-temperature structural applications. The ceramics presented in this research were fabricated by the pyrolysis and infiltration with molten silicon of wood preforms. The final product is SiC with the same microstructure of the wood precursor. Wood is a natural composite that present an anisotropic porous microstructure with excellent elasticity, strength, and damage tolerance. Some of this properties will remain improved in the ceramic product. Biomorphic ceramics reach high strengths (700 MPa at 1150 oC for biomorphic SiC made from eucalyptus wood. The influence of the wood precursor and fabrication process in the mechanical and microstructural properties has been studied. The correlation microstructure-mechanical properties is discussed, as well as the application of the cellular theory of solids.

    En los últimos años se ha puesto de manifiesto un considerable interés en la fabricación y optimización de materiales de microestructura biomórfica. En particular, la fabricación de cerámicas biomórficas es especialmente importante ya que éstas pueden ser utilizadas en aplicaciones estructurales a temperaturas elevadas. Los materiales objeto de esta investigación se fabrican mediante la pirólisis e infiltración de silicio fundido en preformas de madera. El resultado final es SiC con la misma microestructura que la madera precursora. La madera es un material natural compuesto que presenta una morfología porosa anisotrópica con una excelente elasticidad, resistencia y tolerancia al daño; algunas de estas propiedades se trasladarán y amplificarán al pasar a la cerámica que se elabora a partir de la misma. Se ha estudiado la influencia de la madera seleccionada y el proceso de fabricación en las propiedades mecánicas y microestructurales

  16. Bi-annual report 1994-1995. Research and operational activities of Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    BI-annual report of Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Warsaw, shows its activities in 1994-1995. The general information and organization of CLOR have been performed in the opening part of the report. The second part contains extended abstracts of scientific activities especially in: environmental radioactivity monitoring, supervision and control of the users of radioactive sources, dosimetry problems, calibration and standardization of dosimetric equipment, radiobiology and radiological hazard assessment. The report also includes the full list of publications of CLOR scientific staff issued in the period of 1994-1995

  17. Bi-annual report 1992-1993. Operational and research activities of Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    Bi-annual report of Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Warsaw shows its activities in 1992-1993. The general information and organization of CLOR have been shown in the first part of the report. The second part contains extended abstracts of scientific activity, especially in: environmental radioactivity monitoring, supervision and control of the users of radioactive sources, personal dosimetry, calibration and periodical control of dosimetric equipment, radiobiology and radiological hazard assessment. The report also includes the full list of publications of scientists of CLOR issued in the period of 1992-1993.

  18. Bi-annual report 1992-1993. Operational and research activities of Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Bi-annual report of Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Warsaw shows its activities in 1992-1993. The general information and organization of CLOR have been shown in the first part of the report. The second part contains extended abstracts of scientific activity, especially in: environmental radioactivity monitoring, supervision and control of the users of radioactive sources, personal dosimetry, calibration and periodical control of dosimetric equipment, radiobiology and radiological hazard assessment. The report also includes the full list of publications of scientists of CLOR issued in the period of 1992-1993

  19. A Research on a Certain Family of Numbers and Polynomials Related to Stirling Numbers, Central Factorial Numbers, and Euler Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many mathematicians have studied different kinds of the Euler, Bernoulli, and Genocchi numbers and polynomials. In this paper, we give another definition of polynomials Ũn(x. We observe an interesting phenomenon of “scattering” of the zeros of the polynomials Ũn(x in complex plane. We find out some identities and properties related to polynomials Ũn(x. Finally, we also derive interesting relations between polynomials Ũn(x, Stirling numbers, central factorial numbers, and Euler numbers.

  20. Bi-annual report 1994-1995. Research and operational activities of Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    BI-annual report of Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Warsaw, shows its activities in 1994-1995. The general information and organization of CLOR have been performed in the opening part of the report. The second part contains extended abstracts of scientific activities especially in: environmental radioactivity monitoring, supervision and control of the users of radioactive sources, dosimetry problems, calibration and standardization of dosimetric equipment, radiobiology and radiological hazard assessment. The report also includes the full list of publications of CLOR scientific staff issued in the period of 1994-1995.

  1. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, V D; Tornquist, C G; Bayer, C

    2012-08-01

    The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.

  2. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino R. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.

  3. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Gonçalves Morato

    Full Text Available The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1 to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2 to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs, 3 to design corridors among priority areas, and 4 to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU. Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1 as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7 desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  4. Global soil-climate-biome diagram: linking soil properties to climate and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Yang, Y.; Fang, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a critical component of the Earth system, soils interact strongly with both climate and biota and provide fundamental ecosystem services that maintain food, climate, and human security. Despite significant progress in digital soil mapping techniques and the rapidly growing quantity of observed soil information, quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale remain unclear. By compiling a large global soil database, we mapped seven major soil properties (bulk density [BD]; sand, silt and clay fractions; soil pH; soil organic carbon [SOC] density [SOCD]; and soil total nitrogen [STN] density [STND]) based on machine learning algorithms (regional random forest [RF] model) and quantitatively assessed the linkage between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale. Our results demonstrated a global soil-climate-biome diagram, which improves our understanding of the strong correspondence between soils, climate and biomes. Soil pH decreased with greater mean annual precipitation (MAP) and lower mean annual temperature (MAT), and the critical MAP for the transition from alkaline to acidic soil pH decreased with decreasing MAT. Specifically, the critical MAP ranged from 400-500 mm when the MAT exceeded 10 °C but could decrease to 50-100 mm when the MAT was approximately 0 °C. SOCD and STND were tightly linked; both increased in accordance with lower MAT and higher MAP across terrestrial biomes. Global stocks of SOC and STN were estimated to be 788 ± 39.4 Pg (1015 g, or billion tons) and 63 ± 3.3 Pg in the upper 30-cm soil layer, respectively, but these values increased to 1654 ± 94.5 Pg and 133 ± 7.8 Pg in the upper 100-cm soil layer, respectively. These results reveal quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale, suggesting co-evolution of the soil, climate and biota under conditions of global environmental change.

  5. Morphofunctional diversity of equine of varied genetic compositions raised in the Pantanal biome of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Marcos Paulo Gonçalves; de Souza, Julio Cesar; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Bozzi, Riccardo; Jardim, Rodrigo Jose Delgado; Malhado, Carlos Henrique Mendes

    2018-02-07

    Evaluating phenotypic diversity makes it possible to identify discrepancies in aptitudes among animals of different genetic bases, which is an indicator of adaptive or selective differences between populations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphofunctional diversity of 452 male and female adult equines (Arabian, Quarter Mile, Pantaneiro, and Criollo breeds, and undefined crossbreeds of horses and mules) raised in the Pantanal biome (Brazil). Linear measurements were performed to estimate conformation indexes. Initially, a discriminant analysis was performed, regardless of the animal's size, followed by factor analysis. The factors were characterized and used as new variables. The diversity among equines and their relationship with the factors were evaluated using multivariate analysis. The factors were classified according to their decreasing importance: balance, rusticity, and robustness for the measurement factors; and load, ability, conformation, and equilibrium for the index factors. The genetic groups of equines have well-defined morphofunctional characteristics. The main differences are based on the rusticity and ability typologies in relation to those based on performance. Equines introduced to the Pantanal biome presented a more robust and compact body with good conformation. As a result, these horses may have superior athletic performance during equestrian activities when compared to the Pantaneiro local breed. However, this biotype may represent less rusticity (less adaptive capacity). Therefore, the regional breed can be equal or better in equestrian activities than breeds introduced to the Pantanal biome. Thus, breeders may cross horses from local breeds as an alternative to those introduced. Undefined crossbred male equines presented a different profile from the Pantaneiro breed, which may indicate little use of crossbreeds in breeding.

  6. How the Social-Ecological Systems Concept Can Guide Transdisciplinary Research and Implementation: Addressing Water Challenges in Central Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Liehr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at contributing to the further development of integrated water resources management needs to tackle complex challenges at the interface of nature and society. A case study in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia has shown how semi-arid conditions coinciding with high population density and urbanisation present a risk to people’s livelihoods and ecosystem health. In order to increase water security and promote sustainable water management, there is a requirement for problem-oriented research approaches combined with a new way of thinking about water in order to generate evidence-based, adapted solutions. Transdisciplinary research in particular addresses this issue by focusing on the problems that arise when society interacts with nature. This article presents the implementation of a transdisciplinary research approach in the above-mentioned case study. The concept of social-ecological systems (SES plays a key role in operationalising the transdisciplinary research process. Application of the SES concept helps to outline the problem by defining the epistemic object, as well as structure the research process itself in terms of formulating research questions and developing the research design. It is argued here that the SES concept is not merely useful, but also necessary for guiding transdisciplinary sustainability research and implementation. The study from Namibia clearly demonstrates that the introduction of technological innovations such as rainwater and floodwater harvesting plants requires a social-ecological perspective. In particular this means considering questions around knowledge, practices and institutions related to water resources management and includes various societal innovations alongside technologies on the agenda.

  7. Towards Food Security and Livelihoods of Low-income Women in central Uganda: Policy Implications based on action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom; Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2015-01-01

    these constraints into opportunities for women by reflecting on how they can mitigate risks, adapt to climatic challenges and find alternative coping strategies, but suggests that policy options to enhance food security need to respond to the integrated framework of the issues. Additionally, this paper posits......Uganda is burdened with rising poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity. While most Ugandans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, it is important to recognize that access to and control over resources by women and climate factors are central to the question of food security in Uganda....... However, a review of the literature demonstrates that policy options have poorly understood these interlinkages or tended to undermine them, especially the extent that these policies and programs put the necessary attention on the role of women farmers in food security. This paper presents part of a work...

  8. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  9. Characterizing forest carbon stocks at tropical biome and landscape level in Mount Apo National Park, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubas, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Forest resources sequester and store carbon, and serve as a natural brake on climate change. In the tropics, the largest source of greenhouse emission is from deforestation and forest degradation (Gibbs et al 2007). This paper attempts to compile sixty (60) existing studies on using remote sensing to measure key environmental forest indicators at two levels of scales: biome and landscape level. At the tropical forest biome level, there is not as much remote sensing studies that have been done as compared to other forest biomes. Also, existing studies on tropical Asia is still sparse compared to other tropical regions in Latin America and Africa. Biomass map is also produced for the tropical biome using keyhole macro language (KML) which is projected on Google Earth. The compiled studies showed there are four indicators being measured using remote sensors in tropical forest. These are biomass, landcover classification, deforestation and cloud cover. The landscape level will focus on Mount Apo National Park in the Philippines which is encompassing a total area of 54,974.87 hectares. It is one of the ten priority sites targeted in the World Bank-assisted Biodiversity Conservation Program. This park serves as the major watershed for the three provinces with 19 major rivers emanating from the montane formations. Only a small fraction of the natural forest that once covered the country remains. In spite of different policies that aim to reduce logging recent commercial deforestation, illegal logging and agricultural expansion pose an important threat to the remaining forest areas. In some locations in the country, these hotspots of deforestation overlap with the protected areas (Verburg et al 2006). The study site was clipped using ArcGIS from the forest biomass carbon density map produced by Gibbs and Brown (2007). Characterization on this national park using vegetation density, elevation, slope, land cover and precipitation will be conducted to determine factors that

  10. Desenvolvimento de revestimentos autolubrificantes para vedantes em borracha de componentes biomédicos

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Mariana Borges da Silva

    2014-01-01

    No âmbito dos materiais biomédicos que utilizam a borracha como vedante, é importante que a função que estes apresentam de estancar líquidos não seja perdida, mas atuem de forma eficaz, demonstrando um baixo coeficiente de atrito durante o contacto com outra superfície. É então que surge este projeto e a ideia de aplicar um revestimento fino auto-lubrificante sobre as borrachas de modo a melhorar a sua ação, como no caso da aplicação em seringas. Foram realizadas diferentes ...

  11. Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data: a general method and its application to European pollen data at 0 and 6 ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, I.C. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology; Guiot, J. [Lab. de Botanique Historique et Palynologie, CNRS, Marseille (France); Huntley, B. [Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Jolly, D. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology; Cheddadi, R. [European Pollen Data Base, Centre Universitaire d`Arles (France)

    1996-02-01

    Biome models allow the results of experiments with atmospheric general circulation models to be translated into global maps of potential natural vegetation. The use of biome models as a diagnostic tool for palaeoclimate simulations can yield maps that are directly comparable with palaeoecological (pollen and plant macrofossil) records provided these records are ``biomized``, i.e. assigned to biomes in a consistent way. This article describes a method for the objective biomization of pollen samples based on fuzzy logic. Pollen types (taxa) are assigned to one or more plant functional types (PFTs), then affinity scores are calculated for each biome in turn based on its list of characteristic PFTs. The pollen sample is assigned to the biome to which it has the highest affinity, subject to a tie-breaking rule. Modern pollen data from surface samples, reflecting present vegetation across Europe, are used to validate the method. Pollen data from dated sediment cores are then used to reconstruct European vegetation patterns for 6 ka. The reconstruction shows systematic differences from present that are consistent with previous interpretations. The method has proved robust with respect to human impacts on vegetation, and provides a rational way to interpret combinations of pollen types that do not have present-day analogs. The method demands minimal prior information and is therefore equally suitable for use in other regions with richer floras, and/or lower densities of available modern and fossil pollen samples, than Europe. (orig.). With 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Rodolfo L B; Guzha, Alphonce C; Lamparter, Gabriele; Amorim, Ricardo S S; Couto, Eduardo G; Hughes, Harold J; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Gerold, Gerhard

    2018-04-14

    Studies on the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in active deforestation zones of the Amazon agricultural frontier are limited and have often used low-temporal-resolution datasets. Moreover, these impacts are not concurrently assessed in well-established agricultural areas and new deforestations hotspots. We aimed to identify these impacts using an experimental setup to collect high-temporal-resolution hydrological and hydrochemical data in two pairs of low-order streams in catchments under contrasting land use and land cover (native vegetation vs. pasture) in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Our results indicate that the conversion of natural landscapes to pastures increases carbon and nutrient fluxes via streamflow in both biomes. These changes were the greatest in total inorganic carbon in the Amazon and in potassium in the Cerrado, representing a 5.0- and 5.5-fold increase in the fluxes of each biome, respectively. We found that stormflow, which is often neglected in studies on stream hydrochemistry in the tropics, plays a substantial role in the carbon and nutrient fluxes, especially in the Amazon biome, as its contributions to hydrochemical fluxes are mostly greater than the volumetric contribution to the total streamflow. These findings demonstrate that assessments of the impacts of deforestation in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes should also take into account rapid hydrological pathways; however, this can only be achieved through collection of high-temporal-resolution data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Formative Research to Design a Promotional Campaign to Increase Drinking Water among Central American Latino Youth in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Nicole; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Elkins, Allison; Rivera, Ivonne; Evans, W Douglas; Edberg, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Latinos consume more sugary drinks and less water than other demographic groups. Our objective was to understand beverage choice motivations and test promotional concepts that can encourage Central American Latino urban youth to drink more water. Two rounds of focus group discussions were conducted (n = 10 focus groups, 61 participants, 6-18 years old). Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive and deductive coding approaches. Youth motivations for drinking water were shaped by level of thirst, weather, energy, and perceptions of health benefits. Youth were discouraged from drinking water due to its taste and perceptions of the safety and cleanliness of tap water. Youth beverage preference depended on what their friends were drinking. Availability of water versus other beverages at home and other settings influenced their choice. Promotional materials that included mixed language, informative messages about the benefits of drinking water, and celebrities or athletes who were active, energized, and drinking water were preferred. A promotional campaign to increase water consumption among these Latino youth should include bicultural messages to underscore the power of water to quench true thirst, highlight the health benefits of drinking water, and address the safety of tap water.

