WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomaterials electronic resource

  1. Biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Migonney , Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Discovered in the 20th century, biomaterials have contributed to many of the incredible scientific and technological advancements made in recent decades. This book introduces and details the tenets of biomaterials, their relevance in a various fields, practical applications of their products, and potential advancements of the years to come. A comprehensive resource, the text covers the reasons that certain properties of biomaterials contribute to specific applications, and students and researchers will appreciate this exhaustive textbook.

  2. Review of biomaterials for electronics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchen, Fahima; Rau, Ileana; Kajzar, François; Heckman, Emily; Grote, James G.

    2018-03-01

    Much work has been done developing and utilizing biomaterials over the last decade. Biomaterials not only includes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), but nucleobases and silk. These materials are abundant, inexpensive, non-fossil fuel-based and green. Researchers have demonstrated their potential to enhance the performance of organic and inorganic electronic and photonic devices, such as light emitting diodes, thin film transistors, capacitors, electromagnetic interference shielding and electro-optic modulators. Starting around the year 2000, with only a hand full of researchers, including researchers at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and researchers at the Chitose Institute of Technology (CIST), it has grown into a large US, Asia and European consortium, producing over 3400 papers, three books, many book chapters and multiple patents. Presented here is a short overview of the progress in this exciting field of nano bio-engineering.

  3. Biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mourik, P.; Van Dam, J.; Picken, S.J.; Ursem, B.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of living organisms produce biomaterials. Hence, in principle biomaterials are fully sustainable. This does not mean that their processing and application have no impact on the environment, e.g. the recycling of natural rubber remains a problem. Biomaterials are applied in a

  4. Free Electron Laser Induced Forward Transfer Method of Biomaterial for Marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kaoru

    Biomaterial, such as chitosan, poly lactic acid, etc., containing fluorescence agent was deposited onto biology hard tissue, such as teeth, fingernail of dog or cat, or sapphire substrate by free electron laser induced forward transfer method for direct write marking. Spin-coated biomaterial with fluorescence agent of rhodamin-6G or zinc phthalochyamine target on sapphire plate was ablated by free electron laser (resonance absorption wavelength of biomaterial : 3380 nm). The influence of the spin-coating film-forming temperature on hardness and adhesion strength of biomaterial is particularly studied. Effect of resonance excitation of biomaterial target by turning free electron laser was discussed to damage of biomaterial, rhodamin-6G or zinc phtarochyamine for direct write marking

  5. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  6. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  7. Biomaterials-based electronics: polymers and interfaces for biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskovich, Meredith; Bettinger, Christopher J

    2012-05-01

    Advanced polymeric biomaterials continue to serve as a cornerstone for new medical technologies and therapies. The vast majority of these materials, both natural and synthetic, interact with biological matter in the absence of direct electronic communication. However, biological systems have evolved to synthesize and utilize naturally-derived materials for the generation and modulation of electrical potentials, voltage gradients, and ion flows. Bioelectric phenomena can be translated into potent signaling cues for intra- and inter-cellular communication. These cues can serve as a gateway to link synthetic devices with biological systems. This progress report will provide an update on advances in the application of electronically active biomaterials for use in organic electronics and bio-interfaces. Specific focus will be granted to covering technologies where natural and synthetic biological materials serve as integral components such as thin film electronics, in vitro cell culture models, and implantable medical devices. Future perspectives and emerging challenges will also be highlighted. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Development of microalgae biomaterials with enhanced antioxidant activity using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younghwa; Park, Hyunjin; Choi, Soojeong; Lee, Jaehwa [Silla Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    By increasing the antioxidant products (e. g. antioxidant enzyme, carotenoid, phycobiliproteins, chlorophyll, lipid phenolic compounds, etc.) in microalgae, it could be useful for industry. In this study, mutants of fresh water microalgae Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis) by high energy electron beam were isolated and characterized. Those selected mutants showed higher growth rate than parental strain. The antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and POD), flavonoid, phenolic compound and phycocyanin of mutants were increased about 2 times compared to wild type. Moreover, DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased about 20%. Microalgae species with improved growth rate and enhanced active compounds make the commercial process more feasible in industry. Using microalgae mutants with increased antioxidant products, it is useful to develop microalgae biomaterials for neutraceuticals.

  9. Development of microalgae biomaterials with enhanced antioxidant activity using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghwa; Park, Hyunjin; Choi, Soojeong; Lee, Jaehwa

    2013-01-01

    By increasing the antioxidant products (e. g. antioxidant enzyme, carotenoid, phycobiliproteins, chlorophyll, lipid phenolic compounds, etc.) in microalgae, it could be useful for industry. In this study, mutants of fresh water microalgae Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis) by high energy electron beam were isolated and characterized. Those selected mutants showed higher growth rate than parental strain. The antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and POD), flavonoid, phenolic compound and phycocyanin of mutants were increased about 2 times compared to wild type. Moreover, DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased about 20%. Microalgae species with improved growth rate and enhanced active compounds make the commercial process more feasible in industry. Using microalgae mutants with increased antioxidant products, it is useful to develop microalgae biomaterials for neutraceuticals

  10. Microjet impingement followed by scanning electron microscopy as a qualitative technique to compare cellular adhesion to various biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R G; ap Gwynn, I; Bundy, K J; Rahn, B A

    1995-12-01

    Adhesion of cells to biomaterial surfaces is one of the major factors which mediates their biocompatibility. Quantitative or qualitative cell adhesion measurements would be useful for screening new implant materials. Microjet impingement has been evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, to determine to what extent it measures cell adhesion. The shear forces of the impingement, on the materials tested here, are seen to be greater than the cohesive strength of the cells in the impinged area, causing their rupture. The cell bodies are removed during impingement, leaving the sites of adhesion and other cellular material behind. Thus the method is shown not to provide quantification of cell adhesion forces for the metals and culture plastic tested. It is suggested that with highly adherent biomaterials, the distribution and patterns of these adhesion sites could be used for qualitative comparisons for screening of implant surfaces.

  11. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  12. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  13. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  14. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  15. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  16. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  17. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  18. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  19. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  20. Smart biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Narain, Ravin; Idota, Naokazu; Kim, Young-Jin; Hoffman, John M; Uto, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Takao

    2014-01-01

    This book surveys smart biomaterials, exploring the properties, mechanics and characterization of hydrogels, particles, assemblies, surfaces, fibers and conjugates. Reviews applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioseparation and more.

  1. EPR analysis of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhodub, L.

    2001-01-01

    There is the review of electron spin resonance application for paramagnetic individual investigation in biomaterials. Especially the bone tissue and tooth enamel can be taken into account. The material composition (e.g. Mn 2+ and Cr 3+ ions) can be measured, also after irradiation (X, γ radiations) when paramagnetic signal appears as a result of physical radiation effects

  2. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  3. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  4. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  5. Engineering of biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    dos Santos, Venina; Savaris, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on biomaterials of different forms used for medical implants. The authors introduce the characteristics and properties of biomaterials and then dedicate special chapters to metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite biomaterials. Case studies on sterilization methods by biomaterials are also presented. Finally, the authors describe the degradation and effects of biomaterials in living tissue.

  6. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  7. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  8. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  9. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  10. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  11. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  12. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  13. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  14. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  15. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  16. Characterization of biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, M; Tolias, P; Arinzeh, T

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterials and medical devices must be rigorously tested in the laboratory before they can be implanted. Testing requires the right analytical techniques. Characterization of biomaterials reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials. Beginning with an introduction to microscopy techniques for analyzing the phase nature and morphology of biomaterials, Characterization of biomaterials goes on to discuss scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, motility and differentiation, and the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors. Further topics considered include studying molecular-scale protein-surface interactions in biomaterials, analysis of the cellular genome and abnormalities, and the use of microarrays to measure cellular changes induced by biomaterials. Finally, the book concludes by outlining standards and methods for assessing the safety and biocompatibility of biomaterial...

  17. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  18. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  19. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  20. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  1. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  2. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  3. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  4. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  5. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  6. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  7. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  8. Biomaterials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reza Rezaie, Hamid; Öchsner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This short book presents an overview of different types of biomaterial such as bio ceramics, bio polymers, metals and bio composites, while especially focusing on nano biomaterials and their applications in different tissues. It provides a compact introduction to nano materials for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering and implants, while also reviewing essential trends in the biomaterial field over the last few decades and the latest developments.

  9. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  10. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Gupta, Girish; De, Sudipta; Franco, Ana; Balu, Alina Mariana; Luque, Rafael

    2015-12-30

    Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  11. An introduction to biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2011-01-01

    Consensus Definitions, Fundamental Concepts, and a Standardized Approach to Applied Biomaterials Sciences, J.O. HollingerBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Wound Healing BiologyCutaneous Wound Pathobiology: Raison d'etre for Tissue Engineering, L.K. Macri and R.A.F. ClarkOsseous Wound Healing, A. Nawab, M. Wong, D. Kwak, L. Schutte, A. Sharma, and J.O. HollingerBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Cellular MechanicsCell and Tissue Mechanobiology, W. Guo, P. Alvarez, and Y. WangBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Materials-Host InteractionsCell-Material In

  12. Biomaterials for MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a guide for practicing engineers, researchers, and students interested in MEMS devices that use biomaterials and biomedical applications. It is also suitable for engineers and researchers interested in MEMS and its applications but who do not have the necessary background in biomaterials.Biomaterials for MEMS highlights important features and issues of biomaterials that have been used in MEMS and biomedical areas. Hence this book is an essential guide for MEMS engineers or researchers who are trained in engineering institutes that do not provide the background or knowledge

  13. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  14. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  15. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  16. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  17. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  18. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  19. Computational Study on Atomic Structures, Electronic Properties, and Chemical Reactions at Surfaces and Interfaces and in Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yu; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Morikawa, Yoshitada

    2018-06-01

    Through computer simulations using atomistic models, it is becoming possible to calculate the atomic structures of localized defects or dopants in semiconductors, chemically active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, nanoscale structures, and active sites in biological systems precisely. Furthermore, it is also possible to clarify physical and chemical properties possessed by these nanoscale structures such as electronic states, electronic and atomic transport properties, optical properties, and chemical reactivity. It is sometimes quite difficult to clarify these nanoscale structure-function relations experimentally and, therefore, accurate computational studies are indispensable in materials science. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relation between local structures and functions for inorganic, organic, and biological systems by using atomistic computer simulations.

  20. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FUNCTIONAL BIOMATERIALS: Design of Novel Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama-Elbert, Se; Hubbell, Ja

    2001-08-01

    The field of biomaterials has recently been focused on the design of intelligent materials. Toward this goal, materials have been developed that can provide specific bioactive signals to control the biological environment around them during the process of materials integration and wound healing. In addition, materials have been developed that can respond to changes in their environment, such as a change in pH or cell-associated enzymatic activity. In designing such novel biomaterials, researchers have sought not merely to create bio-inert materials, but rather materials that can respond to the cellular environment around them to improve device integration and tissue regeneration.

  2. Biomaterials for artificial organs

    CERN Document Server

    Lysaght, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for organ transplants far exceeds available donor organs. Consequently some patients die whilst waiting for a transplant. Synthetic alternatives are therefore imperative to improve the quality of, and in some cases, save people's lives. Advances in biomaterials have generated a range of materials and devices for use either outside the body or through implantation to replace or assist functions which may have been lost through disease or injury. Biomaterials for artificial organs reviews the latest developments in biomaterials and investigates how they can be used to improve the quality and efficiency of artificial organs. Part one discusses commodity biomaterials including membranes for oxygenators and plasmafilters, titanium and cobalt chromium alloys for hips and knees, polymeric joint-bearing surfaces for total joint replacements, biomaterials for pacemakers, defibrillators and neurostimulators and mechanical and bioprosthetic heart valves. Part two goes on to investigate advanced and ...

  3. Biomaterials and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Sharma, Gayatri

    2018-05-01

    There is a growing demand for novel biomaterials for the replacement and repairing of soft and hard tissues such as bones, cartilage and blood vessels, decaying teeth, arthritic hips, injured tissues or even entire organs. The main aim of biomaterial research is to find the appropriate combination of chemical and physical properties matched with tissues replaced in the host. It improves the quality of life. On increasing number of people each year with increasing demands on these materials with higher expectations related to quality of life arising from an aging population. Now a day there is an ever-increasing search for novel biomaterials as the material requirements for complex biomedical devices increases with time. Many materials such as metals, ceramics, polymers, and glasses are being investigated as biomaterials. They are very useful in various fields due to their excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. This paper includes various eco-friendly biomaterials and their application in various fields.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of open-cellular biomaterials prototypes for total knee replacement implants fabricated by electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L E; Amato, K N; Li, S J; Tian, Y X; Cheng, X Y; Gaytan, S M; Martinez, E; Shindo, P W; Medina, F; Wicker, R B

    2011-10-01

    Total knee replacement implants consisting of a Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy femoral component and a Ti-6Al-4V tibial component are the basis for the additive manufacturing of novel solid, mesh, and foam monoliths using electron beam melting (EBM). Ti-6Al-4V solid prototype microstructures were primarily α-phase acicular platelets while the mesh and foam structures were characterized by α(')-martensite with some residual α. The Co-29Cr-6Mo containing 0.22% C formed columnar (directional) Cr(23)C(6) carbides spaced ~2 μm in the build direction, while HIP-annealed Co-Cr alloy exhibited an intrinsic stacking fault microstructure. A log-log plot of relative stiffness versus relative density for Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo open-cellular mesh and foams resulted in a fitted line with a nearly ideal slope, n = 2.1. A stress shielding design graph constructed from these data permitted mesh and foam implant prototypes to be fabricated for compatible bone stiffness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  6. Biofilm and Dental Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Øilo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All treatment involving the use of biomaterials in the body can affect the host in positive or negative ways. The microbiological environment in the oral cavity is affected by the composition and shape of the biomaterials used for oral restorations. This may impair the patients’ oral health and sometimes their general health as well. Many factors determine the composition of the microbiota and the formation of biofilm in relation to biomaterials such as, surface roughness, surface energy and chemical composition, This paper aims to give an overview of the scientific literature regarding the association between the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of dental biomaterials and oral biofilm formation, with emphasis on current research and future perspectives.

  7. Biomaterials a basic introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qizhi

    2014-01-01

    Part IBiomaterials ScienceBiomaterials Science and EngineeringLearning ObjectivesMaterials Science and EngineeringMultilevels of Structure and Categorization of MaterialsFour Categories of MaterialsDefinitions of Biomaterials, Biomedical Materials, and Biological MaterialsBiocompatibilityChapter HighlightsActivitiesSimple Questions in ClassProblems and ExercisesBibliographyToxicity and CorrosionLearning ObjectivesElements in the BodyBiological Roles and Toxicities of Trace ElementsSelection of Metallic Elements in Medical-Grade AlloysCorrosion of MetalsEnvironment inside the BodyMinimization of Toxicity of Metal ImplantsChapter HighlightsLaboratory Practice 1Simple Questions in ClassProblems and ExercisesAdvanced Topic: Biological Roles of Alloying ElementsBibliographyMechanical Properties of BiomaterialsLearning ObjectivesRole of Implant BiomaterialsMechanical Properties of General ImportanceHardnessElasticity: Resilience and StrechabilityMechanical Properties Terms Used in the Medical CommunityFailureEssent...

  8. Biomaterials in Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Helen E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)

  9. [Biomaterials in bone repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Mervi; Aho, Allan J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedics, traumatology, and craniofacial surgery, biomaterials should meet the clinical demands of bone that include shape, size and anatomical location of the defect, as well as the physiological load-bearing stresses. Biomaterials are metals, ceramics, plastics or materials of biological origin. In the treatment of large defects, metallic endoprostheses or bone grafts are employed, whereas ceramics in the case of small defects. Plastics are employed on the artificial joint surfaces, in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and as biodegradable screws and plates. Porosity, bioactivity, and identical biomechanics to bone are fundamental for achieving a durable, well-bonded, interface between biomaterial and bone. In the case of severe bone treatments, biomaterials should also imply an option to add biologically active substances.

  10. Designer biomaterials for mechanobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqing; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S.

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterials engineered with specific bioactive ligands, tunable mechanical properties and complex architecture have emerged as powerful tools to probe cell sensing and response to physical properties of their material surroundings, and ultimately provide designer approaches to control cell function.

  11. Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials serve as an integral component of tissue engineering. They are designed to provide architectural framework reminiscent of native extracellular matrix in order to encourage cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Bone and cartilage represent two distinct tissues with varying compositional and mechanical properties. Despite these differences, both meet at the osteochondral interface. This article presents an overview of current biomaterials employed in bone and cartilage applications, discusses some design considerations, and alludes to future prospects within this field of research. PMID:23820768

  12. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  13. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  14. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  15. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  16. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  17. Novel hydroxyapatite biomaterial covalently linked to raloxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meme, L; Santarelli, A; Marzo, G; Emanuelli, M; Nocini, P F; Bertossi, D; Putignano, A; Dioguardi, M; Lo Muzio, L; Bambini, F

    2014-01-01

    Since raloxifene, a drug used in osteoporosis therapy, inhibits osteoclast, but not osteoblast functions, it has been suggested to improve recovery during implant surgery. The present paper describes an effective method to link raloxifene, through a covalent bond, to a nano-Hydroxyapatite-based biomaterial by interfacing with (3-aminopropyl)-Triethoxysilane as assessed by Infra Red-Fourier Transformed (IR-FT) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). To evaluate the safety of this modified new material, the vitality of osteoblast-like cells cultured with the new biomaterial was then investigated. Raloxifene-conjugated HAbiomaterial has been shown to be a safe material easy to obtain which could be an interesting starting point for the use of a new functional biomaterial suitable in bone regeneration procedures.

  18. Viscoelasticity of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, W.G.; Hatakeyama, H.

    1992-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of Biomaterials is divided into three sections. The first offers a materials design lesson on the architectural arrangement of biopolymers in collagen. Included also are reviews on solution properties of polysacchardies, chiral and liquid crystalline solution characteristics of cellulose derivatives, and viscoelastic properties of wood and wood fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The second section, Biogels and Gelation, discusses the molecular arrangements of highly hydrated biomaterials such as mucus, gums, skinlike tissue, and silk fibroin. The physical effects that result from the transition from a liquid to a solid state are the subject of the third section, which focuses on relaxation phenomena. Gel formation, the conformation of domain structures, and motional aspects of complex biomaterials are described in terms of recent experimental advances in various fields. A relevant chapter on the effects of ionizing radiation on connective tissue is abstracted separately

  19. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  20. Advanced biomaterials and biodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials are the fastest-growing emerging field of  biodevices. Design and development of biomaterials play a significant role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Recently, a variety of scaffolds/carriers have been evaluated for tissue regeneration, drug delivery, sensing and imaging.  Liposomes and microspheres have been developed for sustained delivery. Several anti-cancer drugs have been successfully formulated using biomaterial. The targeting of drugs to certain physiological sites has emerged as a promising tool in the treatment with improved drug bioavailability and reduction of dosing frequency. Biodevices-based targeting of drugs may improve the therapeutic success by limiting the adverse drug effects and resulting in more patient compliance and attaining a higher adherence level. Advanced biodevices hold merit as a drug carrier with high carrier capacity, feasibility of incorporation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, high stability, as well as the feasibility...

  1. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  2. Biomaterials for tissue engineering: summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, L.; Mikos, A. G.; Gibbons, D. F.; Picciolo, G. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations and discussion at the workshop "Enabling Biomaterial Technology for Tissue Engineering," which was held during the Fifth World Biomaterials Congress in May 1996. Presentations covered the areas of material substrate architecture, barrier effects, and cellular response, including analysis of biomaterials challenges involved in producing specific tissue-engineered products.

  3. Biomaterials modification by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Yi Zhongzhen; Zhang Xu; Wu Yuguang

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam technology is one of best ways for the modification of biomaterials. The results of ion beam modification of biomaterials are given. The method and results of improved biocompatibility are indicated by ion beam technology. The future development of ion beam modification of biomaterials is discussed

  4. Silk-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Gregory H; Diaz, Frank; Jakuba, Caroline; Calabro, Tara; Horan, Rebecca L; Chen, Jingsong; Lu, Helen; Richmond, John; Kaplan, David L

    2003-02-01

    Silk from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been used as biomedical suture material for centuries. The unique mechanical properties of these fibers provided important clinical repair options for many applications. During the past 20 years, some biocompatibility problems have been reported for silkworm silk; however, contamination from residual sericin (glue-like proteins) was the likely cause. More recent studies with well-defined silkworm silk fibers and films suggest that the core silk fibroin fibers exhibit comparable biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo with other commonly used biomaterials such as polylactic acid and collagen. Furthermore, the unique mechanical properties of the silk fibers, the diversity of side chain chemistries for 'decoration' with growth and adhesion factors, and the ability to genetically tailor the protein provide additional rationale for the exploration of this family of fibrous proteins for biomaterial applications. For example, in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering these properties are particularly relevant and recent results with bone and ligament formation in vitro support the potential role for this biomaterial in future applications. To date, studies with silks to address biomaterial and matrix scaffold needs have focused on silkworm silk. With the diversity of silk-like fibrous proteins from spiders and insects, a range of native or bioengineered variants can be expected for application to a diverse set of clinical needs.

  5. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  6. Hot topics in biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, Eric W; Griesenbach, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The expert coverage of the eight chapters in this book reflects the diverse nature of the field of biomaterials science and encompasses contributions from a wide range of fields, highlighting key classes of novel materials and exploring the underlying science and potential applications.

  7. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  8. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  9. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  10. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  11. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  12. Biomaterials in light amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Cyprych, Konrad; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Biologically produced or inspired materials can serve as optical gain media, i.e. they can exhibit the phenomenon of light amplification. Some of these materials, under suitable dye-doping and optical pumping conditions, show lasing phenomena. The emerging branch of research focused on obtaining lasing action in highly disordered and highly light scattering materials, i.e. research on random lasing, is perfectly suited for biological materials. The use of biomaterials in light amplification has been extensively reported in the literature. In this review we attempt to report on progress in the development of biologically derived systems able to show the phenomena of light amplification and random lasing together with the contribution of our group to this field. The rich world of biopolymers modified with molecular aggregates and nanocrystals, and self-organized at the nanoscale, offers a multitude of possibilities for tailoring luminescent and light scattering properties that are not easily replicated in conventional organic or inorganic materials. Of particular importance and interest are light amplification and lasing, or random lasing studies in biological cells and tissues. In this review we will describe nucleic acids and their complexes employed as gain media due to their favorable optical properties and ease of manipulation. We will report on research conducted on various biomaterials showing structural analogy to nucleic acids such as fluorescent proteins, gelatins in which the first distributed feedback laser was realized, and also amyloids or silks, which, due to their dye-doped fiber-like structure, allow for light amplification. Other materials that were investigated in that respect include polysaccharides, like starch exhibiting favorable photostability in comparison to other biomaterials, and chitosan, which forms photonic crystals or cellulose. Light amplification and random lasing was not only observed in processed biomaterials but also in living

  13. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  14. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  15. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  16. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  17. Preparation of novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials and their corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Zhongxian; Tan, Cui; Xu, Lan; Yang, Na; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were prepared. • The biomaterials were prepared by anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. • The composite biomaterials were smooth and with low porosity. • The prepared biomaterials have good corrosion resistance in SBF. • The composite biomaterials can release zinc ion to promote bone formation. - Abstract: In this study, novel and functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)/zinc oxide) composite biomaterials for enhancing the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implant was prepared by using anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. The surface morphology, microstructure, adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the composite biomaterials were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), adhesion measurements, electrochemical tests and immersion tests respectively. In addition, the biocompatible properties of Mg (magnesium), Mg/PCL (magnesium/poly(ε-caprolactone)) and Mg/O/PCL (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)) samples were also investigated. The results show that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were with low porosity and with the ZnO powders dispersed in PCL uniformly. The adhesion tests suggested that Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had better adhesion strength than that of Mg/PCL composite biomaterials obviously. Besides, an in vitro test for corrosion demonstrated that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had good corrosion resistance and zinc ion was released obviously in SBF

  18. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  19. Rectocele repair using biomaterial augmentation: current documentation and clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel; Mellgren, Anders; Zetterström, Jan

    2005-11-01

    Although the etiology of rectocele remains debated, surgical innovations are currently promoted to improve anatomic outcome while avoiding dyspareunia and alleviating rectal emptying difficulties following rectocele surgery. Use of biomaterials in rectocele repair has become widespread in a short time, but the clinical documentation of their effectiveness and complications is limited. Medline and the Cochrane database were searched electronically from 1964 to May 2005 using the Pubmed and Ovid search engines. All English language publications including any of the search terms "rectocele," "implant," "mesh," "biomaterial," "prolapse," "synthetical," "pelvic floor," "biological," and "compatibility" were reviewed. This review outlines the basic principles for use of biomaterials in pelvic reconstructive surgery and provides a condensation of peer-reviewed articles describing clinical use of biomaterials in rectocele surgery. Historical and new concepts in rectocele surgery are discussed. Factors of importance for human in vivo biomaterial compatibility are presented together with current knowledge from clinical studies. Potential risks and problems associated with the use of biomaterials in rectocele and pelvic reconstructive surgery in general are described. Although use of biomaterials in rectocele and other pelvic organ prolapse surgery offers exciting possibilities, it raises treatment costs and may be associated with unknown and potentially severe complications at short and long term. Clinical benefits are currently unknown and need to be proven in clinical studies. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians After completion of this article, the reader should be able to explain that the objective of surgical treatment is to improve anatomic outcome and alleviate rectal emptying difficulties, describe the efficacy of biomaterials in rectocele repair, and summarize the potential risks and problems associated with use of biomaterials in rectocele and pelvic

  20. Preparation of uniform porous hydroxyapatite biomaterials by a new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yuejun; Tang Yuefeng; Lv Chuntang; Zhou Zhonghua

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of preparation of uniform porous hydroxyapatite biomaterials was reported. In order to obtain uniform porous biomaterials, disk samples were formed by the mixture of hydroxyapatite (HAP) powders and monodispersed polystyrene microspheres, and then HAP uniform porous materials with different diameter and different porosity (diameter: 436 ± 25 nm, 892 ± 20 nm and 1890 ± 20 nm, porosity: 46.5%, 41.3% and 34.7%, respectively) were prepared by sintering these disk samples at 1250 deg. C for 5 h. The pure phase of HAP powders fabricated by the hydrothermal technology was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface and size distribution of pores in HAP biomaterials were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore size distribution in porous HAP biomaterials was tested by mercury intrusion method

  1. Biomaterials: An Introduction for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Renee B.

    1996-01-01

    Contains an overview of biomaterials, an interdisciplinary field in which research combines medicine, biological sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. Biomaterials are substances which improve quality of life by augmenting or replacing bodily tissues or functions. Highlights problems associated with collection development and literature…

  2. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  3. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  4. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  5. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  6. Biomaterials in orthopaedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M; Michiardi, A; Castaño, O; Planell, J.A

    2008-01-01

    At present, strong requirements in orthopaedics are still to be met, both in bone and joint substitution and in the repair and regeneration of bone defects. In this framework, tremendous advances in the biomaterials field have been made in the last 50 years where materials intended for biomedical purposes have evolved through three different generations, namely first generation (bioinert materials), second generation (bioactive and biodegradable materials) and third generation (materials designed to stimulate specific responses at the molecular level). In this review, the evolution of different metals, ceramics and polymers most commonly used in orthopaedic applications is discussed, as well as the different approaches used to fulfil the challenges faced by this medical field. PMID:18667387

  7. Trends in biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Kothiyal, G P

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials research requires the union of materials scientists, engineers, biologists, biomedical doctors, and surgeons. Societal implications have invoked tremendous interest in this area of research in recent years. What started as a search for strong and durable implant materials has now led to path-breaking developments in tissue engineering, targeted drug delivery, and tissue scaffolds. Viable applications of mesoporous structures, polymer biocomposites, and fibers (synthetic and natural) in the areas of clinical orthopedics, controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, orthodontics, etc., have emerged as relatively recent concepts. This book presents recent results related to both materials aspects and implant issues. The focus is on structural, magnetic, antibacterial, bioactivity/compatibility, mechanical, and other related properties and the implication of these results on biomedical applications. The book discusses technical problems faced by the surgeon during implant fixation in total hip repla...

  8. Mechanics of additively manufactured biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has found many applications in healthcare including fabrication of biomaterials as well as bioprinting of tissues and organs. Additively manufactured (AM) biomaterials may possess arbitrarily complex micro-architectures that give rise to novel mechanical, physical, and biological properties. The mechanical behavior of such porous biomaterials including their quasi-static mechanical properties and fatigue resistance is not yet well understood. It is particularly important to understand the relationship between the designed micro-architecture (topology) and the resulting mechanical properties. The current special issue is dedicated to understanding the mechanical behavior of AM biomaterials. Although various types of AM biomaterials are represented in the special issue, the primary focus is on AM porous metallic biomaterials. As a prelude to this special issue, this editorial reviews some of the latest findings in the mechanical behavior of AM porous metallic biomaterials so as to describe the current state-of-the-art and set the stage for the other studies appearing in the issue. Some areas that are important for future research are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  10. Biomaterials. The Behavior of Stainless Steel as a Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomaterials belong to the broad range of biocompatible chemical substances (sometimes even an element, which can be used for a period of time to treat or replace a tissue, organ or function of the human body. These materials bring many advantages in the diagnosis, prevention and medical therapy, reducing downtime for patients, restoring their biological functions, improving hospital management. The market in Romania sells a wide range of biomaterials for dental, cardiovascular medicine, renal, etc. Scientific research contributes to the discovery of new biomaterials or testing known biomaterials, for finding new applications. The paper exemplifies this contribution by presenting the testing of passive stainless steel behaviour in albumin solution using technique of cyclic voltammetry. It was shown that passivation contribute to increased stability of stainless steel implants to corrosive body fluids.

  11. Biomaterials for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Timothy J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-06-01

    With advancements in biological and engineering sciences, the definition of an ideal biomaterial has evolved over the past 50 years from a substance that is inert to one that has select bioinductive properties and integrates well with adjacent host tissue. Biomaterials are a fundamental component of tissue engineering, which aims to replace diseased, damaged, or missing tissue with reconstructed functional tissue. Most biomaterials are less than satisfactory for pediatric patients because the scaffold must adapt to the growth and development of the surrounding tissues and organs over time. The pediatric community, therefore, provides a distinct challenge for the tissue engineering community. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  13. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  14. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  15. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  16. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  17. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  18. Host response to biomaterials the impact of host response on biomaterial selection

    CERN Document Server

    Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fiel

  19. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  20. On the nature of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David F

    2009-10-01

    The situations in which biomaterials are currently used are vastly different to those of just a decade ago. Although implantable medical devices are still immensely important, medical technologies now encompass a range of drug and gene delivery systems, tissue engineering and cell therapies, organ printing and cell patterning, nanotechnology based imaging and diagnostic systems and microelectronic devices. These technologies still encompass metals, ceramics and synthetic polymers, but also biopolymers, self assembled systems, nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots. These changes imply that our original concepts of biomaterials and our expectations of their performance also have to change. This Leading Opinion Paper addresses these issues. It concludes that many substances which hitherto we may not have thought of as biomaterials should now be considered as such so that, alongside the traditional structural biomaterials, we have substances that have been engineered to perform functions within health care where their performance is directly controlled by interactions with tissues and tissue components. These include engineered tissues, cells, organs and even viruses. This essay develops the arguments for a radically different definition of a biomaterial.

  1. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Medical advances that have prolonged the average life span have generated increased need for new materials that can be used as tissue and organ replacements, drug delivery systems and/or components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis. The first man-made plastic used as surgical implant was celluloid, applied for cranial defect repair. However, the first users applied commercial materials with no regard for their purity, biostability and post-operative interaction with the organism. Thus, these materials evoked a strong tissue reaction and were unacceptable. The first polymer which gained acceptance for man-made plastic was poly(methyl methacrylate). But the first polymer of choice, precursor of the broad class of materials known today as hydrogels, was poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) synthesized in the fifties by Wichterle and Lim. HEMA and its various combinations with other, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, polymers are till now the most often used hydrogels for medical purposes. In the early fifties, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking, also with hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of phenomena associated with mechanism of reactions, topology of network, and relations between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by Charlesby (1960) and Chapiro (1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in application of radiation to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents published by Japanese and American scientists. Among others, the team of the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment headed by Kaetsu as well as Hoffman and his colleagues from the Center of Bioengineering, University of Washington have created the base for spreading interest in the field of biomaterials formed by means of

  2. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  3. Chitin fulfilling a biomaterials promise

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of Chitin underscores the important factors for standardizing chitin processing and characterization. It captures the essential interplay between chitin's assets and limitations as a biomaterial, placing the past promises of chitin in perspective, addressing its present realities and offering insight into what is required to realize chitin's destiny (including its derivative, chitosan) as a biomaterial of the twenty-first century. This book is an ideal guide for both industrialists and researchers with a vested interest in commercializing chitin.An upd

  4. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  5. Biomaterials Evaluation: Conceptual Refinements and Practical Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaeli, Reza; Zandsalimi, Kavosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-01-01

    Regarding the widespread and ever-increasing applications of biomaterials in different medical fields, their accurate assessment is of great importance. Hence the safety and efficacy of biomaterials is confirmed only through the evaluation process, the way it is done has direct effects on public health. Although every biomaterial undergoes rigorous premarket evaluation, the regulatory agencies receive a considerable number of complications and adverse event reports annually. The main factors that challenge the process of biomaterials evaluation are dissimilar regulations, asynchrony of biomaterials evaluation and biomaterials development, inherent biases of postmarketing data, and cost and timing issues. Several pieces of evidence indicate that current medical device regulations need to be improved so that they can be used more effectively in the evaluation of biomaterials. This article provides suggested conceptual refinements and practical reforms to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the existing regulations. The main focus of the article is on strategies for evaluating biomaterials in US, and then in EU.

  6. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  7. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  8. In vitro evaluation of three different biomaterials as scaffolds for canine mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Câmara Marques Pereira-Junior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro ability the of three different biomaterials - purified hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix and castor oil-based polyurethane - as biocompatible 3D scaffolds for canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC intending bone tissue engineering. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from canine bone marrow, characterized and cultivated for seven days with the biomaterials. Cell proliferation and adhesion to the biomaterial surface were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy while differentiation into osteogenic lineage was evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and Sp7/Osterix surface antibody marker. RESULTS: The biomaterials allowed cellular growth, attachment and proliferation. Osteogenic differentiation occurred in the presence of hydroxyapatite, and matrix deposition commenced in the presence of the castor oil-based polyurethane. CONCLUSION: All the tested biomaterials may be used as mesenchymal stem cell scaffolds in cell-based orthopedic reconstructive therapy.

