WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass thermochemical conversion

  1. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. CFD Studies on Biomass Thermochemical Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Yan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical conversion of biomass offers an efficient and economically process to provide gaseous, liquid and solid fuels and prepare chemicals derived from biomass. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD modeling applications on biomass thermochemical processes help to optimize the design and operation of thermochemical reactors. Recent progression in numerical techniques and computing efficacy has advanced CFD as a widely used approach to provide efficient design solutions in industry. This paper introduces the fundamentals involved in developing a CFD solution. Mathematical equations governing the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions in thermochemical systems are described and sub-models for individual processes are presented. It provides a review of various applications of CFD in the biomass thermochemical process field.

  3. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Thermochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, Paul E. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  4. Thermochemical conversion of microalgal biomass into biofuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Bo-Jhih; Huang, Ming-Yueh; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    Following first-generation and second-generation biofuels produced from food and non-food crops, respectively, algal biomass has become an important feedstock for the production of third-generation biofuels. Microalgal biomass is characterized by rapid growth and high carbon fixing efficiency when they grow. On account of potential of mass production and greenhouse gas uptake, microalgae are promising feedstocks for biofuels development. Thermochemical conversion is an effective process for biofuel production from biomass. The technology mainly includes torrefaction, liquefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification. Through these conversion technologies, solid, liquid, and gaseous biofuels are produced from microalgae for heat and power generation. The liquid bio-oils can further be upgraded for chemicals, while the synthesis gas can be synthesized into liquid fuels. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the-art review of the thermochemical conversion technologies of microalgal biomass into fuels. Detailed conversion processes and their outcome are also addressed.

  5. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Thermochemical Conversion Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biomass Program Peer Review for the Thermochemical Platform, held on July 9th and 10th in Golden, Colorado.

  6. Biomass thermochemical conversion - overview of results; Biomassan jalostus - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    In this Bioenergy research program the thermochemical conversion activities are mainly concentrated in three fields (1) flash pyrolysis and the use of wood oil in boilers and engines (2) biomass gasification for gas engine power plants and finally (3) conversion of black liquor and extractives in a pulp mill to various liquid fuels. Parallel to activities in Finland also significant work has been done in EU-Joule and Apas projects and in the IEA Bioenergy Agreement. In the area of flash pyrolysis technology, three new laboratory and PDU-units have been installed to VTT in order to produce various qualities of bio oils from wood and straw. The quality of pyrolysis oils have been characterized by physical and chemical methods supported by EU and IEA networks. Several companies are carrying out pyrolysis activities as well: Neste Oy is testing the wood oil in a 200 kW boiler, Waertsilae Diesel Oy is testing Canadian wood oil in a 1.5 MWe diesel power plant engine and Vapo Oy is carrying out investigations to produce pyrolysis oils in Finland. The biomass gasification coupled to a gas engine is an interesting alternative for small scale power production parallel to existing fluid bed boiler technology. VTT has installed a circulating fluid bed gasifier with advanced gas cleaning system to test various technologies in order to feed the gas to an engine. In order to produce liquid fuels at a pulp mill, the laboratory work has continued using crude soap as a raw material for high pressure liquid phase treatment and atmospheric pyrolysis process. The quality of the oil is like light fuel oil or diesel fuel, possibilities to use it as a lubricant will be investigated

  7. Environmental impacts of thermochemical biomass conversion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; McKinney, M.D.; Norton, M.V.; Abrams, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Thermochemical conversion in this study is limited to fast pyrolysis, upgrading of fast pyrolysis oils, and gasification. Environmental impacts of all types were considered within the project, but primary emphasis was on discharges to the land, air, and water during and after the conversion processes. The project discussed here is divided into five task areas: (1) pyrolysis oil analysis; (2) hydrotreating of pyrolysis oil; (3) gas treatment systems for effluent minimization; (4) strategic analysis of regulatory requirements; and (5) support of the IEA Environmental Systems Activity. The pyrolysis oil task was aimed at understanding the oil contaminants and potential means for their removal. The hydrotreating task was undertaken to better define one potential means for both improving the quality of the oil but also removing contaminants from the oil. Within Task 3, analyses were done to evaluate the results of gasification product treatment systems. Task 4 was a review and collection of regulatory requirements which would be applicable to the subject processes. The IEA support task included input to and participation in the IEA Bioenergy activity which directly relates to the project subject. Each of these tasks is described along with the results. Conclusions and recommendations from the overall project are given.