  14. Research Activities in Support of High-Resolution Land Cover Mapping in the North Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Agroforestry Strategic Framework and the 2014 Farm Bill call for inventory and monitoring of agroforestry practices; however, collecting such data over very large non-forested areas is costly. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station has addressed this challenge by forming a targeted task team whose primary purpose is to...

  15. A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatto, David; Hauser, Charles; Jones, Christopher J.; Paetkau, Don; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Dunbar, David; MacKinnon, Christy; Stamm, Joyce; Alvarez, Consuelo; Barnard, Daron; Bedard, James E. J.; Bednarski, April E.; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John M.; Burg, Martin; Chung, Hui-Min; DeJong, Randall J.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Emerson, Julia; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T.; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Johnson, Diana; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Kokan, Nighat P.; Kopp, Olga R.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Lopilato, Jane; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan C.; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Parrish, Susan; Preuss, Mary L.; Reed, Laura D.; Regisford, E. Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklien-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Rubin, Michael R.; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim A.; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D.; Smith, Mary; Smith, Sheryl T.; Spana, Eric P.; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine; Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Threlfall, Jennifer; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

    2014-01-01

    In their 2012 report, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated "replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses"--a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the…

  16. Evolution of seed dispersal in the Cerrado biome: ecological and phylogenetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Kuhlmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The investigation of the phylogeny of a group of organisms has the potential to identify ecological and evolutionary processes that have been occurring within a community. Seed dispersal is a key process in the life cycle of vegetation and reflects different reproductive strategies of plants to a set of ecological and evolutionary factors. Knowing the dispersal syndromes and fruits types of a plant community may help elucidate plant-animal interactions and colonization strategies of plants. We investigated dispersal syndromes and fruit types in Cerrado formations as a parameter for understanding the evolution of angiosperm reproductive strategies in this mega-diverse tropical biome. To do this we identified and mapped the distribution of different parameters associated with seed dispersal on a phylogeny of Cerrado angiosperms genera and tested the presence of phylogenetic signal. The results showed that there were strong relationships between fruit types, seed dispersal strategies and vegetation life forms and that these traits were closely related to angiosperms phylogeny and, together, contribute to the evolution of plants in the forest, savanna and grassland formations of the Cerrado biome.

  17. Contribution to the discussions on the origin of the cerrado biome: Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHO. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Theories that attempt to explain the origin of the cerrado biome are mostly based on the isolated action of three major factors: climate, fire and soil. Another factor that has been mentioned is that of human interference. We hypothesise that the evolutionary origin of this biome resulted from the complex interaction of climate, fire and soil, with climate being the triggering agent of this assumed interaction. Fire, as well as acid and dystrophic soils, would be factors involved in the selection of savanna species throughout climatic events, during the Tertiary and the Quaternary, e.g. Pliocene and Pleistocene. The genesis of the physiognomies that would give rise to cerrado sensu lato, rather than forest formations, could have occurred due to the strong pressure exerted by the reduction in water availability, and the selection of the species adapted to the new conditions imposed by the environment. The characteristics of cerrado sensu lato soil, originated from edaphic impoverishment caused by lixiviation and successive past fires, would remain, even after hydric availability increased following the Pleistocene glaciations.

  18. Contribution to the discussions on the origin of the cerrado biome: Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M H O; Monteiro, R

    2010-02-01

    Theories that attempt to explain the origin of the cerrado biome are mostly based on the isolated action of three major factors: climate, fire and soil. Another factor that has been mentioned is that of human interference. We hypothesise that the evolutionary origin of this biome resulted from the complex interaction of climate, fire and soil, with climate being the triggering agent of this assumed interaction. Fire, as well as acid and dystrophic soils, would be factors involved in the selection of savanna species throughout climatic events, during the Tertiary and the Quaternary, e.g. Pliocene and Pleistocene. The genesis of the physiognomies that would give rise to cerrado sensu lato, rather than forest formations, could have occurred due to the strong pressure exerted by the reduction in water availability, and the selection of the species adapted to the new conditions imposed by the environment. The characteristics of cerrado sensu lato soil, originated from edaphic impoverishment caused by lixiviation and successive past fires, would remain, even after hydric availability increased following the Pleistocene glaciations.

  19. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Above- and Belowground Biomass Allocation in Shrub Biomes across the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanhe; Yang, Lucun; Zhou, Guoying

    2016-01-01

    Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011–2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB) and root: shoot ratio (R/S) and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP), while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT). Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level. PMID:27119379

  1. Has the Alaskan climate crossed a threshold? Satellite and tree-ring data indicate biome shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P. S.; Juday, G. P.; Goetz, S. J.; Alix, C.; Barber, V. A.; Winslow, S. E.; Sousa, E. E.; Heiser, P.; Herriges, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Changes in northern high latitude forest ecosystems, which contain at least 30% of global terrestrial carbon, could substantially modify future climate. Model simulations of high latitude ecosystems in the last two decades of the 20th century describe increasing photosynthetic capacity and vegetation productivity due to climate warming. Global vegetation models also predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. We linked satellite data describing gross productivity (Pg) and an extensive tree-ring data set describing growth in white and black spruce trees (N=856) in 88 stands to assess changes in forest productivity since 1982 across interior Alaska. Trends and variability in both records agree closely (r2=0.78, N=27) and reveal near-ubiquitous drought-induced productivity declines in undisturbed boreal forests except at the boreal-tundra ecotone. The areas experiencing declining productivity include mature forests considered to be substantial sinks of atmospheric carbon. The temperature increases of the last three decades have also amplified climate-related disturbance at high latitudes, resulting in intensified fire and pest regimes, as well as coupled feedbacks between each of these components. Our findings indicate that the biome shift projected to occur in the boreal zone during the 21st century is underway. They also suggest ecosystem models may be missing fundamental changes taking place in the circumpolar region.

  2. The deforestation story: testing for anthropogenic origins of Africa's flammable grassy biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, William; Zaloumis, Nicholas P

    2016-06-05

    Africa has the most extensive C4 grassy biomes of any continent. They are highly flammable accounting for greater than 70% of the world's burnt area. Much of Africa's savannas and grasslands occur in climates warm enough and wet enough to support closed forests. The combination of open grassy systems and the frequent fires they support have long been interpreted as anthropogenic artefacts caused by humans igniting frequent fires. True grasslands, it was believed, would be restricted to climates too dry or too cold to support closed woody vegetation. The idea that higher-rainfall savannas are anthropogenic and that fires are of human origin has led to initiatives to 'reforest' Africa's open grassy systems paid for by carbon credits under the assumption that the net effect of converting these system to forests would sequester carbon, reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate global warming. This paper reviews evidence for the antiquity of African grassy ecosystems and for the fires that they sustain. Africa's grassy biomes and the fires that maintain them are ancient and there is no support for the idea that humans caused large-scale deforestation. Indicators of old-growth grasslands are described. These can help distinguish secondary grasslands suitable for reforestation from ancient grasslands that should not be afforested.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Phylogeny and cryptic diversity in geckos (Phyllopezus; Phyllodactylidae; Gekkota) from South America's open biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Werneck, Fernanda P; Simons, Andrew M

    2012-03-01

    The gecko genus Phyllopezus occurs across South America's open biomes: Cerrado, Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTF, including Caatinga), and Chaco. We generated a multi-gene dataset and estimated phylogenetic relationships among described Phyllopezus taxa and related species. We included exemplars from both described Phyllopezus pollicaris subspecies, P. p. pollicaris and P. p.przewalskii. Phylogenies from the concatenated data as well as species trees constructed from individual gene trees were largely congruent. All phylogeny reconstruction methods showed Bogertia lutzae as the sister species of Phyllopezus maranjonensis, rendering Phyllopezus paraphyletic. We synonymized the monotypic genus Bogertia with Phyllopezus to maintain a taxonomy that is isomorphic with phylogenetic history. We recovered multiple, deeply divergent, cryptic lineages within P. pollicaris. These cryptic lineages possessed mtDNA distances equivalent to distances among other gekkotan sister taxa. Described P. pollicaris subspecies are not reciprocally monophyletic and current subspecific taxonomy does not accurately reflect evolutionary relationships among cryptic lineages. We highlight the conservation significance of these results in light of the ongoing habitat loss in South America's open biomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cities as Novel Biomes;Recognizing Urban Ecosystem Services as Anthropogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie ePincetl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban Ecosystem Science is now an established science, arising along side the historic shift of humans to becoming in majority urban dwellers. In this Perspective I suggest there is a need to develop a new framework for UES as embedded in distinct urban biomes that can be classified by city-type and typologized. UES are largely the artifact of human decision making from what to plant where, to determining the urban infrastructure type in which UES will be placed. Developing urban typologies by climate zone, level of development, size and history will better enable the understanding of UES. I attempt to show the rise of the importance of nature, and of urban nature following the development of industrial city, and the importance of human intent in creating these urban ecosystems over time. If humans choose to manage cities through increasing UES, this will require coupled shifts, the shift in rules and regulations, goals and processes and shifts in urban form, infrastructure and function – socio-technical-ecological changes – driven by human decision-making. Such efforts will vary widely by city -- by urban biome.

  5. Above- and Belowground Biomass Allocation in Shrub Biomes across the Northeast Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiuqing; Yang, Yuanhe; Yang, Lucun; Zhou, Guoying

    2016-01-01

    Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011-2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB) and root: shoot ratio (R/S) and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP), while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT). Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level.

  6. Feedbacks between land cover and climate changes in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M. T.; Silverio, D. V.; Bustamante, M.; Macedo, M.; Shimbo, J.; Brando, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    An estimated 20% of Amazon forests and 45% of Cerrado savannas have been cleared to make way for the expansion of croplands and pasturelands in Brazil. Although deforestation rates have decreased or remained steady over the last decade, the cumulative area deforested continues to grow in both biomes. These land-use transitions are expected to influence regional climate by reducing evapotranspiration (ET), increasing land surface temperatures (LST), and ultimately reducing regional precipitation. Here we present results from spatial analyses to quantify the impact of land-use transitions on the regional climate of the Amazon-Cerrado agricultural frontier. The analyses combine satellite observations and model outputs from the MODIS dataset. Results from the southeastern Amazon indicate that transitions from forest to pasture or cropland decreased mean annual ET (by 24% and 32%, respectively) and increased LST (by 4.2°C and 6.4°C). Preliminary results from the Cerrado indicate that transitions from woody savannas to pasture or cropland also result in substantial reductions in mean annual ET (23% and 20%, respectively) and increases in LST (by 1.6°C in both cases). These results reinforce the need to better understand how land-use change at regional scales may alter climate by changing ecosystem properties (beyond carbon stocks and fluxes). It is important to evaluate these responses across different biomes, particularly in tropical regions under increasing deforestation pressure.

  7. Above- and Belowground Biomass Allocation in Shrub Biomes across the Northeast Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqing Nie

    Full Text Available Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011-2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB, below-ground biomass (BGB and root: shoot ratio (R/S and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP, while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT. Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level.

  8. Temporal profiles of vegetation indices for characterizing grazing intensity on natural grasslands in Pampa biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Heemann Junges

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Pampa biome is an important ecosystem in Brazil that is highly relevant to livestock production. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential use of vegetation indices to discriminate grazing intensities on natural grasslands in the Pampa biome. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI images from Jan to Dec, 2000 to 2013 series, were analyzed for natural grassland experimental units managed under high (forage allowance of 5 ± 2 % live weight – LW, moderate (13 ± 5 % LW and low grazing intensity (19 ± 7 % LW. Regardless of intensity, the temporal profiles showed lower NDVI and EVI during winter, increased values in spring because of summer species regrowth, slightly decreased values in summer, especially in years when there is a water deficit, and increased values in the fall associated with the beginning of winter forage development. The average temporal profiles of moderate grazing intensity exhibited greater vegetation index values compared with low and high grazing intensities. The temporal profiles of less vegetation index were associated with lower green biomass accumulation caused by the negative impact of stocking rates on the leaf area index under high grazing intensity and a floristic composition with a predominance of tussocks under low grazing intensity. Vegetation indices can be used for distinguishing moderate grazing intensity from low and high intensities. The average EVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during any season, and the NDVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during spring and winter.