  9. Predoctoral Curriculum Guidelines for Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' predoctoral guidelines for biomaterials curricula includes notes on interrelationships between this and other fields, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives for each content area, and information on sequencing, faculty and…

  10. Biomaterials in myocardial tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Lewis A.; Chiu, Loraine L. Y.; Feric, Nicole; Fu, Lara; Radisic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, and as such there is a pressing need for treatment options. Cardiac tissue engineering emerged from the need to develop alternate sources and methods of replacing tissue damaged by cardiovascular diseases, as the ultimate treatment option for many who suffer from end-stage heart failure is a heart transplant. In this review we focus on biomaterial approaches to augment injured or impaired myocardium with specific emphasis on: the design criteria for these biomaterials; the types of scaffolds—composed of natural or synthetic biomaterials, or decellularized extracellular matrix—that have been used to develop cardiac patches and tissue models; methods to vascularize scaffolds and engineered tissue, and finally injectable biomaterials (hydrogels)designed for endogenous repair, exogenous repair or as bulking agents to maintain ventricular geometry post-infarct. The challenges facing the field and obstacles that must be overcome to develop truly clinically viable cardiac therapies are also discussed. PMID:25066525

  11. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  12. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  13. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  14. Use of radiation in biomaterials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Roberto S.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation is widely used in the biomaterials science for surface modification, sterilization and to improve bulk properties. Radiation is also used to design of biochips, and in situ photopolymerizable of bioadhesives. The energy sources most commonly used in the irradiation of biomaterials are high-energy electrons, gamma radiation, ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. Surface modification involves placement of selective chemical moieties on the surface of a material by chemical reactions to improve biointeraction for cell adhesion and proliferation, hemocompatibility and water absorption. The exposure of a polymer to radiation, especially ionizing radiation, can lead to chain scission or crosslinking with changes in bulk and surface properties. Sterilization by irradiation is designed to inactivate most pathogens from the surface of biomedical devices. An overview of the use of gamma and UV radiation to improve surface tissue compatibility, bulk properties and surface properties for wear resistance, formation of hydrogels and curing dental sealants and bone adhesives is presented. Gamma and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiated ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibit improvement in surface modulus and hardness. The surface modulus and hardness of UHMWPE showed a dependence on type of radiation, dosage and processing. VUV surface modified e-PTFE vascular grafts exhibit increases in hydrophilicity and improvement towards adhesion of fibrin glue

  15. Cell reactions with biomaterials: the microscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A. S.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods and results of optical microscopy that can be used to observe cell reactions to biomaterials are Interference Reflection Microscopy (IRM, Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM, Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy (SPRM and Forster Resonance Energy Transfer Microscopy (FRETM and Standing Wave Fluorescence Microscopy. The last three are new developments, which have not yet been fully perfected. TIRFM and SPRM are evanescent wave methods. The physics of these methods depend upon optical phenomena at interfaces. All these methods give information on the dimensions of the gap between cell and the substratum to which it is adhering and thus are especially suited to work with biomaterials. IRM and FRETM can be used on opaque surfaces though image interpretation is especially difficult for IRM on a reflecting opaque surface. These methods are compared with several electron microscopical methods for studying cell adhesion to substrata. These methods all yield fairly consistent results and show that the cell to substratum distance on many materials is in the range 5 to 30 nm. The area of contact relative to the total projected area of the cell may vary from a few per cent to close to 100% depending on the cell type and substratum. These methods show that those discrete contact areas well known as focal contacts are frequently present. The results of FRETM suggest that the separation from the substratum even in a focal contact is about 5 nm.

  16. Use of radiation in biomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roberto S.

    2002-05-01

    Radiation is widely used in the biomaterials science for surface modification, sterilization and to improve bulk properties. Radiation is also used to design of biochips, and in situ photopolymerizable of bioadhesives. The energy sources most commonly used in the irradiation of biomaterials are high-energy electrons, gamma radiation, ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. Surface modification involves placement of selective chemical moieties on the surface of a material by chemical reactions to improve biointeraction for cell adhesion and proliferation, hemocompatibility and water absorption. The exposure of a polymer to radiation, especially ionizing radiation, can lead to chain scission or crosslinking with changes in bulk and surface properties. Sterilization by irradiation is designed to inactivate most pathogens from the surface of biomedical devices. An overview of the use of gamma and UV radiation to improve surface tissue compatibility, bulk properties and surface properties for wear resistance, formation of hydrogels and curing dental sealants and bone adhesives is presented. Gamma and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiated ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibit improvement in surface modulus and hardness. The surface modulus and hardness of UHMWPE showed a dependence on type of radiation, dosage and processing. VUV surface modified e-PTFE vascular grafts exhibit increases in hydrophilicity and improvement towards adhesion of fibrin glue.

  17. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  18. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  20. Hydration behaviors of calcium silicate-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Ling; Wang, Wen-Hsi; Lin, Feng-Huie; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2017-06-01

    Calcium silicate (CS)-based biomaterials, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), have become the most popular and convincing material used in restorative endodontic treatments. However, the commercially available CS-based biomaterials all contain different minor additives, which may affect their hydration behaviors and material properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydration behavior of CS-based biomaterials with/without minor additives. A novel CS-based biomaterial with a simplified composition, without mineral oxides as minor additives, was produced. The characteristics of this biomaterial during hydration were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. The hydration behaviors of commercially available gray and white MTAs with mineral oxide as minor additives were also evaluated for reference. For all three test materials, the XRD analysis revealed similar diffraction patterns after hydration, but MTAs presented a significant decrease in the intensities of Bi 2 O 3 -related peaks. SEM results demonstrated similar porous microstructures with some hexagonal and facetted crystals on the outer surfaces. In addition, compared to CS with a simplified composition, the FTIR plot indicated that hydrated MTAs with mineral oxides were better for the polymerization of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), presenting Si-O band shifting to higher wave numbers, and contained more water crystals within CSH, presenting sharper bands for O-H bending. Mineral oxides might not result in significant changes in the crystal phases or microstructures during the hydration of CS-based biomaterials, but these compounds affected the hydration behavior at the molecular level. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Biomaterials Made from Coiled-Coil Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conticello, Vincent; Hughes, Spencer; Modlin, Charles

    The development of biomaterials designed for specific applications is an important objective in personalized medicine. While the breadth and prominence of biomaterials have increased exponentially over the past decades, critical challenges remain to be addressed, particularly in the development of biomaterials that exhibit highly specific functions. These functional properties are often encoded within the molecular structure of the component molecules. Proteins, as a consequence of their structural specificity, represent useful substrates for the construction of functional biomaterials through rational design. This chapter provides an in-depth survey of biomaterials constructed from coiled-coils, one of the best-understood protein structural motifs. We discuss the utility of this structurally diverse and functionally tunable class of proteins for the creation of novel biomaterials. This discussion illustrates the progress that has been made in the development of coiled-coil biomaterials by showcasing studies that bridge the gap between the academic science and potential technological impact.

  2. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  3. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  4. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  5. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  6. Microgel Mechanics in Biomaterial Design

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Shalini; Hansen, Caroline E.; Lyon, L. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus The field of polymeric biomaterials has received much attention in recent years due to its potential for enhancing the biocompatibility of systems and devices applied to drug delivery and tissue engineering. Such applications continually push the definition of biocompatibility from relatively straightforward issues such as cytotoxicity to significantly more complex processes such as reducing foreign body responses or even promoting/recapitulating natural body functions. Hydrogels a...

  7. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  8. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  9. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  10. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  11. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...... for tissue engineering and drug screening applications....... cell differentiation into tissue-specifi c lineages. The use of 3D biomaterial microarrays can, if optimized correctly, result in a more than 1000-fold reduction in biomaterials and cells consumption when engineering optimal materials combinations, which makes these miniaturized systems very attractive...

  12. Biomaterials in Relation to Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjukta; Chana, Simran

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains a challenge in the improvement of oral health. It is the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by the acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria. The tooth is a heavily mineralised tissue, and both enamel and dentine can undergo demineralisation due to trauma or dietary conditions. The adult population worldwide affected by dental caries is enormous and despite significant advances in caries prevention and tooth restoration, treatments continue to pose a substantial burden to healthcare. Biomaterials play a vital role in the restoration of the diseased or damaged tooth structure and, despite providing reasonable outcomes, there are some concerns with clinical performance. Amalgam, the silver grey biomaterial that has been widely used as a restorative material in dentistry, is currently in throes of being phased out, especially with the Minimata convention and treaty being signed by a number of countries (January 2013; http://mercuryconvention.org/Convention/) that aims to control the anthropogenic release of mercury in the environment, which naturally impacts the use of amalgam, where mercury is a component. Thus, the development of alternative restoratives and restoration methods that are inexpensive, can be used under different climatic conditions, withstand storage and allow easy handling, the main prerequisites of dental biomaterials, is important. The potential for using biologically engineered tissue and consequent research to replace damaged tissues has also seen a quantum leap in the last decade. Ongoing research in regenerative treatments in dentistry includes alveolar ridge augmentation, bone tissue engineering and periodontal ligament replacement, and a future aim is bioengineering of the whole tooth. Research towards developing bioengineered teeth is well underway and identification of adult stem cell sources to make this a viable treatment is advancing; however, this

  13. Nanotechnology in medicine: nanofilm biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassel, Paul R

    2013-12-13

    By interrogating nature at the length scale of important biological molecules (proteins, DNA), nanotechnology offers great promise to biomedicine. We review here our recent work on nanofilm biomaterials: "nanoscopically" thin, functional, polymer-based films serving as biocompatible interfaces. In one thrust, films containing carbon nanotubes are shown to be highly antimicrobial and, thus, to be promising as biomedical device materials inherently resistive to microbial infection. In another thrust, strategies are developed toward films of independently controllable bioactivity and mechanical rigidity - two key variables governing typical biological responses.

  14. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  15. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  16. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  17. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail: schlosshauer@nmi.de

    2008-09-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  18. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B; Ahlers, M

    2008-01-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation

  19. Properties and clinical relevance of osteoinductive biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This thesis had two main goals: (¿) to investigate parameters influencing osteoinductive potential of biomaterials in order to unravel the mechanism underlying osteoinduction and (¿¿) to investigate performance of osteoinductive biomaterials orthotopically in order to get insight into their clinical

  20. Biomaterials and tissue engineering in reconstructive surgery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    functional components are not generally considered to be biomaterials since by definition they are not in ... The requirements in these cases will be varied depending upon the stress transfer system within the ... few widely used biomaterials in clinical practice but rather a whole range of metals and alloys, ceramic and ...

  1. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  2. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  3. Biomaterial applications in neural therapy and repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harmanvir Ghuman; Michel Modo

    2017-01-01

    The use of biomaterials,such as hydrogels,as a scaffold to deliver cells and drugs is becoming increasingly common to treat neurological conditions,including stroke.With a limited intrinsic ability to regenerate after injury,innovative tissue engineering strategies have shown the potential of biomaterials in facilitating neural tissue regeneration and functional recovery.Using biomaterials can not only promote the survival and integration of transplanted cells in the existing circuitry,but also support controlled site specific delivery of therapeutic drugs.This review aims to provide the reader an understanding of the brain tissue microenvironment after injury,biomaterial criteria that support tissue repair,commonly used natural and synthetic biomaterials,benefits of incorporating cells and neurotrophic factors,as well as the potential of endogenous neurogenesis in repairing the injured brain.

  4. Leveraging advances in biology to design biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Max; Mooney, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterials have dramatically increased in functionality and complexity, allowing unprecedented control over the cells that interact with them. From these engineering advances arises the prospect of improved biomaterial-based therapies, yet practical constraints favour simplicity. Tools from the biology community are enabling high-resolution and high-throughput bioassays that, if incorporated into a biomaterial design framework, could help achieve unprecedented functionality while minimizing the complexity of designs by identifying the most important material parameters and biological outputs. However, to avoid data explosions and to effectively match the information content of an assay with the goal of the experiment, material screens and bioassays must be arranged in specific ways. By borrowing methods to design experiments and workflows from the bioprocess engineering community, we outline a framework for the incorporation of next-generation bioassays into biomaterials design to effectively optimize function while minimizing complexity. This framework can inspire biomaterials designs that maximize functionality and translatability.

  5. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  6. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  7. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  8. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  9. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  11. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Bioresorption and degradation of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debarun; Zhang, Ziyang; Winkler, Thomas; Mour, Meenakshi; Gunter, Christina; Morlock, Michael; Machens, Hans-Gunther; Schilling, Arndt F

    2012-01-01

    The human body is a composite structure, completely constructed of biodegradable materials. This allows the cells of the body to remove and replace old or defective tissue with new material. Consequently, artificial resorbable biomaterials have been developed for application in regenerative medicine. We discuss here advantages and disadvantages of these bioresorbable materials for medical applications and give an overview of typically used metals, ceramics and polymers. Methods for the quantification of bioresorption in vitro and in vivo are described. The next challenge will be to better understand the interface between cell and material and to use this knowledge for the design of “intelligent” materials that can instruct the cells to build specific tissue geometries and degrade in the process.

  13. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  14. New biomaterials for orthopedic implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong KL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kevin L Ong, Brian Min Yun, Joshua B WhiteExponent, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: With the increasing use of orthopedic implants worldwide, there continues to be great interest in the development of novel technologies to further improve the effective clinical performance of contemporary treatment modalities and devices. Continuing research interest also exists in developing novel bulk biomaterials (eg, polycarbonate urethanes, silicon or novel formulations of existing but less widely used biomaterials (eg, polyaryletherketones, polyetheretherketone. There is also growing focus on customizing the material properties of bioabsorbables and composite materials with fillers such as bioactive ceramics. In terms of tissue engineering, more recent developments have focused on basic engineering and biological fundamentals to use cells, signaling factors, and the scaffold material itself to better restore tissue and organ structure and function. There has also been recent controversy with the use of injectables as a nonsurgical approach to treat joint disorders, but more attention is being directed toward the development of newer formulations with different molecular weights. The industry has also continuously sought to improve coatings to supplement the function of existing implants, with the goal of improving their osseointegrative qualities and incorporating antimicrobial properties. These include the use of bone morphogenetic protein, bisphosphonates, calcium phosphate, silicon nitride, and iodine. Due to the widespread use of bone graft materials, recent developments in synthetic graft materials have explored further development of bioactive glass, ceramic materials, and porous titanium particles. This review article provides an overview of ongoing efforts in the above research areas.Keywords: coatings, scaffolds, bioabsorbables, bone graft, injectables

  15. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  16. Creating biomaterials with spatially organized functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lesley W; Fischer, Jacob F

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials for tissue engineering provide scaffolds to support cells and guide tissue regeneration. Despite significant advances in biomaterials design and fabrication techniques, engineered tissue constructs remain functionally inferior to native tissues. This is largely due to the inability to recreate the complex and dynamic hierarchical organization of the extracellular matrix components, which is intimately linked to a tissue's biological function. This review discusses current state-of-the-art strategies to control the spatial presentation of physical and biochemical cues within a biomaterial to recapitulate native tissue organization and function. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  17. Polymeric biomaterials structure and function, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitriu, Severian

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials have had a major impact on the practice of contemporary medicine and patient care. Growing into a major interdisciplinary effort involving chemists, biologists, engineers, and physicians, biomaterials development has enabled the creation of high-quality devices, implants, and drug carriers with greater biocompatibility and biofunctionality. The fast-paced research and increasing interest in finding new and improved biocompatible or biodegradable polymers has provided a wealth of new information, transforming this edition of Polymeric Biomaterials into a two-volume set. This volume

  18. Metallic Biomaterials: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Prasad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials are engineered systems designed to provide internal support to biological tissues and they are being used largely in joint replacements, dental implants, orthopaedic fixations and stents. Higher biomaterial usage is associated with an increased incidence of implant-related complications due to poor implant integration, inflammation, mechanical instability, necrosis and infections, and associated prolonged patient care, pain and loss of function. In this review, we will briefly explore major representatives of metallic biomaterials along with the key existing and emerging strategies for surface and bulk modification used to improve biointegration, mechanical strength and flexibility of biometals, and discuss their compatibility with the concept of 3D printing.

  19. Bioinspired surface functionalization of metallic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingchao; Luo, Cheng; Zhang, Zhihui; Hermawan, Hendra; Zhu, Donghui; Huang, Jubin; Liang, Yunhong; Li, Guangyu; Ren, Luquan

    2018-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials are widely used for clinical applications because of their excellent mechanical properties and good durability. In order to provide essential biofunctionalities, surface functionalization is of particular interest and requirement in the development of high-performance metallic implants. Inspired by the functional surface of natural biological systems, many new designs and conceptions have recently emerged to create multifunctional surfaces with great potential for biomedical applications. This review firstly introduces the metallic biomaterials, important surface properties, and then elaborates some strategies on achieving the bioinspired surface functionalization for metallic biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lijia; Shi, Yujun; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Although osteoinduction mechanism of calcium phosphate (CP) ceramics is still unclear, several essential properties have been reported, such as chemical composition, pore size and porosity, etc. In this study, calcium phosphate powder (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , CaP, group 1), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic powder (BCP, group 2), and intact BCP rods (group 3) were implanted into leg muscles of mice and dorsal muscles of rabbits. One month and three months after implantation, samples were harvested for biological and histological analysis. New bone tissues were observed in 10/10 samples in group 1, 3/10 samples in group 2, and 9/10 samples in group 3 at 3rd month in mice, but not in rabbits. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured with trace CaP and BCP powder, and osteogenic differentiation was observed at day 7. Our results suggested that chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation. - Highlights: ► Intrinsic osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials was observed implanted in muscles of mice. ► Biomaterials powder also has osteoinduction property. ► Osteogenic genes and protein could be detected by RT-PCR and Western blot in implanted biomaterials. ► Osteogenic phenomenon could be observed by electron microscopy. ► The chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation

  1. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls

  2. Osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lijia; Shi, Yujun [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Ye, Feng [Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Bu, Hong, E-mail: hongbu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Although osteoinduction mechanism of calcium phosphate (CP) ceramics is still unclear, several essential properties have been reported, such as chemical composition, pore size and porosity, etc. In this study, calcium phosphate powder (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, CaP, group 1), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic powder (BCP, group 2), and intact BCP rods (group 3) were implanted into leg muscles of mice and dorsal muscles of rabbits. One month and three months after implantation, samples were harvested for biological and histological analysis. New bone tissues were observed in 10/10 samples in group 1, 3/10 samples in group 2, and 9/10 samples in group 3 at 3rd month in mice, but not in rabbits. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured with trace CaP and BCP powder, and osteogenic differentiation was observed at day 7. Our results suggested that chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation. - Highlights: ► Intrinsic osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials was observed implanted in muscles of mice. ► Biomaterials powder also has osteoinduction property. ► Osteogenic genes and protein could be detected by RT-PCR and Western blot in implanted biomaterials. ► Osteogenic phenomenon could be observed by electron microscopy. ► The chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation.

  3. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Plant Products for Innovative Biomaterials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena M. Varoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental biomaterials and natural products represent two of the main growing research fields, revealing plant-derived compounds may play a role not only as nutraceuticals in affecting oral health, but also in improving physico-chemical properties of biomaterials used in dentistry. Therefore, our aim was to collect all available data concerning the utilization of plant polysaccharides, proteins and extracts rich in bioactive phytochemicals in enhancing performance of dental biomaterials. Although compelling evidences are suggestive of a great potential of plant products in promoting material-tissue/cell interface, to date, only few authors have investigated their use in development of innovative dental biomaterials. A small number of studies have reported plant extract-based titanium implant coatings and periodontal regenerative materials. To the best of our knowledge, this review is the first to deal with this topic, highlighting a general lack of research findings in an interesting field which still needs to be investigated.

  5. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  6. Biomaterials in the repair of sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.

  7. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  8. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  9. Medical applications for biomaterials in Bolivia

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Macrophage-Biomaterial Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Laura Beth; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials in vascularized tissues elicits the sequential engagement of molecular and cellular elements that constitute the foreign body response. Initial events include the non-specific adsorption of proteins to the biomaterial surface that render it adhesive for cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. The latter undergo unique activation and in some cases undergo cell-cell fusion to form foreign body giant cells that contribute to implant damage and fibrotic encapsulati...

  11. Biomaterials innovation bundling technologies and life

    CERN Document Server

    Styhre, A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advances in the life sciences means that there is now a far more detailed understanding of biological systems on the cellular, molecular and genetic levels. Sited at the intersection between the life sciences, the engineering sciences and the design sciences, innovations in the biomaterials industry are expected to garner increasing attention and play a key role in future development. This book examines the biomaterials innovations taking place in corporations and in academic research settings today.

  12. Special Issue “Biomaterials and Bioprinting”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kai Chua

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area.

  13. Current Strategies in Cardiovascular Biomaterial Functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lehle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the coagulation cascade and platelet activation is the foremost demand for biomaterials in contact with blood. In this review we describe the underlying mechanisms of these processes and offer the current state of antithrombotic strategies. We give an overview of methods to prevent protein and platelet adhesion, as well as techniques to immobilize biochemically active molecules on biomaterial surfaces. Finally, recent strategies in biofunctionalization by endothelial cell seeding as well as their possible clinical applications are discussed.

  14. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  15. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  16. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  17. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nano biomaterials 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Lee, S.Ch.; Zhang, Sh.; Akasaka, T.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that nano materials have developed rapidly over the past few decades. Based on their unique physicochemical properties and special mechanical properties, nano materials have provided application possibility in many different fields. Currently, as nano biomaterials, they are widely used in various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, dental/bone implant, and biosensors. For example, nano biomaterials have been used in tissue engineering because of their satisfactory bioactivity, high mechanical properties, and large surface area to adsorb specific proteins. Many kinds of nano biomaterials are used to prepare composite scaffolds to get better biocompatibility and higher ability in repairing specific tissues. Several antibacterial metallic nano biomaterials are used to coat implant surfaces to improve the speed of healing fractures. In addition, lots of nano biomaterials have the potential to break the limitations of the traditional delivery systems. They can load larger amount of drugs and provide stable drug release for long time at the targeted sites, such as tumors. Moreover, they can combine with polymers to furnish simultaneous drug delivery systems with the controllable release rate. Besides these applications, more and more nano biomaterials show great potential to be applied as highly sensitive biosensors because they have higher ability in loading firmly or interacting completely with recognition aptamers.

  18. Dosimetry by stimulated exoelectronic emission of apatites and dental biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotomalala, R.

    1982-02-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of stimulated exoelectronic emission, the goal of which is the development of a dosimetry available in case of accidental irradiation. The first part is devoted to a review of the various theoretical models suggested by several authors on the exoemission phenomenon, and to the description of the experimental set up: counter and detector electronic circuits. The second part gives the experimental results obtained with the different products studied: fluorapatite, hydroxyapatite (considered to be the major constituent of bones and teeth), tricalcic phosphate and dental biomaterials: porcelain and some canal obturation substances [fr

  19. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  20. Biomaterials and medical devices a perspective from an emerging country

    CERN Document Server

    Hermawan, Hendra

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to biomaterials with the focus on the current development and future direction of biomaterials and medical devices research and development in Indonesia. It is the first biomaterials book written by selected academic and clinical experts experts on biomaterials and medical devices from various institutions and industries in Indonesia. It serves as a reference source for researchers starting new projects, for companies developing and marketing products and for governments setting new policies. Chapter one covers the fundamentals of biomaterials, types of biomaterials, their structures and properties and the relationship between them. Chapter two discusses unconventional processing of biomaterials including nano-hybrid organic-inorganic biomaterials. Chapter three addresses biocompatibility issues including in vitro cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, in vitro cell models, biocompatibility data and its related failure. Chapter four describes degradable biomaterial for medical implants...

  1. Marine Structural Biomaterials in Medical Biomimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Marine biomaterials display properties, behaviors, and functions that have not been artificially matched in relation to their hierarchical construction, crack-stopping properties, growth adaptation, and energy efficiency. The discovery and understanding of such features that are characteristic of natural biomaterials can be used to manufacture more energy-efficient and lightweight materials. However, a more detailed understanding of the design of natural biomaterials with good performance and the mechanism of their design is required. Far-reaching biomolecular characterization of biomaterials and biostructures from the ocean world is possible with sophisticated analytical methods, such as whole-genome RNA-seq, and de novo transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrophotometry-based sequencing. In combination with detailed material characterization, the elements in newly discovered biomaterials and their properties can be reconstituted into biomimetic or bio-inspired materials. A major aim of harnessing marine biomaterials is their translation into biomimetic counterparts. To achieve full translation, the genome, proteome, and hierarchical material characteristics, and their profiles in space and time, have to be associated to allow for smooth biomimetic translation. In this article, we highlight the novel science of marine biomimicry from a materials perspective. We focus on areas of material design and fabrication that have excelled in marine biological models, such as embedded interfaces, chiral organization, and the use of specialized composite material-on-material designs. Our emphasis is primarily on key materials with high value in healthcare in which we evaluate their future prospects. Marine biomaterials are among the most exquisite and powerful aspects in materials science today.

  2. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  3. In vivo biocompatibility of new nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid complex biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenyu; Li, Yue; Lu, Weizhong; Jiang, Dianming; Li, Hong; Yan, Yonggang; Lv, Guoyu; Yang, Aiping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the compatibility of novel nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (n-CDHA/PAA) complex biomaterials with muscle and bone tissue in an in vivo model. Methods Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Biomaterials were surgically implanted into each rabbit in the back erector spinae and in tibia with induced defect. Polyethylene was implanted into rabbits in the control group and n-CDHA/PAA into those of the experimental group. Animals were examined at four different points in time: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after surgery. They were euthanized after embolization. Back erector spinae muscles with the surgical implants were examined after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining at these points in time. Tibia bones with the surgical implants were examined by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at these points in time to evaluate the interface of the bone with the implanted biomaterials. Bone tissues were sectioned and subjected to HE, Masson, and toluidine blue staining. Results HE staining of back erector spinae muscles at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after implantation of either n-CDHA/PAA or polyethylene showed disappearance of inflammation and normal arrangement in the peripheral tissue of implant biomaterials; no abnormal staining was observed. At 2 weeks after implantation, X-ray imaging of bone tissue samples in both experimental and control groups showed that the peripheral tissues of the implanted biomaterials were continuous and lacked bone osteolysis, absorption, necrosis, or osteomyelitis. The connection between implanted biomaterials and bone tissue was tight. The results of HE, Masson, toluidine blue staining and SEM confirmed that the implanted biomaterials were closely connected to the bone defect and that no rejection had taken place. The n-CDHA/PAA biomaterials induced differentiation of a large number of chondrocytes. New bone trabecula began to form at 4 weeks after

  4. In vivo biocompatibility of new nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid complex biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenyu; Li, Yue; Lu, Weizhong; Jiang, Dianming; Li, Hong; Yan, Yonggang; Lv, Guoyu; Yang, Aiping

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the compatibility of novel nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (n-CDHA/PAA) complex biomaterials with muscle and bone tissue in an in vivo model. Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Biomaterials were surgically implanted into each rabbit in the back erector spinae and in tibia with induced defect. Polyethylene was implanted into rabbits in the control group and n-CDHA/PAA into those of the experimental group. Animals were examined at four different points in time: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after surgery. They were euthanized after embolization. Back erector spinae muscles with the surgical implants were examined after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining at these points in time. Tibia bones with the surgical implants were examined by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at these points in time to evaluate the interface of the bone with the implanted biomaterials. Bone tissues were sectioned and subjected to HE, Masson, and toluidine blue staining. HE staining of back erector spinae muscles at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after implantation of either n-CDHA/PAA or polyethylene showed disappearance of inflammation and normal arrangement in the peripheral tissue of implant biomaterials; no abnormal staining was observed. At 2 weeks after implantation, X-ray imaging of bone tissue samples in both experimental and control groups showed that the peripheral tissues of the implanted biomaterials were continuous and lacked bone osteolysis, absorption, necrosis, or osteomyelitis. The connection between implanted biomaterials and bone tissue was tight. The results of HE, Masson, toluidine blue staining and SEM confirmed that the implanted biomaterials were closely connected to the bone defect and that no rejection had taken place. The n-CDHA/PAA biomaterials induced differentiation of a large number of chondrocytes. New bone trabecula began to form at 4 weeks after implanting n

  5. Heterogeneity of Scaffold Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Edgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering (TE offers a potential solution for the shortage of transplantable organs and the need for novel methods of tissue repair. Methods of TE have advanced significantly in recent years, but there are challenges to using engineered tissues and organs including but not limited to: biocompatibility, immunogenicity, biodegradation, and toxicity. Analysis of biomaterials used as scaffolds may, however, elucidate how TE can be enhanced. Ideally, biomaterials should closely mimic the characteristics of desired organ, their function and their in vivo environments. A review of biomaterials used in TE highlighted natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and decellularized organs as sources of scaffolding. Studies of discarded organs supported that decellularization offers a remedy to reducing waste of donor organs, but does not yet provide an effective solution to organ demand because it has shown varied success in vivo depending on organ complexity and physiological requirements. Review of polymer-based scaffolds revealed that a composite scaffold formed by copolymerization is more effective than single polymer scaffolds because it allows copolymers to offset disadvantages a single polymer may possess. Selection of biomaterials for use in TE is essential for transplant success. There is not, however, a singular biomaterial that is universally optimal.

  6. Wear Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed A.; Mohammed, Abdul Samad; Al-Aqeeli, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless steels, Co alloys, and Ti alloys. The service period of a metallic biomaterial is determined by its abrasion and wear resistance. A reduction in the wear resistance of the implant results in the release of incompatible metal ions into the body that loosen the implant. In addition, several reactions may occur because of the deposition of wear debris in tissue. Therefore, developing biomaterials with high wear resistance is critical to ensuring a long life for the biomaterial. The aim of this work is to review the current state of knowledge of the wear of metallic biomaterials and how wear is affected by the material properties and conditions in terms of the type of alloys developed and fabrication processes. We also present a brief evaluation of various experimental test techniques and wear characterization techniques that are used to determine the tribological performance of metallic biomaterials.

  7. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction

  8. Microfabrication of biomaterials by the sub-ps laser-induced forward transfer process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaiskou, A.; Zergioti, I.; Fotakis, C.; Kapsetaki, M.; Kafetzopoulos, D.

    2003-01-01

    The precise fabrication of micro-dimensioned patterns of biomaterials by the laser microprinting technique using a sub-ps UV laser is described. An ultrashort UV laser has been used to transfer the biomaterial, with low angular divergence, and deposit it onto the substrate with minimum spread and high spatial resolution. The laser-transferred features of 100 μmx100 μm size have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and scanning laser confocal fluorescence microscopy. The analysis of DNA and protein microarrays provides an excellent tool to expand our knowledge of genome functions

  9. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  10. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  11. Microgel mechanics in biomaterial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Shalini; Hansen, Caroline E; Lyon, L Andrew

    2014-08-19

    The field of polymeric biomaterials has received much attention in recent years due to its potential for enhancing the biocompatibility of systems and devices applied to drug delivery and tissue engineering. Such applications continually push the definition of biocompatibility from relatively straightforward issues such as cytotoxicity to significantly more complex processes such as reducing foreign body responses or even promoting/recapitulating natural body functions. Hydrogels and their colloidal analogues, microgels, have been and continue to be heavily investigated as viable materials for biological applications because they offer numerous, facile avenues in tailoring chemical and physical properties to approach biologically harmonious integration. Mechanical properties in particular are recently coming into focus as an important manner in which biological responses can be altered. In this Account, we trace how mechanical properties of microgels have moved into the spotlight of research efforts with the realization of their potential impact in biologically integrative systems. We discuss early experiments in our lab and in others focused on synthetic modulation of particle structure at a rudimentary level for fundamental drug delivery studies. These experiments elucidated that microgel mechanics are a consequence of polymer network distribution, which can be controlled by chemical composition or particle architecture. The degree of deformability designed into the microgel allows for a defined response to an imposed external force. We have studied deformation in packed colloidal phases and in translocation events through confined pores; in all circumstances, microgels exhibit impressive deformability in response to their environmental constraints. Microgels further translate their mechanical properties when assembled in films to the properties of the bulk material. In particular, microgel films have been a large focus in our lab as building blocks for self

  12. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adherence ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis on prosthetic biomaterials: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shida T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Shida,1 Hironobu Koseki,1 Itaru Yoda,1 Hidehiko Horiuchi,1 Hideyuki Sakoda,2 Makoto Osaki11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; 2Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Bacterial adhesion to the surface of biomaterials is an essential step in the pathogenesis of implant-related infections. In this in vitro research, we evaluated the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to adhere to the surface of solid biomaterials, including oxidized zirconium-niobium alloy (Oxinium, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, titanium alloy, commercially pure titanium, and stainless steel, and performed a biomaterial-to-biomaterial comparison. The test specimens were physically analyzed to quantitatively determine the viable adherent density of the S. epidermidis strain RP62A (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 35984. Field emission scanning electron microscope and laser microscope examination revealed a featureless, smooth surface in all specimens (average roughness <10 nm. The amounts of S. epidermidis that adhered to the biomaterial were significantly lower for Oxinium and the cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy than for commercially pure titanium. These results suggest that Oxinium and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy are less susceptible to bacterial adherence and are less inclined to infection than other materials of a similar degree of smoothness.Keyword: bacterial adhesion, implant, infection, surface character

  14. Thromboelastometric and platelet responses to silk biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Banani; Schlimp, Christoph J; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Redl, Heinz; Kundu, S C

    2014-05-13

    Silkworm's silk is natural biopolymer with unique properties including mechanical robustness, all aqueous base processing and ease in fabrication into different multifunctional templates. Additionally, the nonmulberry silks have cell adhesion promoting tri-peptide (RGD) sequences, which make it an immensely potential platform for regenerative medicine. The compatibility of nonmulberry silk with human blood is still elusive; thereby, restricts its further application as implants. The present study, therefore, evaluate the haematocompatibility of silk biomaterials in terms of platelet interaction after exposure to nonmulberry silk of Antheraea mylitta using thromboelastometry (ROTEM). The mulberry silk of Bombyx mori and clinically used Uni-Graft W biomaterial serve as references. Shortened clotting time, clot formation times as well as enhanced clot strength indicate the platelet mediated activation of blood coagulation cascade by tested biomaterials; which is comparable to controls.