  9. The Use of Fire Radiative Power to Estimate the Biomass Consumption Coefficient for Temperate Grasslands in the Atlantic Forest Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Salvador Cabral da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Every year, many active fire spots are identified in the satellite images of the southern Brazilian grasslands in the Atlantic Forest biome and Pampa biome. Fire Radiative Power (FRP is a technique that uses remotely sensed data to quantify burned biomass. FRP measures the radiant energy released per time unit by burning vegetation. This study aims to use satellite and field data to estimate the biomass consumption rate and the biomass consumption coefficient for the southern Brazilian grasslands. Three fire points were identified in satellite FRP products. These data were combined with field data, collected through literature review, to calculate the biomass consumption coefficient. The type of vegetation is an important variable in the estimation of the biomass consumption coefficient. The biomass consumption rate was estimated to be 2.237 kg s-1 for the southern Brazilian grasslands in Atlantic Forest biome, and the biomass consumption coefficient was estimated to be 0.242 kg MJ-1.

  10. Central Sleep Apnea with Cheyne-Stokes Breathing in Heart Failure - From Research to Clinical Practice and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terziyski, K; Draganova, A

    2018-02-07

    Characterized by periodic crescendo-decrescendo pattern of breathing alternating with central apneas, Central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes Breathing represents a highly prevalent, yet underdiagnosed comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). A diverse body of evidence demonstrates increased morbidity and mortality in the presence of CSB. CSB has been described in both CHF patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction, regardless of drug treatment. Risk factors for CSB are older age, male gender, high BMI, atrial fibrillation and hypocapnia.The pathophysiology of CSB has been explained by the loop gain theory, where a controller (the respiratory center) and a plant (the lungs) are operating in a reciprocal relationship (negative feedback) to regulate a key parameter (partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2 )). The temporal interaction between these elements is dependent on the circulatory delay. Increased chemosensitivity/chemoresponsiveness of the respiratory center and/or augmented ascending non- CO 2 stimuli from the C-fibers in the lungs (interstitial pulmonary edema), overly efficient ventilation when breathing at low volumes and prolonged circulation time are involved. An alternative hypothesis of CSB being an adaptive response of the failing heart has its merits as well. The clinical manifestation of CSB is usually poor, lacking striking symptoms and complaints. Witnessed apneas and snoring are infrequently reported by the sleep partner. Sometimes patients may report poor sleep quality with frequent awakenings, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and frequent urination at night. Standard instrumental and laboratory studies, performed in CHF patients, may present clues to the presence of CSB. Concentric remodeling of the left ventricle and dilated left atrium (echocardiography), high BNP and C-reactive protein levels, increased ventilation-carbon dioxide output (VEVCO 2 ) and lower end-tidal CO 2 (cardiopulmonary exercise testing), reduced

  11. Soils and late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Cottonwood River basin, east-central Kansas: Implications for archaeological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, J.M.; Mandel, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of landscape evolution strongly influence the temporal and spatial patterns of the archaeological record in drainage systems. In this geoarchaeological investigation we took a basin-wide approach in assessing the soil stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and geochronology of alluvial deposits and associated buried soils in the Cottonwood River basin of east-central Kansas. Patterns of landscape evolution emerge when stratigraphic sequences and radiocarbon chronologies are compared by stream size and landform type. In the valleys of high-order streams (???4th order) the Younger Dryas Chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by pedogenesis, resulting in the development of organic-rich cumulic soils. Between ca. 10,000 and 4900 14C yr B.P., aggradation punctuated by soil formation was the dominant process in those valleys. Alluvial fans formed on the margins of high-order stream valleys during the early and middle Holocene (ca. 9000-5000 14C yr B.P.) and continued to develop slowly until ca. 3000-2000 14C yr B.P. The late-Holocene record of high-order streams is characterized by episodes of entrenchment, rapid aggradation, and slow aggradation punctuated by soil development. By contrast, the early and middle Holocene (ca. 10,000-5000 14C yr B.P.) was a period of net erosion in the valleys of low-order streams. However, during the late Holocene small valleys became zones of net sediment storage. Consideration of the effects of these patterns of landscape evolution on the archaeological record is crucial for accurately interpreting that record and searching for buried archaeological deposits dating to specific cultural periods. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

  12. The effects of biome and spatial scale on the Co-occurrence patterns of a group of Namibian beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Montalto, Francesca; Amore, Valentina; Luiselli, Luca; Bologna, Marco A.

    2017-08-01

    Co-occurrence patterns (studied by C-score, number of checkerboard units, number of species combinations, and V-ratio, and by an empirical Bayes approach developed by Gotelli and Ulrich, 2010) are crucial elements in order to understand assembly rules in ecological communities at both local and spatial scales. In order to explore general assembly rules and the effects of biome and spatial scale on such rules, here we studied a group of beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae), using Namibia as a case of study. Data were gathered from 186 sampling sites, which allowed collection of 74 different species. We analyzed data at the level of (i) all sampled sites, (ii) all sites stratified by biome (Savannah, Succulent Karoo, Nama Karoo, Desert), and (iii) three randomly selected nested areas with three spatial scales each. Three competing algorithms were used for all analyses: (i) Fixed-Equiprobable, (ii) Fixed-Fixed, and (iii) Fixed-Proportional. In most of the null models we created, co-occurrence indicators revealed a non-random structure in meloid beetle assemblages at the global scale and at the scale of biomes, with species aggregation being much more important than species segregation in determining this non-randomness. At the level of biome, the same non-random organization was uncovered in assemblages from Savannah (where the aggregation pattern was particularly strong) and Succulent Karoo, but not in Desert and Nama Karoo. We conclude that species facilitation and similar niche in endemic species pairs may be particularly important as community drivers in our case of study. This pattern is also consistent with the evidence of a higher species diversity (normalized according to biome surface area) in the two former biomes. Historical patterns were perhaps also important for Succulent Karoo assemblages. Spatial scale had a reduced effect on patterning our data. This is consistent with the general homogeneity of environmental conditions over wide areas in Namibia.

  13. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  14. Interactions of fire regimes and land use in the central Rio Grande Valley. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisan, C.H.; Swetnam, T.W.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, we present evidence of dramatic modifications of pre-existing ecological systems by human activities. Our research group at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted extensive studies of fire history in forested ecosystems at more than 60 sites throughout Arizona and New Mexico. Our studies suggest that most of these areas existed in a semi-natural state, litte affected by human populations, before the introduction of large numbers of livestock around the turn of the 20th century. Natural dynamics of biomass accumulation, climatic regimes, and lightning ignitions can account for fire frequencies documented at most sites studied. Recognizable human impacts before the 20 century were probably limited to high use areas and high value resources.

  15. Butterfly species diversity, relative abundance and status in Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Tiple

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to record the butterfly diversity, status and occurrence of butterfly species in the Tropical Forest Research Institute campus area of 109 hectare within Jabalpur city from June 2008 to May 2009. A total of 62 species of butterflies belonging to 47 genera of 5 families viz., Papilionidae (5 species, Pieridae (9 species, Nymphalidae (25 species, Lycaenidae (16 species and Hesperiidae (7 species were recorded. Of the total 65 species, 24 (37% were commonly occurring, 16 (26% were very common, 2 (3% were not rare, 17 (26% were rare and 6 (8% were very rarely occurring. Of these eight species are listed in the Indian Wildlife (protection Act 1972. The observations support the importance of the Tropical Forest Research Institute campus which provides a habitat and valuable resources for butterflies.

  16. Chronostratigraphy of the Vistulian Glaciation (Weichselian) on the Kujawy Moraine Plateau (Central Poland) Based on Lithostratigraphic Research and OSL Dating

    OpenAIRE

    Przegiętka, Krzysztof; Chruścińska, Alicja; Oczkowski, Hubert Lucjan; Molewski, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    The subject of the investigations presented here is fixing dilemmatic character (transgressive or recessive) of the Poznań phase of the Vistulian (Weichselian) Glaciation and answering the question about the possibility of lithostratigraphic separation of this phase from the Leszno phase in the region of so called Vistula lob. Here we present the outcomes of the research project carried out on a few tills exposures, which constitute the sedimentological record of the last ice sheet advance on...

  17. Centralized adjudication of cardiovascular end points in cardiovascular and noncardiovascular pharmacologic trials: a report from the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Jonathan H; Turner, J Rick; Geiger, Mary Jane; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; White, William B; Sabol, Mary Beth; Stockbridge, Norman; Sager, Philip T

    2015-02-01

    This white paper provides a summary of presentations and discussions at a cardiovascular (CV) end point adjudication think tank cosponsored by the Cardiac Safety Research Committee and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that was convened at the FDA's White Oak headquarters on November 6, 2013. Attention was focused on the lack of clarity concerning the need for end point adjudication in both CV and non-CV trials: there is currently an absence of widely accepted academic or industry standards and a definitive regulatory policy on how best to structure and use clinical end point committees (CECs). This meeting therefore provided a forum for leaders in the fields of CV clinical trials and CV safety to develop a foundation of initial best practice recommendations for use in future CEC charters. Attendees included representatives from pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies, end point adjudication specialist groups, clinical research organizations, and active, academically based adjudicators. The manuscript presents recommendations from the think tank regarding when CV end point adjudication should be considered in trials conducted by cardiologists and by noncardiologists as well as detailing key issues in the composition of a CEC and its charter. In addition, it presents several recommended best practices for the establishment and operation of CECs. The science underlying CV event adjudication is evolving, and suggestions for additional areas of research will be needed to continue to advance this science. This manuscript does not constitute regulatory guidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reconocimiento biométrico vascular y su evaluación de rendimiento en plataforma BioAPI C#

    OpenAIRE

    Hryhor, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    La identificación biométrica es aquella que se basa en el uso de las características físicas o de comportamiento de las personas. En las décadas finales del siglo XX y en los inicios del XXI el uso de sistemas automáticos capaces de confirmar identidades de personas por medio de las técnicas biométricas ha cobrado cada vez más importancia. Sus bajísimas tasas de error y posibilidad de fraude han hecho que importantes entidades como los órganos de seguridad del estado y las enti...

  19. Visit of Mr. Susumu Yoda, Japanese Atomic Energy Commission, Mr. Nobuo Natsume, Vice-President, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan (CRIEPI), Mr. Nobuya Yoshiki, CRIEPI, Mrs. Seiko Ichikawa, Interpreter, with Mr. Taylor of CERN, visiting SM18

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Visit of Mr. Susumu Yoda, Japanese Atomic Energy Commission, Mr. Nobuo Natsume, Vice-President, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan (CRIEPI), Mr. Nobuya Yoshiki, CRIEPI, Mrs. Seiko Ichikawa, Interpreter, with Mr. Taylor of CERN, visiting SM18

  20. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Colombia at 3000, 6000, 9000, 12 000, 15 000 and 18 000 14C yr ago: Late Quaternary tropical vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Robert; Behling, Hermann; Berrio, Juan-Carlos; Cleef, Antoine; Duivenvoorden, Joost; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Kuhry, Peter; Melief, Bert; Schreve-Brinkman, Elisabeth; van Geel, Bas; van der Hammen, Thomas; van Reenen, Guido; Wille, Michael

    2002-02-01

    Colombian biomes are reconstructed at 45 sites from the modern period extending to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The basis for our reconstruction is pollen data assigned to plant functional types and biomes at six 3000-yr intervals. A reconstruction of modern biomes is used to check the treatment of the modern pollen data set against a map of potential vegetation. This allows the biomes reconstructed at past periods to be assessed relative to the modern situation. This process also provides a check on the a priori assignment of pollen taxa to plant functional types and biomes. For the majority of the sites, the pollen data accurately reflect the potential vegetation, even though much of the original vegetation has been transformed by agricultural practices. At 18 000 14C yr BP, a generally cool and dry environment is reflected in biome, assignments of cold mixed forests, cool evergreen forests and cool grassland-shrub; the latter extending to lower altitudes than presently recorded. This signal is strongly recorded at 15 000 and 12 000 14C yr BP, the vegetation at these times also reflecting a relatively cool and dry environment. At 9000 14C yr BP there is a shift to biomes thought to result from slightly cooler environmental conditions. This trend is reversed by 6000 14C yr BP; most sites, within a range of different environmental settings, recording a shift to more xeric biome types. There is an expansion of steppe and cool mixed-forest biomes, replacing tropical dry forest and cool grassland-shrub biomes, respectively. These changes in biome assignments from the modern situation can be interpreted as a biotic response to mid-Holocene climatic aridity. At 3000 14C yr BP the shift is mainly to biomes characteristic of slightly more mesic environmental conditions.There are a number of sites that do not change biome assignment relative to the modern reconstruction, although the affinities that these sites have to a specific biome do change. These anomalies are

  1. Association of Bartonella Species with Wild and Synanthropic Rodents in Different Brazilian Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Mendes, Natalia Serra; Fidelis Junior, Otávio Luiz; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2016-12-15

    Bartonella spp. comprise an ecologically successful group of microorganisms that infect erythrocytes and have adapted to different hosts, which include a wide range of mammals, besides humans. Rodents are reservoirs of about two-thirds of Bartonella spp. described to date; and some of them have been implicated as causative agents of human diseases. In our study, we performed molecular and phylogenetic analyses of Bartonella spp. infecting wild rodents from five different Brazilian biomes. In order to characterize the genetic diversity of Bartonella spp., we performed a robust analysis based on three target genes, followed by sequencing, Bayesian inference, and maximum likelihood analysis. Bartonella spp. were detected in 25.6% (117/457) of rodent spleen samples analyzed, and this occurrence varied among different biomes. The diversity analysis of gltA sequences showed the presence of 15 different haplotypes. Analysis of the phylogenetic relationship of gltA sequences performed by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood showed that the Bartonella species detected in rodents from Brazil was closely related to the phylogenetic group A detected in other cricetid rodents from North America, probably constituting only one species. Last, the Bartonella species genogroup identified in the present study formed a monophyletic group that included Bartonella samples from seven different rodent species distributed in three distinct biomes. In conclusion, our study showed that the occurrence of Bartonella bacteria in rodents is much more frequent and widespread than previously recognized. In the present study, we reported the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in some sites in Brazil. The identification and understanding of the distribution of this important group of bacteria may allow the Brazilian authorities to recognize potential regions with the risk of transmission of these pathogens among wild and domestic animals and humans. In addition, our study accessed important gaps in

  2. Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: a boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Swaminathan, Gopalaraman; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil-water emulsification process and solid-liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2-5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In

  3. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity
department of addictive behaviour and addiction medicine, central institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, University of Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karl

    2010-12-01

    Addictive behaviour is as prevalent in Germany as in other western countries, but in contrast to some European countries and the United States, very little money was given to this research field. Change came in the early 1990s, when the German government started to launch specific grants for addiction research. The first chair in addiction research was created in 1999 (Karl Mann) at the Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim (CIMH; University of Heidelberg). The recruitment of a pre-clinical alcohol researcher as head of the department of psychopharmacology followed (Rainer Spanagel). This 'addiction research cluster' collaborates with several research groups at the CIMH (such as genetics). We inaugurated a clinical trial network which now comprises up to 20 treatment centres throughout Germany. Like most authors, we found effect sizes of different treatment modalities more in the low to moderate range, perhaps because of the heterogeneity of large patient samples. Therefore, we concentrated upon the biological basis of addiction in order to define more homogeneous 'subtypes' of patients for a better match with existing treatments. Results concerning genetics and neuroimaging (both animal and human) are promising, and could move our field towards a more personalized treatment approach. Our funding has been extended over the years, including involvement in several large European grants. We are studying substance-related problems as well as so-called 'behavioural addictions'. As a natural consequence of this development, we are deeply involved both in informing the general public on addiction issues as well as in counselling policy makers in Germany. © 2010 The Author, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Long-term agroecosystem research in the central Mississippi river basin: hyperspectral remote sensing of reservoir water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudduth, Kenneth A; Jang, Gab-Sue; Lerch, Robert N; Sadler, E John

    2015-01-01

    In situ methods for estimating water quality parameters would facilitate efforts in spatial and temporal monitoring, and optical reflectance sensing has shown potential in this regard, particularly for chlorophyll, suspended sediment, and turbidity. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate relationships between hyperspectral remote sensing and lake water quality parameters-chlorophyll, turbidity, and N and P species. Proximal hyperspectral water reflectance data were obtained on seven sampling dates for multiple arms of Mark Twain Lake, a large man-made reservoir in northeastern Missouri. Aerial hyperspectral data were also obtained on two dates. Water samples were collected and analyzed in the laboratory for chlorophyll, nutrients, and turbidity. Previously reported reflectance indices and full-spectrum (i.e., partial least squares regression) methods were used to develop relationships between spectral and water quality data. With the exception of dissolved NH, all measured water quality parameters were strongly related ( ≥ 0.7) to proximal reflectance across all measurement dates. Aerial hyperspectral sensing was somewhat less accurate than proximal sensing for the two measurement dates where both were obtained. Although full-spectrum calibrations were more accurate for chlorophyll and turbidity than results from previously reported models, those previous models performed better for an independent test set. Because extrapolation of estimation models to dates other than those used to calibrate the model greatly increased estimation error for some parameters, collection of calibration samples at each sensing date would be required for the most accurate remote sensing estimates of water quality. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Leishmanicidal and cholinesterase inhibiting activities of phenolic compounds of Dimorphandra gardneriana and Platymiscium floribundum, native plants from Caatinga biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja S. Vila-Nova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Brazilian Health Ministry and the World Health Organization have supported research into new technologies that may contribute to the surveillance, new treatments, and control of visceral leishmaniasis within the country. In light of this, the aim of this study was to isolate compounds from plants of the Caatinga biome, and to investigate their toxicity against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania infantum chagasi, the main responsible parasite for South American visceral leishmaniasis, and evaluate their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE. A screen assay using luciferase-expressing promastigote form and an in situ ELISA assay were used to measure the viability of promastigote and amastigote forms, respectively, after exposure to these substances. The MTT colorimetric assay was performed to determine the toxicity of these compounds in murine monocytic RAW 264.7 cell line. All compounds were tested in vitro for their anti-cholinesterase properties. A coumarin, scoparone, was isolated from Platymiscium floribundum stems, and the flavonoids rutin and quercetin were isolated from Dimorphandra gardneriana beans. These compounds were purified using silica gel column chromatography, eluted with organic solvents in mixtures of increasing polarity, and identified by spectral analysis. In the leishmanicidal assays, the compounds showed dose-dependent efficacy against the extracellular promastigote forms, with an EC50 for scoporone of 21.4µg/mL, quercetin and rutin 26 and 30.3µg/mL, respectively. The flavonoids presented comparable results to the positive control drug, amphotericin B, against the amastigote forms with EC50 for quercetin and rutin of 10.6 and 43.3µg/mL, respectively. All compounds inhibited AChE with inhibition zones varying from 0.8 to 0.6, indicating a possible mechanism of action for leishmacicidal activity.

  6. Different Effects of Regional Species Pool on Plant Diversity between Forest and Grassland Biomes in Arid Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Liu, Yining; Wang, Xiangping; Fang, Jingyun; Wang, Qingchun; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Mohammat, Anwar; Terwei, André

    2015-01-01

    Species pool hypothesis is broadly known and frequently tested in various regions and vegetation types. However it has not been tested in the arid Xinjiang region of China due to lack of data. Here with systematic data from references and field survey, we comprehensively examined species pool hypothesis in this region. Took species richness in 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells as regional species richness (RSR) which were obtained from the distribution maps of vascular plant species, and took species diversity of 190 and 103 plots in forest and grassland biomes across Xinjiang as local species richness (LSR), together with the digitalized soil pH and climate data, we tested the species pool hypothesis in this region. We found that: (1) the average RSR was higher in mountains than that in basins and it was negatively correlated with soil pH in mountains while positively correlated with soil pH in basins in Xinjiang; (2) RSR showed a positive correlation with mean annual precipitation (MAP) while showed a hump-shaped pattern with mean annual temperature (MAT); and the changing patterns of LSR were different for forest and grassland along the geographical and climate gradients; (3) LSR of forest was more affected by RSR than by climate, while on the contrary, LSR of grassland was more affected by climate than by RSR. Our results validated the species pool hypothesis in revealing that RSR had a significant role in shaping LSR patterns in addition to climate. We concluded that the relative effects of climate vs. RSR on LSR differed markedly between the forest and grassland communities across Xinjiang. Our results also showed that RSR revealed a contrasting relationship with soil pH in mountains and in basins, which might reflect differences in evolutionary processes of various habitats. In summary, our research systematically analyzed the correlation of species richness in regional and local scales in Xinjiang which provides more insights into the understanding of species pool

  7. Biométria de frutos e sementes de Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemão Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferreira Barroso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Caatinga apresenta uma grande diversidade de espécies vegetais, dentre elas Luetzelburgia auriculata é uma das espécies predominantes no bioma, desempenhando papel fundamental para o ecossistema local. Este trabalho objetivou descrever as características biométricas de frutos e sementes de Luetzelburgia auriculata.  Para a descrição das características da semente foram coletados 200 frutos e 200 sementes de plantas nativas do município de Santa Helena, Paraíba. As amostras foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Nutrição Mineral de Plantas do Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural de Universidade Federal de Campina Grande para a realização das devidas aferições biométricas. Os frutos foram analisado pelo comprimento, espessura superior, mediana e inferior; largura superior, mediana e inferior. Para as sementes, foram analisados comprimento, espessura e a largura. Verificou-se que o comprimento dos frutos variou de 50,7 a 98,2 cm, a espessura de 6,00 a 17 mm e largura variando de 12,4 a 21,8 mm. Em relação às sementes, 46% se enquadraram na classe de comprimento com intervalo de 19,9 a 20,8 mm. A espécie Luetzelburgia auriculata apresentam variabilidade nas características biométricas de frutos e sementesBiometrics of fruit and seeds of Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemão DuckeAbstract: The Caatinga presents a great diversity of plant species, among them the woodpecker (Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemao Ducke. is one of the predominant species in the biome, playing a fundament al role for the local ecosystem. This work aimed to describe the biometric characteristics of fruits and seeds of Pau de Pedra. For the description of the characteristics of the Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemão Ducke seed, 200 fruits and 200 seeds of native plants of the municipality of Santa Helena, Paraíba state were collected for biometry and seed mass. Afterwards they were packed in plastic bags and properly identified and taken to Laboratório de

  8. Serologic and Molecular Evidence of Vaccinia Virus Circulation among Small Mammals from Different Biomes, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Júlia B; Borges, Iara A; Campos, Samantha P S; Vieira, Flávia N; de Ázara, Tatiana M F; Marques, Fernanda A; Costa, Galileu B; Luis, Ana Paula M F; de Oliveira, Jaqueline S; Ferreira, Paulo César P; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; da Silva, Silvio L M; Eiras, Álvaro E; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Kroon, Erna G; Drumond, Betânia P; Paglia, Adriano P; Trindade, Giliane de S

    2017-06-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a zoonotic agent that causes a disease called bovine vaccinia, which is detected mainly in milking cattle and humans in close contact with these animals. Even though many aspects of VACV infection have been described, much is still unknown about its circulation in the environment and its natural hosts/reservoirs. To investigate the presence of Orthopoxvirus antibodies or VACV DNA, we captured small rodents and marsupials in 3 areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and tested their samples in a laboratory. A total of 336 animals were tested; positivity ranged from 18.1% to 25.5% in the 3 studied regions located in different biomes, including the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado. Analysis of nucleotide sequences indicated co-circulation of VACV groups I and II. Our findings reinforce the possible role played by rodents and marsupials in VACV maintenance and its transmission chain.

  9. Genetic Divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Progenies in the Savanna Biome in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Brito da Costa

    Full Text Available Assessing the parental genetic differences and their subsequent prediction of progeny performance is an important first step to assure the efficiency of any breeding program. In this study, we estimate the genetic divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis based on the morphological traits of 132 progenies grown in a savanna biome. Thus, a field experiment was performed using a randomized block design and five replications to compare divergences in total height, commercial height, diameter at breast height, stem form and survival rate at 48 months. Tocher's clustering method was performed using the Mahalanobis and Euclidian distances. The Mahalanobis distance seemed more reliable for the assessed parameters and clustered all of the progenies into fourteen major groups. The most similar progenies (86 accessions were clustered into Group I, while the most dissimilar (1 progeny represented Group XIV. The divergence analysis indicated that promising crosses could be made between progenies allocated in different groups for high genetic divergence and for favorable morphological traits.

  10. The predator-prey power law: Biomass scaling across terrestrial and aquatic biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Ian A; McCann, Kevin S; Fryxell, John M; Davies, T Jonathan; Smerlak, Matteo; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Loreau, Michel

    2015-09-04

    Ecosystems exhibit surprising regularities in structure and function across terrestrial and aquatic biomes worldwide. We assembled a global data set for 2260 communities of large mammals, invertebrates, plants, and plankton. We find that predator and prey biomass follow a general scaling law with exponents consistently near ¾. This pervasive pattern implies that the structure of the biomass pyramid becomes increasingly bottom-heavy at higher biomass. Similar exponents are obtained for community production-biomass relations, suggesting conserved links between ecosystem structure and function. These exponents are similar to many body mass allometries, and yet ecosystem scaling emerges independently from individual-level scaling, which is not fully understood. These patterns suggest a greater degree of ecosystem-level organization than previously recognized and a more predictive approach to ecological theory. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Biométrie basée sur la reconnaissance des veines de la main

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovic, Igor; Roduit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    L'authentification consiste à apporter et à contrôler la preuve de l'identité d'une personne, de l'émetteur d'un message, d'un logiciel, d'un serveur logique ou d'un équipement. Plusieurs techniques d’identification des personnes s’appuient sur la biométrie qui désigne au sens large l’étude quantitative des êtres vivants. Plus besoin dans ce cas de se soucier des mots de passe, l’être humain devient lui-même la clé des systèmes de sécurité. La reconnaissance des veines de la main est une de c...

  12. Redacción de trabajos para publicaciones biomédicas

    OpenAIRE

    Ribera Banús, Cèlia

    2001-01-01

    Com un manual d'estil, aquest article pretén descriure els tipus de textos més comuns que es publiquen a les revistes biomèdiques. La primera divisió s'estableix entre els que es fan per encàrrec (com serien originals, editorials i revisions) i els que es fan motu propio (originals, notes clíniques i cartes al director). A més de normes descriptives per a la redacció també se n'ofereixen de tècniques per tal que puguin ser acceptats, fita final de tot text científic.

  13. Modeling impacts of human footprint and soil variability on the potential distribution of invasive plant species in different biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ji-Zhong; Wang, Chun-Jing; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-11-01

    Human footprint and soil variability may be important in shaping the spread of invasive plant species (IPS). However, until now, there is little knowledge on how human footprint and soil variability affect the potential distribution of IPS in different biomes. We used Maxent modeling to project the potential distribution of 29 IPS with wide distributions and long introduction histories in China based on various combinations of climatic correlates, soil characteristics and human footprint. Then, we evaluated the relative importance of each type of environmental variables (climate, soil and human footprint) as well as the difference in range and similarity of the potential distribution of IPS between different biomes. Human footprint and soil variables contributed to the prediction of the potential distribution of IPS, and different types of biomes had varying responses and degrees of impacts from the tested variables. Human footprint and soil variability had the highest tendency to increase the potential distribution of IPS in Montane Grasslands and Shrublands. We propose to integrate the assessment in impacts of human footprint and soil variability on the potential distribution of IPS in different biomes into the prevention and control of plant invasion.

  14. Patterns of water and heat flux across a biome gradient from tropical forest to savanna in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, da H.R.; Manzi, A.O.; Cabral, O.M.; Miller, S.D.; Goulden, M.L.; Saleska, S.R.; Coupe, N.R.; Wofsy, S.C.; Borma, L.S.; Artaxo, P.; Vourlitis, G.; Nogueira, J.S.; Cardoso, F.L.; Nobre, A.D.; Kruijt, B.; Freitas, H.C.; Randow, von C.; Aguiar, R.G.; Maia, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal patterns of water vapor and sensible heat flux along a tropical biome gradient from forest to savanna. We analyzed data from a network of flux towers in Brazil that were operated within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These tower sites

  15. Validation of BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR tubes for detection of TCRB gene rearrangements in T-cell malignancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droese, J.; Langerak, A.W.; Groenen, P.J.T.A.; Bruggemann, M.; Neumann, P.; Wolvers-Tettero, I.L.M.; Altena, M.C. van; Kneba, M.; Dongen, J.J.M. van

    2004-01-01

    The BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936 on 'Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based clonality studies for early diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders' developed standardized PCR protocols for detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) rearrangements, including TCR beta

  16. A method to determine warm and cool steppe biomes from pollen data; application to the Mediterranean and Kazakhstan regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarasov, PE; Cheddadi, R; Guiot, J; Bottema, S; Peyron, O; Belmonte, J; Ruiz-Sanchez, [No Value; Saadi, F; Brewer, S

    1998-01-01

    An objective method for the assignment of pollen spectra to appropriate biomes has been published recently. The aim of this paper is to improve the distinction between warm and cool steppes, thus refining vegetation and climate reconstruction, particularly during the Last Glacial Maximum. A set of

  17. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.P. Turner; W.D. Ritts; B.E. Law; W.B. Cohen; Z. Yan; T. Hudiburg; J.L. Campbell; M. Duane

    2007-01-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5x105 km2 ) in the Western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history...