  15. Manufacturing Cell Therapies Using Engineered Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Amr A; Saha, Krishanu

    2017-10-01

    Emerging manufacturing processes to generate regenerative advanced therapies can involve extensive genomic and/or epigenomic manipulation of autologous or allogeneic cells. These cell engineering processes need to be carefully controlled and standardized to maximize safety and efficacy in clinical trials. Engineered biomaterials with smart and tunable properties offer an intriguing tool to provide or deliver cues to retain stemness, direct differentiation, promote reprogramming, manipulate the genome, or select functional phenotypes. This review discusses the use of engineered biomaterials to control human cell manufacturing. Future work exploiting engineered biomaterials has the potential to generate manufacturing processes that produce standardized cells with well-defined critical quality attributes appropriate for clinical testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Applications of biomaterials in corneal wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Lun Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease affecting the cornea is a common cause of blindness worldwide. To date, the amniotic membrane (AM is the most widely used clinical method for cornea regeneration. However, donor-dependent differences in the AM may result in variable clinical outcomes. To overcome this issue, biomaterials are currently under investigation for corneal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. In this article, we highlight the recent advances in hydrogels, bioengineered prosthetic devices, contact lenses, and drug delivery systems for corneal regeneration. In clinical studies, the therapeutic effects of biomaterials, including fibrin and collagen-based hydrogels and silicone contact lenses, have been demonstrated in damaged cornea. The combination of cells and biomaterials may provide potential treatment in corneal wound healing in the future.

  17. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  18. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  19. Regulatory affairs for biomaterials and medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Amato, Stephen F; Amato, B

    2015-01-01

    All biomaterials and medical devices are subject to a long list of regulatory practises and policies which must be adhered to in order to receive clearance. This book provides readers with information on the systems in place in the USA and the rest of the world. Chapters focus on a series of procedures and policies including topics such as commercialization, clinical development, general good practise manufacturing and post market surveillance.Addresses global regulations and regulatory issues surrounding biomaterials and medical devicesEspecially useful for smaller co

  20. Facile design of biomaterials by 'click' chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the so‐called ‘click chemistry’ a decade ago has significantly improved the chemical toolbox for producing novel biomaterials. This review focuses primarily on the application of Cu(I)‐catalysed azide–alkyne 1,3‐cycloadditon in the preparation of numerous, diverse biomaterials...... chemistry is elaborated. The present state of creating functional and biologically active surfaces by click chemistry is presented. Finally, conducting surfaces based on an azide‐functionalized polymer with prospective biological sensor potential are introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry...

  1. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  2. Collagen based Biomaterials from CLRI: An Inspiration from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Collagen-based Smart Biomaterials · Smart materials: As smart people see them · Some Biomaterials based on Collagen in Human Health care · Questions of Value to this presentation ... Collagen based biomaterials · COLLAGEN IN VISION CARE · Slide 57 · Bandage lens: A smart device · Work at CLRI: In summary.

  3. Elastin as a biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, W.F.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Hest, J.C.M. van; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Biomaterials based upon elastin and elastin-derived molecules are increasingly investigated for their application in tissue engineering. This interest is fuelled by the remarkable properties of this structural protein, such as elasticity, self-assembly, long-term stability, and biological activity.

  4. Biomaterials and the U.S. Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-10

    genetics, immunology, cell biology, micro- biology (including procaryotes and eucaryotes as well as heterotropha and autotrophs), biochemistry...expression in a marine animal and associated cellular events. Metallothionein genes offer a mechanism for detoxification of chemical effluents, as well as...cross-linked, would have interesting structural and cellular effector properties for a biomaterial. In addition, the regular cross-linking sequences

  5. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices. Collagen as a protein. Collagen in tissues and organs. Stabilizing and cross linking agents. Immunogenicity. Hosts (drugs). Controlled release mechanisms of hosts. Biodegradability, workability into devices ...

  6. New biomaterials obtained with ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.

    1982-01-01

    In present-day surgery and medicine use is increasingly made of materials foreign to the organism in order to remedy a physiological defect either temporarily or permanently. These materials, known as ''biomaterials'', take widely varying forms: plastics, metals, cements, ceramics, etc. Biomaterials can be classified in accordance with their function: (a) Devices designed to be fully implanted in the human body in order to replace an anatomical structure, either temporarily or permanently, such as articular, vascular, mammary and osteosynthetic prostheses, etc.; (b) Devices having prolonged contact with mucous tissues, such as intra-uterine devices, contact lenses, etc.; (c) Extracorporeal devices designed to treat blood such as artificial kidneys, blood oxygenators, etc.; and (d) Biomaterials can also be taken to mean chemically inert, implantable materials designed to produce a continuous discharge of substances containing pharmacologically active molecules, such as contraceptive devices or ocular devices (for treating glaucoma). The two most important criteria for a biomaterial are those of biological compatibility and biological functionality. Techniques using ionizing radiation as an energy source provide an excellent tool for synthesizing or modifying the properties of plastics. The properties of polymers can be improved, new polymers can be synthesized without chemical additives (often the cause of incompatibility with tissue or blood) and without increased temperature, and polymerization can be induced in the solid state using deep-frozen monomers. Also, radiation-induced modifications in polymers can be applied to semi-finished or finished products. Examples are also given of marketed biomaterials that have been produced using radiation chemistry techniques

  7. Silk film biomaterials for ocular surface repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brian David

    Current biomaterial approaches for repairing the cornea's ocular surface upon injury are partially effective due to inherent material limitations. As a result there is a need to expand the biomaterial options available for use in the eye, which in turn will help to expand new clinical innovations and technology development. The studies illustrated here are a collection of work to further characterize silk film biomaterials for use on the ocular surface. Silk films were produced from regenerated fibroin protein solution derived from the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon. Methods of silk film processing and production were developed to produce consistent biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo evaluation. A wide range of experiments was undertaken that spanned from in vitro silk film material characterization to in vivo evaluation. It was found that a variety of silk film properties could be controlled through a water-annealing process. Silk films were then generated that could be use in vitro to produce stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets comparable to tissue grown on the clinical standard substrate of amniotic membrane. This understanding was translated to produce a silk film design that enhanced corneal healing in vivo on a rabbit injury model. Further work produced silk films with varying surface topographies that were used as a simplified analog to the corneal basement membrane surface in vitro. These studies demonstrated that silk film surface topography is capable of directing corneal epithelial cell attachment, growth, and migration response. Most notably epithelial tissue development was controllably directed by the presence of the silk surface topography through increasing cell sheet migration efficiency at the individual cellular level. Taken together, the presented findings represent a comprehensive characterization of silk film biomaterials for use in ocular surface reconstruction, and indicate their utility as a potential material choice in the

  8. Preparation of mica/apatite glass-ceramics biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Sheng Xiaoxian; Dan Xiaohong; Xiang Qijun

    2006-01-01

    Glass-ceramics have become more and more important biomaterials. In this work mica glass/apatite composites with various compositions were prepared by casting and subsequent heat treatments. The effects of composition, phase constitution and crystallinity on mechanical properties, including elastic modulus and transverse rupture strength (TRS), were investigated by using X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical tests. Results show that addition of apatite composition in mica glass accelerates the crystallization process and induces the formation of fluoroapatite phase, and the nucleation of apatite crystals occurs before that of mica crystals. The fuoroapatite in this work is needle-like, which is almost the same to that in human bone. The transverse rupture strength increases with the content of fluoroapatite and the crystallinity increasing, except that at a low apatite content the mechanical properties are lower than those of mica glass under the same processing conditions. The transverse rupture strength and elastic modulus obtained in this work fall in the range of those of human bone. SBF immersion test demonstrates good bioactivity of this biomaterial

  9. Applications of carbon nanotubes-based biomaterials in biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizu, Stefania; Savadogo, Oumarou; Poulin, Philippe; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2006-07-01

    One of the facets of nanotechnology applications is the immense opportunities they offer for new developments in medicine and health sciences. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have particularly attracted attention for designing new monitoring systems for environment and living cells as well as nanosensors. Carbon nanotubes-based biomaterials are also employed as support for active prosthesis or functional matrices in reparation of parts of the human body. These nanostructures are studied as molecular-level building blocks for the complex and miniaturized medical device, and substrate for stimulation of cellular growth. The CNTs are cylindrical shaped with caged molecules which can act as nanoscale containers for molecular species, well required for biomolecular recognition and drug delivery systems. Endowed with very large aspect ratios, an excellent electrical conductivity and inertness along with mechanical robustness, nanotubes found enormous applications in molecular electronics and bioelectronics. The ballistic electrical behaviour of SWNTs conjugated with functionalization promotes a large variety of biosensors for individual molecules. Actuative response of CNTs is considered very promising feature for nanodevices, micro-robots and artificial muscles. An description of CNTs based biomaterials is attempted in this review, in order to point out their enormous potential for biomedical nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology.

  10. Cleaning of biomaterial surfaces: protein removal by different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Fabian; Grass, Simone; Umanskaya, Natalia; Scheibe, Christian; Müller-Renno, Christine; Davoudi, Neda; Hannig, Matthias; Ziegler, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    The removal of biofilms or protein films from biomaterials is still a challenging task. In particular, for research investigations on real (applied) surfaces the reuse of samples is of high importance, because reuse allows the comparison of the same sample in different experiments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cleaning efficiency of different solvents (SDS, water, acetone, isopropanol, RIPA-buffer and Tween-20) on five different biomaterials (titanium, gold, PMMA (no acetone used), ceramic, and PTFE) with different wettability which were covered by layers of two different adsorbed proteins (BSA and lysozyme). The presence of a protein film after adsorption was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After treatment of the surfaces with the different solvents, the residual proteins on the surface were determined by BCA-assay (bicinchoninic acid assay). Data of the present study indicate that SDS is an effective solvent, but for several protein-substrate combinations it does not show the cleaning efficiency often mentioned in literature. RIPA-buffer and Tween-20 were more effective. They showed very low residual protein amounts after cleaning on all examined material surfaces and for both proteins, however, with small differences for the respective substrate-protein combinations. RIPA-buffer in combination with ultrasonication completely removed the protein layer as confirmed by TEM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  12. New method of synthesis and in vitro studies of a porous biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wers, E.; Lefeuvre, B.; Pellen-Mussi, P.; Novella, A.; Oudadesse, H.

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials for bone reconstruction represent a widely studied area. In this paper, a new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic obtained by thermal treatment is presented. The prepared biomaterial was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and induced couple plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), mercury porosimetry and by the Archimedes method. In vitro evaluations in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and in contact with SaOS_2 human osteoblasts were also carried out. The porous glass–ceramic is composed of a total porous network of 60% suitable for body fluid and cell infiltration, with pore sizes varying from 60 nm to 143 μm. The presence of two crystalline phases decreases the kinetic of bioactivity compared to an amorphous biomaterial (bioactive glass). A hydroxyapatite layer appears from 15 days of immersion on the surface and inside the pores, showing a biodegradation and a bioactivity in four steps. Cytotoxicity assessments present an increase of the cellular viability after 72 h proving the non-cytotoxic effect of the glass–ceramic. Thus, the results of these different studies indicate that the porous biomaterial may have a potential application for the bone regeneration. This paper also presents the novelty of this method. It is a rapid synthesis which combines simplicity and low cost. This represents an advantage for an eventual industrialization. - Highlights: • The new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic is reproducible. • The porous glass–ceramic possesses a total porosity of 60%. • The biomaterial shows a bioactivity in four steps with hydroxyapatite formation. • 82% of cellular viability is observed on the surface of the biomaterial.

  13. New method of synthesis and in vitro studies of a porous biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wers, E., E-mail: wers.eric@hotmail.com [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Lefeuvre, B. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pellen-Mussi, P.; Novella, A. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Oudadesse, H. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterials for bone reconstruction represent a widely studied area. In this paper, a new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic obtained by thermal treatment is presented. The prepared biomaterial was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and induced couple plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), mercury porosimetry and by the Archimedes method. In vitro evaluations in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and in contact with SaOS{sub 2} human osteoblasts were also carried out. The porous glass–ceramic is composed of a total porous network of 60% suitable for body fluid and cell infiltration, with pore sizes varying from 60 nm to 143 μm. The presence of two crystalline phases decreases the kinetic of bioactivity compared to an amorphous biomaterial (bioactive glass). A hydroxyapatite layer appears from 15 days of immersion on the surface and inside the pores, showing a biodegradation and a bioactivity in four steps. Cytotoxicity assessments present an increase of the cellular viability after 72 h proving the non-cytotoxic effect of the glass–ceramic. Thus, the results of these different studies indicate that the porous biomaterial may have a potential application for the bone regeneration. This paper also presents the novelty of this method. It is a rapid synthesis which combines simplicity and low cost. This represents an advantage for an eventual industrialization. - Highlights: • The new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic is reproducible. • The porous glass–ceramic possesses a total porosity of 60%. • The biomaterial shows a bioactivity in four steps with hydroxyapatite formation. • 82% of cellular viability is observed on the surface of the biomaterial.

  14. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  15. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  16. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  17. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  18. Polysaccharide-based biomaterials with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Coma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active packaging is one of the responses to the recent food-borne microbial outbreaks and to the consumer’s demand for high quality food and for packaging that is more advanced and creative than what is currently offered. Moreover, with the recent increase in ecological awareness associated with the dramatic decrease in fossil resources, research has turned towards the elaboration of more natural materials. This paper provides a short review of biomaterials exhibiting antimicrobial and antioxidant properties for applications in food preservation. The two main concepts of active biopackaging materials are briefly introduced. The different polysaccharides potentially used in packaging materials are then presented associated with a brief overview of research works related to biopackaging, exhibiting notably antimicrobial or antioxidant properties. Finally, future trends such as the release-on-demand of bioactive agents are discussed.

  19. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  20. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  1. Tracking of Drug Release and Material Fate for Naturally Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acid Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Keith M; Artzi, Natalie; Beck, Moshe; Beckerman, Rita; Moodie, Geoff; Albergo, Theresa; Conroy, Suzanne; Dale, Alicia; Corbeil, Scott; Martakos, Paul; Edelman, Elazer R

    2016-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted on omega-3 fatty acid-derived biomaterials to determine their utility as an implantable material for adhesion prevention following soft tissue hernia repair and as a means to allow for the local delivery of antimicrobial or antibiofilm agents. Naturally derived biomaterials offer several advantages over synthetic materials in the field of medical device development. These advantages include enhanced biocompatibility, elimination of risks posed by the presence of toxic catalysts and chemical crosslinking agents, and derivation from renewable resources. Omega-3 fatty acids are readily available from fish and plant sources and can be used to create implantable biomaterials either as a stand-alone device or as a device coating that can be utilized in local drug delivery applications. In-depth characterization of material erosion degradation over time using non-destructive imaging and chemical characterization techniques provided mechanistic insight into material structure: function relationship. This in turn guided rational tailoring of the material based on varying fatty acid composition to control material residence time and hence drug release. These studies demonstrate the utility of omega-3 fatty acid derived biomaterials as an absorbable material for soft tissue hernia repair and drug delivery applications.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Macrophage-Biomaterial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura Beth; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials in vascularized tissues elicits the sequential engagement of molecular and cellular elements that constitute the foreign body response. Initial events include the non-specific adsorption of proteins to the biomaterial surface that render it adhesive for cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. The latter undergo unique activation and in some cases undergo cell-cell fusion to form foreign body giant cells that contribute to implant damage and fibrotic encapsulation. In this review, we discuss the molecular events that contribute to macrophage activation and fusion with a focus on the role of the inflammasome, signaling pathways such as JAK/STAT and NF-κB, and the putative involvement of micro RNAs in the regulation of these processes.

  3. Gelatin Functionalization of Biomaterial Surfaces: Strategies for Immobilization and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dubruel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the immobilization of gelatin as biopolymer on two types of implantable biomaterials, polyimide and titanium, was compared. Both materials are known for their biocompatibility while lacking cell-interactive behavior. For both materials, a pre-functionalization step was required to enable gelatin immobilization. For the polyimide foils, a reactive succinimidyl ester was introduced first on the surface, followed by covalent grafting of gelatin. For the titanium material, methacrylate groups were first introduced on the Ti surface through a silanization reaction. The applied functionalities enabled the subsequent immobilization of methacrylamide modified gelatin. Both surface modified materials were characterized in depth using atomic force microscopy, static contact angle measurements, confocal fluorescence microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the strategies elaborated for both material classes are suitable to apply stable gelatin coatings. Interestingly, depending on the material class studied, not all surface analysis techniques are applicable.

  4. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  5. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  6. Maggot excretions inhibit biofilm formation on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation. We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect. Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured. The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured. Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.

  7. Trends in prosthetic biomaterials in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranjit Singh Bhasin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important criterion for the success of dental implants is the selection of a suitable implant biomaterial. To improve the biologic performance of an implant, it is necessary to select a material that does not elicit any negative biological response and at the same time maintains adequate function. It is mandatory for a dentist to have a comprehensive knowledge of various biomaterials used for dental implants. The material of choice for fabrication of the dental implant till date is titanium. With the advancements in the field of implants, zirconia seems to be propitious in the future. However, more advanced in vitro and in vivo studies are required before reaching any such conclusion. To increase the success of zirconia implants, care should be taken to reduce the incidence of mechanical failures. Such failures can be taken care of by having a thorough technical knowledge of implant designing and manufacturing defects. This article attempts to compare the advantages and disadvantages of various dental implant biomaterials. Focus is placed on the recent advances in this field with the recently introduced zirconia and its comparison to conventional titanium.

  8. Biomaterial associated impairment of local neutrophil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S S; Basford, R E; Kormos, R L; Hardesty, R L; Simmons, R L; Mora, E M; Cardona, M; Griffith, B L

    1990-01-01

    The effect of biomaterials on neutrophil function was studied in vitro to determine if these materials activated neutrophils and to determine the subsequent response of these neutrophils to further stimulation. Two biomaterials--polyurethane, a commonly used substance, and Velcro pile (used in the Jarvik 7 heart)--were evaluated. Two control substances, polyethylene and serum-coated polystyrene, were used for comparison. Neutrophil superoxide release was measured following incubation with these materials for 10, 30, and 120 min in the absence of additional stimulation and after stimulation with formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The authors observed that the incubation of neutrophils on both polyurethane and Velcro resulted in substantially increased superoxide release that was greater after the 10 min than after the 30 or 120 min association. These activated neutrophils exhibited a poor additional response to fMLP but responded well to PMA. The effect of implantation of the Novacor left ventricular assist device on peripheral blood neutrophil function was also evaluated. The peripheral blood neutrophils exhibited normal superoxide release and chemotaxis. These studies suggest that biomaterials may have a profound local effect on neutrophils, which may predispose the patient to periprosthetic infection, but that the reactivity of circulating neutrophils is unimpaired.

  9. Bone bonding at natural and biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John E

    2007-12-01

    Bone bonding is occurring in each of us and all other terrestrial vertebrates throughout life at bony remodeling sites. The surface created by the bone-resorbing osteoclast provides a three-dimensionally complex surface with which the cement line, the first matrix elaborated during de novo bone formation, interdigitates and is interlocked. The structure and composition of this interfacial bony matrix has been conserved during evolution across species; and we have known for over a decade that this interfacial matrix can be recapitulated at a biomaterial surface implanted in bone, given appropriate healing conditions. No evidence has emerged to suggest that bone bonding to artificial materials is any different from this natural biological process. Given this understanding it is now possible to explain why bone-bonding biomaterials are not restricted to the calcium-phosphate-based bioactive materials as was once thought. Indeed, in the absence of surface porosity, calcium phosphate biomaterials are not bone bonding. On the contrary, non-bonding materials can be rendered bone bonding by modifying their surface topography. This paper argues that the driving force for bone bonding is bone formation by contact osteogenesis, but that this has to occur on a sufficiently stable recipient surface which has micron-scale surface topography with undercuts in the sub-micron scale-range.

  10. Biomaterials based strategies for rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Su, Wei; Shah, Vishva; Hobson, Divia; Yildirimer, Lara; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Zhao, Jinzhong; Cui, Wenguo; Zhao, Xin

    2017-09-01

    Tearing of the rotator cuff commonly occurs as among one of the most frequently experienced tendon disorders. While treatment typically involves surgical repair, failure rates to achieve or sustain healing range from 20 to 90%. The insufficient capacity to recover damaged tendon to heal to the bone, especially at the enthesis, is primarily responsible for the failure rates reported. Various types of biomaterials with special structures have been developed to improve tendon-bone healing and tendon regeneration, and have received considerable attention for replacement, reconstruction, or reinforcement of tendon defects. In this review, we first give a brief introduction of the anatomy of the rotator cuff and then discuss various design strategies to augment rotator cuff repair. Furthermore, we highlight current biomaterials used for repair and their clinical applications as well as the limitations in the literature. We conclude this article with challenges and future directions in designing more advanced biomaterials for augmentation of rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Advances in biomaterials for preventing tissue adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Cheng, Ruoyu; das Neves, José; Tang, Jincheng; Xiao, Junyuan; Ni, Qing; Liu, Xinnong; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Dechun; Cui, Wenguo; Sarmento, Bruno

    2017-09-10

    Adhesion is one of the most common postsurgical complications, occurring simultaneously as the damaged tissue heals. Accompanied by symptoms such as inflammation, pain and even dyskinesia in particular circumstances, tissue adhesion has substantially compromised the quality of life of patients. Instead of passive treatment, which involves high cost and prolonged hospital stay, active intervention to prevent the adhesion from happening has been accepted as the optimized strategy against this complication. Herein, this paper will cover not only the mechanism of adhesion forming, but also the biomaterials and medicines used in its prevention. Apart from acting as a direct barrier, biomaterials also show promising anti-adhesive bioactivity though their intrinsic physical and chemical are still not completely unveiled. Considering the diversity of human tissue organization, it is imperative that various biomaterials in combination with specific medicine could be tuned to fit the microenvironment of targeted tissues. With the illustration of different adhesion mechanism and solutions, we hope this review can become a beacon and further inspires the development of anti-adhesion biomedicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  13. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  14. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  15. Soy Protein Scaffold Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Karen B.

    Developing functional biomaterials using highly processable materials with tailorable physical and bioactive properties is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. Soy protein is an abundant, natural resource with potential use for regenerative medicine applications. Preliminary studies show that soy protein can be physically modified and fabricated into various biocompatible constructs. However, optimized soy protein structures for tissue regeneration (i.e. 3D porous scaffolds) have not yet been designed. Furthermore, little work has established the in vivo biocompatibility of implanted soy protein and the benefit of using soy over other proteins including FDA-approved bovine collagen. In this work, freeze-drying and 3D printing fabrication processes were developed using commercially available soy protein to create porous scaffolds that improve cell growth and infiltration compared to other soy biomaterials previously reported. Characterization of scaffold structure, porosity, and mechanical/degradation properties was performed. In addition, the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells seeded on various designed soy scaffolds was analyzed. Biological characterization of the cell-seeded scaffolds was performed to assess feasibility for use in liver tissue regeneration. The acute and humoral response of soy scaffolds implanted in an in vivo mouse subcutaneous model was also investigated. All fabricated soy scaffolds were modified using thermal, chemical, and enzymatic crosslinking to change properties and cell growth behavior. 3D printing allowed for control of scaffold pore size and geometry. Scaffold structure, porosity, and degradation rate significantly altered the in vivo response. Freeze-dried soy scaffolds had similar biocompatibility as freeze-dried collagen scaffolds of the same protein content. However, the soy scaffolds degraded at a much faster rate, minimizing immunogenicity. Interestingly, subcutaneously implanted soy scaffolds affected blood

  16. Current concepts of regenerative biomaterials in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Ahuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of any implant system is to achieve firm fixation to the bone and this could be influenced by biomechanical as well as biomaterial selection. An array of materials is used in the replacement of missing teeth through implantation. The appropriate selection of biomaterials directly influences the clinical success and longevity of implants. Thus the clinician needs to have adequate knowledge of the various biomaterials and their properties for their judicious selection and application in his/her clinical practice. The recent materials such as bioceramics and composite biomaterials that are under consideration and investigation have a promising future. For optimal performance, implant biomaterials should have suitable mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and structural biostability in the physiological environment. This article reviews the various implant biomaterials and their ease of use in implant dentistry.

  17. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  18. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes

    OpenAIRE

    Christo, Susan N.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestati...

  19. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address variou...

  20. Inspiration and application in the evolution of biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterials, traditionally defined as materials used in medical devices, have been used since antiquity, but recently their degree of sophistication has increased significantly. Biomaterials made today are routinely information rich and incorporate biologically active components derived from nature. In the future, biomaterials will assume an even greater role in medicine and will find use in a wide variety of non-medical applications through biologically inspired design and incorporation of ...

  1. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends (editorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address variou...

  2. Inspiration and application in the evolution of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J

    2009-11-26

    Biomaterials, traditionally defined as materials used in medical devices, have been used since antiquity, but recently their degree of sophistication has increased significantly. Biomaterials made today are routinely information rich and incorporate biologically active components derived from nature. In the future, biomaterials will assume an even greater role in medicine and will find use in a wide variety of non-medical applications through biologically inspired design and incorporation of dynamic behaviour.

  3. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobbert, F. S. L.; Lietaert, K.; Eftekhari, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different...... of bone properties is feasible, biomaterials that could simultaneously mimic all or most of the relevant bone properties are rare. We used rational design and additive manufacturing to develop porous metallic biomaterials that exhibit an interesting combination of topological, mechanical, and mass...

  4. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  6. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  7. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  8. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  9. Effects of sterilization and storage on the properties of ALP-grafted biomaterials for prosthetic and bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraris, S; Pan, G; Vernè, E; Spriano, S; Cassinelli, C; Mazzucco, L

    2012-01-01

    Grafting of the biomaterial surfaces with biomolecules is nowadays a challenging research field for prosthetic and bone tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, very few research works investigate the effect of the sterilization processes on the properties of functionalized biomaterials. In this study, the effects of different sterilization techniques (e.g. gamma and electron beam irradiation, ethylene oxide) on the enzymatic activity of bioactive glasses and Ti6Al4V grafted with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been analyzed. Sterility maintenance and in vitro bioactivity of the sterilized surfaces have also been investigated. Finally the effect of packaging and storage conditions has been considered. (paper)

  10. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  11. Hybrid laser technology and doped biomaterials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Remsa, Jan; Mikšovský, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Písařík, Petr; Trávníčková, Martina; Filová, Elena; Bačáková, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 417, Sep (2017), s. 73-83 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : hybrid PLD * Cr: DLC * Ti: DLC. comparison of properties * in vitro tests Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (FGU-C) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Biomaterials (as related to medical implants, devices, sensors) (FGU-C) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  12. Biomaterials and scaffolds in reparative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikof, Elliot L.; Matthew, Howard; Kohn, Joachim; Mikos, Antonios G.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Yip, Christopher M.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Most approaches currently pursued or contemplated within the framework of reparative medicine, including cell-based therapies, artificial organs, and engineered living tissues, are dependent on our ability to synthesize or otherwise generate novel materials, fabricate or assemble materials into appropriate 2-D and 3-D forms, and precisely tailor material-related physical and biological properties so as to achieve a desired clinical response. This paper summarizes the scientific and technological opportunities within the fields of biomaterials science and molecular engineering that will likely establish new enabling technologies for cellular and molecular therapies directed at the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of diseased or damaged organs and tissues.

  13. The case study of biomaterials and biominerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The teaching of biomaterials as case study by on-line platform , susceptible to develop both individually and in groups, got different objectives proposed by the European Higher Education System, among which include: participate actively in the teaching-learning process by students, interpreting situations, adapt processes and solutions. It also improves oral and written communication, analytical skills and synthesis and also the ability to think critically. Biomaterials have their origin in biominerals. These are solid inorganic compounds of defined structure, consisting of molecular control mechanisms that operate in biological systems. Its main functions are: structural support, a reservoir of essential elements, sensors, mechanical protection and storage of toxic elements. Following the demand of materials compatible with certain functional systems of our body, developed biomaterials. Always meet the condition of biocompatibility. Should be tolerated by the body and do not provoke rejection. This involves a comprehensive study of physiological conditions and the anatomy of the body where a biomaterial has to be implemented. The possibility of generating new materials from biominerals has a major impact in medicine and other fields could reach as geology, construction, crystallography, etc. While the study of these issues is in its infancy today, can be viewed as an impact on the art and future technology. Planning case study that students would prepare its report for discussion in subgroups. Occurs then the pooling of individual analysis, joint case discussion and adoption by the subgroup of a consensual solution to the problem. The teacher as facilitator and coordinator of the final case analysis, sharing leads to group-wide class and said the unanimous decision reached by the students and gives his opinion on the resolution of the case. REFERENCES D.P. Ausubel. Psicología Educativa. Un punto de vista cognoscitivo. Trillas. Ed. 1983. E.W. Eisner. Procesos

  14. Minimizing Skin Scarring through Biomaterial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. Moore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing continues to be a major burden to patients, though research in the field has expanded significantly. Due to an aging population and increasing comorbid conditions, the cost of chronic wounds is expected to increase for patients and the U.S. healthcare system alike. With this knowledge, the number of engineered products to facilitate wound healing has also increased dramatically, with some already in clinical use. In this review, the major biomaterials used to facilitate skin wound healing will be examined, with particular attention allocated to the science behind their development. Experimental therapies will also be evaluated.

  15. In vivo biocompatibility of new nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid complex biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai ZY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhenyu Dai,1,2,* Yue Li,3,* Weizhong Lu,2,* Dianming Jiang,4 Hong Li,1 Yonggang Yan,1 Guoyu Lv,1 Aiping Yang1 1College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2Department of Orthopedics, Chongqing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, the Second Affiliated Hospital, 4Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To evaluate the compatibility of novel nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (n-CDHA/PAA complex biomaterials with muscle and bone tissue in an in vivo model.Methods: Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Biomaterials were surgically implanted into each rabbit in the back erector spinae and in tibia with induced defect. Polyethylene was implanted into rabbits in the control group and n-CDHA/PAA into those of the experimental group. Animals were examined at four different points in time: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after surgery. They were euthanized after embolization. Back erector spinae muscles with the surgical implants were examined after hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining at these points in time. Tibia bones with the surgical implants were examined by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM at these points in time to evaluate the interface of the bone with the implanted biomaterials. Bone tissues were sectioned and subjected to HE, Masson, and toluidine blue staining.Results: HE staining of back erector spinae muscles at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after implantation of either n-CDHA/PAA or polyethylene showed disappearance of inflammation and normal arrangement in the peripheral tissue of implant biomaterials; no abnormal staining was observed. At 2 weeks after implantation, X-ray imaging of bone tissue samples in both experimental and control groups showed that

  16. Routes towards Novel Collagen-Like Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian V. Golser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Collagen plays a major role in providing mechanical support within the extracellular matrix and thus has long been used for various biomedical purposes. Exemplary, it is able to replace damaged tissues without causing adverse reactions in the receiving patient. Today’s collagen grafts mostly are made of decellularized and otherwise processed animal tissue and therefore carry the risk of unwanted side effects and limited mechanical strength, which makes them unsuitable for some applications e.g., within tissue engineering. In order to improve collagen-based biomaterials, recent advances have been made to process soluble collagen through nature-inspired silk-like spinning processes and to overcome the difficulties in providing adequate amounts of source material by manufacturing collagen-like proteins through biotechnological methods and peptide synthesis. Since these methods also open up possibilities to incorporate additional functional domains into the collagen, we discuss one of the best-performing collagen-like type of proteins, which already have additional functional domains in the natural blueprint, the marine mussel byssus collagens, providing inspiration for novel biomaterials based on collagen-silk hybrid proteins.

  17. Biomaterials and Magnetic fields for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Mazuruk, Konstanty

    2003-01-01

    The field of biomaterials has emerged as an important topic in the purview of NASA s new vision of research activities in the Microgravity Research Division. Although this area has an extensive track record in the medical field as borne out by the routine use of polymeric sutures, implant devices, and prosthetics, novel applications such as tissue engineering, artificial heart valves and controlled drug delivery are beginning to be developed. Besides the medical field, biomaterials and bio-inspired technologies are finding use in a host of emerging interdisciplinary fields such as self-healing and self-assembling structures, biosensors, fuel systems etc. The field of magnetic fluid technology has several potential applications in medicine. One of the emerging fields is the area of controlled drug delivery, which has seen its evolution from the basic oral delivery system to pulmonary to transdermal to direct inoculations. In cancer treatment by chemotherapy for example, targeted and controlled drug delivery has received vast scrutiny and substantial research and development effort, due to the high potency of the drugs involved and the resulting requirement to keep the exposure of the drugs to surrounding healthy tissue to a minimum. The use of magnetic particles in conjunction with a static magnetic field allows smart targeting and retention of the particles at a desired site within the body with the material transport provided by blood perfusion. Once so located, the therapeutical aspect (radiation, chemotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) of the treatment, now highly localized, can be implemented.

  18. Plasma assisted surface treatments of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, L; Migliaresi, C; Lunelli, L; Viero, G; Dalla Serra, M; Speranza, G

    2017-10-01

    The biocompatibility of an implant depends upon the material it is composed of, in addition to the prosthetic device's morphology, mechanical and surface properties. Properties as porosity and pore size should allow, when required, cells penetration and proliferation. Stiffness and strength, that depend on the bulk characteristics of the material, should match the mechanical requirements of the prosthetic applications. Surface properties should allow integration in the surrounding tissues by activating proper communication pathways with the surrounding cells. Bulk and surface properties are not interconnected, and for instance a bone prosthesis could possess the necessary stiffness and strength for the application omitting out prerequisite surface properties essential for the osteointegration. In this case, surface treatment is mandatory and can be accomplished using various techniques such as applying coatings to the prosthesis, ion beams, chemical grafting or modification, low temperature plasma, or a combination of the aforementioned. Low temperature plasma-based techniques have gained increasing consensus for the surface modification of biomaterials for being effective and competitive compared to other ways to introduce surface functionalities. In this paper we review plasma processing techniques and describe potentialities and applications of plasma to tailor the interface of biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Translating Regenerative Biomaterials Into Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Edward T; Dakin, Stephanie G; Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Globally health care spending is increasing unsustainably. This is especially true of the treatment of musculoskeletal (MSK) disease where in the United States the MSK disease burden has doubled over the last 15 years. With an aging and increasingly obese population, the surge in MSK related spending is only set to worsen. Despite increased funding, research and attention to this pressing health need, little progress has been made toward novel therapies. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies could provide the solutions required to mitigate this mounting burden. Biomaterial-based treatments in particular present a promising field of potentially cost-effective therapies. However, the translation of a scientific development to a successful treatment is fraught with difficulties. These barriers have so far limited translation of TERM science into clinical treatments. It is crucial for primary researchers to be aware of the barriers currently restricting the progression of science to treatments. Researchers need to act prospectively to ensure the clinical, financial, and regulatory hurdles which seem so far removed from laboratory science do not stall or prevent the subsequent translation of their idea into a treatment. The aim of this review is to explore the development and translation of new treatments. Increasing the understanding of these complexities and barriers among primary researchers could enhance the efficiency of biomaterial translation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Biomaterials for integration with 3-D bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Atala, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Bioprinting has emerged in recent years as an attractive method for creating 3-D tissues and organs in the laboratory, and therefore is a promising technology in a number of regenerative medicine applications. It has the potential to (i) create fully functional replacements for damaged tissues in patients, and (ii) rapidly fabricate small-sized human-based tissue models, or organoids, for diagnostics, pathology modeling, and drug development. A number of bioprinting modalities have been explored, including cellular inkjet printing, extrusion-based technologies, soft lithography, and laser-induced forward transfer. Despite the innovation of each of these technologies, successful implementation of bioprinting relies heavily on integration with compatible biomaterials that are responsible for supporting the cellular components during and after biofabrication, and that are compatible with the bioprinting device requirements. In this review, we will evaluate a variety of biomaterials, such as curable synthetic polymers, synthetic gels, and naturally derived hydrogels. Specifically we will describe how they are integrated with the bioprinting technologies above to generate bioprinted constructs with practical application in medicine.

  1. Immunologically active biomaterials for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar A; Mooney, David J

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of immunological regulation has progressed tremendously alongside the development of materials science, and at their intersection emerges the possibility to employ immunologically active biomaterials for cancer immunotherapy. Strong and sustained anticancer, immune responses are required to clear large tumor burdens in patients, but current approaches for immunotherapy are formulated as products for delivery in bolus, which may be indiscriminate and/or shortlived. Multifunctional biomaterial particles are now being developed to target and sustain antigen and adjuvant delivery to dendritic cells in vivo, and these have the potential to direct and prolong antigen-specific T cell responses. Three-dimensional immune cell niches are also being developed to regulate the recruitment, activation and deployment of immune cells in situ to promote potent antitumor responses. Recent studies demonstrate that materials with immune targeting and stimulatory capabilities can enhance the magnitude and duration of immune responses to cancer antigens, and preclinical results utilizing material-based immunotherapy in tumor models show a strong therapeutic benefit, justifying translation to and future testing in the clinic.

  2. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  3. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Susan N; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestation of the biomaterial-induced foreign body response are different for each biomaterial, with cases of incompatibility often associated with loss of function. However, unravelling the mechanisms that progress to the formation of the fibrotic capsule highlights the tightly intertwined nature of immunological responses to a seemingly noncanonical "antigen." In this review, we detail the pathways associated with the foreign body response and describe possible mechanisms of immune involvement that can be targeted. We also discuss methods of modulating the immune response by altering the physiochemical surface properties of the biomaterial prior to implantation. Developments in these areas are reliant on reproducible and effective animal models and may allow a "combined" immunomodulatory approach of adapting surface properties of biomaterials, as well as treating key immune pathways to ultimately reduce the negative consequences of biomaterial implantation.

  4. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan N. Christo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestation of the biomaterial-induced foreign body response are different for each biomaterial, with cases of incompatibility often associated with loss of function. However, unravelling the mechanisms that progress to the formation of the fibrotic capsule highlights the tightly intertwined nature of immunological responses to a seemingly noncanonical “antigen.” In this review, we detail the pathways associated with the foreign body response and describe possible mechanisms of immune involvement that can be targeted. We also discuss methods of modulating the immune response by altering the physiochemical surface properties of the biomaterial prior to implantation. Developments in these areas are reliant on reproducible and effective animal models and may allow a “combined” immunomodulatory approach of adapting surface properties of biomaterials, as well as treating key immune pathways to ultimately reduce the negative consequences of biomaterial implantation.

  5. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials : Current Trends (editorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the

  6. Low-temperature plasma techniques in surface modification of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiangfen; Xie Hankun; Zhang Jing

    2002-01-01

    Since synthetic polymers usually can not meet the biocompatibility and bio-functional demands of the human body, surface treatment is a prerequisite for them to be used as biomaterials. A very effective surface modification method, plasma treatment, is introduced. By immobilizing the bio-active molecules with low temperature plasma, polymer surfaces can be modified to fully satisfy the requirements of biomaterials

  7. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  8. Reconstruction of radial bone defect in rat by calcium silicate biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Alidadi, Soodeh

    2018-05-15

    Despite many attempts, an appropriate therapeutic method has not yet been found to enhance bone formation, mechanical strength and structural and functional performances of large bone defects. In the present study, the bone regenerative potential of calcium silicate (CS) biomaterials combined with chitosan (CH) as calcium silicate/chitosan (CSC) scaffold was investigated in a critical radial bone defect in a rat model. The bioimplants were bilaterally implanted in the defects of 20 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were euthanized and the bone specimens were harvested at the 56th postoperative day. The healed radial bones were evaluated by three-dimensional CT, radiology, histomorphometric analysis, biomechanics, and scanning electron microscopy. The XRD analysis of the CS biomaterial showed its similarity to wollastonite (β-SiCO 3 ). The degradation rate of the CSC scaffold was much higher and it induced milder inflammatory reaction when compared to the CH alone. More bone formation and higher biomechanical performance were observed in the CSC treated group in comparison with the CH treated ones in histological, CT scan and biomechanical examinations. Scanning electron microscopic observation demonstrated the formation of more hydroxyapatite crystals in the defects treated with CSC. This study showed that the CSC biomaterials could be used as proper biodegradable materials in the field of bone reconstruction and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomaterials science an introduction to materials in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Lemons, Jack E; Yaszemski, Michael J; Yaszemski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The second edition of this bestselling title provides the most up-to-date comprehensive review of all aspects of biomaterials science by providing a balanced, insightful approach to learning biomaterials. This reference integrates a historical perspective of materials engineering principles with biological interactions of biomaterials. Also provided within are regulatory and ethical issues in addition to future directions of the field, and a state-of-the-art update of medical and biotechnological applications. All aspects of biomaterials science are thoroughly addressed, from tissue engineering to cochlear prostheses and drug delivery systems. Over 80 contributors from academia, government and industry detail the principles of cell biology, immunology, and pathology. Focus within pertains to the clinical uses of biomaterials as components in implants, devices, and artificial organs. This reference also touches upon their uses in biotechnology as well as the characterization of the physical, chemical, biochemi...

  10. Study on MCP-1 related to inflammation induced by biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Tingting; Sun Jiao; Zhang Ping

    2009-01-01

    The study of inflammation is important for understanding the reaction between biomaterials and the human body, in particular, the interaction between biomaterials and immune system. In the current study, rat macrophages were induced by multiple biomaterials with different biocompatibilities, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing 8% of organic tin, a positive control material with cellular toxicity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV-304), cultured with PRMI-1640, were detached from cells cultured with the supernatant of macrophages containing TNF-α and IL-1β because of stimulation by biomaterials. The cells were then treated with different biomaterials. Then both TNF-α and IL-1β in macrophages were detected by ELISA. Levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured by RT-PCR. The results suggested that the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was elevated by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and American NPG alloy (p < 0.001). The level of MCP-1 cultured in supernatant of macrophages was higher than in PRMI-1640 with the same biomaterials. And the exposure to PTFE, PLGA and NPG resulted in the high expression of MCP-1 (p < 0.001) following cytokine stimulation. MCP-1 was also significantly expressed in β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and calcium phosphate cement samples (CPC) (p < 0.01). Thus, TNF-α, IL-1β and MCP-1 had played an important role in the immune reaction induced by biomaterials and there was a close relationship between the expression of cytokines and biomcompatibility of biomaterials. Furthermore, these data suggested that MCP-1 was regulated by TNF-α and IL-1β, and activated by both cytokines and biomaterials. The data further suggested that the expression of MCP-1 could be used as a marker to indicate the degree of immune reaction induced by biomaterials.

  11. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Porous Structure of Biomaterial and Fluid Flowing Through Biomaterial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A Cellular Automata model of simulating body fluid flowing into porous bioceramic implants generated with stochastic methods is described, of which main parameters and evolvement rule are determined in terms of flow behavior of body fluid in porous biomaterials. The model is implemented by GUI( Graphical User Interface) program in MATLAB, and the results of numerical modeling show that the body fluid percolation is related to the size of pores and porosity.

  13. Biomaterials in search of a meniscus substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Jan J; van Tienen, Tony G; van Bochove, Bas; Grijpma, Dirk W; Buma, Pieter

    2014-04-01

    The menisci fulfill key biomechanical functions in the tibiofemoral (knee) joint. Unfortunately meniscal injuries are quite common and most often treated by (partial) meniscectomy. However, some patients experience enduring symptoms, and, more importantly, it leads to an increased risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis. Over the past decades, researchers have put effort in developing a meniscal substitute able to prevent osteoarthritis and treat enduring clinical symptoms. Grossly, two categories of substitutes are observed: First, a resorbable scaffold mimicking biomechanical function which slowly degrades while tissue regeneration and organization is promoted. Second, a non resorbable, permanent implant which mimics the biomechanical function of the native meniscus. Numerous biomaterials with different (material) properties have been used in order to provide such a substitute. Nevertheless, a clinically applicable cartilage protecting material is not yet emerged. In the current review we provide an overview, and discuss, these different materials and extract recommendations regarding material properties for future developmental research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomaterials for intervertebral disc regeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Robert D; Setton, Lori A

    2017-06-01

    The intervertebral disc contributes to motion, weight bearing, and flexibility of the spine, but is susceptible to damage and morphological changes that contribute to pathology with age and injury. Engineering strategies that rely upon synthetic materials or composite implants that do not interface with the biological components of the disc have not met with widespread use or desirable outcomes in the treatment of intervertebral disc pathology. Here we review bioengineering advances to treat disc disorders, using cell-supplemented materials, or acellular, biologically based materials, that provide opportunity for cell-material interactions and remodeling in the treatment of intervertebral disc disorders. While a field still in early development, bioengineering-based strategies employing novel biomaterials are emerging as promising alternatives for clinical treatment of intervertebral disc disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mini Review: Biomaterials for Enhancing Neuronal Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangellaris, Olivia V.; Gillette, Martha U.

    2018-04-01

    As they differentiate from neuroblasts, nascent neurons become highly polarized and elongate. Neurons extend and elaborate fine and fragile cellular extensions that form circuits enabling long-distance communication and signal integration within the body. While other organ systems are developing, projections of differentiating neurons find paths to distant targets. Subsequent post-developmental neuronal damage is catastrophic because the cues for reinnervation are no longer active. Advances in biomaterials are enabling fabrication of micro-environments that encourage neuronal regrowth and restoration of function by recreating these developmental cues. This mini-review considers new materials that employ topographical, chemical, electrical, and/or mechanical cues for use in neuronal repair. Manipulating and integrating these elements in different combinations will generate new technologies to enhance neural repair.

  16. Tribological characteristics of dental metal biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a report of the examination of the tribological wear characteristics of certain dental metal biomaterials. In the study, tests were undertaken on the following materials: 316L steel, NiCrMo alloy, technically pure titanium (ASTM-grade 2 and Ti6Al4V ELI alloy (ASTM-grade 5. The tribological tests were performed in artificial saliva to determine the coefficient of friction and wear factor; the traces of wear were then ascertained through SEM. The significance of variations in the wear factor, was subsequently assessed by the U Mann-Whitney test. The resistance to wear in the ball-on-disc test under in vitro conditions was observed for the tested materials in the following order: NiCrMo>316L>Ti6Al4V>Ti grade 2.

  17. Supporting Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Drescher, Wolf; Rath, Björn; Tingart, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons and researchers worldwide are continuously faced with the challenge of regenerating articular cartilage defects. However, until now, it has not been possible to completely mimic the biological and biochemical properties of articular cartilage using current research and development approaches. In this review, biomaterials previously used for articular cartilage repair research are addressed. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the state of the art of current cell printing procedures mimicking native cartilage is offered in light of their use as future alternatives for cartilage tissue engineering. Inkjet cell printing, controlled deposition cell printing tools, and laser cell printing are cutting-edge techniques in this context. The development of mimetic hydrogels with specific biological properties relevant to articular cartilage native tissue will support the development of improved, functional, and novel engineered tissue for clinical application. PMID:26069634

  18. Toward biomaterial-based implantable photonic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humar Matjaž

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical technologies are essential for the rapid and efficient delivery of health care to patients. Efforts have begun to implement these technologies in miniature devices that are implantable in patients for continuous or chronic uses. In this review, we discuss guidelines for biomaterials suitable for use in vivo. Basic optical functions such as focusing, reflection, and diffraction have been realized with biopolymers. Biocompatible optical fibers can deliver sensing or therapeutic-inducing light into tissues and enable optical communications with implanted photonic devices. Wirelessly powered, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and miniature lasers made of biocompatible materials may offer new approaches in optical sensing and therapy. Advances in biotechnologies, such as optogenetics, enable more sophisticated photonic devices with a high level of integration with neurological or physiological circuits. With further innovations and translational development, implantable photonic devices offer a pathway to improve health monitoring, diagnostics, and light-activated therapies.

  19. Chitosan dan Aplikasi Klinisnya Sebagai Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of new materials with both organic and inorganic structures is of great interest to obtain special material properties. Chitosan [2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucan] can be obtained by N-deacetylation of chitin. Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature and the supporting material of crustaceans, insects, fungi etc. Chitosan is unique polysaccharide and has been widely used in various biomedical application due to its biocompatibility, low toxicity, biodegradability, non-immunogenic and non-carcinogenic character. In the past few years, chitosan and some of its modifications have been reported for use in biomedical applications such as artificial skin, wound dressing, anticoagulant, suture, drug delivery, vaccine carrier and dietary fibers. Recently, the use of chitosan and its derivatives has received much attention as temporary scaffolding to promotie mineralization or stimulate endochodral ossification. This article aims to give a broad overview of chitosan and its clinical applications as biomaterial.

  20. Pulmonary emboli from blood-biomaterial interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.E.; Ramberg, K.; McEnroe, C.S.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of surface thrombosis and subsequent embolization remains entrenched as a yet incompletely surmounted barrier to the development of truly satisfactory intravascular prosthetic devices. A baboon ex vivo shunt was used to determine the interaction of Indium-111 platelets and potential biomaterials. The uptake of Indium-111 platelets was monitored continuously by gamma camera scanning. Several of the materials tested demonstrated a saw-toothed pattern of platelet activity, with accumulation followed by rapid decline. Neither PTFE nor Dacron exhibited this pattern. Post shunt scans of the animals' chests showed discrete foci of platelet activity in the lungs, corresponding to each embolic event noted on the material's scan. In conclusion, the search for a smooth surface as a blood material interface may produce a material which accumulates and then sloughs significant platelet aggregates. It is crucial that these materials be subjected to vigorous testing to determine their safety prior to initiation of clinical trials

  1. Regenerative immunology: the immunological reaction to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravedi, Paolo; Farouk, Samira; Angeletti, Andrea; Edgar, Lauren; Tamburrini, Riccardo; Duisit, Jerome; Perin, Laura; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Regenerative medicine promises to meet two of the most urgent needs of modern organ transplantation, namely immunosuppression-free transplantation and an inexhaustible source of organs. Ideally, bioengineered organs would be manufactured from a patient's own biomaterials-both cells and the supporting scaffolding materials in which cells would be embedded and allowed to mature to eventually regenerate the organ in question. While some groups are focusing on the feasibility of this approach, few are focusing on the immunogenicity of the scaffolds that are being developed for organ bioengineering purposes. This review will succinctly discuss progress in the understanding of immunological characteristics and behavior of different scaffolds currently under development, with emphasis on the extracellular matrix scaffolds obtained decellularized animal or human organs which seem to provide the ideal template for bioengineering purposes. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  2. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  3. Biomaterials Out of Thin Air: in Situ, On-Demand Printing of Advanced Biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Gentry, Diana M.; Micks, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Upmass is the single most significant limitation of our current space mission capability. Although biomaterials and biocomposites have mass, strength, flexibility, and self-healing properties that could significantly reduce upmass, their use is limited by the following drawbacks: Expensive, specific production. Many biomaterials can only be produced as part of significant support ecosystem; Inaccessible functional customization. The grain of wood, the porosity of bone, and so on are an integral part of the materials' desired mechanical properties, but are not deterministic when the material is naturally grown; Limited compositions. Most biomaterials (unlike metal, plastic, etc.) cannot be easily combined or modified to produce new materials. This project builds on recent advances in: Synthetic biology. Libraries of standardized genetic parts which can be used for controlled cellular material production, delivery, and binding; 3D printing. Commercial off-the-shelf components which can be used to make of a pico- to nanoliter cell deposition system; Tissue engineering. Proven cell-compatible support hydrogels and scaffolds can be modified to bind the deposited biomaterials of interest. Objectives: Feasibility and benefit analysis. Two mission contexts span the concept's scope (see below); Proof-of-concept demonstration. A simple grid of two proteins, fluorescent for easy detection, to validate the core technology concept; Proposed implementations for follow-on work. Avenues for future work on each core component (host cell, production control, material delivery, material binding, etc.); Complementary studies exploration. A survey of other emerging areas (in situ resource utilization, protein engineering, etc.) with the potential to multiply our technology's impact. Potential Impacts: This application could dramatically expand manufacturing capabilities on Earth and in space: In situ resource utilization. A far greater range of materials and products will be available

  4. A new approach to the rationale discovery of polymeric biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Joachim; Welsh, William J.; Knight, Doyle

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to illustrate both the need for new approaches to biomaterials discovery as well as the significant promise inherent in the use of combinatorial and computational design strategies. The key observation of this Leading Opinion Paper is that the biomaterials community has been slow to embrace advanced biomaterials discovery tools such as combinatorial methods, high throughput experimentation, and computational modeling in spite of the significant promise shown by these discovery tools in materials science, medicinal chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. It seems that the complexity of living cells and their interactions with biomaterials has been a conceptual as well as a practical barrier to the use of advanced discovery tools in biomaterials science. However, with the continued increase in computer power, the goal of predicting the biological response of cells in contact with biomaterials surfaces is within reach. Once combinatorial synthesis, high throughput experimentation, and computational modeling are integrated into the biomaterials discovery process, a significant acceleration is possible in the pace of development of improved medical implants, tissue regeneration scaffolds, and gene/drug delivery systems. PMID:17644176

  5. Calcium-based biomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, and theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Lin, Jing; Fu, Lian-Hua; Huang, Peng

    2018-01-22

    Calcium-based (CaXs) biomaterials including calcium phosphates, calcium carbonates, calcium silicate and calcium fluoride have been widely utilized in the biomedical field owing to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. In recent years, CaXs biomaterials have been strategically integrated with imaging contrast agents and therapeutic agents for various molecular imaging modalities including fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging or multimodal imaging, as well as for various therapeutic approaches including chemotherapy, gene therapy, hyperthermia therapy, photodynamic therapy, radiation therapy, or combination therapy, even imaging-guided therapy. Compared with other inorganic biomaterials such as silica-, carbon-, and gold-based biomaterials, CaXs biomaterials can dissolve into nontoxic ions and participate in the normal metabolism of organisms. Thus, they offer safer clinical solutions for disease theranostics. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art progress in CaXs biomaterials, which covers from their categories, characteristics and preparation methods to their bioapplications including diagnosis, treatment, and theranostics. Moreover, the current trends and key problems as well as the future prospects and challenges of CaXs biomaterials are also discussed at the end.

  6. Biomimetic approaches to modulate cellular adhesion in biomaterials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmany, Maria B; Van Dyke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Natural extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins possess critical biological characteristics that provide a platform for cellular adhesion and activation of highly regulated signaling pathways. However, ECM-based biomaterials can have several limitations, including poor mechanical properties and risk of immunogenicity. Synthetic biomaterials alleviate the risks associated with natural biomaterials but often lack the robust biological activity necessary to direct cell function beyond initial adhesion. A thorough understanding of receptor-mediated cellular adhesion to the ECM and subsequent signaling activation has facilitated development of techniques that functionalize inert biomaterials to provide a biologically active surface. Here we review a range of approaches used to modify biomaterial surfaces for optimal receptor-mediated cell interactions, as well as provide insights into specific mechanisms of downstream signaling activation. In addition to a brief overview of integrin receptor-mediated cell function, so-called "biomimetic" techniques reviewed here include (i) surface modification of biomaterials with bioadhesive ECM macromolecules or specific binding motifs, (ii) nanoscale patterning of the materials and (iii) the use of "natural-like" biomaterials. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Engineering Biomaterials to Integrate and Heal: The Biocompatibility Paradigm Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryers, James D.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.; Ratner, Buddy D.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on one of the major failure routes of implanted medical devices, the foreign body reaction (FBR)—that is, the phagocytic attack and encapsulation by the body of the so-called “biocompatible” biomaterials comprising the devices. We then review strategies currently under development that might lead to biomaterial constructs that will harmoniously heal and integrate into the body. We discuss in detail emerging strategies to inhibit the FBR by engineering biomaterials that elicit more biologically pertinent responses. PMID:22592568

  8. Bone regeneration with biomaterials and active molecules delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D' Este, Matteo; Eglin, David; Alini, Mauro; Kyllonen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The combination of biomaterials and drug delivery strategies is a promising avenue towards improved synthetic bone substitutes. With the delivery of active species biomaterials can be provided with the bioactivity they still lack for improved bone regeneration. Recently, a lot of research efforts have been put towards this direction. Biomaterials for bone regeneration have been supplemented with small or biological molecules for improved osteoprogenitor cell recruitment, osteoinductivity, anabolic or angiogenic response, regulation of bone metabolism and others. The scope of this review is to summarize the most recent results in this field.

  9. Radiation techniques in the formulation of synthetic biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, Isao

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the uses of various radiation techniques, such as radiation polymerization, grafting, and crosslinking, for the formulation of synthetic biomaterials. The biomaterials are divided into four categories: Biocompatible polymers, immobilized proteins, immobilized cells, and drug delivery systems. The recent achievements in each category are described, and the contributions of novel radiation techniques to this field are discussed. Work on drug delivery systemsis also reviewed, and the status of the practical applications of drug delivery systems for therapy is summarized. Future trends in the field of radiation-synthesized biomaterials are indicated. (orig.)

  10. Hybrid biomaterials based on calcium carbonate and polyaniline nanoparticles for application in photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Carrillo, Andrónico; Yslas, Edith; Marini, Yazmin Amar; Vásquez-Quitral, Patricio; Sánchez, Marianela; Riveros, Ana; Yáñez, Diego; Cavallo, Pablo; Kogan, Marcelo J; Acevedo, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Inorganic materials contain remarkable properties for drug delivery, such as a large surface area and nanoporous structure. Among these materials, CaCO3 microparticles (CMPs) exhibit a high encapsulation efficiency and solubility in acidic media. The extracellular pH of tumor neoplastic tissue is significantly lower than the extracellular pH of normal tissue facilitating the release of drug-encapsulating CMPs in this area. Conducting polyaniline (PANI) absorbs light energy and transforms it into localized heat to produce cell death. This work aimed to generate hybrid CMPs loaded with PANI for photothermal therapy (PTT). The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with CaCO3 and carboxymethyl cellulose in a simple, reproducible manner. The CMP-PANI-Cys particles were developed for the first time and represent a novel type of hybrid biomaterial. Resultant nanoparticles were characterized utilizing scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, UV-vis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. In vitro HeLa cells in dark and irradiated conditions showed that CMP-PANI-Cys and PANI-Cys are nontoxic at the assayed concentrations. Hybrid biomaterials displayed high efficiency for potential PTT compared with PANI-Cys. In summary, hierarchical hybrid biomaterials composed of CMPs and PANI-Cys combined with near infrared irradiation represents a useful alternative in PTT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanical properties of open-cell metallic biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoli, G.; Borleffs, M.S.; Amin Yavari, S.; Wauthle, R.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Finite element (FE) models were used to predict the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials. ► Porous materials were produced using additive manufacturing techniques. ► Manufacturing irregularities need to be implemented in FE models. ► FE models are more accurate than analytical models in predicting mechanical properties. - Abstract: An important practical problem in application of open-cell porous biomaterials is the prediction of the mechanical properties of the material given its micro-architecture and the properties of its matrix material. Although analytical methods can be used for this purpose, these models are often based on several simplifying assumptions with respect to the complex architecture and cannot provide accurate prediction results. The aim of the current study is to present finite element (FE) models that can predict the mechanical properties of porous titanium produced using selective laser melting or selective electron beam melting. The irregularities caused by the manufacturing process including structural variations of the architecture are implemented in the FE models using statistical models. The predictions of FE models are compared with those of analytical models and are tested against experimental data. It is shown that, as opposed to analytical models, the predictions of FE models are in agreement with experimental observations. It is concluded that manufacturing irregularities significantly affect the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials

  12. Aspect of use of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (uhmwpe) as biomaterial and as armour material (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzail, M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the known polymeric materials, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has unique properties as a biomaterial as well as armour material. Its high strength and very high modulus makes it an alternate candidate as body armour for example bullet proof vest. The drawn fibers from this material are best known for their break strength and compete with the steel and carbon fibers. On the other hand, its extremely high molar mass imparts outstanding wear resistance and impact toughness better than any other polymer which makes it a better choice as biomaterial used in hip and knee transplants. As a biomaterial, when body transplants are gamma sterilized, their shelf life depends upon the number and nature of free radicals produced during sterilization. These long-lived radicals ultimately affect the wear properties of hip and knee transplants. The Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) technique used to determine the concentration and nature of free radicals in about 16 years old powder, fibers and ram-extruded bar samples shows that at low microwave power (0.01 mW), polyenyl radicals become prominent while at high microwave power (160 mW), oxygen-centered radicals show their identity. The ESR study also exhibits that the concentration of free radicals depends upon the crystallinities of different morphologies known i.e powder, extruded bars and drawn fibers. Differential scanning calorimetry shows the order of crystallinity as: fiber > extruded bars > powder. (author)

  13. Molecular interactions in biomineralized hydroxyapatite amino acid modified nanoclay: In silico design of bone biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katti, Dinesh R.; Sharma, Anurag; Ambre, Avinash H.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2015-01-01

    A simulations driven approach to design of a novel biomaterial nanocomposite system is described in this study. Nanoclays modified with amino acids (OMMT) were used to mineralize hydroxyapatite (HAP), mimicking biomineralization. Representative models of organically modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and OMMT-hydroxyapatite (OMMT-HAP) were constructed using molecular dynamics and validated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transforms Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Attractive interactions exist between Ca atoms of HAP and C=O group of aminovaleric acid, indicating chelate formation in OMMT-HAP. Interaction energy maps describe molecular interactions among different constituents and their quantitative contributions in the OMMT and OMMT-HAP systems at both parallel and perpendicular orientations. High attractive and high repulsive interactions were found between PO 4 3− and MMT clay as well as aminovaleric molecules in OMMT-HAP perpendicular and parallel models. Large non-bonded interactions in OMMT-HAP indicate influence of neighboring environment on PO 4 3− in in situ HAPclay. Extensive hydrogen bonds were observed between functional hydrogen atoms of modifier and MMT clay in OMMT-HAP as compared to OMMT. Thus, HAP interacts with clay through the aminovaleric acid. This computational study provides a framework for materials design and selection for biomaterials used in tissue engineering and other areas of regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • Representative models of a hybrid nanoclay-hydroxyapatite biomaterial are built. • Interaction energy maps are constructed using a molecular dynamics. • Quantitative interactions between the three components of the biomaterial are found. • The modeling and experimental approach provides insight into the complex nanomaterial

  14. Preparation of hybrid biomaterials for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Conceição Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has evolved from the use of biomaterials for bone substitution that fulfill the clinical demands of biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-immunogeneity, structural strength and porosity. Porous scaffolds have been developed in many forms and materials, but few reached the need of adequate physical, biological and mechanical properties. In the present paper we report the preparation of hybrid porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/bioactive glass through the sol-gel route, using partially and fully hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol, and perform structural characterization. Hybrids containing PVA and bioactive glass with composition 58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5 were synthesized by foaming a mixture of polymer solution and bioactive glass sol-gel precursor solution. Sol-gel solution was prepared from mixing tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, triethylphosphate (TEP, and calcium chloride as chemical precursors. The hybrid composites obtained after aging and drying at low temperature were chemically and morphologically characterized through infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of hydrolysis of PVA, concentration of PVA solution and different PVA-bioglass composition ratios affect the synthesis procedure. Synthesis parameters must be very well combined in order to allow foaming and gelation. The hybrid scaffolds obtained exhibited macroporous structure with pore size varying from 50 to 600 µm.

  15. Characterization of powdered fish heads for bone graft biomaterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteyaka, Mustafa Ozgür; Unal, Hasan Hüseyin; Bilici, Namık; Taşçı, Eda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the chemical composition, morphology and crystallography of powdered fish heads of the species Argyrosomus regius for bone graft biomaterial applications. Two sizes of powder were prepared by different grinding methods; Powder A (coarse, d50=68.5 µm) and Powder B (fine, d50=19.1 µm). Samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The powder was mainly composed of aragonite (CaCO3) and calcite (CaCO3). The XRD pattern of Powder A and B matched standard aragonite and calcite patterns. In addition, the calcium oxide (CaO) phase was found after the calcination of Powder A. Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed total mass losses of 43.6% and 47.3% in Powders A and B, respectively. The microstructure of Powder A was mainly composed of different sizes and tubular shape, whereas Powder B showed agglomerated particles. The high quantity of CaO and other oxides resemble the chemical composition of bone. In general, the powder can be considered as bone graft after transformation to hydroxyapatite phase.

  16. Biomaterial-Derived Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Enteric Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Render

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral drug delivery systems provide the most convenient, noninvasive, readily acceptable alternatives to parenteral systems. In the current work, eggshell-derived calcium carbonate (CaCO3 nanoparticles were used to develop enteric drug delivery system in the form of tablets. CaCO3 nanoparticles were manufactured using top-down ball-milling method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and loaded with 5-fluorouracil as a model drug. Tablets with varying CaCO3 core and binder compositions were fabricated and coated with Eudragit S100 or Eudragit L100. Suitability for enteric delivery of the tablets was tested by oral administration to rabbits and radiography. Radiograph images showed that the tablet remained in the stomach of the rabbit for up to 3 hours. Further modifications of these biomaterial-derived nanoparticles and the coatings will enable manufacturing of stable formulations for slow or controlled release of pharmaceuticals for enteric delivery.

  17. Biomaterial imaging with MeV-energy heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Toshio; Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Shunichiro; Aoki, Takaaki; Ishihara, Akihiko; Matsuo, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of several chemical compounds in biological tissues and cells can be obtained with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). In conventional secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with keV-energy ion beams, elastic collisions occur between projectiles and atoms of constituent molecules. The collisions produce fragments, making the acquisition of molecular information difficult. In contrast, ion beams with MeV-energy excite near-surface electrons and enhance the ionization of high-mass molecules; hence, SIMS spectra of fragment-suppressed ionized molecules can be obtained with MeV-SIMS. To compare between MeV and conventional SIMS, we used the two methods based on MeV and Bi 3 -keV ions, respectively, to obtain molecular images of rat cerebellum. Conventional SIMS images of m/z 184 were clearly observed, but with the Bi 3 ion, the distribution of the molecule with m/z 772.5 could be observed with much difficulty. This effect was attributed to the low secondary ion yields and we could not get many signal counts with keV-energy beam. On the other hand, intact molecular ion distributions of lipids were clearly observed with MeV-SIMS, although the mass of all lipid molecules was higher than 500 Da. The peaks of intact molecular ions in MeV-SIMS spectra allowed us to assign the mass. The high secondary ion sensitivity with MeV-energy heavy ions is very useful in biomaterial analysis

  18. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  19. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  20. Fiber from ramie plant (Boehmeria nivea): A novel suture biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati [Drug discovery laboratory, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India); Devi, Dipali [Seri biotech laboratory, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India); Kalita, Dhaneswar [Government Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Jalukbari, Guwahati, Assam 781014 (India); Kalita, Kasturi [Department of Pathology, Hayat Hospital, Guwahati, Assam 781034 (India); Dash, Suvakanta [Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of pharmaceutical science, Azara, Guwahati, Assam 781017 (India); Kotoky, Jibon, E-mail: jkotoky@gmail.com [Drug discovery laboratory, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India)

    2016-05-01

    The quest for developing an ideal suture material prompted our interest to develop a novel suture with advantageous characters to market available ones. From natural origin only silk, cotton and linen fibers are presently available in market as non-absorbable suture biomaterials. In this study, we have developed a novel, cost-effective, and biocompatible suture biomaterial from ramie plant, Boehmeria nivea fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed the physicochemical properties of raw and degummed ramie fiber, where the former one showed desirable characteristics for suture preparation. The braided multifilament ramie suture prepared from degummed fiber exhibited excellent tensile strength. The suture found to be biocompatible towards human erythrocytes and nontoxic to mammalian cells. The fabricated ramie suture exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus; which can be attributed to the inherent bacteriostatic ability of ramie plant fiber. In vivo wound closure efficacy was evaluated in adult male wister rats by suturing the superficial wound incisions. Within seven days of surgery the wound got completely healed leaving no rash and scar. The role of the ramie suture in complete wound healing was supported by the reduced levels of serum inflammatory mediators. Histopathology studies confirmed the wound healing ability of ramie suture, as rapid synthesis of collagen, connective tissue and other skin adnexal structures were observed within seven days of surgery. Tensile properties, biocompatibility and wound closure efficacy of the ramie suture were comparable with market available BMSF suture. The outcome of this study can drive tremendous possibility for the utilization of ramie plant fiber for

  1. Fiber from ramie plant (Boehmeria nivea): A novel suture biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Devi, Dipali; Kalita, Dhaneswar; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    The quest for developing an ideal suture material prompted our interest to develop a novel suture with advantageous characters to market available ones. From natural origin only silk, cotton and linen fibers are presently available in market as non-absorbable suture biomaterials. In this study, we have developed a novel, cost-effective, and biocompatible suture biomaterial from ramie plant, Boehmeria nivea fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed the physicochemical properties of raw and degummed ramie fiber, where the former one showed desirable characteristics for suture preparation. The braided multifilament ramie suture prepared from degummed fiber exhibited excellent tensile strength. The suture found to be biocompatible towards human erythrocytes and nontoxic to mammalian cells. The fabricated ramie suture exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus; which can be attributed to the inherent bacteriostatic ability of ramie plant fiber. In vivo wound closure efficacy was evaluated in adult male wister rats by suturing the superficial wound incisions. Within seven days of surgery the wound got completely healed leaving no rash and scar. The role of the ramie suture in complete wound healing was supported by the reduced levels of serum inflammatory mediators. Histopathology studies confirmed the wound healing ability of ramie suture, as rapid synthesis of collagen, connective tissue and other skin adnexal structures were observed within seven days of surgery. Tensile properties, biocompatibility and wound closure efficacy of the ramie suture were comparable with market available BMSF suture. The outcome of this study can drive tremendous possibility for the utilization of ramie plant fiber for

  2. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  3. Evolving the use of peptides as biomaterials components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Joel H.; Segura, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is part of a debate on the statement that “the use of short synthetic adhesion peptides, like RGD, is the best approach in the design of biomaterials that guide cell behavior for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering”. We take the position that although there are some acknowledged disadvantages of using short peptide ligands within biomaterials, it is not necessary to discard the notion of using peptides within biomaterials entirely, but rather to reinvent and evolve their use. Peptides possess advantageous chemical definition, access to non-native chemistries, amenability to de novo design, and applicability within parallel approaches. Biomaterials development programs that require such aspects may benefit from a peptide-based strategy. PMID:21515167

  4. Simulation of Protein and Peptide-Based Biomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daggett, Valerie

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the proposed research is to pursue realistic molecular modeling studies of the stability, dynamics, structure, function, and folding of proteins and protein-based biomaterials in solution...