  18. Plant litter dynamics in the forest-stream interface: precipitation is a major control across tropical biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Alan M; Gonçalves, José F; Bambi, Paulino; Couceiro, Sheyla R M; Feitoza, Lorrane A M; Fontana, Lucas E; Hamada, Neusa; Hepp, Luiz U; Lezan-Kowalczuk, Vânia G; Leite, Gustavo F M; Lemes-Silva, Aurea L; Lisboa, Leonardo K; Loureiro, Rafael C; Martins, Renato T; Medeiros, Adriana O; Morais, Paula B; Moretto, Yara; Oliveria, Patrícia C A; Pereira, Evelyn B; Ferreira, Lidiane P; Pérez, Javier; Petrucio, Mauricio M; Reis, Deusiano F; S Rezende, Renan; Roque, Nadia; Santos, Luiz E P; Siegloch, Ana E; Tonello, Gabriela; Boyero, Luz

    2017-09-07

    Riparian plant litter is a major energy source for forested streams across the world and its decomposition has repercussions on nutrient cycling, food webs and ecosystem functioning. However, we know little about plant litter dynamics in tropical streams, even though the tropics occupy 40% of the Earth's land surface. Here we investigated spatial and temporal (along a year cycle) patterns of litter inputs and storage in multiple streams of three tropical biomes in Brazil (Atlantic forest, Amazon forest and Cerrado savanna), predicting major differences among biomes in relation to temperature and precipitation regimes. Precipitation explained most of litter inputs and storage, which were generally higher in more humid biomes (litterfall: 384, 422 and 308 g m -2 y -1 , storage: 55, 113 and 38 g m -2 , on average in Atlantic forest, Amazon and Cerrado, respectively). Temporal dynamics varied across biomes in relation to precipitation and temperature, with uniform litter inputs but seasonal storage in Atlantic forest streams, seasonal inputs in Amazon and Cerrado streams, and aseasonal storage in Amazon streams. Our findings suggest that litter dynamics vary greatly within the tropics, but point to the major role of precipitation, which contrasts with the main influence of temperature in temperate areas.

  19. Contribution à la biométhanisation de la biomasse végétale: cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution à la biométhanisation de la biomasse végétale: cas des résidus de légumes au Burkina Faso. Désiré Traore, Mahamadi Nikiema, Marius K. Somda, Joseph B. Sawadogo, Dianou Dayeri, Alfred S. Traore ...

  20. Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: Role in the global carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimov, N. S.; Zimov, S. A.; Zimova, A. E.; Zimova, G. M.; Chuprynin, V. I.; Chapin, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in pre-industrial times. At that time steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some authors assume that C storage in that biome was very small, similar to today's deserts, and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) by 400-1300 Gt. To estimate C storage in the entire steppe-tundra biome we used data of C storage in soils of this biome that persisted in permafrost of Siberia and Alaska and developed a model that describes C accumulation in soils and in permafrost. The model shows a slow but consistent C increase in soil when permafrost appears. At the PHT, C-rich frozen loess of Europe and South of Siberia thawed and lost most of its carbon. Soil carbon decreases as tundra-steppe changes to forest, steppes and tundra. As a result, over 1000 Gt C was released to the atmosphere, oceans, and other terrestrial ecosystems. The model results also show that restoring the tundra-steppe ecosystem would enhance soil C storage, while providing other important ecosystem services.

  1. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Catão, Elisa Caldeira Pires; Santana, Renata Henrique; Cabral, Anderson de Souza; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rangel, Thiago Pessanha; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Edwards, Robert A; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD). In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans). During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  2. General patterns of acclimation of leaf respiration to elevated temperatures across biomes and plant types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, Martijn; Kitajima, Kaoru

    2015-03-01

    Respiration is instrumental for survival and growth of plants, but increasing costs of maintenance processes with warming have the potential to change the balance between photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory carbon release from leaves. Climate warming may cause substantial increases of leaf respiratory carbon fluxes, which would further impact the carbon balance of terrestrial vegetation. However, downregulation of respiratory physiology via thermal acclimation may mitigate this impact. We have conducted a meta-analysis with data collected from 43 independent studies to assess quantitatively the thermal acclimation capacity of leaf dark respiration to warming of terrestrial plant species from across the globe. In total, 282 temperature contrasts were included in the meta-analysis, representing 103 species of forbs, graminoids, shrubs, trees and lianas native to arctic, boreal, temperate and tropical ecosystems. Acclimation to warming was found to decrease respiration at a set temperature in the majority of the observations, regardless of the biome of origin and growth form, but respiration was not completely homeostatic across temperatures in the majority of cases. Leaves that developed at a new temperature had a greater capacity for acclimation than those transferred to a new temperature. We conclude that leaf respiration of most terrestrial plants can acclimate to gradual warming, potentially reducing the magnitude of the positive feedback between climate and the carbon cycle in a warming world. More empirical data are, however, needed to improve our understanding of interspecific variation in thermal acclimation capacity, and to better predict patterns in respiratory carbon fluxes both within and across biomes in the face of ongoing global warming.

  3. The Fynbos and sUcculent Karoo biomes do not have exceptional local ant richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschler, Brigitte; Chown, Steven L; Gaston, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    The Fynbos (FB) and Succulent Karoo biomes (SKB) have high regional plant diversity despite relatively low productivity. Local diversity in the region varies but is moderate. For insects, previous work suggests that strict phytophages, but not other taxa, may have high regional richness. However, what has yet to be investigated is whether the local insect species richness of FB and SKB is unusual for a region of this productivity level at this latitude, and whether regional richness is also high. Here we determine whether this is the case for ants. We use species richness data from pitfall traps in the FB and SKB in the Western Cape Province, South Africa and a global dataset of local ant richness extracted from the literature. We then relate the globally derived values of local richness to two energy-related predictors--productive energy (NDVI) and temperature, and to precipitation, and compare the data from the FB and SKB with these relationships. We further compare our local richness estimates with that of similar habitats worldwide, and regional ant richness with estimates derived from other regions. The local ant species richness of the FB and SKB falls within the general global pattern relating ant richness to energy, and is similar to that in comparable habitats elsewhere. At a regional scale, the richness of ants across all of our sites is not exceptional by comparison with other regional estimates from across the globe. Local richness of ants in the FB and SKB is not exceptional by global standards. Initial analyses suggest that regional diversity is also not exceptional for the group. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms which have contributed to the development of extraordinarily high regional plant diversity in these biomes have had a strong influence on the ants.

  4. Evaluation of MODIS Gross Primary Production across Multiple Biomes in China Using Eddy Covariance Flux Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongji Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MOD17A2 provides near real-time estimates of gross primary production (GPP globally. In this study, MOD17A2 GPP was evaluated using eddy covariance (EC flux measurements at eight sites in five various biome types across China. The sensitivity of MOD17A2 to meteorological data and leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/FPAR products were examined by introducing site meteorological measurements and improved Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI products. We also assessed the potential error contributions from land cover and maximum light use efficiency (εmax. The results showed that MOD17A2 agreed well with flux measurements of annual GPP (R2 = 0.76 when all biome types were considered as a whole. However, MOD17A2 was ineffective for estimating annual GPP at mixed forests, evergreen needleleaf forests and croplands, respectively. Moreover, MOD17A2 underestimated flux derived GPP during the summer (R2 = 0.46. It was found that the meteorological data used in MOD17A2 failed to properly estimate the site measured vapor pressure deficits (VPD (R2 = 0.31. Replacing the existing LAI/FPAR data with GLASS LAI products reduced MOD17A2 GPP uncertainties. Though land cover presented the fewest errors, εmax prescribed in MOD17A2 were much lower than inferred εmax calculated from flux data. Thus, the qualities of meteorological data and LAI/FPAR products need to be improved, and εmax should be adjusted to provide better GPP estimates using MOD17A2 for Chinese ecosystems.

  5. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Alvares Cardoso Lopes

    Full Text Available The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD. In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans. During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  6. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lioptilodes friasi (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae) Niche Breadth in the Chilean Mediterranean Matorral Biome: Trophic and Altitudinal Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A; Rasmann, Sergio; Ramirez-Verdugo, Pamela; Villagra, Cristian A

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the factors driving the diet breadth of phytophagous insects remains one of the main questions in ecological research. In this study we explored the diet breadth and plant-insect associations in the plume moth Lioptilodes friasi Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae). This phytophagous insect was originally described in association with a single host species, Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae), a native shrub of the Chilean Mediterranean matorral. In order to address the breadth of host plant choice, we surveyed other Haplopappus species growing along the elevation gradient of central Chile from sea level to 2600 m. We were able to obtain L. friasi adults from five additional Haplopappus species: Haplopappus chrysantemifolius and Haplopappus decurrens from the coastal zone, Haplopappus multifolius and Haplopappus schumanii from the mid-elevation zone, and Haplopappus scrobiculatus at high elevation. Our results demonstrate that the genus-specialized endophagous herbivore L. friasi has a wider distribution and climatic tolerance than previously described. Its biogeographical range extends from the lowland coastal habitats up to the Andean subnival level. We propose that shared flower phenotypic traits such as morphology and chemical composition may have allowed the colonization of closely related Haplopappus species in central Chile, the expansion of which is limited by the harsh high elevation conditions.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-05-11

    May 11, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: As young people living with HIV grow their sexual behaviour and it's implication on HIV prevention is of concern. This study describes the sexual risk related-behaviours and factors associated with abstinence among Youth Living with HIV in central Uganda. Methods: We conducted a ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-06-03

    Jun 3, 2011 ... and self-rate their opinion on extent of interactions with pharmaceutical companies as well as how such interactions had impacted on their prescribing behaviour. .... is similar to the population (137 and 185 doctors) surveyed in other studies from North central and South-eastern Nigeria, respectively [21,23].

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-04-16

    Apr 16, 2011 ... Neonatal sepsis, meningitis and urinary tract infection were validated when bacteria were isolated respectively in the culture of blood, central nervous system fluid and urine. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1 Windows. No matching criterion was used in the analysis. The Chi square test was ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... ... College of Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology,. Wuhan, China, 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon, 3Central African Field Epidemiology and. Laboratory Training Program, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon, 4Hospital laboratory friendship ...

  12. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  13. How deep can surface signals be traced in the critical zone? Merging biodiversity with biogeochemistry research in a central German Muschelkalk landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten eKüsel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s Critical Zone (CZ is a thin living layer connecting atmosphere and geosphere, including aquifers. Humans live in the CZ and benefit from the vital supporting services it provides. However, the CZ is increasingly impacted by human activities including land and resource use, pollution and climate change. Recent interest in uniting the many disciplines studying this complex domain has initiated an international network of research infrastructure platforms that allow access to the CZ in a range of geologic settings. In this paper a new such infrastructure platform associated with the Collaborative Research Center AquaDiva is described, that uniquely seeks to combine CZ research with detailed investigation of the functional biodiversity of the subsurface. Overall, AquaDiva aims to test hypotheses about how water connects surface conditions set by land cover and land management to the biota and biogeochemical functions in the subsurface. With long-term and continuous observations, hypotheses about how seasonal variations and extreme events at the surface impact subsurface processes, community structure and function, are tested. AquaDiva has established the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE in central Germany in an alkaline geological setting of German Triassic Muschelkalk formations. The Hainich CZE includes specialized monitoring wells to access the vadose zone and two main groundwater complexes in limestone and marlstone parent materials along a ~6 km transect spanning forest, pasture and agricultural land uses. Initial results demonstrate fundamental differences in the biota and biogeochemistry of the two aquifer complexes that trace back to the land uses in their respective recharge areas. They also show the importance of antecedent conditions on the impact of precipitation events on responses in terms of groundwater dynamics, chemistry and ecology. Thus we find signals of surface land use and events can be detected in the

  14. How deep can surface signals be traced in the critical zone? Merging biodiversity with biogeochemistry research in a central German Muschelkalk landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai; Trumbore, Susan; Lehmann, Robert; Steinhäuser, Christine; Herrmann, Martina

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is a thin living layer connecting atmosphere and geosphere, including aquifers. Humans live in the CZ and benefit from the vital supporting services it provides. However, the CZ is increasingly impacted by human activities including land and resource use, pollution and climate change. Recent interest in uniting the many disciplines studying this complex domain has initiated an international network of research infrastructure platforms that allow access to the CZ in a range of geologic settings. In this paper a new such infrastructure platform associated with the Collaborative Research Center AquaDiva is described, that uniquely seeks to combine CZ research with detailed investigation of the functional biodiversity of the subsurface. Overall, AquaDiva aims to test hypotheses about how water connects surface conditions set by land cover and land management to the biota and biogeochemical functions in the subsurface. With long-term and continuous observations, hypotheses about how seasonal variations and extreme events at the surface impact subsurface processes, community structure and function, are tested. AquaDiva has established the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE) in central Germany in an alkaline geological setting of German Triassic Muschelkalk formations. The Hainich CZE includes specialized monitoring wells to access the vadose zone and two main groundwater complexes in limestone and marlstone parent materials along a ~6 km transect spanning forest, pasture and agricultural land uses. Initial results demonstrate fundamental differences in the biota and biogeochemistry of the two aquifer complexes that trace back to the land uses in their respective recharge areas. They also show the importance of antecedent conditions on the impact of precipitation events on responses in terms of groundwater dynamics, chemistry and ecology. Thus we find signals of surface land use and events can be detected in the subsurface CZ. Future

  15. Accounting for age Structure in Ponderosa Pine Ecosystem Analyses: Integrating Management, Disturbance Histories and Observations with the BIOME-BGC Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Law, B.; Thornton, P.

    2003-12-01

    Disturbance and management regimes in forested ecosystems have been recently highlighted as important factors contributing to quantification of carbon stocks and fluxes. Disturbance events, such as stand-replacing fires and current management regimes that emphasize understory and tree thinning are primary suspects influencing ecosystem processes, including net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in forests of the Pacific Northwest. Several recent analyses have compared simulated to measured component stocks and fluxes of carbon in Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa var. Laws) at 12 sites ranging from 9 to 300 years in central Oregon (Law et al. 2001, Law et al. 2003) using the BIOME-BGC model. Major emphases on ecosystem model developments include improving allocation logic, integrating ecosystem processes with disturbance such as fire and including nitrogen in biogeochemical cycling. In Law et al. (2001, 2003), field observations prompted BIOME-BGC improvements including dynamic allocation of carbon to fine root mass through the life of a stand. A sequence of simulations was also designed to represent both management and disturbance histories for each site, however, current age structure of each sites wasn't addressed. Age structure, or cohort management has largely been ignored by ecosystem models, however, some studies have sought to incorporate stand age with disturbance and management (e.g. Hibbard et al. 2003). In this analyses, we regressed tree ages against height (R2 = 0.67) to develop a proportional distribution of age structure for each site. To preserve the integrity of the comparison between Law et al. (2003) and this study, we maintained the same timing of harvest, however, based on the distribution of age structures, we manipulated the amount of removal. Harvest by Law et al. (2003) was set at stand-replacement (99%) levels to simulate clear-cutting and reflecting the average top 10% of the age in each plot. For the young sites, we set removal at 73%, 51% and

  16. Genetic Determinants of Folate Status in Central Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselá, K.; Pavlíková, Markéta; Janošíková, B.; Anděl, M.; Zvárová, Jana; Hyánek, J.; Kožich, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2005), s. 295-303 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NM6548 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 11110003 Keywords : folates * folate hydrolase * reduced folate carrier * 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase * polymorphism Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/54/54_295.pdf

  17. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    In the global context, Brazil is one of the regions more severely affected by fire occurrences, with important consequences in the global CO2 balance, the state of the Amazon forest and the ecological diversity of the region. Brazil is also one of the few regions experiencing a raise in annual mean temperature above 2.5o during the 20th century, which may further increase between 2o and 7o until 2100 and, likely, be accompanied by a decrease in precipitation [1]. As the fire occurrence and severity largely depends on these two variables, it is worth assessing the evolution of fire danger for the coming decades. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the future fire patterns in the different biomes of Brazil, we use outputs from a regional-downscaling of the EC-Earth climate model at 0.44 degrees spatial resolution for two future scenarios, an intermediate (RCP4.5) and a more severe (RCP8.5) one. We use a fire danger index specifically developed for the Brazilian climate and biome characteristics, the IFR from INPE. This index relies on values of maximum temperature, accumulated precipitation over different periods, minimum relative humidity and vegetation cover to estimate the likelihood of fire occurrence. We find a systematic increase of the days with critical fire risk, which is more pronounced in RCP8.5 and mostly affects months when fire activity takes place. Temperature increase is the most determinant factor for the increase in fire danger in the dry regions of savannah and shrubland, a result to be expected as fuel is already very dry. [1] Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

  18. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  19. Structure of Drosophilidae Assemblage (Insecta, Diptera in Pampa Biome (São Luiz Gonzaga, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lucas Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa (the southernmost end of the country is currently a highly modified environment because of increasing agricultural activities. In many places, only small parts of grasslands remain inside an agricultural landscape. Drosophilidae (Diptera have been widely used as a potential bioindicators to monitor the effects of anthropogenic changes in natural environments. However, the fauna of Drosophilidae in the Pampa Biome from natural and disturbed environments, still remains largely unknown. The present study represents one of the first attempts to fill this gap, showing results from monthly collections in the municipality of São Luiz Gonzaga (28º24'28"S, 54º57'39"W, in the Brazilian Pampa. A species inventory was carried out in two contrasting environments, an urban zone and a forest remnant (rural zone. In both areas banana-baited traps were used to capture adult drosophilids. The identification was made using external morphology and male terminalia. In total, 13,379 drosophilids were analyzed (rural zone: N = 8,812 and Sobs = 25; urban zone: N = 4,567 and Sobs = 16. In the present study, 16 (60% out of 26 species were found exclusively or preferentially in the forest. The period of highest richness was between the months of June to November (roughly winter and spring, and the period of lowest richness was from December to May (roughly summer and autumn. An analysis of cluster by the Coefficient of Jaccard showed that species composition slightly changes when the period of the year with higher temperatures (from January to May is compared with the period with lower temperatures (from June to October. The species abundances were also highly affected by seasonality, as revealed by the Morisita Index, since the samples clustered into similar groups in consecutive periods and in the same season, showing the seasonal preference of some species. The time component was a determinant in the diversity of the assemblage, surpassing the

  20. Reference design for a centralized waste processing and storage facility. Technical manual for the management of low and intermediate level wastes generated at small nuclear research centres and by radioisotope users in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this report is to present the generic reference design of a centralized waste processing and storage facility (WPSF) intended for countries producing small but significant quantities of liquid and solid radioactive wastes. These wastes are generated through the use of radionuclides for research, medical, industrial and other institutional activities in IAEA Member States that have not yet developed the infrastructure for a complete nuclear fuel cycle. The WPSF comprises two separate buildings. The first, for receiving and processing waste from the producers, includes the necessary equipment and support services for treating and conditioning the waste. The second building acts as a simple but adequate warehouse for storing a ten year inventory of the conditioned waste. In developing the design, it was a requirement of the IAEA that options for waste management techniques for each of the waste streams should be evaluated, in order to demonstrate that the reference design is based on the most appropriate technology. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. The YMCA in Central European Countries as One of the Ways of Americanising Central Europe after the First World War (Base of Information and Methodological Approaches zo Researching the Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Tlustý

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The YMCA in Central European Countries as One of the Ways of Americanising Central Europe after the First World War (Base of Information and Methodological Approaches zo Researching the Issue The YMCA is essentially an organisation uniting people of Christian faith. The basis of its work was the so-called “Four-way program”, which included religious (spiritual, educational and physical education activities. This organisation was established in London in 1844, having been formed by sales clerk George Williams. The YMCA began to spread rapidly throughout Great Britain. From here it spread to France and subsequently to Holland and Germany. It particularly flourished in the United States of America and came to Czechoslovakia from there after the First World War. Here, the YMCA began to establish military and later student residences. It played an important role in developing basketball, volleyball and other sports. It significantly contributed to the rise of permanent summer camps. It also brought a new view of the world, emerging from American Protestantism. The basic method we have decided to use is the comparative method. Using this classic method of historical research, it is necessary to compare the extent to which the YMCA organisation contributed to the “Americanisation” of national cultures of observed countries and how much it influenced young people. Due to the anticipated inequality and imbalance of sources, the method of probing will have to be used to assess individual regions. Unpublished archive materials as well as magazines and news reports from the period, which have not been systematically researched as yet, will be used as sources of information. YMCA ve středoevropských zemích jako jedna z cest amerikanizace střední Evropy po 1. světové válce (informační báze a metodologické přístupy k řešení problému YMCA je v první řadě organizace sdružující lidi křesťanského vyznání. Základem její pr

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-09-09

    Sep 9, 2015 ... Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman, Turkey,3Department of Orthopedics and. Traumatology, Umraniye Research and Education Hospital, 34899 Istanbul, Turkey, 4Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Umraniye. Research and Education ...

  3. L’identification biométrique : vers un nouveau contrôle social ?

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    La biométrie se définit aujourd’hui comme la possibilité d’identifier sur la base de critères purement techniques un individu dans une masse et dans des flux. Elle est indissociable du processus d’informatisation de la société et de l’impéra­tif de traçabilité (des signes, des choses et aujourd’hui des êtres vivants) qu’im­pose le recouvrement du monde réel par son image numérique contrôlée et contrôlable. Le déploiement des dispositifs d’identification biométrique illustre ainsi la convergen...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research methodology module was reviewed as part of the overall revision of the undergraduate physiotherapy curriculum of ... Structuring the research methodology module using an EBP teaching framework prepares students to formulate a research question, effectively ... manage, and organise bibliographic citations.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Systems (SEEDS)-INDEPTH Network Accra, Ghana, 3KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, The Centre of Geographical Medicine Research-. Coast, Kilifi, Kenya, 4Population Health Sciences/Research Support Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aga Khan University- East Africa, Nairobi,. Kenya ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... this program provided short-term and long-term research training to. US infectious disease fellows who would work on collaborative research projects with Kenyan trainees. Since the program began in. 1988, there have been 56 US trainees, and 13 of these continue to collaborate with Kenyan researchers.

  8. Development, features and application of DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP) software in supporting public health nutrition research in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Nikolić, Marina; Zeković, Milica; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet growing public health nutrition challenges in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and Balkan countries, development of a Research Infrastructure (RI) and availability of an effective nutrition surveillance system are a prerequisite. The building block of this RI is an innovative tool called DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP), which is a platform for standardized and harmonized food consumption collection, comprehensive dietary intake assessment and nutrition planning. Its unique structure enables application of national food composition databases (FCDBs) from the European food composition exchange platform (28 national FCDBs) developed by EuroFIR (http://www.eurofir.org/) and in addition allows communication with other tools. DAP is used for daily menu and/or long-term diet planning in diverse public sector settings, foods design/reformulation, food labelling, nutrient intake assessment and calculation of the dietary diversity indicator, Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women (MDD-W). As a validated tool in different national and international projects, DAP represents an important RI in public health nutrition epidemiology in the CEEC region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Introducing BASE: the Biomes of Australian Soil Environments soil microbial diversity database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Anna; Meintjes, Thys; Mele, Pauline M; Reith, Frank; Dennis, Paul G; Breed, Martin F; Brown, Belinda; Brown, Mark V; Brugger, Joel; Byrne, Margaret; Caddy-Retalic, Stefan; Carmody, Bernie; Coates, David J; Correa, Carolina; Ferrari, Belinda C; Gupta, Vadakattu V S R; Hamonts, Kelly; Haslem, Asha; Hugenholtz, Philip; Karan, Mirko; Koval, Jason; Lowe, Andrew J; Macdonald, Stuart; McGrath, Leanne; Martin, David; Morgan, Matt; North, Kristin I; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Pendall, Elise; Phillips, Lori; Pirzl, Rebecca; Powell, Jeff R; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Seymour, Nicole; Snape, Ian; Stephen, John R; Stevens, Matthew; Tinning, Matt; Williams, Kristen; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Zammit, Carla M; Young, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Microbial inhabitants of soils are important to ecosystem and planetary functions, yet there are large gaps in our knowledge of their diversity and ecology. The 'Biomes of Australian Soil Environments' (BASE) project has generated a database of microbial diversity with associated metadata across extensive environmental gradients at continental scale. As the characterisation of microbes rapidly expands, the BASE database provides an evolving platform for interrogating and integrating microbial diversity and function. BASE currently provides amplicon sequences and associated contextual data for over 900 sites encompassing all Australian states and territories, a wide variety of bioregions, vegetation and land-use types. Amplicons target bacteria, archaea and general and fungal-specific eukaryotes. The growing database will soon include metagenomics data. Data are provided in both raw sequence (FASTQ) and analysed OTU table formats and are accessed via the project's data portal, which provides a user-friendly search tool to quickly identify samples of interest. Processed data can be visually interrogated and intersected with other Australian diversity and environmental data using tools developed by the 'Atlas of Living Australia'. Developed within an open data framework, the BASE project is the first Australian soil microbial diversity database. The database will grow and link to other global efforts to explore microbial, plant, animal, and marine biodiversity. Its design and open access nature ensures that BASE will evolve as a valuable tool for documenting an often overlooked component of biodiversity and the many microbe-driven processes that are essential to sustain soil function and ecosystem services.

  10. Local climatic conditions constrain soil yeast diversity patterns in Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Röhl, Oliver; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Maldonado, Cristina; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Soil yeasts represent a poorly known fraction of the soil microbiome due to limited ecological surveys. Here, we provide the first comprehensive inventory of cultivable soil yeasts in a Mediterranean ecosystem, which is the leading biodiversity hotspot for vascular plants and vertebrates in Europe. We isolated and identified soil yeasts from forested sites of Serra da Arrábida Natural Park (Portugal), representing the Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome. Both cultivation experiments and the subsequent species richness estimations suggest the highest species richness values reported to date, resulting in a total of 57 and 80 yeast taxa, respectively. These values far exceed those reported for other forest soils in Europe. Furthermore, we assessed the response of yeast diversity to microclimatic environmental factors in biotopes composed of the same plant species but showing a gradual change from humid broadleaf forests to dry maquis. We observed that forest properties constrained by precipitation level had strong impact on yeast diversity and on community structure and lower precipitation resulted in an increased number of rare species and decreased evenness values. In conclusion, the structure of soil yeast communities mirrors the environmental factors that affect aboveground phytocenoses, aboveground biomass and plant projective cover. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. SOIL COVER AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN OXISOL IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST BIOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida Bertossi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical and physical attributes of different soil cover in a Oxisol with a strong wavy relief in the Atlantic Forest Biome, in which were selected three watersheds, employed with grazing (watershed P, forest (watershed M and coffee (watershed C. Deformed and not deformed samples were collected in three depths for physical and chemical characterization. The chemical characteristics of soil in different watershed studies presented low levels of fertility. It was observed an elevation of pH in the soil and contents of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the watersheds P and C in relation to the watershed M. Due to deforestation and the establishment of agriculture and livestock, there was a decrease in the contents of soil organic matter in the watershed P and C, not altering the physical characteristics of the soil in the watershed P. The implementation of coffee plantation is causing a reduction in the soil quality of watershed C in comparison to the watershed P and M, therefore indicating a need to adequate soil management in this area.