  5. Mechanics of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials: Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has been an active area of research for several decades. However, in recent years, the enthusiasm in understanding the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials has increased significantly due to the development of novel biomaterials for new fields of application, along with the emergence of advanced computational techniques. The current Special Issue is a collection of studies that address various topics within the general theme of “mechanics of biomaterials”. This editorial aims to present the context within which the studies of this Special Issue could be better understood. I, therefore, try to identify some of the most important research trends in the study of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biomaterials.

  6. Design and development of reactive injectable and settable polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A

    2013-12-01

    Injectable and settable biomaterials are a growing class of therapeutic technologies within the field of regenerative medicine. These materials offer advantages compared to prefabricated implants because of their ability to be utilized as part of noninvasive surgical procedures, fill complex defect shapes, cure in situ, and incorporate cells and other active biologics. However, there are significant technical barriers to clinical translation of injectable and settable biomaterials, such as achieving clinically relevant handling properties and benign reaction conditions. This review focuses on the engineering challenges associated with the design and development of injectable and chemically settable polymeric biomaterials. Additionally, specific examples of the diverse chemistries utilized to overcome these challenges are covered. The future translation of injectable and settable biomaterials is anticipated to improve patient outcomes for a number of clinical conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  7. XPS - an essential tool in biomaterial research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    StJohn, H.A.W.; Greisser, H.J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Clayton, VIC (Australia). Molecular Science

    1999-12-01

    Full text: Increased life expectancy has markedly enhanced the need for biomedical devices to combat life-threatening conditions (e.g., pacemakers, artificial blood vessels) or improve the quality of life (e.g., intraocular lenses, artificial ligaments, contact lenses). While the biomedical device industry has delivered remarkable benefits, many existing and emerging needs and applications are not adequately met with existing synthetic materials. Depending on the application, a biomaterial needs to meet a number of requirements to be `biocompatible`, such as appropriate mechanical properties, transparency, resistance to enzymatic degradation, and appropriate biological responses by the host environment. Surface science and surface analysis plays a key role in understanding and optimizing the molecular interfacial interactions between synthetic materials surfaces and biological media which lead to biological responses to implants. Many biological molecules such as proteins and lipids have surfactant activity and respond to interfaces on contact. Thus, an important part of achieving `biocompatibility` is to produce an appropriate surface chemical composition that avoids undesirable biological consequences triggered by biological molecules recognizing a `foreign` material interface. XPS surface analysis has proved uniquely suitable for studying several aspects of biomaterials. In order to interpret biological responses in terms of surface chemistry, it is essential that the surface be well characterized. However, for polymers this can be quite a challenge due to the inherent mobility of polymer chains. For instance, polyurethanes present a surface chemistry that differs from the `bulk` chemistry. It is often desirable to utilize a bulk material with desirable bulk properties and improve its biocompatibility by the application of a surface modification or a thin coating. XPS has been used to verify the intended coating chemistry and the uniformity of thin coatings. On

  8. XPS - an essential tool in biomaterial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    StJohn, H.A.W.; Greisser, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Increased life expectancy has markedly enhanced the need for biomedical devices to combat life-threatening conditions (e.g., pacemakers, artificial blood vessels) or improve the quality of life (e.g., intraocular lenses, artificial ligaments, contact lenses). While the biomedical device industry has delivered remarkable benefits, many existing and emerging needs and applications are not adequately met with existing synthetic materials. Depending on the application, a biomaterial needs to meet a number of requirements to be 'biocompatible', such as appropriate mechanical properties, transparency, resistance to enzymatic degradation, and appropriate biological responses by the host environment. Surface science and surface analysis plays a key role in understanding and optimizing the molecular interfacial interactions between synthetic materials surfaces and biological media which lead to biological responses to implants. Many biological molecules such as proteins and lipids have surfactant activity and respond to interfaces on contact. Thus, an important part of achieving 'biocompatibility' is to produce an appropriate surface chemical composition that avoids undesirable biological consequences triggered by biological molecules recognizing a 'foreign' material interface. XPS surface analysis has proved uniquely suitable for studying several aspects of biomaterials. In order to interpret biological responses in terms of surface chemistry, it is essential that the surface be well characterized. However, for polymers this can be quite a challenge due to the inherent mobility of polymer chains. For instance, polyurethanes present a surface chemistry that differs from the 'bulk' chemistry. It is often desirable to utilize a bulk material with desirable bulk properties and improve its biocompatibility by the application of a surface modification or a thin coating. XPS has been used to verify the intended coating chemistry and the uniformity of thin coatings. On

  9. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  10. Bio-Functional Design, Application and Trends in Metallic Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Yang; Changchun Zhou; Hongsong Fan; Yujiang Fan; Qing Jiang; Ping Song; Hongyuan Fan; Yu Chen; Xingdong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of metals as biomaterials has been known for a long time. In the early development, sufficient strength and suitable mechanical properties were the main considerations for metal implants. With the development of new generations of biomaterials, the concepts of bioactive and biodegradable materials were proposed. Biological function design is very import for metal implants in biomedical applications. Three crucial design criteria are summarized for developing metal implants: (1) m...

  11. Interactions of Bacteria and Amoebae with Ocular Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    John, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The use of biomaterials in periocular and intraocular sites has resulted in some ocular inflammations and infections which can result in vision-threatening ocular disease. This review addresses bacterial interactions with, and adherence to ocular biomaterials such as soft contact lenses, surgical suture materials, and intraocular lenses. In addition, adherence of Acanthamoeba to soft contact lenses is described, and the role of these lenses in the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis is disc...

  12. Conducting polymer-based multilayer films for instructive biomaterial coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, John G; Li, Hetian; Chow, Jacqueline K; Geissler, Sydney A; McElroy, Austin B; Nguy, Lindsey; Hernandez, Derek S; Schmidt, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the design, fabrication and testing of conformable conducting biomaterials that encourage cell alignment. Materials & methods: Thin conducting composite biomaterials based on multilayer films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivatives, chitosan and gelatin were prepared in a layer-by-layer fashion. Fibroblasts were observed with fluorescence microscopy and their alignment (relative to the dipping direction and direction of electrical current passed through the films)...

  13. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik Tappa; Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka

    2018-01-01

    The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and c...

  14. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking in...

  15. Preparation and mechanical property of polymer-based biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P; Chen, G; Zheng, X F

    2010-01-01

    The porous polymer-based biomaterial has been synthesized from PLGA, dioxane and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) by low-temperature deposition process. The deformation behaviours and fracture mechanism of polymer-based biomaterials were investigated using the compression test and the finite element (FE) simulation. The results show that the stress-strain curve of compression process includes linear elastic stage I, platform stage II and densification stage III, and the fracture mechanism can be considered as brittle fracture.

  16. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  17. Applications of Biomaterials in Corneal Endothelial Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsung-Jen; Wang, I-Jong; Hu, Fung-Rong; Young, Tai-Horng

    2016-11-01

    When corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are diseased or injured, corneal endothelium can be surgically removed and tissue from a deceased donor can replace the original endothelium. Recent major innovations in corneal endothelial transplantation include replacement of diseased corneal endothelium with a thin lamellar posterior donor comprising a tissue-engineered endothelium carried or cultured on a thin substratum with an organized monolayer of cells. Repairing CECs is challenging because they have restricted proliferative ability in vivo. CECs can be cultivated in vitro and seeded successfully onto natural tissue materials or synthetic polymeric materials as grafts for transplantation. The optimal biomaterials for substrata of CEC growth are being investigated. Establishing a CEC culture system by tissue engineering might require multiple biomaterials to create a new scaffold that overcomes the disadvantages of single biomaterials. Chitosan and polycaprolactone are biodegradable biomaterials approved by the Food and Drug Administration that have superior biological, degradable, and mechanical properties for culturing substratum. We successfully hybridized chitosan and polycaprolactone into blended membranes, and demonstrated that CECs proliferated, developed normal morphology, and maintained their physiological phenotypes. The interaction between cells and biomaterials is important in tissue engineering of CECs. We are still optimizing culture methods for the maintenance and differentiation of CECs on biomaterials.

  18. The pathology of the foreign body reaction against biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfleisch, R; Jung, F

    2017-03-01

    The healing process after implantation of biomaterials involves the interaction of many contributing factors. Besides their in vivo functionality, biomaterials also require characteristics that allow their integration into the designated tissue without eliciting an overshooting foreign body reaction (FBR). The targeted design of biomaterials with these features, thus, needs understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the FBR. Much effort has been put into research on the interaction of engineered materials and the host tissue. This elucidated many aspects of the five FBR phases, that is protein adsorption, acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, foreign body giant cell formation, and fibrous capsule formation. However, in practice, it is still difficult to predict the response against a newly designed biomaterial purely based on the knowledge of its physical-chemical surface features. This insufficient knowledge leads to a high number of factors potentially influencing the FBR, which have to be analyzed in complex animal experiments including appropriate data-based sample sizes. This review is focused on the current knowledge on the general mechanisms of the FBR against biomaterials and the influence of biomaterial surface topography and chemical and physical features on the quality and quantity of the reaction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 927-940, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Analysis of the Osteogenic Effects of Biomaterials Using Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Hui-Lin; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development of an optimization algorithm for determining the effects of different properties of implanted biomaterials on bone growth, based on the finite element method and bone self-optimization theory. The rate of osteogenesis and the bone density distribution of the implanted biomaterials were quantitatively analyzed. Using the proposed algorithm, a femur with implanted biodegradable biomaterials was simulated, and the osteogenic effects of different materials were measured. Simulation experiments mainly considered variations in the elastic modulus (20-3000 MPa) and degradation period (10, 20, and 30 days) for the implanted biodegradable biomaterials. Based on our algorithm, the osteogenic effects of the materials were optimal when the elastic modulus was 1000 MPa and the degradation period was 20 days. The simulation results for the metaphyseal bone of the left femur were compared with micro-CT images from rats with defective femurs, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm. The proposed method was effective for optimization of the bone structure and is expected to have applications in matching appropriate bones and biomaterials. These results provide important insights into the development of implanted biomaterials for both clinical medicine and materials science.

  20. Analysis of the Osteogenic Effects of Biomaterials Using Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Hui-Lin

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development of an optimization algorithm for determining the effects of different properties of implanted biomaterials on bone growth, based on the finite element method and bone self-optimization theory. The rate of osteogenesis and the bone density distribution of the implanted biomaterials were quantitatively analyzed. Using the proposed algorithm, a femur with implanted biodegradable biomaterials was simulated, and the osteogenic effects of different materials were measured. Simulation experiments mainly considered variations in the elastic modulus (20–3000 MPa) and degradation period (10, 20, and 30 days) for the implanted biodegradable biomaterials. Based on our algorithm, the osteogenic effects of the materials were optimal when the elastic modulus was 1000 MPa and the degradation period was 20 days. The simulation results for the metaphyseal bone of the left femur were compared with micro-CT images from rats with defective femurs, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm. The proposed method was effective for optimization of the bone structure and is expected to have applications in matching appropriate bones and biomaterials. These results provide important insights into the development of implanted biomaterials for both clinical medicine and materials science. PMID:28116309

  1. From supramolecular polymers to multi-component biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Olga J G M; Hendrikse, Simone I S; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Meijer, E W

    2017-10-30

    The most striking and general property of the biological fibrous architectures in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the strong and directional interaction between biologically active protein subunits. These fibers display rich dynamic behavior without losing their architectural integrity. The complexity of the ECM taking care of many essential properties has inspired synthetic chemists to mimic these properties in artificial one-dimensional fibrous structures with the aim to arrive at multi-component biomaterials. Due to the dynamic character required for interaction with natural tissue, supramolecular biomaterials are promising candidates for regenerative medicine. Depending on the application area, and thereby the design criteria of these multi-component fibrous biomaterials, they are used as elastomeric materials or hydrogel systems. Elastomeric materials are designed to have load bearing properties whereas hydrogels are proposed to support in vitro cell culture. Although the chemical structures and systems designed and studied today are rather simple compared to the complexity of the ECM, the first examples of these functional supramolecular biomaterials reaching the clinic have been reported. The basic concept of many of these supramolecular biomaterials is based on their ability to adapt to cell behavior as a result of dynamic non-covalent interactions. In this review, we show the translation of one-dimensional supramolecular polymers into multi-component functional biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications.

  2. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  3. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  4. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further development of patient-specific healthcare solutions. Customization of many healthcare products and services, such as implants, drug delivery devices, medical instruments, prosthetics, and in vitro models, would have been extremely challenging-if not impossible-without AM technologies. The current special issue of the Annals of Biomedical Engineering presents the latest trends in application of AM techniques to healthcare-related areas of research. As a prelude to this special issue, we review here the most important areas of biomedical research and clinical practice that have benefited from recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques. This editorial, therefore, aims to sketch the research landscape within which the other contributions of the special issue can be better understood and positioned. In what follows, we briefly review the application of additive manufacturing techniques in studies addressing biomaterials, (re)generation of tissues and organs, disease models, drug delivery systems, implants, medical instruments, prosthetics, orthotics, and AM objects used for medical visualization and communication.

  6. Modifying plants for biofuel and biomaterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Lupoi, Jason S; Hoang, Nam V; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of plants as biofuel or biomaterial crops is established by both the yield of plant biomass per unit area of land and the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to biofuel. Higher yielding biofuel crops with increased conversion efficiencies allow production on a smaller land footprint minimizing competition with agriculture for food production and biodiversity conservation. Plants have traditionally been domesticated for food, fibre and feed applications. However, utilization for biofuels may require the breeding of novel phenotypes, or new species entirely. Genomics approaches support genetic selection strategies to deliver significant genetic improvement of plants as sources of biomass for biofuel manufacture. Genetic modification of plants provides a further range of options for improving the composition of biomass and for plant modifications to assist the fabrication of biofuels. The relative carbohydrate and lignin content influences the deconstruction of plant cell walls to biofuels. Key options for facilitating the deconstruction leading to higher monomeric sugar release from plants include increasing cellulose content, reducing cellulose crystallinity, and/or altering the amount or composition of noncellulosic polysaccharides or lignin. Modification of chemical linkages within and between these biomass components may improve the ease of deconstruction. Expression of enzymes in the plant may provide a cost-effective option for biochemical conversion to biofuel. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A new method using insert-based systems (IBS) to improve cell behavior study on flexible and rigid biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenade, Charlotte; Moniotte, Nicolas; Rompen, Eric; Vanheusden, Alain; Mainjot, Amélie; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire

    2016-12-01

    In vitro studies about biomaterials biological properties are essential screening tests. Yet cell cultures encounter difficulties related to cell retention on material surface or to the observation of both faces of permeable materials. The objective of the present study was to develop a reliable in vitro method to study cell behavior on rigid and flexible/permeable biomaterials elaborating two specific insert-based systems (IBS-R and IBS-F respectively). IBS-R was designed as a specific cylindrical polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) system to evaluate attachment, proliferation and morphology of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) on grade V titanium and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic discs characteristics of dental prostheses. The number of cells, their covering on discs and their morphology were determined from MTS assays and microscopic fluorescent images after 24, 48 and 72 h. IBS-F was developed as a two components system to study HGFs behavior on guided bone regeneration polyester membranes. The viability and the membrane barrier effect were evaluated by metabolic MTS assays and by scanning electron microscopy. IBS-R and IBS-F were shown to promote (1) easy and rapid handling; (2) cell retention on biomaterial surface; (3) accurate evaluation of the cellular proliferation, spreading and viability; (4) use of non-toxic material. Moreover IBS-F allowed the study of the cell migration through degradable membranes, with an access to both faces of the biomaterial and to the bottom of culture wells for medium changing.

  8. Preparation of nano-biomaterials with Leptolyngbia foveolarum and heavy metal biosorption by free and immobilized algal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncheva-Panova, T.; Pouneva, I.; Sholeva, M.; Chernev, G.

    2010-01-01

    Using the sol-gel procedure nano-biomaterials with incorporation of Leptolyngbia foveolarum in the silica matrix were manufactured. The immobilization of algal cells was confirmed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigations and photos. Observation of nano-biomaterials with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) shows nanostructure with well-defined nanounits and their aggregates. The potential of the Antarctic isolate L. foveolarum for sorption of Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ was studied by incubation of free algal cells and those immobilized in nano-biomaterials in the salts solutions of the two heavy metals. The rest of the heavy metal was determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). It was established that the heavy metal biosorption capacity demonstrated by the free Leptolyngbia cells was retained after their incorporation in the nano-matrices. Free cells as well as embedded in silica nano-matrix sequestered the two heavy metals with greater affinity for copper. The highest binding capacity, 76% of the initial Cu 2+ concentration possessed nano-biomaterials with incorporated vegetative L. foveolarum cells, compared to 68% of free cells. For cadmium the degree of biosorption was lower - 35% by free cells and 30.2% by those incorporated in the biocer. (authors)

  9. Incorporation of a bioceramic in polymeric matrix for the production of a composite biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R. C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M.O.C.; Bradim, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) into a chitosan matrix for the production of membranes was proposed as a biomaterial with possible application in the treatment of bone tissue. The incorporation process was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Dispersive Energy (EDX) and X-Ray Fluorescence (FRX). SEM images showed the presence of CaCO 3 on the surface of the polymer matrix, the particles presented spherical, cubic and lamellar forms. Through the EDX analysis, the presence of calcium was observed, thus evidencing the proposed incorporation, confirmed by the FRX analysis that showed the presence of calcium in all membranes

  10. The structural characterization of some biomaterials, type AISI 310, used in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciuna, M. G.; Vizureanu, P.; Hanganu, C.; Achitei, D. C.; Popescu, D. C.; Focsaneanu, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    Orthopedics biomaterials are intended for implantation in the human body and substituted or help to repair of bones, cartilage or organ transplant, and tendons. At the end of the 20th century, the availability of materials for the manufacture implants used in medicine has been the same as for other industrial applications. The most used metals for manufacturing the orthopedics implants are: stainless steels, cobalt-chrome-molybdenum alloys, titanium and his alloys. The structural researches which are made in this paper, offer a complete analysis of AISI310 stainless steels, using: optical spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy.

  11. A Bone-Implant Interaction Mouse Model for Evaluating Molecular Mechanism of Biomaterials/Bone Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Dan, Xiuli; Wang, Ting; Lu, William W; Pan, Haobo

    2016-11-01

    response near the implant surface in a bone marrow microenvironment, and it also shows great potential in making transgenic animal resource applicable to biomaterial studies, so that the design of novel biomaterials could be better guided.

  12. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking inspiration from the role and multi-component construction of native extracellular matrices (ECMs) for cell accommodation, the synthetic biomaterials produced today routinely incorporate biologically active components to define an artificial in vivo milieu with complex and dynamic interactions that foster and regulate stem cells, similar to the events occurring in a natural cellular microenvironment. The range and degree of biomaterial sophistication have also dramatically increased as more knowledge has accumulated through materials science, matrix biology and tissue engineering. However, achieving clinical translation and commercial success requires regenerative biomaterials to be not only efficacious and safe but also cost-effective and convenient for use and production. Utilizing biomaterials of human origin as building blocks for therapeutic purposes has provided a facilitated approach that closely mimics the critical aspects of natural tissue with regard to its physical and chemical properties for the orchestration of wound healing and tissue regeneration. In addition to directly using tissue transfers and transplants for repair, new applications of human-derived biomaterials are now focusing on the use of naturally occurring biomacromolecules, decellularized ECM scaffolds and autologous preparations rich in growth factors/non-expanded stem cells to either target acceleration/magnification of the body's own repair capacity or use nature's paradigms to create new tissues for

  13. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Swaminathan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves.

  14. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves. PMID:19939265

  15. Mechanically-competent and cytocompatible polycaprolactone-borophosphosilicate hybrid biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Dibakar; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Mequanint, Kibret; Rizkalla, Amin S

    2017-11-01

    Organic-inorganic class II hybrid materials have domain sizes at the molecular level and chemical bonding between the organic and inorganic phases. We have previously reported the synthesis of class II hybrid biomaterials from alkoxysilane-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) and borophosphosilicate (B 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 ) glass (BPSG) through a non-aqueous sol-gel process. In the present study, the mechanical properties and degradability of these PCL/BPSG hybrid biomaterials were studied and compared to those of their conventional composite counterparts. The compressive strength, modulus and toughness of the hybrid biomaterials were significantly greater compared to the conventional composites, likely due to the covalent bonding between the organic and inorganic phases. A hybrid biomaterial (50wt% PCL and 50wt% BPSG) exhibited compressive strength, modulus and toughness values of 32.2 ± 3.5MPa, 573 ± 85MPa and 1.54 ± 0.03MPa, respectively; whereas the values for composite of similar composition were 18.8 ± 1.6MPa, 275 ± 28MPa and 0.76 ± 0.03MPa, respectively. Degradation in phosphate-buffered saline was slower for hybrid biomaterials compared to their composite counterparts. Thus, these hybrid materials possess superior mechanical properties and more controlled degradation characteristics compared to their corresponding conventional composites. To assess in vitro cytocompatibility, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells were seeded onto the surfaces of hybrid biomaterials and polycaprolactone (control). Compared to polycaprolactone, cells on the hybrid material displayed enhanced spreading, focal adhesion formation, and cell number, consistent with excellent cytocompatibility. Thus, based on their mechanical properties, degradability and cytocompatibility, these novel biomaterials have potential for use as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering and related applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells (DPPSC), a new stem cell population with chromosomal stability and osteogenic capacity for biomaterials evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Toldrà, Raquel; Martínez-Sarrà, Ester; Gil-Recio, Carlos; Carrasco, Miguel Ángel; Al Madhoun, Ashraf; Montori, Sheyla; Atari, Maher

    2017-04-21

    Biomaterials are widely used to regenerate or substitute bone tissue. In order to evaluate their potential use for clinical applications, these need to be tested and evaluated in vitro with cell culture models. Frequently, immortalized osteoblastic cell lines are used in these studies. However, their uncontrolled proliferation rate, phenotypic changes or aberrations in mitotic processes limits their use in long-term investigations. Recently, we described a new pluripotent-like subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells derived from the third molars (DPPSC) that shows genetic stability and shares some pluripotent characteristics with embryonic stem cells. In this study we aim to describe the use of DPPSC to test biomaterials, since we believe that the biomaterial cues will be more critical in order to enhance the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. The capacity of DPPSC to differentiate into osteogenic lineage was compared with human sarcoma osteogenic cell line (SAOS-2). Collagen and titanium were used to assess the cell behavior in commonly used biomaterials. The analyses were performed by flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase and mineralization stains, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, Western blot and enzymatic activity. Moreover, the genetic stability was evaluated and compared before and after differentiation by short-comparative genomic hybridization (sCGH). DPPSC showed excellent differentiation into osteogenic lineages expressing bone-related markers similar to SAOS-2. When cells were cultured on biomaterials, DPPSC showed higher initial adhesion levels. Nevertheless, their osteogenic differentiation showed similar trend among both cell types. Interestingly, only DPPSC maintained a normal chromosomal dosage before and after differentiation on 2D monolayer and on biomaterials. Taken together, these results promote the use of DPPSC as a new pluripotent-like cell model to evaluate the biocompatibility and the differentiation

  17. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  18. Biomaterials and mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Nina; Schulze, Margit; Tobiasch, Edda

    2010-01-01

    The reconstruction of hard and soft tissues is a major challenge in regenerative medicine, since diseases or traumas are causing increasing numbers of tissue defects due to the aging of the population. Modern tissue engineering is increasingly using three-dimensional structured biomaterials in combination with stem cells as cell source, since mature cells are often not available in sufficient amounts or quality. Biomaterial scaffolds are developed that not only serve as cell carriers providing mechanical support, but actively influence cellular responses including cell attachment and proliferation. Chemical modifications such as the incorporation of chemotactic factors or cell adhesion molecules are examined for their ability to enhance tissue development successfully. E.g. growth factors have been investigated extensively as substances able to support cell growth, differentiation and angiogenesis. Thus, continuously new patents and studies are published, which are investigating the advantages and disadvantages of different biomaterials or cell types for the regeneration of specific tissues. This review focuses on biomaterials, including natural and synthetic polymers, ceramics and corresponding composites used as scaffold materials to support cell proliferation and differentiation for hard and soft tissues regeneration. In addition, the local delivery of drugs by scaffold biomaterials is discussed.

  19. The influence of biomaterials on endothelial cell thrombogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Alison P.; Sefton, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, endothelial cells are being used in combination with biomaterials in a number of applications for the purpose of improving blood compatibility and host integration. Endothelialized vascular grafts are beginning to be used clinically with some success in some centers, while endothelial seeding is being explored as a means of creating a vasculature within engineered tissues. The underlying assumption of this strategy is that when cultured on artificial biomaterials, a confluent layer of endothelial cells maintain their non-thrombogenic phenotype. In this review the existing knowledge base of endothelial cell thrombogenicity cultured on a number of different biomaterials is summarized. The importance of selecting appropriate endpoint measures that are most reflective of overall surface thrombogenicity is the focus of this review. Endothelial cells inhibit thrombosis through three interconnected regulatory systems (1) the coagulation cascade (2) the cellular components of the blood such as leukocytes and platelets and (3) the complement cascade, and also through effects on fibrinolysis and vascular tone, the latter which influences blood flow. Thus, in order to demonstrate the thromobgenic benefit of seeding a biomaterial with EC, the conditions under which EC surfaces are more likely to exhibit lower thrombogenicity than unseeded biomaterial surfaces need to be consistent with the experimental context. The endpoints selected should be appropriate for the dominant thrombotic process that occurs under the given experimental conditions. PMID:17316788

  20. Surface modification of biomaterials and biomedical devices using additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Robertson, Samuel Ford; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-01-15

    The demand for synthetic biomaterials in medical devices, pharmaceutical products and, tissue replacement applications are growing steadily due to aging population worldwide. The use for patient matched devices is also increasing due to availability and integration of new technologies. Applications of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing (3DP) in biomaterials have also increased significantly over the past decade towards traditional as well as innovative next generation Class I, II and III devices. In this review, we have focused our attention towards the use of AM in surface modified biomaterials to enhance their in vitro and in vivo performances. Specifically, we have discussed the use of AM to deliberately modify the surfaces of different classes of biomaterials with spatial specificity in a single manufacturing process as well as commented on the future outlook towards surface modification using AM. It is widely understood that the success of implanted medical devices depends largely on favorable material-tissue interactions. Additive manufacturing has gained traction as a viable and unique approach to engineered biomaterials, for both bulk and surface properties that improve implant outcomes. This review explores how additive manufacturing techniques have been and can be used to augment the surfaces of biomedical devices for direct clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Tappa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail.

  2. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappa, Karthik; Jammalamadaka, Udayabhanu

    2018-02-07

    The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail.

  3. Biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates that are suitable for biomedical applications is presented in this review. Since these types of biomaterials offer many significant and exciting possibilities for hard tissue regeneration, this subject belongs to a rapidly expanding area of biomedical research. Through successful combinations of the desired properties of matrix materials with those of fillers (in such systems, calcium orthophosphates might play either role), innovative bone graft biomaterials can be designed. Various types of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates, either those already in use or being investigated for biomedical applications, are extensively discussed. Many different formulations, in terms of the material constituents, fabrication technologies, structural and bioactive properties as well as both in vitro and in vivo characteristics, have already been proposed. Among the others, the nanostructurally controlled biocomposites, those containing nanodimensional compounds, biomimetically fabricated formulations with collagen, chitin and/or gelatin as well as various functionally graded structures seem to be the most promising candidates for clinical applications. The specific advantages of using biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates in the selected applications are highlighted. As the way from the laboratory to the hospital is a long one, and the prospective biomedical candidates have to meet many different necessities, this review also examines the critical issues and scientific challenges that require further research and development. PMID:23507726

  4. Biomaterial imaging with MeV-energy heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Toshio, E-mail: seki@sakura.nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Shunichiro [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Aoki, Takaaki [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ishihara, Akihiko [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Life Science, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Matsuo, Jiro [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    The spatial distribution of several chemical compounds in biological tissues and cells can be obtained with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). In conventional secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with keV-energy ion beams, elastic collisions occur between projectiles and atoms of constituent molecules. The collisions produce fragments, making the acquisition of molecular information difficult. In contrast, ion beams with MeV-energy excite near-surface electrons and enhance the ionization of high-mass molecules; hence, SIMS spectra of fragment-suppressed ionized molecules can be obtained with MeV-SIMS. To compare between MeV and conventional SIMS, we used the two methods based on MeV and Bi{sub 3}-keV ions, respectively, to obtain molecular images of rat cerebellum. Conventional SIMS images of m/z 184 were clearly observed, but with the Bi{sub 3} ion, the distribution of the molecule with m/z 772.5 could be observed with much difficulty. This effect was attributed to the low secondary ion yields and we could not get many signal counts with keV-energy beam. On the other hand, intact molecular ion distributions of lipids were clearly observed with MeV-SIMS, although the mass of all lipid molecules was higher than 500 Da. The peaks of intact molecular ions in MeV-SIMS spectra allowed us to assign the mass. The high secondary ion sensitivity with MeV-energy heavy ions is very useful in biomaterial analysis.

  5. Degradation characteristics of irradiated poly-(caprolactonechitosan-hydroxyapatite) biomaterial in simulated body fluid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warastuti, Y.; Suryani, N.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation purpose was to study degradation characteristics of poly-(caprolactone -chitosan-hydroxyapatite) biomaterial in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. A composite membrane has been synthesized using blending and stirring method with acetic acid solvent and then molded into thin film. Electron beam radiation dose 0 - 30 kGy were done in order to evaluate radiation effects. SBF absorption with various immersing times and degradation for 0 -12 weeks were conducted. Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identification functional groups of composite and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was applied to analyse micro structural surface of membrane before and after immersion. The irradiation process indicate that SBF absorption decrease because NH 2 groups in chitosan which contributes to the hydrophilicity was broken. The composite III indicate maximum absorption (58,2% ± 2,22) due to its smallest concentration of polycaprolactone and highest concentration of chitosan that caused decrease of hydrophobicity. Optimum degradation of composite III (1,3% ± 0,98) was reached after 8 weeks of immersion time. FTIR spectrum indicate the unity of typical peaks of the constituent materials and specific spectrum of CO 3 2- of carbonated apatite which was formed because immersion of SBF. Microstructural analysis using SEM indicate the formation of needle like apatite layer or calcium phosphate precipitate over all surface membrane. All the results indicate that these composite meet the requirements to biomaterial. (author)

  6. Bio-Functional Design, Application and Trends in Metallic Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of metals as biomaterials has been known for a long time. In the early development, sufficient strength and suitable mechanical properties were the main considerations for metal implants. With the development of new generations of biomaterials, the concepts of bioactive and biodegradable materials were proposed. Biological function design is very import for metal implants in biomedical applications. Three crucial design criteria are summarized for developing metal implants: (1 mechanical properties that mimic the host tissues; (2 sufficient bioactivities to form bio-bonding between implants and surrounding tissues; and (3 a degradation rate that matches tissue regeneration and biodegradability. This article reviews the development of metal implants and their applications in biomedical engineering. Development trends and future perspectives of metallic biomaterials are also discussed.

  7. Bio-Functional Design, Application and Trends in Metallic Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Zhou, Changchun; Fan, Hongsong; Fan, Yujiang; Jiang, Qing; Song, Ping; Fan, Hongyuan; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Xingdong

    2017-12-22

    Introduction of metals as biomaterials has been known for a long time. In the early development, sufficient strength and suitable mechanical properties were the main considerations for metal implants. With the development of new generations of biomaterials, the concepts of bioactive and biodegradable materials were proposed. Biological function design is very import for metal implants in biomedical applications. Three crucial design criteria are summarized for developing metal implants: (1) mechanical properties that mimic the host tissues; (2) sufficient bioactivities to form bio-bonding between implants and surrounding tissues; and (3) a degradation rate that matches tissue regeneration and biodegradability. This article reviews the development of metal implants and their applications in biomedical engineering. Development trends and future perspectives of metallic biomaterials are also discussed.

  8. Research in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering: Achievements and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventre, Maurizio; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo A; Pietrabissa, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Research on biomaterials and related subjects has been active in Italy. Starting from the very first examples of biomaterials and biomedical devices, Italian researchers have always provided valuable scientific contributions. This trend has steadily increased. To provide a rough estimate of this, it is sufficient to search PubMed, a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics, with the keywords "biomaterials" or "tissue engineering" and sort the results by affiliation. Again, even though this is a crude estimate, the results speak for themselves, as Italy is the third European country, in terms of publications, with an astonishing 3,700 products in the last decade.

  9. Biomaterials approaches to treating implant-associated osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzana, Jason A; Schwarz, Edward M; Kates, Stephen L; Awad, Hani A

    2016-03-01

    Orthopaedic devices are the most common surgical devices associated with implant-related infections and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common causative pathogen in chronic bone infections (osteomyelitis). Treatment of these chronic bone infections often involves combinations of antibiotics given systemically and locally to the affected site via a biomaterial spacer. The gold standard biomaterial for local antibiotic delivery against osteomyelitis, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, bears many limitations. Such shortcomings include limited antibiotic release, incompatibility with many antimicrobial agents, and the need for follow-up surgeries to remove the non-biodegradable cement before surgical reconstruction of the lost bone. Therefore, extensive research pursuits are targeting alternative, biodegradable materials to replace PMMA in osteomyelitis applications. Herein, we provide an overview of the primary clinical treatment strategies and emerging biodegradable materials that may be employed for management of implant-related osteomyelitis. We performed a systematic review of experimental biomaterials systems that have been evaluated for treating established S. aureus osteomyelitis in an animal model. Many experimental biomaterials were not decisively more efficacious for infection management than PMMA when delivering the same antibiotic. However, alternative biomaterials have reduced the number of follow-up surgeries, enhanced the antimicrobial efficacy by delivering agents that are incompatible with PMMA, and regenerated bone in an infected defect. Understanding the advantages, limitations, and potential for clinical translation of each biomaterial, along with the conditions under which it was evaluated (e.g. animal model), is critical for surgeons and researchers to navigate the plethora of options for local antibiotic delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrin-directed modulation of macrophage responses to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral D; Lewis, Jamal S; Dolgova, Natalia V; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Keselowsky, Benjamin G

    2014-04-01

    Macrophages are the primary mediator of chronic inflammatory responses to implanted biomaterials, in cases when the material is either in particulate or bulk form. Chronic inflammation limits the performance and functional life of numerous implanted medical devices, and modulating macrophage interactions with biomaterials to mitigate this response would be beneficial. The integrin family of cell surface receptors mediates cell adhesion through binding to adhesive proteins nonspecifically adsorbed onto biomaterial surfaces. In this work, the roles of integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2) and RGD-binding integrins were investigated using model systems for both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Specifically, the macrophage functions of phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to a model particulate material, polystyrene microparticles were investigated. Opsonizing proteins modulated microparticle uptake, and integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins were found to control microparticle uptake in an opsonin-dependent manner. The presence of adsorbed endotoxin did not affect microparticle uptake levels, but was required for the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to microparticles. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins influence the in vivo foreign body response to a bulk biomaterial, subcutaneously implanted polyethylene terephthalate. A thinner foreign body capsule was formed when integrin Mac-1 was absent (~30% thinner) or when RGD-binding integrins were blocked by controlled release of a blocking peptide (~45% thinner). These findings indicate integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins are involved and may serve as therapeutic targets to mitigate macrophage inflammatory responses to both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomaterials and host versus graft response: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velnar, Tomaz; Bunc, Gorazd; Klobucar, Robert; Gradisnik, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials and biotechnology are increasing becoming an important area in modern medicine. The main aim in this area is the development of materials, which are biocompatible to normal tissue. Tissue-implant interactions with molecular, biological and cellular characteristics at the implant-tissue interface are important for the use and development of implants. Implantation may cause an inflammatory and immune response in tissue, foreign body reaction, systemic toxicity and imminent infection. Tissue-implant interactions determine the implant life-period. The aims of the study are to consider the biological response to implants. Biomaterials and host reactions to implants and their mechanisms are also briefly discussed. PMID:26894284

  12. Oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrintaj, Payam; Bakhshandeh, Behnaz; Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Sefat, Farshid; Rezaeian, Iraj; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-05-01

    The science and engineering of biomaterials have improved the human life expectancy. Tissue engineering is one of the nascent strategies with an aim to fulfill this target. Tissue engineering scaffolds are one of the most significant aspects of the recent tissue repair strategies; hence, it is imperative to design biomimetic substrates with suitable features. Conductive substrates can ameliorate the cellular activity through enhancement of cellular signaling. Biocompatible polymers with conductivity can mimic the cells' niche in an appropriate manner. Bioconductive polymers based on aniline oligomers can potentially actualize this purpose because of their unique and tailoring properties. The aniline oligomers can be positioned within the molecular structure of other polymers, thus painter acting with the side groups of the main polymer or acting as a comonomer in their backbone. The conductivity of oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials can be tailored to mimic the electrical and mechanical properties of targeted tissues/organs. These bioconductive substrates can be designed with high mechanical strength for hard tissues such as the bone and with high elasticity to be used for the cardiac tissue or can be synthesized in the form of injectable hydrogels, particles, and nanofibers for noninvasive implantation; these structures can be used for applications such as drug/gene delivery and extracellular biomimetic structures. It is expected that with progress in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering, more innovative constructs will be proposed in the near future. This review discusses the recent advancements in the use of oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The tissue engineering applications of aniline oligomers and their derivatives have recently attracted an increasing interest due to their electroactive and biodegradable properties. However, no reports have systematically reviewed

  13. Photon absorption of calcium phosphate-based dental biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M.; Tekin, H. O.; Kara, U.; Vega C, H. R.; Fernandes Z, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Effective atomic number and mass energy absorption buildup factors for four calcium phosphate-based biomaterials used in dental treatments were calculated for 0.015 to 15 MeV photons. The mass energy absorption coefficients were calculated for 0.5 to 40 mean free paths of photons. In the energy region important for dental radiology the Zeff for all studied biomaterials are larger in comparison to larger energies. In x-rays for dental radiology and the energy absorption buildup factors are low, however CbMDI bio material shows a resonance at 80 keV. (Author)

  14. An Overview of Biomaterials in Periodontology and Implant Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Dan Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material is a crucial factor for the restoration of the tooth or periodontal structure in dentistry. Various biomaterials have been developed and clinically applied for improved periodontal tissue regeneration and osseointegration, especially in periodontology and dental implantology. Furthermore, the biomimetic approach has been the subject of active research in recent years. In this review, the most widely studied biomaterials (bone graft material, barrier membrane, and growth or differentiation factors and biomimetic approaches to obtain optimal tissue regeneration by making the environment almost similar to that of the extracellular matrix are discussed and specifically highlighted.

  15. Wettability and surface free energy of polarised ceramic biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Miho; Hori, Naoko; Namba, Saki; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Toyama, Takeshi; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The surface modification of ceramic biomaterials used for medical devices is expected to improve osteoconductivity through control of the interfaces between the materials and living tissues. Polarisation treatment induced surface charges on hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and yttria-stabilized zirconia regardless of the differences in the carrier ions participating in the polarisation. Characterization of the surfaces revealed that the wettability of the polarised ceramic biomaterials was improved through the increase in the surface free energies compared with conventional ceramic surfaces. (note)

  16. Nanoscale biomaterial interface modification for advanced tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safonov, V; Zykova, A; Smolik, J; Rogovska, R; Donkov, N; Goltsev, A; Dubrava, T; Rassokha, I; Georgieva, V

    2012-01-01

    Recently, various stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have been found to have considerable potential for application in tissue engineering and future advanced therapies due to their biological capability to differentiate into specific lineages. Modified surface properties, such as composition, nano-roughness and wettability, affect the most important processes at the biomaterial interface. The aim of the present is work is to study the stem cells' (MSCs) adhesive potential, morphology, phenotypical characteristics in in vitro tests, and to distinguish betwen the different factors influencing the cell/biomaterial interaction, such as nano-topography, surface chemistry and surface free energy.

  17. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  18. Immune responses to implants - a review of the implications for the design of immunomodulatory biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sandra; Rammelt, Stefan; Scharnweber, Dieter; Simon, Jan C

    2011-10-01

    A key for long-term survival and function of biomaterials is that they do not elicit a detrimental immune response. As biomaterials can have profound impacts on the host immune response the concept emerged to design biomaterials that are able to trigger desired immunological outcomes and thus support the healing process. However, engineering such biomaterials requires an in-depth understanding of the host inflammatory and wound healing response to implanted materials. One focus of this review is to outline the up-to-date knowledge on immune responses to biomaterials. Understanding the complex interactions of host response and material implants reveals the need for and also the potential of "immunomodulating" biomaterials. Based on this knowledge, we discuss strategies of triggering appropriate immune responses by functional biomaterials and highlight recent approaches of biomaterials that mimic the physiological extracellular matrix and modify cellular immune responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adsorption of tranexamic acid on hydroxyapatite: Toward the development of biomaterials with local hemostatic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarda, Stéphanie; Errassifi, Farid; Marsan, Olivier; Geffre, Anne; Trumel, Catherine; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes to combine tranexamic acid (TAX), a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent, and hydroxyapatite (HA), widely used in bone replacement, to produce a novel bioactive apatitic biomaterial with intrinsic hemostatic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorptive behavior of the TAX molecule onto HA and to point out its release in near physiological conditions. No other phase was observed by X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, and no apparent change in crystal size was detected. The presence of TAX on the powders was lightly detected on Raman spectra after adsorption. The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation, suggesting a strong interaction between adsorbed molecules and the formation of multilayers. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in solution remained low and stable during the adsorption process, thus ion exchange during the adsorption process could be ruled out. The release of TAX was fast during the first hours and was governed by a complex process that likely involved both diffusion and dissolution of HA. Preliminary aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) hemostasis tests offered promising results for the development of osteoconductive apatitic biomaterials with intrinsic hemostatic properties, whether for dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • Interaction of tranexamic acid (TAX)/hydroxyapatite was studied. • The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation. • The release of TAX, fast during the first hours, was governed by a complex process. • Preliminary aPTT hemostasis tests show promising results. • The aim is to develop biomaterials with local hemostatic activity.

  20. Adsorption of tranexamic acid on hydroxyapatite: Toward the development of biomaterials with local hemostatic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarda, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.sarda@iut-tlse3.fr [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Errassifi, Farid [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Marsan, Olivier [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, ENSIACET, Toulouse (France); Geffre, Anne; Trumel, Catherine [Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, UMS006, Laboratoire Central de Biologie Médicale, Toulouse (France); INSERM-UPS, UMS 006, Laboratoire Central de Biologie Médicale, Toulouse (France); Drouet, Christophe [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, ENSIACET, Toulouse (France)

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes to combine tranexamic acid (TAX), a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent, and hydroxyapatite (HA), widely used in bone replacement, to produce a novel bioactive apatitic biomaterial with intrinsic hemostatic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorptive behavior of the TAX molecule onto HA and to point out its release in near physiological conditions. No other phase was observed by X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, and no apparent change in crystal size was detected. The presence of TAX on the powders was lightly detected on Raman spectra after adsorption. The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation, suggesting a strong interaction between adsorbed molecules and the formation of multilayers. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in solution remained low and stable during the adsorption process, thus ion exchange during the adsorption process could be ruled out. The release of TAX was fast during the first hours and was governed by a complex process that likely involved both diffusion and dissolution of HA. Preliminary aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) hemostasis tests offered promising results for the development of osteoconductive apatitic biomaterials with intrinsic hemostatic properties, whether for dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • Interaction of tranexamic acid (TAX)/hydroxyapatite was studied. • The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation. • The release of TAX, fast during the first hours, was governed by a complex process. • Preliminary aPTT hemostasis tests show promising results. • The aim is to develop biomaterials with local hemostatic activity.

  1. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huizhi; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Zhu, Chenghui; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-09-01

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of α-alumina col-gel nanometric: elaboration of biomaterials nanostructured for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passoni, L.S.; Feit, G.; Camargo, N.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The production of nanostructured biomaterials are research themes for these present new characteristics of biocompatibility and bioactivity. The sol-gel process allows obtaining α-alumina nanometric with purity 99.99%. The use of nanoparticles of Al 2 O 3 -α, SiO 2 and TiO 2 are being employed as a second stage in the development of nanocomposites biomaterials. The presence of the second phase within a ceramic matrix leads to obtaining nanomaterials with micropores in micro and nanostructures interconnected, what contributes within the processes of osseous integration, osseous induction. The goal of this work focused on synthesis and characterization of an α- alumina by sol-gel process. Characterization studies were conducted using the various techniques: X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, exploratory differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectrometry by Fourier transforms. The preliminary results showed the attainment the nanometric α-alumina powder. (author)

  3. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  4. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  5. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  6. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  7. Osteoinductive biomaterials: current knowledge of properties, experimental models and biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas, A.M.C.; Yuan, Huipin; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    In the past thirty years, a number of biomaterials have shown the ability to induce bone formation when implanted at heterotopic sites, an ability known as osteoinduction. Such biomaterials – osteoinductive biomaterials – hold great potential for the development of new therapies in bone

  8. Macrophage phagocytic activity toward adhering staphylococci on cationic and patterned hydrogel coatings versus common biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva Domingues, Joana; Roest, Steven; Wang, Yi; van der Mei, Henny C.; Libera, Matthew; van Kooten, Theo G.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Biomaterial-associated-infection causes failure of biomaterial implants. Many new biomaterials have been evaluated for their ability to inhibit bacterial colonization and stimulate tissue-cell-integration, but neglect the role of immune cells. This paper compares macrophage phagocytosis of adhering

  9. The Effect of Biomaterials Used for Tissue Regeneration Purposes on Polarization of Macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S.A. ter Hoeve-Boersema (Simone); N. Grotenhuis (Nienke); Y. Bayon (Yves); J.F. Lange (Johan); Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractActivation of macrophages is critical in the acute phase of wound healing after implantation of surgical biomaterials. To understand the response of macrophages, they are often cultured in vitro on biomaterials. Since a wide range of biomaterials is currently used in the clinics, we

  10. Centrifugal partition chromatography enables selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric proanthocyanidins for biomaterial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansalkar, Rasika S; Nam, Joo-Won; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B; Leme, Ariene A; Aydin, Berdan; Bedran-Russo, Ana-Karina; Pauli, Guido F

    2018-02-02

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) find wide applications for human use including food, cosmetics, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. The chemical complexity associated with PACs has triggered the development of various chromatographic techniques, with countercurrent separation (CCS) gaining in popularity. This study applied the recently developed DESIGNER (Depletion and Enrichment of Select Ingredients Generating Normalized Extract Resources) approach for the selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric PACs using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). This CPC method aims at developing PAC based biomaterials, particularly for their application in restoring and repairing dental hard tissue. A general separation scheme beginning with the depletion of polymeric PACs, followed by the removal of monomeric flavan-3-ols and a final enrichment step produced PAC trimer and tetramer enriched fractions. A successful application of this separation scheme is demonstrated for four polyphenol rich plant sources: grape seeds, pine bark, cinnamon bark, and cocoa seeds. Minor modifications to the generic DESIGNER CCS method were sufficient to accommodate the varying chemical complexities of the individual source materials. The step-wise enrichment of PAC trimers and tetramers was monitored using normal phase TLC and Diol-HPLC-UV analyses. CPC proved to be a reliable tool for the selective enrichment of medium size oligomeric PACs (OPACs). This method plays a key role in the development of dental biomaterials considering its reliability and reproducibility, as well as its scale-up capabilities for possible larger-scale manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Some Biomaterials based on Collagen in Human Health care

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Some Biomaterials based on Collagen in Human Health care. Ophthalmology. Wound healing. Burn Dressing. Tumor Treatment. Tissue Engineered devices. for cardio-vascular functions; For managing chronic illnesses including diabetic ulcers and foot. Smart shoe.

  12. Microarrays for the evaluation of cell-biomaterial surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, H.; Johnson, G.; McFarland, G.; Verbiest, B. C. H.; Gengenbach, T.; Voelcker, N. H.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of cell-material surface interactions is important for the design of novel biomaterials which are used in a variety of biomedical applications. While traditional in vitro test methods have routinely used samples of relatively large size, microarrays representing different biomaterials offer many advantages, including high throughput and reduced sample handling. Here, we describe the simultaneous cell-based testing of matrices of polymeric biomaterials, arrayed on glass slides with a low cell-attachment background coating. Arrays were constructed using a microarray robot at 6 fold redundancy with solid pins having a diameter of 375 μm. Printed solutions contained at least one monomer, an initiator and a bifunctional crosslinker. After subsequent UV polymerisation, the arrays were washed and characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cell culture experiments were carried out over 24 hours using HeLa cells. After labelling with CellTracker ® Green for the final hour of incubation and subsequent fixation, the arrays were scanned. In addition, individual spots were also viewed by fluorescence microscopy. The evaluation of cell-surface interactions in high-throughput assays as demonstrated here is a key enabling technology for the effective development of future biomaterials.

  13. Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs. PMID:21549864

  14. Gradient biomaterials and their influences on cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jindan; Mao, Zhengwei; Tan, Huaping; Han, Lulu; Ren, Tanchen; Gao, Changyou

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration participates in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development, cancer metastasis, blood vessel formation and remoulding, tissue regeneration, immune surveillance and inflammation. The cells specifically migrate to destiny sites induced by the gradually varying concentration (gradient) of soluble signal factors and the ligands bound with the extracellular matrix in the body during a wound healing process. Therefore, regulation of the cell migration behaviours is of paramount importance in regenerative medicine. One important way is to create a microenvironment that mimics the in vivo cellular and tissue complexity by incorporating physical, chemical and biological signal gradients into engineered biomaterials. In this review, the gradients existing in vivo and their influences on cell migration are briefly described. Recent developments in the fabrication of gradient biomaterials for controlling cellular behaviours, especially the cell migration, are summarized, highlighting the importance of the intrinsic driving mechanism for tissue regeneration and the design principle of complicated and advanced tissue regenerative materials. The potential uses of the gradient biomaterials in regenerative medicine are introduced. The current and future trends in gradient biomaterials and programmed cell migration in terms of the long-term goals of tissue regeneration are prospected. PMID:23741610

  15. Antibiotic-Releasing Silk Biomaterials for Infection Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Eleanor M.; Valentin, Thomas; Panilaitis, Bruce; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Effective treatment of infections in avascular and necrotic tissues can be challenging due to limited penetration into the target tissue and systemic toxicities. Controlled release polymer implants have the potential to achieve the high local concentrations needed while also minimizing systemic exposure. Silk biomaterials possess unique characteristics for antibiotic delivery including biocompatibility, tunable biodegradation, stabilizing effects, water-based processing and diverse material f...

  16. Surface modification of polyester biomaterials for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yanpeng; Cui Fuzhai

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces play an important role in a biological system for most biological reactions occurring at surfaces and interfaces. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering is to create perfect surfaces which can provoke specific cellular responses and direct new tissue regeneration. The improvement in biocompatibility of biomaterials for tissue engineering by directed surface modification is an important contribution to biomaterials development. Among many biomaterials used for tissue engineering, polyesters have been well documented for their excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility and nontoxicity. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites on the surface of polyesters have greatly limited their further application in the tissue engineering field. Therefore, how to introduce functional groups or molecules to polyester surfaces, which ideally adjust cell/tissue biological functions, becomes more and more important. In this review, recent advances in polyester surface modification and their applications are reviewed. The development of new technologies or methods used to modify polyester surfaces for developing their biocompatibility is introduced. The results of polyester surface modifications by surface morphological modification, surface chemical group/charge modification, surface biomacromolecule modification and so on are reported in detail. Modified surface properties of polyesters directly related to in vitro/vivo biological performances are presented as well, such as protein adsorption, cell attachment and growth and tissue response. Lastly, the prospect of polyester surface modification is discussed, especially the current conception of biomimetic and molecular recognition. (topical review)

  17. PEEK Biomaterials in Trauma, Orthopedic, and Spinal Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S. M.; Devine, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, polyaryletherketones (PAEKs) have been increasingly employed as biomaterials for trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants. We have synthesized the extensive polymer science literature as it relates to structure, mechanical properties, and chemical resistance of PAEK biomaterials. With this foundation, one can more readily appreciate why this family of polymers will be inherently strong, inert, and biocompatible. Due to its relative inertness, PEEK biomaterials are an attractive platform upon which to develop novel bioactive materials, and some steps have already been taken in that direction, with the blending of HA and TCP into sintered PEEK. However, to date, blended HA-PEEK composites have involved a trade-off in mechanical properties in exchange for their increased bioactivity. PEEK has had the greatest clinical impact in the field of spine implant design, and PEEK is now broadly accepted as a radiolucent alternative to metallic biomaterials in the spine community. For mature fields, such as total joint replacements and fracture fixation implants, radiolucency is an attractive but not necessarily critical material feature. PMID:17686513

  18. A Multidisciplined Teaching Reform of Biomaterials Course for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Feng; Pu, Fang; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Zhou, Gang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-zhai; Watari, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The biomaterials science has advanced in a high speed with global science and technology development during the recent decades, which experts predict to be more obvious in the near future with a more significant position for medicine and health care. Although the three traditional subjects, such as medical science, materials science and biology…

  19. Logic of Biomaterial devices from CLRI for wound management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Logic of Biomaterial devices from CLRI for wound management. Designing of biodegradable scaffolds. Designing the scaffold. Host drugs and growth factors. Design controlled drug release only to the wound area (based on pH differentials). Smartness is built in ...

  20. Standardization of incubation conditions for hemolysis testing of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Blanton, John; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Hemolysis testing is the most common method to determine the hemocompatibility properties of biomaterials. There is however no consensus on the procedures of hemolysis testing due to insufficient comparative studies on the quality of the red blood cells used and the experimental conditions of

  1. Harnessing the potential of biomaterials for brain repair after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Anup; Payne, Samantha L.; Shoichet, Molly S.

    2018-03-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease for which no clinical treatment exists to regenerate lost tissue. Strategies for brain repair in animal models of stroke include the delivery of drug or cell-based therapeutics; however, the complex anatomy and functional organization of the brain presents many challenges. Biomaterials may alleviate some of these challenges by providing a scaffold, localizing the therapy to the site of action, and/or modulating cues to brain cells. Here, the challenges associated with delivery of therapeutics to the brain and the biomaterial strategies used to overcome these challenges are described. For example, innovative hydrogel delivery systems have been designed to provide sustained trophic factor delivery for endogenous repair and to support transplanted cell survival and integration. Novel treatments, such as electrical stimulation of transplanted cells and the delivery of factors for the direct reprogramming of astrocytes into neurons, may be further enhanced by biomaterial delivery systems. Ultimately, improved clinical translation will be achieved by combining clinically relevant therapies with biomaterials strategies.

  2. Engineering Biomaterials to Influence Oligodendroglial Growth, Maturation, and Myelin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lauren N; Lampe, Kyle J

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people suffer from damage or disease to the nervous system that results in a loss of myelin, such as through a spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. Diminished myelin levels lead to further cell death in which unmyelinated neurons die. In the central nervous system, a loss of myelin is especially detrimental because of its poor ability to regenerate. Cell therapies such as stem or precursor cell injection have been investigated as stem cells are able to grow and differentiate into the damaged cells; however, stem cell injection alone has been unsuccessful in many areas of neural regeneration. Therefore, researchers have begun exploring combined therapies with biomaterials that promote cell growth and differentiation while localizing cells in the injured area. The regrowth of myelinating oligodendrocytes from neural stem cells through a biomaterials approach may prove to be a beneficial strategy following the onset of demyelination. This article reviews recent advancements in biomaterial strategies for the differentiation of neural stem cells into oligodendrocytes, and presents new data indicating appropriate properties for oligodendrocyte precursor cell growth. In some cases, an increase in oligodendrocyte differentiation alongside neurons is further highlighted for functional improvements where the biomaterial was then tested for increased myelination both in vitro and in vivo. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Role of biomaterials in neurorestoration after spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Stanescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and technology SCI remains one of the most severe and disabling disorders affecting young people. Spinal cord lesions result in permanent loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions, causing an enormous impact on patient’s personal, social, familial and professional life. There is currently no effective treatment available to improve severe neurologic deficits and to decrease disability. Tissue-engineering techniques have developed a variety of scaffolds, made by biomaterials, used alone, incapsulated with cells or embedded with molecules, which are delivered to lesion site to achieve neural regeneration. Biomaterials may provide structural support and/or serve as a delivery vehicle for factors to arrest growth inhibition and promote axonal growth. Biomaterials acts like cell-carriers for the injury site, but also as reservoirs for growth factors or biomolecules. Hydrogels are a promising therapeutical strategy in spinal cord repair. Nano-fibers provide a three-dimensional network, which mimic closely the native extracellular matrix, thus offering a better support for cell attachment and proliferation than traditional micro-structure. New strategies like pharmacologic treatments, cell therapies, gene therapies and biomaterial tissue engineering should combine to increase their synergistic effect and to obtain the expected functional recovery in spinal cord injured patients

  4. Current and future biocompatibility aspects of biomaterials for hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Aherwar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of biomaterials has turn into an electrifying area because these materials improve the quality and longevity of human life. The first and foremost necessity for the selection of the biomaterial is the acceptability by human body. However, the materials used in hip implants are designed to sustain the load bearing function of human bones for the start of the patient’s life. The most common classes of biomaterials used are metals, polymers, ceramics, composites and apatite. These five classes are used individually or in combination with other materials to form most of the implantation devices in recent years. Numerous current and promising new biomaterials i.e. metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite are discussed to highlight their merits and their frailties in terms of mechanical and metallurgical properties in this review. It is concluded that current materials have their confines and there is a need for more refined multi-functional materials to be developed in order to match the biocompatibility, metallurgical and mechanical complexity of the hip prosthesis.

  5. Advances in the development of supramolecular polymeric biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, O.J.G.M.; Dankers, P.Y.W.

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine applications aim to recreate or repair the living functional environment of the human body. Many biomaterials that are designed and synthesized in recent years are inspired by the extracellular matrix (ECM) that is responsible for mechanical, structural, and biochemical support

  6. Cell Physiology and Interactions of Biomaterials and Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hunkeler, D.; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 6 (2003), s. 193-197 ISSN 0032-3918 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 840.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Biomaterials * Cell physiology * Encapsulation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  7. Biomaterials Influence Macrophage-Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interaction In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Grotenhuis (Nienke); S.F. De Witte (Samantha Fh); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); Y. Bayon (Yves); J.F. Lange (Johan); Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important cells in wound healing. We hypothesized that the cross-talk between macrophages and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs) is biomaterial dependent, thereby influencing processes involved in wound healing. Materials and

  8. Influence of octacalcium phosphate coating on osteoinductive properties of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; van der Valk, C.M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating on osteoinductive behaviour of the biomaterials. Porous titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and polyethylene glyco terephtalate/polybuthylene terephtalate (PEGT–PBT)

  9. Semi-confined compression of microfabricated polymerized biomaterial constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Christopher; Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Simmons, Craig A; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Ruogang

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces are critical parameters in engineering functional tissue because of their established influence on cellular behaviour. However, identifying ideal combinations of mechanical, biomaterial and chemical stimuli to obtain a desired cellular response requires high-throughput screening technologies, which may be realized through microfabricated systems. This paper reports on the development and characterization of a MEMS device for semi-confined biomaterial compression. An array of these devices would enable studies involving mechanical deformation of three-dimensional biomaterials, an important parameter in creating physiologically relevant microenvironments in vitro. The described device has the ability to simultaneously apply a range of compressive mechanical stimuli to multiple polymerized hydrogel microconstructs. Local micromechanical strains generated within the semi-confined hydrogel cylinders are characterized and compared with those produced in current micro- and macroscale technologies. In contrast to previous work generating unconfined compression in microfabricated devices, the semi-confined compression model used in this work generates uniform regions of strain within the central portion of each hydrogel, demonstrated here to range from 20% to 45% across the array. The uniform strains achieved simplify experimental analysis and improve the utility of the compression platform. Furthermore, the system is compatible with a wide variety of polymerizable biomaterials, enhancing device versatility and usability in tissue engineering and fundamental cell biology studies

  10. INTERACTION OF BIOMATERIALS CONTAINING CALCIUM HYDROXYAPATITE/ POLY-L-LACTIDE WITH THE SIMULATED BODY FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Petković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of biomaterials is to replace a part or a function of the body in a safe, physiologically and economically acceptable way. The process of the reconstruction of bone defects has always been a big problem in orthopedics and maxillofacial surgery. Since hydroxyapatite (HAp was detected as a component, the predominant constituent and the integral element of Mammalian bones, the development of the phospate ceramics as potential materials for implantation was enabled. This study investigated whether and in which way biomaterial calcium hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HAp/PLLA interacts with the ionic composition of the human plasma. The simulated body fluid (SBF is an artificial fluid that has the ionic composition and ionic concentration similar to the human blood plasma. HAp/PLLA was incubated for 1, 2, 3 and 5 weeks in SBF. The surfaces of both treated and untreated materials were analyzed on a scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and were also exposed to the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, while SBF was submitted to the measuring of pH and electrical conductivity. However, our results indicate that the degradational changes of the material HAp/PLLA in SBF start from the surface of the treated material and that observed changes are the consequence of dissolution of its polymer component and the precipitation of the material similar to hydroxyapatite on its surface. This material shows good characteristics that place it among good candidates for the application in orthopedics and maxillofacial surgery.

  11. Gamma irradiation processing of Hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide composite biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suljovrujic, E.; Ignjatovic, N.; Uskokovic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As is well known, Hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HAp/PLLA) is a composite biomaterial, used for substitution and repair of hard bone tissue. It consists of a non-bioresorptive ceramic (HAp) and a bioresorptive polymer PLLA component, with mechanical properties similar to those of bones can be produced. On the other hand, a radiation processing is a main wide used step in certain modern technologies, and can be utilized for sterilization of implants based on sensitive polymers and composites. In this paper, the relation between the structure and properties is investigated for the case of HAp/PLLA composite where structure changes are created by gamma irradiation. The irradiation, to various absorbed doses (10, 25, 50, 100 and 300 KGy) of gamma radiation, was performed in a 60 Co radiation facility, in air at room temperature, at a dose rate of 9 kGy/h. Since the morphology of Hap/PLLA composite biomaterial is very sensitive to these procedures, surface microstructure was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Structural changes occurring in the material, mostly changes in PLLA, which is more sensitive to irradiation than HAp, were studied by wade angle X-ray structural analyses (WAXS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements (DSC) were used to study the changes in thermal behaviour and crystallinity. Effects of radiation on the HAp/PLLA composite thermal stability were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Conclusions derived using different methods were compared

  12. Evaluation of protein immobilization capacity on various carbon nanotube embedded hydrogel biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkus, Burak, E-mail: burakderkus@gmail.com; Emregul, Kaan Cebesoy; Emregul, Emel

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates effective immobilization of proteins, an important procedure in many fields of bioengineering and medicine, using various biomaterials. Gelatin, alginate and chitosan were chosen as polymeric carriers, and applied in both their composites and nanocomposite forms in combination with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The prepared nano/composite structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and contact angle analysis (CA). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed gelatin composites in general to exhibit better immobilization performance relative to the native gelatin which can be attributed to enhanced film morphologies of the composite structures. Moreover, superior immobilization efficiencies were obtained with the addition of carbon nanotubes, due to their conducting and surface enhancement features, especially in the gelatin–chitosan structures due to the presence of structural active groups. - Highlights: • Various nanocomposite biomaterials were developed for efficient immobilization of proteins. • CNTs enhance the immobilization efficiency owing to their conducting and surface enhancement features. • Gelatin–chitosan–CNTs structure is promising immobilization matrix thanks to its effective CNTs binding capacity.