  12. Soil Loss Vulnerability in an Agricultural Catchment in the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gotardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates soil loss vulnerability using field samples and spatial data in a 30 km² area in the Atlantic forest biome in southern Brazil. The anthropogenic part of the landscape consists mainly of small agricultural properties. Soil loss vulnerability was calculated using adaptations of the universal soil loss equation. The results were compared to sediment data collected during field surveys. Spatial analysis was performed using a geographical information system (GIS and fine resolution data (1 m. Both field and spatial analyses produced similar results, 5.390 tons of soil loss per year using field data and 5.691 tons per year using GIS. Using soil loss and sediment data related to the Concordia River, we estimate that of all the exported sediment 25% of the lost soil reaches the river. These data are an effective source of information for municipal administrators of the region, which consists of small agricultural catchments (dominated by small properties that comprise the regional economy. A thematic map was used to determine sub-drainage priority as information for public managers.

  13. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Mimosa spp. in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Fábio Bueno; Simon, Marcelo F; Gross, Eduardo; Boddey, Robert M; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Neto, Nicolau E; Loureiro, M de Fatima; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Scotti, Maria Rita; Chen, Wen-Ming; Norén, Agneta; Rubio, Maria C; de Faria, Sergio M; Bontemps, Cyril; Goi, Silvia R; Young, J Peter W; Sprent, Janet I; James, Euan K

    2010-06-01

    *An extensive survey of nodulation in the legume genus Mimosa was undertaken in two major biomes in Brazil, the Cerrado and the Caatinga, in both of which there are high degrees of endemicity of the genus. *Nodules were collected from 67 of the 70 Mimosa spp. found. Thirteen of the species were newly reported as nodulating. Nodules were examined by light and electron microscopy, and all except for M. gatesiae had a structure typical of effective Mimosa nodules. The endosymbiotic bacteria in nodules from all of the Mimosa spp. were identified as Burkholderia via immunolabelling with an antibody against Burkholderia phymatum STM815. *Twenty of the 23 Mimosa nodules tested were shown to contain nitrogenase by immunolabelling with an antibody to the nitrogenase Fe- (nifH) protein, and using the delta(15)N ((15)N natural abundance) technique, contributions by biological N(2) fixation of up to 60% of total plant N were calculated for Caatinga Mimosa spp. *It is concluded that nodulation in Mimosa is a generic character, and that the preferred symbionts of Brazilian species are Burkholderia. This is the first study to demonstrate N(2) fixation by beta-rhizobial symbioses in the field.

  14. SOIL ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS IN PRESERVED AND DISTURBED WETLANDS OF THE CERRADO BIOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes de Sousa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Veredas are humid tropical ecosystems, generally associated to hydromorphic soils and a shallow water table. The soils of these ecosystems are affected by the use of the areas around these veredas. The objective of this study was to determine soil organic matter (SOM fractions in veredas adjacent to preserved (native savanna and disturbed environments (agricultural areas and pastures in the Cerrado biome. Soil samples were collected from the 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers along reference lines drawn along the relief following the upper, middle and lower positions of one of the slopes, in the direction of the draining line of the vereda. The soil analysis determined: total soil OC, total nitrogen and C:N ratio; C and N contents and C:N ratio in particulate and mineral-associated fractions (of SOM; fulvic acids, humic acids and humin fractions and ratio between humic and fulvic acids. The agricultural use around the veredas induced changes in the SOM fractions, more pronounced in the lower part of the slope. In the soil surface of this part, the OC levels in the humic substances and the particulate fraction of SOM, as well as total soil OC were reduced in the vereda next to crop fields.

  15. Minisuíno (minipig na pesquisa biomédica experimental: o Minipig br1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mario

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes espécies de animais vertebrados e invertebrados têm sido usados em investigação biomédica experimental. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma breve revisão sobre o uso do suíno em pesquisa biomedica e sobre as similaridades da anatomia, fisiologia, bioquímica e imunologia desta espécie com aquelas do homem. É também revisto o desenvolvimento do minipig nos anos 60 e os sucessos obtidos com este modelo animal nas mais diversas áreas da medicina experimental. Finalmente, são descritas as características básicas de uma colônia de minipigs desenvolvida pelo autor (Minipig br1. São descritas as condições de alimentação desses animais, como são mantidos, vacinados e selecionados. Pesam de 10-15 quilos com seis meses de idade e de 30-37 quilos com onze meses. A possível contribuição desse modelo animal para o desenvolvimento da cirurgia experimental e para outras áreas de experimentação animal no país é discutida.

  16. Termite assemblages in five semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments in the northern coastland limit of the biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Bruno de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Termites are abundant organisms in tropical ecosystems and strongly influence the litter decomposition and soil formation. Despite their importance, few studies about their assemblage structures have been made in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments, especially in the area located north of the São Francisco River. This study aims to analyze the assemblage composition of five Atlantic Forest fragments located in the northern biome limit along the Brazilian coast. A standardized sampling protocol of termites was applied in each fragment. Thirty-three termite species belonging to twenty genera and three families were found in the forest fragments. The wood-feeder group was dominant both concerning to species richness and number of encounters in all areas. In sites northern to 7°S, there is an evident simplification of the termite assemblage composition regarding species richness and number of encounters by feeding group. This fact is apparently due to a higher sandy level in soils and to semideciduous character of the vegetation in the northern fragments. Thus, even on the north of São Francisco River, termite biodiversity is heterogeneously spread with highest density of species in the portion between 07°S and São Francisco River mouth (10°29'S.

  17. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grünzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

  18. Evaluation of mutagenic and antimicrobial properties of brown propolis essential oil from the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio H. Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological, and particularly antimicrobial, activities have been demonstrated for the essential oil of propolis samples worlwide, yet their mutagenic effects remain unknown. To correlate antimicrobial effects with mutagenic risks, the present study evaluated the antifungal and antibacterial activities of the essential oil obtained from brown propolis collected from the Cerrado biome in Midwest Brazil (EOP, testing it against nine pathogenic microorganisms. Evaluation of mutagenic potential was based on the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART performed on wing cells of standard (ST and high-bioactivation (HB crosses of Drosophila melanogaster. EOP was extracted by hydrodistillation, and sesquiterpenes were characterized by GC–MS as its major constituents. The crude oil proved active against Cryptococcus neoformans and Enterococcus faecalis, as did two of its major constituents, spathulenol and (E-nerolidol – the latter being also active against Staphylococcus aureus – isolated using chromatographic procedures. No significant increase in the number of somatic mutations was observed in the offspring of ST or HB crosses – the latter exhibiting enhanced levels of metabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 type – treated with 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% EOP. These findings revealed no mutagenic activity of EOP, even when tested against the HB strain, and demonstrated that its antimicrobial activities are not associated with DNA damage induction (investigated with SMART, suggesting the potential of EOP as a natural preservative.

  19. Microbial quality of soil from the Pampa biome in response to different grazing pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael S. Vargas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different grazing pressures on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria. We performed a long-term experiment in Eldorado do Sul, southern Brazil, that assessed three levels of grazing pressure: high pressure (HP, with 4% herbage allowance (HA, moderate pressure (MP, with 12% HA, and low pressure (LP, with 16% HA. Two reference areas were also assessed, one of never-grazed native vegetation (NG and another of regenerated vegetation after two years of grazing (RG. Soil samples were evaluated for microbial biomass and enzymatic (β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase and urease activities. The structure of the bacterial community and the population of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated by RFLP of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes, respectively. The diversity of diazotrophic bacteria was assessed by partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The presence of grazing animals increased soil microbial biomass in MP and HP. The structures of the bacterial community and the populations of diazotrophic bacteria were altered by the different grazing managements, with a greater diversity of diazotrophic bacteria in the LP treatment. Based on the characteristics evaluated, the MP treatment was the most appropriate for animal production and conservation of the Pampa biome.

  20. Ornamental Eudicotyledons from grasslands of Pampa biome in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana De Araújo Carrion

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the group of Eudicotyledons native plants with ornamental potential of grasslands from the Pampa biome in the south of Brazil. The Pampa presents a high level of biodiversity; however, it requires studies related to the richness of vascular plants and its biological and ecological knowledge. The purpose of this work is to elaborate a preliminary inventory of this group of plants, analyzing the ornamental potential of each specie and indicating those that could be considered as being priorities for the purpose of sustainable use with this objective. Some grassland species were selected through the search for information in herbarium registers, national and international works about decorative plants, floristic surveys, besides the authors´ practical knowledge. Some parameters and values were associated, aiming at reducing the subjectivity of the choice. The survey resulted in a list of 177 species distributed in 36 families and 101 genera. Among these species, ten presented high ornamental potential. These data show that the richness of the grassland native ornamental flora is high, even though its use is poorly known. The use of these plants, if in a sustainable manner, can produce economic and ecological benefits.

  1. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  2. Predicting the responsiveness of soil biodiversity to deforestation: a cross-biome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Thomas W; Maynard, Daniel S; Leff, Jonathan W; Oldfield, Emily E; McCulley, Rebecca L; Fierer, Noah; Bradford, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of deforestation for aboveground biodiversity have been a scientific and political concern for decades. In contrast, despite being a dominant component of biodiversity that is essential to the functioning of ecosystems, the responses of belowground biodiversity to forest removal have received less attention. Single-site studies suggest that soil microbes can be highly responsive to forest removal, but responses are highly variable, with negligible effects in some regions. Using high throughput sequencing, we characterize the effects of deforestation on microbial communities across multiple biomes and explore what determines the vulnerability of microbial communities to this vegetative change. We reveal consistent directional trends in the microbial community response, yet the magnitude of this vegetation effect varied between sites, and was explained strongly by soil texture. In sandy sites, the difference in vegetation type caused shifts in a suite of edaphic characteristics, driving substantial differences in microbial community composition. In contrast, fine-textured soil buffered microbes against these effects and there were minimal differences between communities in forest and grassland soil. These microbial community changes were associated with distinct changes in the microbial catabolic profile, placing community changes in an ecosystem functioning context. The universal nature of these patterns allows us to predict where deforestation will have the strongest effects on soil biodiversity, and how these effects could be mitigated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Parameter sensitivity of simulating net primary productivity of Larix olgensis forest based on BIOME-BGC model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-hong; Wang, Hai-yan; Lei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-01

    Model based on vegetation ecophysiological process contains many parameters, and reasonable parameter values will greatly improve simulation ability. Sensitivity analysis, as an important method to screen out the sensitive parameters, can comprehensively analyze how model parameters affect the simulation results. In this paper, we conducted parameter sensitivity analysis of BIOME-BGC model with a case study of simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of Larix olgensis forest in Wangqing, Jilin Province. First, with the contrastive analysis between field measurement data and the simulation results, we tested the BIOME-BGC model' s capability of simulating the NPP of L. olgensis forest. Then, Morris and EFAST sensitivity methods were used to screen the sensitive parameters that had strong influence on NPP. On this basis, we also quantitatively estimated the sensitivity of the screened parameters, and calculated the global, the first-order and the second-order sensitivity indices. The results showed that the BIOME-BGC model could well simulate the NPP of L. olgensis forest in the sample plot. The Morris sensitivity method provided a reliable parameter sensitivity analysis result under the condition of a relatively small sample size. The EFAST sensitivity method could quantitatively measure the impact of simulation result of a single parameter as well as the interaction between the parameters in BIOME-BGC model. The influential sensitive parameters for L. olgensis forest NPP were new stem carbon to new leaf carbon allocation and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio, the effect of their interaction was significantly greater than the other parameter' teraction effect.

  4. Comment on Chiesi et al. (2011): “Use of BIOME-BGC to simulate Mediterranean forest carbon stocks”

    OpenAIRE

    Eastaugh CS

    2011-01-01

    The mechanistic forest growth model BIOME-BGC utilizes a “spin-up” procedure to estimate site parameters for forests in a steady-state condition, as they may have been expected to be prior to anthropogenic influence. Forests in this condition have no net growth, as living biomass accumulation is balanced by mortality. To simulate current ecosystems it is necessary to reset the model to reflect a forest of the correct development stage. The alternative approach of simply post-adjus...

  5. Plant litter dynamics in the forest-stream interface: precipitation is a major control across tropical biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tonin, Alan M.; Gon?alves, Jos? F.; Bambi, Paulino; Couceiro, Sheyla R. M.; Feitoza, Lorrane A. M.; Fontana, Lucas E.; Hamada, Neusa; Hepp, Luiz U.; Lezan-Kowalczuk, V?nia G.; Leite, Gustavo F. M.; Lemes-Silva, Aurea L.; Lisboa, Leonardo K.; Loureiro, Rafael C.; Martins, Renato T.; Medeiros, Adriana O.

    2017-01-01

    Riparian plant litter is a major energy source for forested streams across the world and its decomposition has repercussions on nutrient cycling, food webs and ecosystem functioning. However, we know little about plant litter dynamics in tropical streams, even?though the tropics occupy 40% of the Earth?s land surface. Here we investigated spatial and temporal (along a year cycle) patterns of litter inputs and storage in multiple streams of three tropical biomes in Brazil (Atlantic forest, Ama...

  6. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    OpenAIRE

    John P. SMOL; Xiaowa WANG; Derek C.G. MUIR; Kathleen M. RÜHLAND

    2003-01-01

    Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC) we...

  7. Pensando o processo saúde doença: a que responde o modelo biomédico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto C. Barros

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de efetuar uma crítica ao modelo biomédico, mecanicista, hegemônico na doutrina e prática que informa a medicina na atualidade, o texto parte de uma síntese histórico-evolutiva que contempla a apresentaçao das idéias e personagens chave que caracterizariam os quatro paradigmas ou modelos que, ao longo do tempo, precederam o modelo sob estudo. Em seguida discorre, efetuando uma análise crítica, sobre o fenômeno da medicalizaçao, consequência e estímulo ao mesmo tempo para a hegemonia do modelo biomédico, contextualizando-a, brevemente, na sociedade de consumo, sob o império da lógica de mercado, tomando a questao dos medicamentos como exemplo das distorçoes advindas do incremento da medicalização e dos fatores a ela subjacentes. Ao final, comenta-se a respeito das limitações no alcance da desejada interferência positiva da medicina, uma vez feita a opção pelo modelo biomédico.

  8. Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Kitzberger, Thomas; Allen, Craig D.; Fensham, Rod; Laughlin, Daniel C.; Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Jump, Alistair S.

    2017-01-01

    Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and functional groups and functional traits. We identified a consistent global-scale response, where mortality increased with drought severity [log mortality (trees trees−1 year−1) increased 0.46 (95% CI = 0.2–0.7) with one SPEI unit drought intensity]. We found no significant differences in the magnitude of the response depending on forest biomes or between angiosperms and gymnosperms or evergreen and deciduous tree species. Functional traits explained some of the variation in drought responses between species (i.e. increased from 30 to 37% when wood density and specific leaf area were included). Tree species with denser wood and lower specific leaf area showed lower mortality responses. Our results illustrate the value of functional traits for understanding patterns of drought-induced tree mortality and suggest that mortality could become increasingly widespread in the future.

  9. Integrating Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversities: Interactive Effects with the Biome and Land Use across Taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Julian Martin; Zurita, Gustavo Andres; Filloy, Julieta; Galvis, Juan Pablo; Vespa, Natalia Isabel; Bellocq, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of species, functional traits and phylogenetic relationships at both the regional and local scales provide complementary approaches to study patterns of biodiversity and help to untangle the mechanisms driving community assembly. Few studies have simultaneously considered the taxonomic (TBD), functional (FBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) facets of beta diversity. Here we analyze the associations between TBD, FBD, and PBD with the biome (representing different regional species pools) and land use, and investigate whether TBD, FBD and PBD were correlated. In the study design we considered two widely used indicator taxa (birds and ants) from two contrasting biomes (subtropical forest and grassland) and land uses (tree plantations and cropfields) in the southern Neotropics. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic distances were associated to biome and land use; study sites grouped into four groups on the bi-dimensional space (cropfields in forest and grassland, and tree plantations in forest and grassland), and that was consistent across beta diversity facets and taxa. Mantel and PERMANOVA tests showed that TBD, FBD and PBD were positively correlated for both bird and ant assemblages; in general, partial correlations were also significant. Some of the functional traits considered here were conserved along phylogeny. Our results will contribute to the development of sound land use planning and beta diversity conservation.

  10. A checklist of spiders from Sovenga Hill, an inselberg in the Savanna Biome, Limpopo Province, South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Modiba

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA was initiated to make an inventory of the arachnid fauna of South Africa. Various projects are underway to prepare inventories of the spider fauna of the different floral biomes and provinces of South Africa. During April and May 2004 five different collecting methods were sed to sample spiders from four slopes on Sovenga Hill, an inselberg situated in the Savanna Biome, near Polokwane, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A total of 793 specimens represented by 29 families, 62 genera and 76 species were recorded over the twomonth period. The Thomisidae was the most abundant (n = 167 representing 21.1 % of all spiders sampled, followed by the Gnaphosidae (n = 101 with 12.7 % and the Lycosidae (n = 77 with 9.7 %. The most abundant species was a thomisid Tmarus comellini Garcia-Neto (n = 82, representing 10.3 % of the total, followed by a clubionid Clubiona godfreyi Lessert (n = 66 with 8.3 %. The Thomisidae was the most species-rich family with 12 species, followed by the Gnaphosidae with 11 species and the Araneidae with 10 species. Of the species collected 83.9 % were wandering spiders and 16.1 % web builders. This is the first quantitative survey of the Savanna Biome in the Polokwane area.

  11. Modeling the Ecosystem Services Provided by Trees in Urban Ecosystems: Using Biome-BGC to Improve i-Tree Eco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; McGroddy, Megan; Spence, Caitlin; Flake, Leah; Sarfraz, Amna; Nowak, David J.; Milesi, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly urban, the need to quantify the effect of trees in urban environments on energy usage, air pollution, local climate and nutrient run-off has increased. By identifying, quantifying and valuing the ecological activity that provides services in urban areas, stronger policies and improved quality of life for urban residents can be obtained. Here we focus on two radically different models that can be used to characterize urban forests. The i-Tree Eco model (formerly UFORE model) quantifies ecosystem services (e.g., air pollution removal, carbon storage) and values derived from urban trees based on field measurements of trees and local ancillary data sets. Biome-BGC (Biome BioGeoChemistry) is used to simulate the fluxes and storage of carbon, water, and nitrogen in natural environments. This paper compares i-Tree Eco's methods to those of Biome-BGC, which estimates the fluxes and storage of energy, carbon, water and nitrogen for vegetation and soil components of the ecosystem. We describe the two models and their differences in the way they calculate similar properties, with a focus on carbon and nitrogen. Finally, we discuss the implications of further integration of these two communities for land managers such as those in Maryland.

  12. Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Kitzberger, Thomas; Allen, Craig D; Fensham, Rod; Laughlin, Daniel C; Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kraft, Nathan J B; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-04-01

    Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and functional groups and functional traits. We identified a consistent global-scale response, where mortality increased with drought severity [log mortality (trees trees -1  year -1 ) increased 0.46 (95% CI = 0.2-0.7) with one SPEI unit drought intensity]. We found no significant differences in the magnitude of the response depending on forest biomes or between angiosperms and gymnosperms or evergreen and deciduous tree species. Functional traits explained some of the variation in drought responses between species (i.e. increased from 30 to 37% when wood density and specific leaf area were included). Tree species with denser wood and lower specific leaf area showed lower mortality responses. Our results illustrate the value of functional traits for understanding patterns of drought-induced tree mortality and suggest that mortality could become increasingly widespread in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Integrating Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversities: Interactive Effects with the Biome and Land Use across Taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Julian Martin; Zurita, Gustavo Andres; Filloy, Julieta; Galvis, Juan Pablo; Vespa, Natalia Isabel; Bellocq, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of species, functional traits and phylogenetic relationships at both the regional and local scales provide complementary approaches to study patterns of biodiversity and help to untangle the mechanisms driving community assembly. Few studies have simultaneously considered the taxonomic (TBD), functional (FBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) facets of beta diversity. Here we analyze the associations between TBD, FBD, and PBD with the biome (representing different regional species pools) and land use, and investigate whether TBD, FBD and PBD were correlated. In the study design we considered two widely used indicator taxa (birds and ants) from two contrasting biomes (subtropical forest and grassland) and land uses (tree plantations and cropfields) in the southern Neotropics. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic distances were associated to biome and land use; study sites grouped into four groups on the bi-dimensional space (cropfields in forest and grassland, and tree plantations in forest and grassland), and that was consistent across beta diversity facets and taxa. Mantel and PERMANOVA tests showed that TBD, FBD and PBD were positively correlated for both bird and ant assemblages; in general, partial correlations were also significant. Some of the functional traits considered here were conserved along phylogeny. Our results will contribute to the development of sound land use planning and beta diversity conservation. PMID:25978319

  14. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe. A central and eastern European perspective. The implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, N.E.; Jansen, T.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, "Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective" is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project "Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe". The ETGAGE

  15. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE

  16. [Resilience, social relations, and pedagogic intervention five years after the earthquake occurred in L'Aquila (Central Italy) in 2009: an action-research in the primary schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarelli, Alessandro; Ciccozzi, Chiara; Fiorenza, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    the action-research "Outdoor training and citizenship between children from L'Aquila", carried out from 2014 to 2015 in some schools situated in the municipality of L'Aquila, aimed to answer to the needs emerged in reference to the social and psychological problems among children during the period after the L'Aquila earthquake occurred in 2009. In particular, the article provides documentary evidence about the results regarding the parts related to the study of resilience (cognitive objective) and of social relations (objective tied to the educational intervention), five years after the earthquake. the pedagogical research team, in close cooperation with the Cartography Laboratory of the University of L'Aquila and with the Grupo de Innovación Educativa Areté de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, has worked according to the research-action methodology, collecting secondary data and useful data to check the effectiveness of the educational actions put in place in order to promote resilient behaviours and to activate positive group dynamics. the study has been developed in 4 primary schools of the L'Aquila and has involved 83 children from 8 to 12 years. A control group made by 55 subjects, homogeneous for sex and age, has been identified in the primary schools of Borgorose, a little town near Rieti (Central Italy). data about the abilities of resilience and about the response to the stress have been collected in the first phase of the study with the purpose to outline the initial situation and develop an appropriate educational intervention. The comparison with the control group made by 55 subjects who were not from L'Aquila allowed to check that, 5 years after the disaster, the context of life produces a meaningful discrepancy in terms of responses to the stress and to the ability of resilience, and this fact is definitely negative for children from L'Aquila. On the other hand, data related to social relations allowed to verify how the educational intervention

  17. Land cover trajectory in the Caatinga biome: analysing trends, drivers and consequences with high resolution satellite time series in Paraiba, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Iana; Cunha, John; Carlos, Galvão; Nailson, Silva

    2017-04-01

    The Caatinga Biome is a unique Earth ecosystem with only 1% of conserved and protected areas (Oliveira et al, 2012). Human activities pressures high threaten Caatinga Biodiversity. Along the last decades, native green areas are changed by crops, livestock or those areas are reached by urban areas (Oliveira et al 2012; Fiaschi e Pianni, 2009; Sivakumar, 2007; Castelleti et al, 2004; Pereira et al, 2013; le Polain de Waroux & Lambin, 2012; Apgaua et al, 2013). Precipitation rates have high variability in space and time. High temperatures with small inter annual variability drives evapotranspiration up and turns the water scarcity the main challenge for sustainable life in rural areas. Sánchez-Azofeifa et al., (2005) try establishing research priorities for tropical dry forests and they recommend Scientific Community to focus on ecology and social aspects and possibilities of remote sensing techniques in those studies. Specific algorithms to produce estimates of energy balance and evapotranspiration of water to the atmosphere can process satellite images derived from several sensors. These estimates, combined with the analysis of historical time-series, allow the detection of changes in the terrestrial plant systems and can be used to discriminate the influences from human occupation and those from climate variability and/or change on energy fluxes and land cover. The algorithms have to be calibrated and validated using ground-based data. Thus, a large multiple source set of satellite and ground data has to be processed and comparatively analyzed. However, the high computational cost for image processing introduce further processing challenges. In order to face those challenges, this research explores the possibilities of using these medium resolution remote sensing products (30 meters), presenting a multitemporal long term analysis (24 months) to identify the land trajectory of one Semi-arid area (pilot) in the Caatinga biome. All processing steps use the

  18. Quantitative biome reconstruction using modern and late Quaternary pollen data from the southern part of the Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhova, Lyudmila; Tarasov, Pavel; Bazarova, Valentina; Klimin, Mikhail

    2009-12-01

    In this study we present a recent compilation of 286 modern surface pollen spectra from the southern part of the Russian Far East (42-54°N, 131-141°E) and use it to test the biome reconstruction method. Seventy terrestrial pollen taxa were assigned to plant functional types and then classified to eight regional biomes. When applied to 286 surface pollen spectra, the method assigns about 70% (201 sites) of the samples to the cool mixed forest biome, 17% - to the taiga, 2% - to the cool conifer forest, 3% - to the temperate deciduous forest, and 7% - to the steppe. The steppe reconstruction is characteristic of the pollen spectra from the agricultural areas around Lake Khanka. A visual comparison shows good agreement between pollen-derived biomes and actual vegetation distribution in the region. However, pollen and botanical data, compared with the potential vegetation distribution simulated from the modern climate dataset using the BIOME1 model, demonstrate that spatial distribution of cool mixed forest is underrepresented in the model simulation. The model sets the mean temperature of the coldest month of -15 °C as the factor limiting distribution of the temperate deciduous broadleaf taxa, while vegetation and pollen data from the region demonstrate that this limit should be lowered to -26 °C. Application of the method to the Gur 3-99 pollen record (50°00 'N, 137°03 'E) demonstrates that tundra vegetation predominated around the site prior to 14 ka BP (1 ka = 1000 cal. years). However, the local presence of boreal trees and mixed forest-tundra vegetation is suggested by relatively high taiga scores. Soon after 14 ka BP the scores of taiga become slightly higher than tundra scores. During 11.4-10.5 ka BP a cool conifer forest is reconstructed. Establishment of the full interglacial conditions is marked by the onset of cool mixed forest by 10.5 ka BP. Between 10.3 and 2.5 ka BP the scores of temperate deciduous forest are close to those of cool mixed forest and

  19. Identification of novel mammalian hosts and Brazilian biome geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi TcIII and TcIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Juliana Helena S; Xavier, Samanta Cristina C; Bilac, Daniele; Lima, Valdirene Santos; Dario, Maria Augusta; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2017-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. Seven different Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) of T. cruzi are currently identified in nature: TcI-TcVI, and TcBat whose distribution patterns in nature, hosts/reservoirs and eco-epidemiological importance are still little known. Here, we present novel data on the geographic distribution and diversity of mammalian hosts and vectors of T. cruzi DTUs TcIII and TcIV. In this study, we analyzed 61 T. cruzi isolates obtained from 18 species of mammals (five orders) and two Hemiptera genera. Samples were collected from five Brazilian biomes (Pantanal, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Rainforest, and Amazon) previously characterized as Z3 or mixed infection (TcI-Z3) by mini-exon gene PCR. To identify TcIII and TcIV genotypes, we applied restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to the PCR-amplified histone 3 gene. DTUs TcIII and TcIV were identified in single and mixed infections from wide dispersion throughout five Brazilian biomes studied, with TcIV being the most common. Pantanal was the biome that displayed the largest number of samples characterized as TcIII and TcIV in single and mixed infections, followed by Atlantic Rainforest and Amazon. Species from the Didelphimorphia order displayed the highest frequency of infection and were found in all five biomes. We report, for the first time, the infection of a species of the Artiodactyla order by DTU TcIII. In addition, we describe new host species: five mammals (marsupials and rodents) and two genera of Hemiptera. Our data indicate that DTUs TcIII and TcIV are more widespread and infect a larger number of mammalian species than previously thought. In addition, they are transmitted in restricted foci and cycles, but in different microhabitats and areas with distinct ecological profiles. Finally, we show that DTUs TcIII and TcIV do not present any specific association with biomes or host species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. ... Despite a wealth of research on youth, little research has been done on the sexual ..... Behavior, and Mental Health: a study of University Students in. Uganda.