  13. Adsorption of tranexamic acid on hydroxyapatite: Toward the development of biomaterials with local hemostatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarda, Stéphanie; Errassifi, Farid; Marsan, Olivier; Geffre, Anne; Trumel, Catherine; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes to combine tranexamic acid (TAX), a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent, and hydroxyapatite (HA), widely used in bone replacement, to produce a novel bioactive apatitic biomaterial with intrinsic hemostatic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorptive behavior of the TAX molecule onto HA and to point out its release in near physiological conditions. No other phase was observed by X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, and no apparent change in crystal size was detected. The presence of TAX on the powders was lightly detected on Raman spectra after adsorption. The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir-Freundlich equation, suggesting a strong interaction between adsorbed molecules and the formation of multilayers. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in solution remained low and stable during the adsorption process, thus ion exchange during the adsorption process could be ruled out. The release of TAX was fast during the first hours and was governed by a complex process that likely involved both diffusion and dissolution of HA. Preliminary aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) hemostasis tests offered promising results for the development of osteoconductive apatitic biomaterials with intrinsic hemostatic properties, whether for dental or orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Novel nanostructured biomaterials: implications for coronary stent thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagkiozaki V

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Varvara Karagkiozaki,1,2 Panagiotis G Karagiannidis,1 Nikolaos Kalfagiannis,1 Paraskevi Kavatzikidou,1 Panagiotis Patsalas,3 Despoina Georgiou,1 Stergios Logothetidis11Lab for Thin Films – Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 2AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Epirus, GreeceBackground: Nanomedicine has the potential to revolutionize medicine and help clinicians to treat cardiovascular disease through the improvement of stents. Advanced nanomaterials and tools for monitoring cell–material interactions will aid in inhibiting stent thrombosis. Although titanium boron nitride (TiBN, titanium diboride, and carbon nanotube (CNT thin films are emerging materials in the biomaterial field, the effect of their surface properties on platelet adhesion is relatively unexplored.Objective and methods: In this study, novel nanomaterials made of amorphous carbon, CNTs, titanium diboride, and TiBN were grown by vacuum deposition techniques to assess their role as potential stent coatings. Platelet response towards the nanostructured surfaces of the samples was analyzed in line with their physicochemical properties. As the stent skeleton is formed mainly of stainless steel, this material was used as reference material. Platelet adhesion studies were carried out by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. A cell viability study was performed to assess the cytocompatibility of all thin film groups for 24 hours with a standard immortalized cell line.Results: The nanotopographic features of material surface, stoichiometry, and wetting properties were found to be significant factors in dictating platelet behavior and cell viability. The TiBN films with higher nitrogen contents were less thrombogenic compared with the biased carbon films and control

  15. Influence of therapeutic radiation on polycaprolactone and polyurethane biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Shelley L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Whittington, Abby R., E-mail: awhit@mse.vt.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ABSTRACT: Biomedical polymers are exposed in vivo to ionizing radiation as implants, coatings and bystander materials. High levels of ionizing radiation (e.g. X-ray and gamma) have been reported to cause degradation and/or cross-linking in many polymers. This pilot study sought to determine causes of failure, by investigating how therapeutic radiation affects two different porous polymeric scaffolds: polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyurethane (PU). PCL is a bioresorbable material used in biomedical devices (e.g., dentistry, internal fixation devices and targeted drug delivery capsules). PU is commonly used in medical applications (e.g., coatings for pacemakers, tissue expanders, catheter tubing and wound dressings). PU was specifically fabricated to be a non-degradable polymer in this study. Porous scaffolds, fabricated using solvent casting and/or salt leeching techniques, were placed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH = 7.4) and exposed to typical cancer radiotherapy. A total dose of 50 Gy was broken into 25 doses over an eleven-week period. Collected PBS was tested for polymer leachants and degradation products using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), results revealed no analyzable leachants from either polymer. Scaffolds were characterized using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). No gross visual changes were observed in either polymer, however PU exhibited microstructure changes after irradiation. Increased number average molecular weight and weight average molecular weight in PCL and PU were observed after irradiation, indicating crosslinking. PU displayed an increase in intrinsic viscosity that further confirms increased crosslinking. PCL and PU showed decreases in crystallinity after irradiation, and PU crystallinity shifted from long-range-order hard segments to short-range-order hard segments after

  16. Influence of therapeutic radiation on polycaprolactone and polyurethane biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Shelley L.; Whittington, Abby R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Biomedical polymers are exposed in vivo to ionizing radiation as implants, coatings and bystander materials. High levels of ionizing radiation (e.g. X-ray and gamma) have been reported to cause degradation and/or cross-linking in many polymers. This pilot study sought to determine causes of failure, by investigating how therapeutic radiation affects two different porous polymeric scaffolds: polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyurethane (PU). PCL is a bioresorbable material used in biomedical devices (e.g., dentistry, internal fixation devices and targeted drug delivery capsules). PU is commonly used in medical applications (e.g., coatings for pacemakers, tissue expanders, catheter tubing and wound dressings). PU was specifically fabricated to be a non-degradable polymer in this study. Porous scaffolds, fabricated using solvent casting and/or salt leeching techniques, were placed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH = 7.4) and exposed to typical cancer radiotherapy. A total dose of 50 Gy was broken into 25 doses over an eleven-week period. Collected PBS was tested for polymer leachants and degradation products using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), results revealed no analyzable leachants from either polymer. Scaffolds were characterized using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). No gross visual changes were observed in either polymer, however PU exhibited microstructure changes after irradiation. Increased number average molecular weight and weight average molecular weight in PCL and PU were observed after irradiation, indicating crosslinking. PU displayed an increase in intrinsic viscosity that further confirms increased crosslinking. PCL and PU showed decreases in crystallinity after irradiation, and PU crystallinity shifted from long-range-order hard segments to short-range-order hard segments after

  17. Obtaining new composite biomaterials by means of mineralization of methacrylate hydrogels using the reaction–diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Yousof; González-Sánchez, M. Isabel; Hawkins, Karl; Rubio-Retama, Jorge; Valero, Edelmira; Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, Polina; López-Cabarcos, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction–diffusion method. The scaffold of this biomaterial was a hydrogel constituted by biocompatible polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM), which were cross-linked with N-N’-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). The cross-linking content of the hydrogels was varied from 0.25% to 15% (w/w). The gels were used as matrix where two reactants (Na 2 HPO 4 and CaCl 2 ) diffused from both ends of the gel and upon encountering produced calcium phosphate crystals that precipitated within the polymer matrix forming bands. The shape of the crystals was tuned by modifying the matrix porosity in such a way that when the polymer matrix was slightly reticulated the diffusion reaction produced round calcium phosphate microcrystals, whilst when the polymer matrix was highly reticulated the reaction yielded flat calcium phosphate crystals. Selected area electron diffraction performed on the nanocrystals that constitute the microcrystals showed that they were formed by Brushite (CaHPO 4 .2H 2 O). This new composite material could be useful in medical and dentistry applications such as bone regeneration, bone repair or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • New polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction-diffusion method.-Growing of brushite nanocrystals within a polymeric matrix. • Mineralization by reaction diffusion method controls the crystal growth within gels

  18. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  19. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  20. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  1. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  2. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  3. Bioinformatics: Cheap and robust method to explore biomaterial from Indonesia biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo

    2015-02-01

    Indonesia has a huge amount of biodiversity, which may contain many biomaterials for pharmaceutical application. These resources potency should be explored to discover new drugs for human wealth. However, the bioactive screening using conventional methods is very expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, we developed a methodology for screening the potential of natural resources based on bioinformatics. The method is developed based on the fact that organisms in the same taxon will have similar genes, metabolism and secondary metabolites product. Then we employ bioinformatics to explore the potency of biomaterial from Indonesia biodiversity by comparing species with the well-known taxon containing the active compound through published paper or chemical database. Then we analyze drug-likeness, bioactivity and the target proteins of the active compound based on their molecular structure. The target protein was examined their interaction with other proteins in the cell to determine action mechanism of the active compounds in the cellular level, as well as to predict its side effects and toxicity. By using this method, we succeeded to screen anti-cancer, immunomodulators and anti-inflammation from Indonesia biodiversity. For example, we found anticancer from marine invertebrate by employing the method. The anti-cancer was explore based on the isolated compounds of marine invertebrate from published article and database, and then identified the protein target, followed by molecular pathway analysis. The data suggested that the active compound of the invertebrate able to kill cancer cell. Further, we collect and extract the active compound from the invertebrate, and then examined the activity on cancer cell (MCF7). The MTT result showed that the methanol extract of marine invertebrate was highly potent in killing MCF7 cells. Therefore, we concluded that bioinformatics is cheap and robust way to explore bioactive from Indonesia biodiversity for source of drug and another

  4. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  5. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  6. Mounting of Biomaterials for Use in Ophthalmic Cell Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G; Dunphy, Siobhan E; Shadforth, Audra M A; Dawson, Rebecca A; Walshe, Jennifer; Zakaria, Nadia

    2017-11-01

    When used as scaffolds for cell therapies, biomaterials often present basic handling and logistical problems for scientists and surgeons alike. The quest for an appropriate mounting device for biomaterials is therefore a significant and common problem. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the factors to consider when choosing an appropriate mounting device including those experienced during cell culture, quality assurance, and surgery. By way of example, we draw upon our combined experience in developing epithelial cell therapies for the treatment of eye diseases. We discuss commercially available options for achieving required goals and provide a detailed analysis of 4 experimental designs developed within our respective laboratories in Australia, the United Kingdom, and Belgium.

  7. Global gene expression analysis for evaluation and design of biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Hanagata, Taro Takemura and Takashi Minowa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays has become a widespread technique in molecular biological research. In the biomaterials field, it is used to evaluate the biocompatibility or cellular toxicity of metals, polymers and ceramics. Studies in this field have extracted differentially expressed genes in the context of differences in cellular responses among multiple materials. Based on these genes, the effects of materials on cells at the molecular level have been examined. Expression data ranging from several to tens of thousands of genes can be obtained from DNA microarrays. For this reason, several tens or hundreds of differentially expressed genes are often present in different materials. In this review, we outline the principles of DNA microarrays, and provide an introduction to methods of extracting information which is useful for evaluating and designing biomaterials from comprehensive gene expression data.

  8. Cyclodextrin Nanoparticles Bearing 8-Hydroxyquinoline Ligands as Multifunctional Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Valentina; Bellia, Francesco; Vecchio, Graziella

    2017-03-28

    Cyclodextrins are used as building blocks for the development of a host of polymeric biomaterials. The cyclodextrin polymers have found numerous applications as they exhibit unique features such as mechanical properties, stimuli responsiveness and drug loading ability. Notwithstanding the abundance of cyclodextrin polymers studied, metal-chelating polymers based on cyclodextrins have been poorly explored. Herein we report the synthesis and the characterization of the first metal-chelating β-cyclodextrin polymer bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands. The metal ions (Cu 2+ or Zn 2+ ) can modulate the assembly of the polymer nanoparticles. Moreover, the protective activity of the new chelating polymer against self- and metal-induced Aβ aggregation and free radical species are significantly higher than those of the parent compounds. These synergistic effects suggest that the incorporation of hydroxyquinoline moieties into a soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer could represent a promising strategy to design multifunctional biomaterials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Surface-MALDI mass spectrometry in biomaterials research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesser, H.J.; Kingshott, P.; McArthur, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been used for over a decade for the determination of purity and accurate molecular masses of macromolecular analytes, such as proteins, in solution. In the last few years the technique has been adapted to become a new...... surfaces and detecting their molecular ions with high mass resolution and at levels much below monolayer coverage. Thus, Surface-MALDI-MS offers unique means of addressing biomaterial surface analysis needs, such as identification of the proteins and lipids that adsorb from multicomponent biological...... solutions in vitro and in vivo, the study of interactions between biomaterial surfaces and biomolecules, and identification of surface-enriched additives and contaminants. Surface-MALDI-MS is rapid, experimentally convenient, overcomes limitations in mass resolution and sensitivity of established...

  10. The role of biomaterials in the treatment of meniscal tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal O. Kean

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extensive investigations over the recent decades have established the anatomical, biomechanical and functional importance of the meniscus in the knee joint. As a functioning part of the joint, it serves to prevent the deterioration of articular cartilage and subsequent osteoarthritis. To this end, meniscus repair and regeneration is of particular interest from the biomaterial, bioengineering and orthopaedic research community. Even though meniscal research is previously of a considerable volume, the research community with evolving material science, biology and medical advances are all pushing toward emerging novel solutions and approaches to the successful treatment of meniscal difficulties. This review presents a tactical evaluation of the latest biomaterials, experiments to simulate meniscal tears and the state-of-the-art materials and strategies currently used to treat tears.

  11. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMATERIALS: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOFILMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Berry, T.; Narayan, R.

    2010-11-29

    Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to develop new tools and products for medicine and industry. Due to various properties including chemical stability, biocompatibility, and specific activity, e.g. antimicrobial properties, many new and novel materials are being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. Many of these materials are less than 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology is the engineering discipline encompassing designing, producing, testing, and using structures and devices less than 100 nanometers. One of the challenges associated with biomaterials is microbial contamination that can lead to infections. In recent work we have examined the functionalization of nanoporous biomaterials and antimicrobial activities of nanocrystalline diamond materials. In vitro testing has revealed little antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and associated biofilm formation that enhances recalcitrance to antimicrobial agents including disinfectants and antibiotics. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated properties and characteristics of the material with regard to biofilm formation.

  12. Structural analysis and application to biomaterials of the silk fibroins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Silk fibroin from Bombyx mori silkworm has outstanding mechanical properties despite being spun from aqueous solution. I have clarified two distinct structures in the solid state; silk I and silk II, which mean the structures before and after spinning, by using solid state NMR. Moreover, I have been developing several kinds of biomaterials, such as bone regeneration materials and vascular grafts. In this paper, I present two topics: one is the structural analyses of the silk fibroin in detail, the other is applications of silk fibroins to tissue engineering. In the case of vascular regeneration, I have developed the small diameter vascular grafts made by silk fibroins. The new grafts from silk fibroins have good patency, and these grafts were commonly covered with cells and platelets at 4 weeks after implantation. For bone tissue engineering, I performed structural analyses of a new silk-like peptide, E n (AGSGAG) 4 , in order to consider the molecular design of biomaterials for bone regeneration. (author)

  13. Interactions between bone cells and biomaterials: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Sabrina; Drevelle, Olivier; Jann, Jessica; Lauzon, Marc-Antoine; Foruzanmehr, Mohammadreza; Grenier, Guillaume; Roux, Sophie; Faucheux, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    As the populations of the Western world become older, they will suffer more and more from bone defects related to osteoporosis (non-union fractures, vertebral damages), cancers (malignant osteolysis) and infections (osteomyelitis). Autografts are usually used to fill these defects, but they have several drawbacks such as morbidity at the donor site and the amount and quality of bone that can be harvested. Recent scientific milestones made in biomaterials development were shown to be promising to overcome these limitations. Cell interactions with biomaterials can be improved by adding at their surface functional groups such as adhesive peptides and/or growth factors. The development of such biomimetic materials able to control bone cell responses can only proceed if it is based on a sound understanding of bone cell behavior and regulation. This review focuses on bone physiology and the regulation of bone cell differentiation and function, and how the latest advances in biomimetic materials can be translated within promising clinical outcomes.

  14. Diversification and enrichment of clinical biomaterials inspired by Darwinian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D W; Watson, G S; Watson, J A; Lee, D-J; Lee, J-M; Jung, H-S

    2016-09-15

    Regenerative medicine and biomaterials design are driven by biomimicry. There is the essential requirement to emulate human cell, tissue, organ and physiological complexity to ensure long-lasting clinical success. Biomimicry projects for biomaterials innovation can be re-invigorated with evolutionary insights and perspectives, since Darwinian evolution is the original dynamic process for biological organisation and complexity. Many existing human inspired regenerative biomaterials (defined as a nature generated, nature derived and nature mimicking structure, produced within a biological system, which can deputise for, or replace human tissues for which it closely matches) are without important elements of biological complexity such as, hierarchy and autonomous actions. It is possible to engineer these essential elements into clinical biomaterials via bioinspired implementation of concepts, processes and mechanisms played out during Darwinian evolution; mechanisms such as, directed, computational, accelerated evolutions and artificial selection contrived in the laboratory. These dynamos for innovation can be used during biomaterials fabrication, but also to choose optimal designs in the regeneration process. Further evolutionary information can help at the design stage; gleaned from the historical evolution of material adaptations compared across phylogenies to changes in their environment and habitats. Taken together, harnessing evolutionary mechanisms and evolutionary pathways, leading to ideal adaptations, will eventually provide a new class of Darwinian and evolutionary biomaterials. This will provide bioengineers with a more diversified and more efficient innovation tool for biomaterial design, synthesis and function than currently achieved with synthetic materials chemistry programmes and rational based materials design approach, which require reasoned logic. It will also inject further creativity, diversity and richness into the biomedical technologies that

  15. Freeze-Casting of Porous Biomaterials: Structure, Properties and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Deville

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The freeze-casting of porous materials has received a great deal of attention during the past few years. This simple process, where a material suspension is simply frozen and then sublimated, provides materials with unique porous architectures, where the porosity is almost a direct replica of the frozen solvent crystals. This review focuses on the recent results on the process and the derived porous structures with regards to the biomaterials applications. Of particular interest is the architecture of the materials and the versatility of the process, which can be readily controlled and applied to biomaterials applications. A careful control of the starting formulation and processing conditions is required to control the integrity of the structure and resulting properties. Further in vitro and in vivo investigations are required to validate the potential of this new class of porous materials.

  16. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  17. Global gene expression analysis for evaluation and design of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanagata, Nobutaka; Takemura, Taro; Minowa, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays has become a widespread technique in molecular biological research. In the biomaterials field, it is used to evaluate the biocompatibility or cellular toxicity of metals, polymers and ceramics. Studies in this field have extracted differentially expressed genes in the context of differences in cellular responses among multiple materials. Based on these genes, the effects of materials on cells at the molecular level have been examined. Expression data ranging from several to tens of thousands of genes can be obtained from DNA microarrays. For this reason, several tens or hundreds of differentially expressed genes are often present in different materials. In this review, we outline the principles of DNA microarrays, and provide an introduction to methods of extracting information which is useful for evaluating and designing biomaterials from comprehensive gene expression data. (topical review)

  18. Radiation Engineering of Functional Biomaterials: From Smart Hydrogels to Theragnostic Nanodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dispenza, C.; Spadaro, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali (DICPM), Centro Interdipartimentale di Biotecnologie Applicate (CIBA), Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Alessi, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali (DICPM), Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Radiation engineering represents an important tool in “nanobiotechology”. The possibility of manipulating photons and electrons alongside the possibility of manipulating macromolecules and biomolecules offers to the scientist and technologist an irresistible convergence of experimental tools for the generation of new or improved functional biomaterials. The versatility and the untapped potential of this approach may contribute in understanding, developing and exploring the role of nanobiomaterials in emerging research fields, such as biomolecules detection and/or delivery. In this short review, after an introductory part that describe the motivation of this research, we present some of the approaches we developed in the recent years for the synthesis and characterization of smart hydrogels for controlled delivery of proteins and for radiation engineering of nanostructured hydrogels that possess electrochemical activity and some novel optical properties. (author)

  19. Radiation Engineering of Functional Biomaterials: From Smart Hydrogels to Theragnostic Nanodevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, C.; Spadaro, G.; Alessi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation engineering represents an important tool in “nanobiotechology”. The possibility of manipulating photons and electrons alongside the possibility of manipulating macromolecules and biomolecules offers to the scientist and technologist an irresistible convergence of experimental tools for the generation of new or improved functional biomaterials. The versatility and the untapped potential of this approach may contribute in understanding, developing and exploring the role of nanobiomaterials in emerging research fields, such as biomolecules detection and/or delivery. In this short review, after an introductory part that describe the motivation of this research, we present some of the approaches we developed in the recent years for the synthesis and characterization of smart hydrogels for controlled delivery of proteins and for radiation engineering of nanostructured hydrogels that possess electrochemical activity and some novel optical properties. (author)

  20. Evaluation of protein immobilization capacity on various carbon nanotube embedded hydrogel biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkus, Burak; Emregul, Kaan Cebesoy; Emregul, Emel

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates effective immobilization of proteins, an important procedure in many fields of bioengineering and medicine, using various biomaterials. Gelatin, alginate and chitosan were chosen as polymeric carriers, and applied in both their composites and nanocomposite forms in combination with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The prepared nano/composite structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and contact angle analysis (CA). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed gelatin composites in general to exhibit better immobilization performance relative to the native gelatin which can be attributed to enhanced film morphologies of the composite structures. Moreover, superior immobilization efficiencies were obtained with the addition of carbon nanotubes, due to their conducting and surface enhancement features, especially in the gelatin-chitosan structures due to the presence of structural active groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances in Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Arthroplasty: Biomechanics and Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Andy F; Rahgozar, Paymon; Chung, Kevin C

    2018-05-01

    Proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthritis is a debilitating condition. The complexity of the joint makes management particularly challenging. Treatment of PIP arthritis requires an understanding of the biomechanics of the joint. PIP joint arthroplasty is one treatment option that has evolved over time. Advances in biomaterials have improved and expanded arthroplasty design. This article reviews biomechanics and arthroplasty design of the PIP joint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In silico design of anti-atherogenic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel R; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tomasini, Michael D; Abdelhamid, Dalia; Petersen, Latrisha K; Welsh, William J; Uhrich, Kathryn E; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2013-10-01

    Atherogenesis, the uncontrolled deposition of modified lipoproteins in inflamed arteries, serves as a focal trigger of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Polymeric biomaterials have been envisioned to counteract atherogenesis based on their ability to repress scavenger mediated uptake of oxidized lipoprotein (oxLDL) in macrophages. Following the conceptualization in our laboratories of a new library of amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs), assembled from sugar backbones, aliphatic chains and poly(ethylene glycol) tails, a more rational approach is necessary to parse the diverse features such as charge, hydrophobicity, sugar composition and stereochemistry. In this study, we advance a computational biomaterials design approach to screen and elucidate anti-atherogenic biomaterials with high efficacy. AMs were quantified in terms of not only 1D (molecular formula) and 2D (molecular connectivity) descriptors, but also new 3D (molecular geometry) descriptors of AMs modeled by coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) followed by all-atom MD simulations. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for anti-atherogenic activity were then constructed by screening a total of 1164 descriptors against the corresponding, experimentally measured potency of AM inhibition of oxLDL uptake in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Five key descriptors were identified to provide a strong linear correlation between the predicted and observed anti-atherogenic activity values, and were then used to correctly forecast the efficacy of three newly designed AMs. Thus, a new ligand-based drug design framework was successfully adapted to computationally screen and design biomaterials with cardiovascular therapeutic properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Theoretical methods and models for mechanical properties of soft biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonggang Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the most commonly used theoretical methods and models for the mechanical properties of soft biomaterials, which include phenomenological hyperelastic and viscoelastic models, structural biphasic and network models, and the structural alteration theory. We emphasize basic concepts and recent developments. In consideration of the current progress and needs of mechanobiology, we introduce methods and models for tackling micromechanical problems and their applications to cell biology. Finally, the challenges and perspectives in this field are discussed.

  4. Double site-bond percolation model for biomaterial implants

    OpenAIRE

    Mely, H.; Mathiot, J. -F.

    2011-01-01

    9 figures - 10 pages; We present a double site-bond percolation model to account, on the one hand, for the vascularization and/or resorption of biomaterial implant in bones, and on the other hand, for its mechanical continuity. The transformation of the implant into osseous material, and the dynamical formation/destruction of this osseous material is accounted for by creation and destruction of links and sites in two, entangled, networks. We identify the relevant parameters to describe the im...

  5. BIOMATERIAL IMPLANTS IN BONE FRACTURES PRODUCED IN RATS FIBULAS

    OpenAIRE

    Shirane, Henrique Yassuhiro; Oda, Diogo Yochizumi; Pinheiro, Thiago Cerizza; Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues da

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of collagen and hydroxyapatite in the regeneration of fractures experimentally induced in the fibulas of rats. Method: 15 rats were used. These were subjected to surgery to remove a fragment from the fibula. This site then received a graft consisting of a silicone tubes filled with hydroxyapatite and collagen. Results: Little bone neoformation occurred inside the tubes filled with the biomaterials. There was more neoformation in the tubes with collagen. Conclusion: ...

  6. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiou, AD; Strafford, S; Posada-Estefan, O; Thomson, CL; Hussaein, SA; Edwards, TJ; Malinowski, M; Hondow, N; Metzger, NK; Brown, CTA; Routledge, MN; Brown, AP; Duggal, MS; Jha, A

    2017-01-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluat...

  7. β-pyrophosphate : a potential biomaterial for dental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiou, A. D.; Strafford, S.; Posada-Estefan, O.; Thomson, C. L.; Hussaein, S. A.; Edwards, T. J.; Malinowski, M.; Hondow, N.; Metzger, N. K.; Brown, C. T. A.; Routledge, M. N.; Brown, A. P.; Duggal, M. S.; Jha, A.

    2017-01-01

    The authors acknowledge support from the sponsors of this work; the EPSRC LUMIN (EP/K020234/1) and EU-Marie-Curie-IAPP LUSTRE (324538) projects. Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral trans...

  8. Synthesis of a nanocomposite biomaterial for implant tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Montes, Angélica

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve health and quality of life, the challenge to develop new biomaterials has become extremely relevant. In this project, our main objective is to obtain a nanocomposite biopolymer that serves as a temporal synthetic extracellular matrix for cell growth and tissue regeneration. This matrix consists of a hydrogel lm of chitosan or agarose doped with di erent ceramic nanoparticles: titanium dioxide (TiO2) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Once developed, this composite will be tested...

  9. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of a novel hydroxyapatite whisker/nano zinc oxide biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jian; Zhang, Wenyun; Li, Yang; Wang, Gang; Yang, Lidou; Jin, Jianfeng; Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative infections remain a risk factor that leads to failures in oral and maxillofacial artificial bone transplantation. This study aimed to synthesize and evaluate a novel hydroxyapatite whisker (HAPw) / nano zinc oxide (n-ZnO) antimicrobial bone restorative biomaterial. A scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize and analyze the material. Antibacterial capabilities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and kinetic growth inhibition assays were performed under darkness and simulated solar irradiation. The mode of antibiotic action was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The MIC and MBC were 0.078–1.250 mg ml −1 and 0.156–2.500 mg ml −1 , respectively. The inhibitory function on the growth of the microorganisms was achieved even under darkness, with gram-positive bacteria found to be more sensitive than gram-negative, and enhanced antimicrobial activity was exhibited under simulated solar excitation compared to darkness. TEM and CLSM images revealed a certain level of bacterial cell membrane destruction after treatment with 1 mg ml −1 of the material for 12 h, causing the leakage of intracellular contents and bacteria death. These results suggest favorable antibiotic properties and a probable mechanism of the biomaterial for the first time, and further studies are needed to determine its potential application as a postoperative anti-inflammation method in bone transplantation. (paper)

  10. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of a novel hydroxyapatite whisker/nano zinc oxide biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian; Zhang, Wenyun; Li, Yang; Wang, Gang; Yang, Lidou; Jin, Jianfeng; Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Minghua

    2014-12-23

    Postoperative infections remain a risk factor that leads to failures in oral and maxillofacial artificial bone transplantation. This study aimed to synthesize and evaluate a novel hydroxyapatite whisker (HAPw) / nano zinc oxide (n-ZnO) antimicrobial bone restorative biomaterial. A scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize and analyze the material. Antibacterial capabilities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and kinetic growth inhibition assays were performed under darkness and simulated solar irradiation. The mode of antibiotic action was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The MIC and MBC were 0.078-1.250 mg ml(-1) and 0.156-2.500 mg ml(-1), respectively. The inhibitory function on the growth of the microorganisms was achieved even under darkness, with gram-positive bacteria found to be more sensitive than gram-negative, and enhanced antimicrobial activity was exhibited under simulated solar excitation compared to darkness. TEM and CLSM images revealed a certain level of bacterial cell membrane destruction after treatment with 1 mg ml(-1) of the material for 12 h, causing the leakage of intracellular contents and bacteria death. These results suggest favorable antibiotic properties and a probable mechanism of the biomaterial for the first time, and further studies are needed to determine its potential application as a postoperative anti-inflammation method in bone transplantation.

  11. Novel biomaterials: plasma-enabled nanostructures and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, Igor; Ostrikov, Kostya; Keidar, Michael; Cvelbar, Uroš; Mariotti, Davide; Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Fang, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Material processing techniques utilizing low-temperature plasmas as the main process tool feature many unique capabilities for the fabrication of various nanostructured materials. As compared with the neutral-gas based techniques and methods, the plasma-based approaches offer higher levels of energy and flux controllability, often leading to higher quality of the fabricated nanomaterials and sometimes to the synthesis of the hierarchical materials with interesting properties. Among others, nanoscale biomaterials attract significant attention due to their special properties towards the biological materials (proteins, enzymes), living cells and tissues. This review briefly examines various approaches based on the use of low-temperature plasma environments to fabricate nanoscale biomaterials exhibiting high biological activity, biological inertness for drug delivery system, and other features of the biomaterials make them highly attractive. In particular, we briefly discuss the plasma-assisted fabrication of gold and silicon nanoparticles for bio-applications; carbon nanoparticles for bioimaging and cancer therapy; carbon nanotube-based platforms for enzyme production and bacteria growth control, and other applications of low-temperature plasmas in the production of biologically-active materials. (topical review)

  12. Biomaterials and Culture Technologies for Regenerative Therapy of Liver Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Roman A; Jung, Cho-Rok; Kim, Hae-Won

    2017-01-01

    Regenerative approach has emerged to substitute the current extracorporeal technologies for the treatment of diseased and damaged liver tissue. This is based on the use of biomaterials that modulate the responses of hepatic cells through the unique matrix properties tuned to recapitulate regenerative functions. Cells in liver preserve their phenotype or differentiate through the interactions with extracellular matrix molecules. Therefore, the intrinsic properties of the engineered biomaterials, such as stiffness and surface topography, need to be tailored to induce appropriate cellular functions. The matrix physical stimuli can be combined with biochemical cues, such as immobilized functional groups or the delivered actions of signaling molecules. Furthermore, the external modulation of cells, through cocultures with nonparenchymal cells (e.g., endothelial cells) that can signal bioactive molecules, is another promising avenue to regenerate liver tissue. This review disseminates the recent approaches of regenerating liver tissue, with a focus on the development of biomaterials and the related culture technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Designing protein-based biomaterials for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagner, Jennifer E; Kim, Wookhyun; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2014-04-01

    Biomaterials produced by nature have been honed through billions of years, evolving exquisitely precise structure-function relationships that scientists strive to emulate. Advances in genetic engineering have facilitated extensive investigations to determine how changes in even a single peptide within a protein sequence can produce biomaterials with unique thermal, mechanical and biological properties. Elastin, a naturally occurring protein polymer, serves as a model protein to determine the relationship between specific structural elements and desirable material characteristics. The modular, repetitive nature of the protein facilitates the formation of well-defined secondary structures with the ability to self-assemble into complex three-dimensional architectures on a variety of length scales. Furthermore, many opportunities exist to incorporate other protein-based motifs and inorganic materials into recombinant protein-based materials, extending the range and usefulness of these materials in potential biomedical applications. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) can be assembled into 3-D architectures with precise control over payload encapsulation, mechanical and thermal properties, as well as unique functionalization opportunities through both genetic and enzymatic means. An overview of current protein-based materials, their properties and uses in biomedicine will be provided, with a focus on the advantages of ELPs. Applications of these biomaterials as imaging and therapeutic delivery agents will be discussed. Finally, broader implications and future directions of these materials as diagnostic and therapeutic systems will be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomaterial-induced alterations of neutrophil superoxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S S; Basford, R E; Mora, E; Jeong, M H; Simmons, R L

    1992-08-01

    Because periprosthetic infection remains a vexing problem for patients receiving implanted devices, we evaluated the effect of several materials on neutrophil free radical production. Human peripheral blood neutrophils were incubated with several sterile, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free biomaterials used in surgically implantable prosthetic devices: polyurethane, woven dacron, and velcro. Free radical formation as the superoxide (O2-) anion was evaluated by cytochrome c reduction in neutrophils that were exposed to the materials and then removed and in neutrophils allowed to remain in association with the materials. Neutrophils exposed to polyurethane or woven dacron for 30 or 60 min and then removed consistently exhibited an enhanced release of O2- after simulation via receptor engagement with formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Enhanced reactivity to stimulation via protein kinase C with phorbol myristate acetate, however, was not consistently observed. The cells evaluated for O2- release during continuous association with the biomaterials showed enhanced metabolic activity during short periods of association (especially with polyurethane and woven dacron). Although O2- release by neutrophils in association with these materials decreased with longer periods of incubation, it was not obliterated. These studies, therefore, show that several commonly used biomaterials activate neutrophils soon after exposure and that this activated state diminishes with prolonged exposure but nevertheless remains measurable. The diminishing level of activity with prolonged exposure, however, suggests that ultimately a depletion of reactivity may occur and may result in increased susceptibility to periprosthetic infection.

  15. Atomic force microscopy for university students: applications in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontomaris, S V; Stylianou, A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful tool used in the investigation of the structural and mechanical properties of a wide range of materials including biomaterials. It provides the ability to acquire high resolution images of biomaterials at the nanoscale. It also provides information about the response of specific areas under controlled applied force, which leads to the mechanical characterization of the sample at the nanoscale. The wide range of information provided by AFM has established it as a powerful research tool. In this paper, we present a general overview of the basic operation and functions of AFM applications in biomaterials. The basic operation of AFM is explained in detail with a focus on the real interactions that take place at the nanoscale level during imaging. AFM’s ability to provide the mechanical characterization (force curves) of specific areas at the nanoscale is also explained. The basic models of applied mechanics that are used for processing the data obtained by the force curves are presented. The aim of this paper is to provide university students and young scientists in the fields of biophysics and nanotechnology with a better understanding of AFM. (review)

  16. Biomaterial property-controlled stem cell fates for cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyi Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI affects more than 8 million people in the United States alone. Due to the insufficient regeneration capacity of the native myocardium, one widely studied approach is cardiac tissue engineering, in which cells are delivered with or without biomaterials and/or regulatory factors to fully regenerate the cardiac functions. Specifically, in vitro cardiac tissue engineering focuses on using biomaterials as a reservoir for cells to attach, as well as a carrier of various regulatory factors such as growth factors and peptides, providing high cell retention and a proper microenvironment for cells to migrate, grow and differentiate within the scaffolds before implantation. Many studies have shown that the full establishment of a functional cardiac tissue in vitro requires synergistic actions between the seeded cells, the tissue culture condition, and the biochemical and biophysical environment provided by the biomaterials-based scaffolds. Proper electrical stimulation and mechanical stretch during the in vitro culture can induce the ordered orientation and differentiation of the seeded cells. On the other hand, the various scaffolds biochemical and biophysical properties such as polymer composition, ligand concentration, biodegradability, scaffold topography and mechanical properties can also have a significant effect on the cellular processes.

  17. Biomaterials in Cardiovascular Research: Applications and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Kumar Jaganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular biomaterials (CB dominate the category of biomaterials based on the demand and investments in this field. This review article classifies the CB into three major classes, namely, metals, polymers, and biological materials and collates the information about the CB. Blood compatibility is one of the major criteria which limit the use of biomaterials for cardiovascular application. Several key players are associated with blood compatibility and they are discussed in this paper. To enhance the compatibility of the CB, several surface modification strategies were in use currently. Some recent applications of surface modification technology on the materials for cardiovascular devices were also discussed for better understanding. Finally, the current trend of the CB, endothelization of the cardiac implants and utilization of induced human pluripotent stem cells (ihPSCs, is also presented in this review. The field of CB is growing constantly and many new investigators and researchers are developing interest in this domain. This review will serve as a one stop arrangement to quickly grasp the basic research in the field of CB.

  18. Adhesion force of staphylococcus aureus on various biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fahad; Balani, Kantesh

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises of more than half of all pathogens in orthopedic implant infections and they can cause major bone infection which can result in destruction of joint and bone. In the current study, adhesion force of bacteria on the surface of various biomaterial surfaces is measured using atomic force microscope (AFM). Staphylococcus aureus was immobilized on an AFM tipless cantilever as a force probe to measure the adhesion force between bacteria and biomaterials (viz. ultra-high molecular weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE), stainless steel (SS), Ti-6Al-4V alloy, hydroxyapatite (HA)). At the contact time of 10s, UHMWPE shows weak adhesion force (~4nN) whereas SS showed strong adhesion force (~15nN) due to their surface energy and surface roughness. Bacterial retention and viability experiment (3M™ petrifilm test, agar plate) dictates that hydroxyapatite shows the lowest vaibility of bacteria, whereas lowest bacterial retention is observed on UHMWPE surface. Similar results were obtained from live/dead staining test, where HA shows 65% viability, whereas on UHMWPE, SS and Ti-6Al-4V, the bacterial viability is 78%, 94% and 97%, respectively. Lower adhesion forces, constrained pull-off distance (of bacterial) and high antibacterial resistance of bioactive-HA makes it a potential biomaterial for bone-replacement arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Silk fibroin as biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melke, Johanna; Midha, Swati; Ghosh, Sourabh; Ito, Keita; Hofmann, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a fibrous protein which is produced mainly by silkworms and spiders. Its unique mechanical properties, tunable biodegradation rate and the ability to support the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells along the osteogenic lineage, have made SF a favorable scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. SF can be processed into various scaffold forms, combined synergistically with other biomaterials to form composites and chemically modified, which provides an impressive toolbox and allows SF scaffolds to be tailored to specific applications. This review discusses and summarizes recent advancements in processing SF, focusing on different fabrication and functionalization methods and their application to grow bone tissue in vitro and in vivo. Potential areas for future research, current challenges, uncertainties and gaps in knowledge are highlighted. Silk fibroin is a natural biomaterial with remarkable biomedical and mechanical properties which make it favorable for a broad range of bone tissue engineering applications. It can be processed into different scaffold forms, combined synergistically with other biomaterials to form composites and chemically modified which provides a unique toolbox and allows silk fibroin scaffolds to be tailored to specific applications. This review discusses and summarizes recent advancements in processing silk fibroin, focusing on different fabrication and functionalization methods and their application to grow bone tissue in vitro and in vivo. Potential areas for future research, current challenges, uncertainties and gaps in knowledge are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Silicon: the evolution of its use in biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstock, J R; Canham, L T; Anderson, S I

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, several studies revealed the requirement for silicon in bone development, while bioactive silicate glasses simultaneously pioneered the current era of bioactive materials. Considerable research has subsequently focused on the chemistry and biological function of silicon in bone, demonstrating that the element has at least two separate effects in the extracellular matrix: (i) interacting with glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans during their synthesis, and (ii) forming ionic substitutions in the crystal lattice structure of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the dissolution products of bioactive glass (predominantly silicic acids) have significant effects on the molecular biology of osteoblasts in vitro, regulating the expression of several genes including key osteoblastic markers, cell cycle regulators and extracellular matrix proteins. Researchers have sought to capitalize on these effects and have generated a diverse array of biomaterials, which include bioactive glasses, silicon-substituted hydroxyapatites and pure, porosified silicon, but all these materials share similarities in the mechanisms that result in their bioactivity. This review discusses the current data obtained from original research in biochemistry and biomaterials science supporting the role of silicon in bone, comparing both the biological function of the element and analysing the evolution of silicon-containing biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cartilage extracellular matrix as a biomaterial for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyotake, Emi A; Beck, Emily C; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-11-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues possesses the model characteristics that biomaterials for tissue engineering strive to mimic; however, owing to the intricate hierarchical nature of the ECM, it has yet to be fully characterized and synthetically fabricated. Cartilage repair remains a challenge because the intrinsic properties that enable its durability and long-lasting function also impede regeneration. In the last decade, cartilage ECM has emerged as a promising biomaterial for regenerating cartilage, partly because of its potentially chondroinductive nature. As this research area of cartilage matrix-based biomaterials emerged, investigators facing similar challenges consequently developed convergent solutions in constructing robust and bioactive scaffolds. This review discusses the challenges, emerging trends, and future directions of cartilage ECM scaffolds, including a comparison between two different forms of cartilage matrix: decellularized cartilage (DCC) and devitalized cartilage (DVC). To overcome the low permeability of cartilage matrix, physical fragmentation greatly enhances decellularization, although the process itself may reduce the chondroinductivity of fabricated scaffolds. The less complex processing of a scaffold composed of DVC, which has not been decellularized, appears to have translational advantages and potential chondroinductive and mechanical advantages over DCC, without detrimental immunogenicity, to ultimately enhance cartilage repair in a clinically relevant way. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Application of ion beams for polymeric carbon based biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evelyn, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Ion beams have been shown to be quite suitable for the modification and analysis of carbon based biomaterials. Glassy polymeric carbon (GPC), made from cured phenolic resins, has a high chemical inertness that makes it useful as a biomaterial in medicine for drug delivery systems and for the manufacture of heart valves and other prosthetic devices. Low and high-energy ion beams have been used, with both partially and fully cured phenolic resins, to enhance biological cell/tissue growth on, and to increase tissue adhesion to GPC surfaces. Samples bombarded with energetic ion beams in the keV to MeV range exhibited increased surface roughness, measured using optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Ion beams were also used to perform nuclear reaction analyses of GPC encapsulated drugs for use in internal drug delivery systems. The results from the high energy bombardment were more dramatic and are shown in this paper. The interaction of energetic ions has demonstrated the useful application of ion beams to enhance the properties of carbon-based biomaterials

  3. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  4. Design strategies and applications of nacre-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Ethan Michael; Wang, Wei; Li, Caiyan; Guo, Jinshan; Ozbolat, Ibrahim Tarik; Rahn, Kevin Michael; Armstrong, April Dawn; Xia, Jingfen; Qian, Guoying; Yang, Jian

    2017-05-01

    The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine relies heavily on materials capable of implantation without significant foreign body reactions and with the ability to promote tissue differentiation and regeneration. The field of bone tissue engineering in particular requires materials capable of providing enhanced mechanical properties and promoting osteogenic cell lineage commitment. While bone repair has long relied almost exclusively on inorganic, calcium phosphate ceramics such as hydroxyapatite and their composites or on non-degradable metals, the organically derived shell and pearl nacre generated by mollusks has emerged as a promising alternative. Nacre is a naturally occurring composite material composed of inorganic, calcium carbonate plates connected by a framework of organic molecules. Similar to mammalian bone, the highly organized microstructure of nacre endows the composite with superior mechanical properties while the organic phase contributes to significant bioactivity. Studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated nacre's biocompatibility, biodegradability, and osteogenic potential, which are superior to pure inorganic minerals such as hydroxyapatite or non-degradable metals. Nacre can be used directly as a bulk implant or as part of a composite material when combined with polymers or other ceramics. While nacre has demonstrated its effectiveness in multiple cell culture and animal models, it remains a relatively underexplored biomaterial. This review introduces the formation, structure, and characteristics of nacre, and discusses the present and future uses of this biologically-derived material as a novel biomaterial for orthopedic and other tissue engineering applications. Mussel derived nacre, a biological composite composed of mineralized calcium carbonate platelets and interplatelet protein components, has recently gained interest as a potential alternative ceramic material in orthopedic biomaterials, combining the

  5. [Materials/Biomaterials in Clinical Practice - a Short Review and Current Trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, T; Meyer, F; Walcher, F; Lohmann, C; Jockenhövel, S; Gries, T; Hoffmann, W

    2017-04-01

    Biomaterials play a major role in interventional medicine and surgery. However, the development of biomaterials is still in its early phases in spite of the huge progress made within the last decades. On the one hand, this is because our knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes associated with biomaterials is still increasing exponentially. On the other hand, a wide variety of advanced materials with highly interesting properties is being developed currently. This review provides a short introduction into the variety of materials in use as well as their application in interventional medicine and surgery. Also the importance of biomaterials for tissue engineering in the field of regenerative medicine and the functionalisation of biomaterials, including sterilisation methods are discussed. For the future, an even broader interdisciplinary scientific collaboration is necessary in order to develop novel biomaterials and facilitate their translation into clinical practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  7. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  8. Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Henrich, Dirk; Verboket, René; Schaible, Alexander; Kontradowitz, Kerstin; Oppermann, Elsie; Brune, Jan C.; Nau, Christoph; Meier, Simon; Bonig, Halvard; Marzi, Ingo; Seebach, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP, without coating or ...

  9. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huizhi; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Zhu, Chenghui; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-01-01

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3 EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH 7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6 h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials. - Graphical abstract: The processes of endotoxins adsorbed from HLC. - Highlights: • TA buffer is a mild buffer system for endotoxins removal of HLC. • TA buffer may facilitate endotoxins adsorbed on the

  10. Effective atomic numbers (Z_e_f_f) of based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Zenobio, Madelon Aparecida; Gonçalves Zenobio, Elton; Silva, Teógenes Augusto da; Socorro Nogueira, Maria do

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the interaction of radiation parameters of four biomaterials as attenuators to measure the transmitted X-rays spectra, the mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number by spectrometric system comprising the CdTe detector. The biomaterial BioOss"® presented smaller mean energy than the other biomaterials. The μ/ρ and Z_e_f_f of the biomaterials showed their dependence on photon energy. The data obtained from analytical methods of x-ray spectra, µ/ρ and Z_e_f_f_, using biomaterials as attenuators, demonstrated that these materials could be used as substitutes for dentin, enamel and bone. Further, they are determinants for the characterization of the radiation in tissues or equivalent materials. - Highlights: • Measure of the transmitted x-rays spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials as attenuators. • Determination effective atomic number using four dental biomaterials. • Determination of the mass attenuation coefficient (µ/ρ) of the biomaterials samples calculated by the WinXCOM software. • Determination of the chemical composition of calcium phosphate biomaterials.

  11. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite biomaterials prepared by microwave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rosmamuhamadani; Arawi, Ainaa Zafirah Omar; Talari, Mahesh Kumar; Mahat, Mohd Muzamir; Jais, Umi Sarah

    2012-07-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite, (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), is an attractive and widely utilized bio-ceramic material for orthopedic and dental implants because of its close resemblance of native tooth and bone crystal structure. Synthetic HA exhibits excellent osteoconductive properties. Osteoconductivity means the ability to provide the appropriate scaffold or template for bone formation. Calcium phosphate biomaterials [(HA), tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate (HA/TCP)] with appropriate three-dimensional geometry are able to bind and concentrate endogenous bone morphogenetic proteins in circulation, and may become osteoinductive and can be effective carriers of bone cell seeds. This HA can be used in bio-implants as well as drug delivery application due to the unique properties of HA. Biomaterials synthesized from the natural species like mussel shells have additional benefits such as high purity, less expensive and high bio compatibility. In this project, HA-nanoparticles of different crystallite size were prepared by microwave synthesis of precursors. High purity CaO was extracted from the natural mussel shells for the synthesis of nano HA. Dried nano HA powders were analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique for the determination of crystal structure and impurity content. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) investigation was employed for the morphological investigation of nano HA powders. From the results obtained, it was concluded that by altering the irradiation time, nano HA powders of different crystallite sizes and morphologies could be produced. Crystallite sizes calculated from the XRD patterns are found to be in the range of 10-55 nm depending on the irradiation time.

  13. Effects of plasma electrolytic oxidation process on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgin Karaji, Zahra; Hedayati, Reza; Pouran, Behdad; Apachitei, Iulian; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-07-01

    Metallic porous biomaterials are recently attracting more attention thanks to the additive manufacturing techniques which help produce more complex structures as compared to conventional techniques. On the other hand, bio-functional surfaces on metallic biomaterials such as titanium and its alloys are necessary to enhance the biological interactions with the host tissue. This study discusses the effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), as a surface modification technique to produce bio-functional layers, on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds based on the cubic unit cell. For this purpose, the PEO process with two different oxidation times was applied on scaffolds with four different values of relative density. The effects of the PEO process were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), optical microscopy as well as static and dynamic (fatigue) mechanical testing under compression. SEM results indicated pore formation on the surface of the scaffolds after oxidation with a thickness of 4.85±0.36μm of the oxide layer after 2min and 9.04±2.27μm after 5min oxidation (based on optical images). The static test results showed the high effect of relative density of porous structure on its mechanical properties. However, oxidation did not influence most of the mechanical properties such as maximum stress, yield stress, plateau stress, and energy absorption, although its effect on the elastic modulus was considerable. Under fatigue loading, none of the scaffolds failed even after 10 6 loading cycles at 70% of their yield stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production; Casca de ovo de galinha caipira (gallus gallus domesticus), como fonte de carbonato de calcio para producao de biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S., E-mail: angelcassiasasilva@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (FIPI), PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction.

  15. NASA's Needs for Biomaterials within the HEDS Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    The part to be played by materials scientists to further NASA's exploration missions cannot be underestimated. To quote Jerome Groopman (New Yorker, February 14, 2000), "The rocket science will be the easy part". The four main risks on the Critical Path Road Map during a three-year sojourn to Mars are osteoporosis, psychological problems, radiation induced cancer and acute medical trauma. NASA's microgravity materials science program has investigations in membrane fabrication, bone growth and materials for radiation protection. These programs will be reviewed in the context of the four main risks, as will other potential uses of biomaterials and applications of biomimetic processing.

  16. Evaluation of Biomaterials Using Micro-Computerized Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torris, A. T. Arun; Columbus, K. C. Soumya; Saaj, U. S.; Krishnan, Kalliyana V.; Nair, Manitha B.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography or Micro-CT is a high resolution, non-invasive, x-ray scanning technique that allows precise three-dimensional imaging and quantification of micro-architectural and structural parameters of objects. Tomographic reconstruction is based on a cone-beam convolution-back-projection algorithm. Micro-architectural and structural parameters such as porosity, surface area to volume ratio, interconnectivity, pore size, wall thickness, anisotropy and cross-section area of biomaterials and bio-specimens such as trabecular bone, polymer scaffold, bio-ceramics and dental restorative were evaluated through imaging and computer aided manipulation of the object scan data sets.

  17. Nanopatterned bulk metallic glass-based biomaterials modulate macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, Mahdis; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Morris, Aaron H; Cheung, Bettina; Smith, Ryan; Schroers, Jan; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2018-06-01

    Polarization of macrophages by chemical, topographical and mechanical cues presents a robust strategy for designing immunomodulatory biomaterials. Here, we studied the ability of nanopatterned bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a new class of metallic biomaterials, to modulate murine macrophage polarization. Cytokine/chemokine analysis of IL-4 or IFNγ/LPS-stimulated macrophages showed that the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-12, CCL-2 and CXCL1 was significantly reduced after 24-hour culture on BMGs with 55 nm nanorod arrays (BMG-55). Additionally, under these conditions, macrophages increased phagocytic potential and exhibited decreased cell area with multiple actin protrusions. These in vitro findings suggest that nanopatterning can modulate biochemical cues such as IFNγ/LPS. In vivo evaluation of the subcutaneous host response at 2 weeks demonstrated that the ratio of Arg-1 to iNOS increased in macrophages adjacent to BMG-55 implants, suggesting modulation of polarization. In addition, macrophage fusion and fibrous capsule thickness decreased and the number and size of blood vessels increased, which is consistent with changes in macrophage responses. Our study demonstrates that nanopatterning of BMG implants is a promising technique to selectively polarize macrophages to modulate the immune response, and also presents an effective tool to study mechanisms of macrophage polarization and function. Implanted biomaterials elicit a complex series of tissue and cellular responses, termed the foreign body response (FBR), that can be influenced by the polarization state of macrophages. Surface topography can influence polarization, which is broadly characterized as either inflammatory or repair-like. The latter has been linked to improved outcomes of the FBR. However, the impact of topography on macrophage polarization is not fully understood, in part, due to a lack of high moduli biomaterials that can be reproducibly processed at the nanoscale. Here, we studied

  18. Injectable silk-based biomaterials for cervical tissue augmentation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph E; Partlow, Benjamin P; Berman, Alison M; House, Michael D; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-01

    Cerclage therapy is an important treatment option for preterm birth prevention. Several patient populations benefit from cerclage therapy including patients with a classic history of cervical insufficiency; patients who present with advanced cervical dilation prior to viability; and patients with a history of preterm birth and cervical shortening. Although cerclage is an effective treatment option in some patients, it can be associated with limited efficacy and procedure complications. Development of an alternative to cerclage therapy would be an important clinical development. Here we report on an injectable, silk protein-based biomaterial for cervical tissue augmentation. The rationale for the development of an injectable biomaterial is to restore the native properties of cervical tissue. While cerclage provides support to the tissue, it does not address excessive tissue softening, which is a central feature of the pathogenesis of cervical insufficiency. Silk protein-based hydrogels, which are biocompatible and naturally degrade in vivo, are suggested as a platform for restoring the native properties of cervical tissue and improving cervical function. We sought to study the properties of an injectable, silk-based biomaterial for potential use as an alternative treatment for cervical insufficiency. These biomaterials were evaluated for mechanical tunability, biocompatibility, facile injection, and in vitro degradation. Silk protein solutions were cross-linked by an enzyme catalyzed reaction to form elastic biomaterials. Biomaterials were formulated to match the native physical properties of cervical tissue during pregnancy. The cell compatibility of the materials was assessed in vitro using cervical fibroblasts, and biodegradation was evaluated using concentrated protease solution. Tissue augmentation or bulking was demonstrated using human cervical tissue from nonpregnant hysterectomy specimens. Mechanical compression tests measured the tissue stiffness as a

  19. Titanium biomaterials with complex surfaces induced aberrant peripheral circadian rhythms in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nathaniel; McCarville, Kirstin; Morinaga, Kenzo; Mengatto, Cristiane M; Langfelder, Peter; Hokugo, Akishige; Tahara, Yu; Colwell, Christopher S; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms maintain a high level of homeostasis through internal feed-forward and -backward regulation by core molecules. In this study, we report the highly unusual peripheral circadian rhythm of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) induced by titanium-based biomaterials with complex surface modifications (Ti biomaterial) commonly used for dental and orthopedic implants. When cultured on Ti biomaterials, human BMSCs suppressed circadian PER1 expression patterns, while NPAS2 was uniquely upregulated. The Ti biomaterials, which reduced Per1 expression and upregulated Npas2, were further examined with BMSCs harvested from Per1::luc transgenic rats. Next, we addressed the regulatory relationship between Per1 and Npas2 using BMSCs from Npas2 knockout mice. The Npas2 knockout mutation did not rescue the Ti biomaterial-induced Per1 suppression and did not affect Per2, Per3, Bmal1 and Clock expression, suggesting that the Ti biomaterial-induced Npas2 overexpression was likely an independent phenomenon. Previously, vitamin D deficiency was reported to interfere with Ti biomaterial osseointegration. The present study demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation significantly increased Per1::luc expression in BMSCs, though the presence of Ti biomaterials only moderately affected the suppressed Per1::luc expression. Available in vivo microarray data from femurs exposed to Ti biomaterials in vitamin D-deficient rats were evaluated by weighted gene co-expression network analysis. A large co-expression network containing Npas2, Bmal1, and Vdr was observed to form with the Ti biomaterials, which was disintegrated by vitamin D deficiency. Thus, the aberrant BMSC peripheral circadian rhythm may be essential for the integration of Ti biomaterials into bone.

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  1. Soft contact lens biomaterials from bioinspired phospholipid polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2006-03-01

    Soft contact lens (SCL) biomaterials originated from the discovery of a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly[HEMA])-based hydrogel in 1960. Incorporation of hydrophilic polymers into poly(HEMA) hydrogels was performed in the 1970-1980s, which brought an increase in the equilibrium water content, leading to an enhancement of the oxygen permeability. Nowadays, the poly(HEMA)-based hydrogels have been applied in disposable SCL. At the same time, high oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogels were produced, which made it possible to continually wear SCL. Recently, numerous trials for improving the water wettability of silicone hydrogels have been performed. However, little attention has been paid to improving their anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. Since biomimetic phospholipid polymers possess excellent anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility they have the potential to play a valuable role in the surface modification of the silicone hydrogel. The representative phospholipid polymers containing a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) unit suppressed nonspecific protein adsorption, increased cell compatibility and contributed to blood compatible biomaterials. The MPC polymer coating on the silicone hydrogel improved its water wettability and biocompatibility, while maintaining high oxygen permeability compared with the original silicone hydrogel. Furthermore, the newly prepared phospholipid-type intermolecular crosslinker made it possible to synthesize a 100% phospholipid polymer hydrogel that can enhance the anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. In this review, the authors discuss how polymer hydrogels should be designed in order to obtain a biocompatible SCL and future perspectives.

  2. Scattering and Absorption Properties of Biomaterials for Dental Restorative Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Oliveras, A.; Rubiño, M.; Pérez, M. M.

    2013-08-01

    The physical understanding of the optical properties of dental biomaterials is mandatory for their final success in restorative applications.Light propagation in biological media is characterized by the absorption coefficient, the scattering coefficient, the scattering phase function,the refractive index, and the surface conditions (roughness). We have employed the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method to combine transmittance and reflectance measurements performed using an integrating-sphere setup with the results of the previous scattering-anisotropygoniometric measurements. This has led to the determination of the absorption and the scattering coefficients. The aim was to optically characterize two different dental-resin composites (nanocomposite and hybrid) and one type of zirconia ceramic, and comparatively study them. The experimental procedure was conducted under repeatability conditions of measurement in order to determine the uncertainty associated to the optical properties of the biomaterials. Spectral variations of the refraction index and the scattering anisotropy factor were also considered. The whole experimental procedure fulfilled all the necessary requirements to provide optical-property values with lower associated uncertainties. The effective transport coefficient presented a similar spectral behavior for the two composites but completely different for the zirconia ceramic. The results demonstrated that the scattering anisotropy exerted a clearly distinct impact on the optical properties of the zirconia ceramic compared with those of the dental-resin composites.

  3. PIXE study of the kinetics of biomaterials ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Braye, F.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.

    1994-05-01

    Biomaterials are frequently implanted in bones. This implantation is followed by a phenomenon of ossification. The purpose of this work was to study the time evolution of the gradient of characteristic atomic element's concentrations in the bone, the implant and the bone-implant interface. We have studied two types of neutral biomaterials: pure synthetic hydroxyapatite and porite's asteroid coral. The animal implantations have been made on sheep of the same age and sex having received the same basic diet. The implantations have been made in the cortical femur. On both sides of the implant, at the same distance, two screws were placed to allow further determination of the position of the implant. The PIXE method is particularly suitable here because of the possibility to analyze directly the samples without any preparation and to choose easily the dimensions of beam used for the gradient study. The X-rays have been detected with an ultra LEGe instead of the usual Si(Li) device to avoid the Si escape peak associated with the K α X-ray of calcium, the major constituent of bone. This peak is particularly disturbing here because its energy corresponds to the K α line of phosphorus, an important constituent of bone. The results of these determinations are presented and discussed.

  4. Teaching technological innovation and entrepreneurship in polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Newell R

    2011-01-01

    A model for incorporating an entrepreneurship module has been developed in an upper-division and graduate-level engineering elective on Polymeric Biomaterials (27-311/42-311/27-711/42-711) at Carnegie Mellon University. A combination of lectures, assignments, and a team-based project were used to provide students with a framework for applying their technical skills in the development of new technologies and a basic understanding of the issues related to translational research and technology commercialization. The specific approach to the project established in the course, which represented 20% of the students' grades, and the grading rubric for each of the milestones are described along with suggestions for generalizing this approach to different applications of biomaterials or other engineering electives. Incorporating this model of entrepreneurship into electives teaches students course content within the framework of technological innovation and many of the concepts and tools need to practice it. For students with situational or individual interest in the project, it would also serve to deepen their understanding of the traditional course components as well as provide a foundation for integrating technological innovation and lifelong learning. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Biodesigned Nanocomposite Biomaterial for Auricular Cartilage Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyer, Leila; Jell, Gavin; Esmaeili, Ali; Birchall, Martin; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-05-01

    Current biomaterials for auricular replacement are associated with high rates of infection and extrusion. The development of new auricular biomaterials that mimic the mechanical properties of native tissue and promote desirable cellular interactions may prevent implant failure. A porous 3D nanocomposite scaffold (NS) based on POSS-PCU (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanocage into polycarbonate based urea-urethane) is developed with an elastic modulus similar to native ear. In vitro biological interactions on this NS reveal greater protein adsorption, increased fibroblast adhesion, proliferation, and collagen production compared with Medpor (the current synthetic auricular implant). In vivo, the POSS-PCU with larger pores (NS2; 150-250 μm) have greater tissue ingrowth (≈5.8× and ≈1.4 × increase) than the POSS-PCU with smaller pores (NS1; 100-50 μm) and when compared to Medpor (>100 μm). The NS2 with the larger pores demonstrates a reduced fibrotic encapsulation compared with NS1 and Medpor (≈4.1× and ≈1.6×, respectively; P response for all materials may indicate that the elastic modulus and pore size of the implant scaffold could be important design considerations for influencing fibrotic responses to auricular and other soft tissue implants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Arsenic removal using natural biomaterial-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansone, Linda; Klavins, Maris; Viksna, Arturs

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of water is a major problem worldwide. A possible solution can be approached through developing new sorbents based on cost-effective and environmentally friendly natural biomaterials. We have developed new sorbents based on biomaterial impregnation with iron oxyhydroxide. In this study, raw peat material, iron-modified peat, iron-modified biomass (shingles, straw, sands, cane and moss) as well as iron humate were used for the removal of arsenate from contaminated water. The highest sorption capacity was observed in iron-modified peat, and kinetic studies indicated that the amount of arsenic sorbed on this material exceeds 90 % in 5 h. Arsenate sorption on iron-modified peat is characterised by the pseudo-second-order mechanism. The results of arsenic sorption in the presence of competing substances indicated that sulphate, nitrate, chloride and tartrate anions have practically no influence on As(V) sorption onto Fe-modified peat, whereas the presence of phosphate ions and humic acid significantly lowers the arsenic removal efficiency.

  7. Biomaterials Derived from Silk-Tropoelastin Protein Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Xiuli; Rnjak, Jelena; Weiss, Anthony S.; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A structural protein blend system based on silkworm silk fibroin and recombinant human tropoelastin is described. Silk fibroin, a semicrystalline fibrous protein with beta-sheet crystals provides mechanical strength and controllable biodegradation, while tropoelastin, a noncrystallizable elastic protein provides elasticity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) indicated that silk becomes miscible with tropoelastin at different blend ratios, without macrophase separation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed secondary structural changes of the blend system (beta-sheet content) before and after methanol treatment. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nano-indentation demonstrated that blending silk and tropoelastin at different ratios resulted in modification of mechanical features, with resilience from ~68% to ~97%, and elastic modulus between 2~9Mpa, depending on the ratio of the two polymers. Some of these values are close to those of native aortic elastin or elastin-like polypeptides. Significantly, during blending and drying silk-tropoelastin form micro- and nano-scale porous morphologies which promote human mesenchymal stem cell attachment and proliferation. These blends offer a new protein biomaterial system for cell support and tailored biomaterial properties to match mechanical needs. PMID:20674969

  8. Engineering the hematopoietic stem cell niche: Frontiers in biomaterial science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Sun; Mahadik, Bhushan P.; Harley, Brendan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) play a crucial role in the generation of the body’s blood and immune cells. This process takes place primarily in the bone marrow in specialized ‘niche’ microenvironments, which provide signals responsible for maintaining a balance between HSC quiescence, self-renewal, and lineage specification required for life-long hematopoiesis. While our understanding of these signaling mechanisms continues to improve, our ability to engineer them in vitro for the expansion of clinically relevant HSC populations is still lacking. In this review, we focus on development of biomaterials-based culture platforms for in vitro study of interactions between HSCs and their local microenvironment. The tools and techniques used for both examining HSC-niche interactions as well as applying these findings towards controlled HSC expansion or directed differentiation in 2D and 3D platforms are discussed. These novel techniques hold the potential to push the existing boundaries of HSC cultures towards high-throughput, real-time, and single-cell level biomimetic approaches that enable a more nuanced understanding of HSC regulation and function. Their application in conjunction with innovative biomaterial platforms can pave the way for engineering artificial bone marrow niches for clinical applications as well as elucidating the pathology of blood-related cancers and disorders. PMID:26356030

  9. Biomaterials based on photosynthetic membranes as potential sensors for herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Andrea; Catucci, Lucia; Placido, Tiziana; Longobardi, Francesco; Agostiano, Angela

    2011-08-15

    In this study, ultrathin film multilayers of Photosystem II-enriched photosynthetic membranes (BBY) were prepared and immobilized on quartz substrates by means of a Layer by Layer procedure exploiting electrostatic interactions with poly(ethylenimine) as polyelectrolyte. The biomaterials thus obtained were characterized by means of optical techniques and Atomic Force Microscopy, highlighting the fact that the Layer by Layer approach allowed the BBYs to be immobilized with satisfactory results. The activity of these hybrid materials was evaluated by means of optical assays based on the Hill Reaction, indicating that the biosamples, which preserved about 65% of their original activity even ten weeks after preparation, were both stable and active. Furthermore, an investigation of the biochips' sensitivity to the herbicide terbutryn, as a model analyte, gave interesting results: inhibition of photosynthetic activity was observed at terbutryn concentrations higher than 10(-7)M, thus evidencing the potential of such biomaterials in the environmental biosensor field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biocompatibility of Subcutaneously Implanted Plant-Derived Cellulose Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modulevsky, Daniel J; Cuerrier, Charles M; Pelling, Andrew E

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel biomaterials which support the invasion and proliferation of living cells for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Decellularization of existing tissues have formed the basis of one major approach to producing 3D scaffolds for such purposes. In this study, we utilize the native hypanthium tissue of apples and a simple preparation methodology to create implantable cellulose scaffolds. To examine biocompatibility, scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in wild-type, immunocompetent mice (males and females; 6-9 weeks old). Following the implantation, the scaffolds were resected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and processed for histological analysis (H&E, Masson's Trichrome, anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies). Histological analysis revealed a characteristic foreign body response to the scaffold 1 week post-implantation. However, the immune response was observed to gradually disappear by 8 weeks post-implantation. By 8 weeks, there was no immune response in the surrounding dermis tissue and active fibroblast migration within the cellulose scaffold was observed. This was concomitant with the deposition of a new collagen extracellular matrix. Furthermore, active blood vessel formation within the scaffold was observed throughout the period of study indicating the pro-angiogenic properties of the native scaffolds. Finally, while the scaffolds retain much of their original shape they do undergo a slow deformation over the 8-week length of the study. Taken together, our results demonstrate that native cellulose scaffolds are biocompatible and exhibit promising potential as a surgical biomaterial.

  11. Biodegradable Polyphosphazene Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Delivery of Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Baillargeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradable biomaterials continue to play a major role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as for delivering therapeutic agents. Although the chemistry of polyphosphazenes has been studied extensively, a systematic review of their applications for a wide range of biomedical applications is lacking. Polyphosphazenes are synthesized through a relatively well-known two-step reaction scheme which involves the substitution of the initial linear precursor with a wide range of nucleophiles. The ease of substitution has led to the development of a broad class of materials that have been studied for numerous biomedical applications including as scaffold materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The objective of this review is to discuss the suitability of poly(amino acid esterphosphazene biomaterials in regard to their unique stimuli responsive properties, tunable degradation rates and mechanical properties, as well as in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. The application of these materials in areas such as tissue engineering and drug delivery is discussed systematically. Lastly, the utility of polyphosphazenes is further extended as they are being employed in blend materials for new applications and as another method of tailoring material properties.

  12. Oxygen Generating Biomaterials Preserve Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis under Hypoxic and Ischemic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    injection” protocol for myogenic cell transplantation throughout large volumes of muscles in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient: eighteen months follow-up...Oxygen Generating Biomaterials Preserve Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis under Hypoxic and Ischemic Conditions Catherine L. Ward, Benjamin T. Corona...investigation was to determine if sodium percarbonate (SPO), an oxygen generating biomaterial, is capable of maintaining resting skeletal muscle

  13. Predicting biomaterial property-dendritic cell phenotype relationships from the multivariate analysis of responses to polymethacrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Peng Meng; Pallassana, Narayanan; Bowden, Rebeca; Cunningham, Barry; Joy, Abraham; Kohn, Joachim; Babensee, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in orchestrating the host responses to a wide variety of foreign antigens and are essential in maintaining immune tolerance. Distinct biomaterials have been shown to differentially affect the phenotype of DCs, which suggested that biomaterials may be used to modulate immune response towards the biologic component in combination products. The elucidation of biomaterial property-DC phenotype relationships is expected to inform rational design of immuno-modulatory biomaterials. In this study, DC response to a set of 12 polymethacrylates (pMAs) was assessed in terms of surface marker expression and cytokine profile. Principal component analysis (PCA) determined that surface carbon correlated with enhanced DC maturation, while surface oxygen was associated with an immature DC phenotype. Partial square linear regression, a multivariate modeling approach, was implemented and successfully predicted biomaterial-induced DC phenotype in terms of surface marker expression from biomaterial properties with R2prediction = 0.76. Furthermore, prediction of DC phenotype was effective based on only theoretical chemical composition of the bulk polymers with R2prediction = 0.80. These results demonstrated that immune cell response can be predicted from biomaterial properties, and computational models will expedite future biomaterial design and selection. PMID:22136715

  14. Analytical relationships for prediction of the mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.; Hedayati, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques have motivated an increasing number of researchers to study regular porous biomaterials that are based on repeating unit cells. The physical and mechanical properties of such porous biomaterials have therefore received increasing attention

  15. Fatigue performance of additively manufactured meta-biomaterials : The effects of topology and material type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.M.; Hedayati, R.; Li, Y; Lietaert, K.; Tümer, N.; Fatemi, A.; Rans, C.D.; Pouran, B.; Weinans, H.H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques enable fabrication of bone-mimicking meta-biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties. The mechanical performance of AM meta-biomaterials is a direct function of their topological design. It is,

  16. Computational prediction of the fatigue behavior of additively manufactured porous metallic biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedayati, R.; Hosseini-Toudeshky, H; Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of additively manufactured porous biomaterials has recently received increasing attention. While there is a relatively large body of data available on the static mechanical properties of such biomaterials, their fatigue behavior is not yet well-understood. That is partly

  17. BoneSource hydroxyapatite cement: a novel biomaterial for craniofacial skeletal tissue engineering and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C D; Costantino, P D; Takagi, S; Chow, L C

    1998-01-01

    BoneSource-hydroxyapatite cement is a new self-setting calcium phosphate cement biomaterial. Its unique and innovative physical chemistry coupled with enhanced biocompatibility make it useful for craniofacial skeletal reconstruction. The general properties and clinical use guidelines are reviewed. The biomaterial and surgical applications offer insight into improved outcomes and potential new uses for hydroxyapatite cement systems.

  18. Tailoring of new polymeric biomaterials for the repair of medium-sized corneal perforations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, MJ; Blaauwgeers, HGT; Kuijer, R; Jongsma, FHM; de Brabander, J; Nuijts, RMMA; Koole, LH

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymeric biomaterials can be designed such that they become suitable for surgical closure of medium-sized perforations in the cornea, the transparent tissue in the front of the eye. Such a biomaterial must meet stringent requirements in terms of

  19. Cell-biomaterial mechanical interaction in the framework of tissue engineering: insights, computational modeling and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Herrera, Jose A; Reina-Romo, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of research which combines the use of cell-seeded biomaterials both in vitro and/or in vivo with the aim of promoting new tissue formation or regeneration. In this context, how cells colonize and interact with the biomaterial is critical in order to get a functional tissue engineering product. Cell-biomaterial interaction is referred to here as the phenomenon involved in adherent cells attachment to the biomaterial surface, and their related cell functions such as growth, differentiation, migration or apoptosis. This process is inherently complex in nature involving many physico-chemical events which take place at different scales ranging from molecular to cell body (organelle) levels. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the mechanical environment at the cell-biomaterial location may play an important role in the subsequent cell function, which remains to be elucidated. In this paper, the state-of-the-art research in the physics and mechanics of cell-biomaterial interaction is reviewed with an emphasis on focal adhesions. The paper is focused on the different models developed at different scales available to simulate certain features of cell-biomaterial interaction. A proper understanding of cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the development of predictive models in this sense, may add some light in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields.

  20. Infection resistance of degradable versus non-degradable biomaterials : An assessment of the potential mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Rochford, Edward T. J.

    Extended life expectancy and medical development has led to an increased reliance on biomaterial implants and devices to support or restore human anatomy and function. However, the presence of an implanted biomaterial results in an increased susceptibility to infection. Due to the severity of the