  8. Biomass thermochemical conversion. Overview of results; Biomassan jalostus. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The BIOENERGY Programme comprised two research institute projects, one enterprise project and two demonstration projects in 1996. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of the storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants. Development of biomass gasification/gas engine concepts suitable for diesel power plants was also initiated. In addition to techno-economic assessments, experimental work was carried out focusing on the cleaning of gasification gas for engine use. Conversion of by-products from the pulping industry, in particular crude soap, into liquid fuels was studied by laboratory tests. Results obtained within IEA Bioenergy Agreement are also surveyed and a new three-year work plan is presented in the overview. (orig.)

  9. Artificial Neural Networks for Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles

    2015-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs), extensively used in different fields, have been applied for modeling biomass gasification processes in fluidized bed reactors. Two ANN models are presented, one for circulating fluidized bed gasifiers and another for bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers. Both models...... determine the producer gas composition and gas yield, using the biomass composition and only a few operating parameters in the input layer. Each model is composed of five ANNs with two neurons in the hidden layer. The backpropagation algorithm is used to train them with published experimental data from...... other authors. The obtained results show that the percentage composition of the main four gas species in producer gas (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and producer gas yield for a biomass fluidized bed gasifier, can be successfully predicted by applying neural networks. The results obtained show high agreement...

  10. Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL`s BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

  11. Gluconic acid from biomass fast pyrolysis oils: specialty chemicals from the thermochemical conversion of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanaraj, Daniel; Rover, Marjorie R; Resasco, Daniel E; Brown, Robert C; Crossley, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce a bio-oil followed by catalytic upgrading is a widely studied approach for the potential production of fuels from biomass. Because of the complexity of the bio-oil, most upgrading strategies focus on removing oxygen from the entire mixture to produce fuels. Here we report a novel method for the production of the specialty chemical, gluconic acid, from the pyrolysis of biomass. Through a combination of sequential condensation of pyrolysis vapors and water extraction, a solution rich in levoglucosan is obtained that accounts for over 30% of the carbon in the bio-oil produced from red oak. A simple filtration step yields a stream of high-purity levoglucosan. This stream of levoglucosan is then hydrolyzed and partially oxidized to yield gluconic acid with high purity and selectivity. This combination of cost-effective pyrolysis coupled with simple separation and upgrading could enable a variety of new product markets for chemicals from biomass.

  12. Thermochemical conversion of biomass in smouldering combustion across scales: The roles of heterogeneous kinetics, oxygen and transport phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyan; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass in smouldering combustion is investigated here by combining experiments and modeling at two scales: matter (1mg) and bench (100g) scales. Emphasis is put on the effect of oxygen (0-33vol.%) and oxidation reactions because these are poorly studied in the literature in comparison to pyrolysis. The results are obtained for peat as a representative biomass for which there is high-quality experimental data published previously. Three kinetic schemes are explored, including various steps of drying, pyrolysis and oxidation. The kinetic parameters are found using the Kissinger-Genetic Algorithm method, and then implemented in a one-dimensional model of heat and mass transfer. The predictions are validated with thermogravimetric and bench-scale experiments and then analyzed to unravel the role of heterogeneous reaction. This is the first time that the influence of oxygen on biomass smouldering is explained in terms of both chemistry and transport phenomena across scales.

  13. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  14. Secondary reactions of tar during thermochemical biomass conversion[Dissertation 14341

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morf, P.O.

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich presents and discusses the results obtained during the examination of the processes involved in the formation and conversion of tar in biomass gasification plant. Details are given on the laboratory reactor system used to provide separated tar production and conversion for the purposes of the experiments carried out. The results of analyses made of the tar and the gaseous products obtained after its conversion at various temperatures are presented. The development of kinetic models using the results of the experiments that were carried out is described. The results of the experiments and modelling are compared with the corresponding results obtained using a full-scale down-draft, fixed-bed gasifier. The author is of the opinion that the reaction conditions found in full-scale gasifiers can be well simulated using heterogeneous tar conversion experiments using the lab reactor system.

  15. 2009 Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  16. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  17. Production of renewable phenolic resins by thermochemical conversion of biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effendi, A.; Gerhauser, H.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Bio-Energy Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    This review covers the production and utilisation of liquids from the thermal processing of biomass and related materials to substitute for synthetic phenol and formaldehyde in phenol formaldehyde resins. These resins are primarily employed in the manufacture of wood panels such as plywood, MDF, particle-board and OSB. The most important thermal conversion methods for this purpose are fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, pressure liquefaction and phenolysis. Many feedstocks have been tested for their suitability as sources of phenolics including hard and softwoods, bark and residual lignins. Resins have been prepared utilising either the whole liquid product, or a phenolics enriched fraction obtained after fractional condensation or further processing, such as solvent extraction. None of the phenolics production and fractionation techniques covered in this review are believed to allow substitution of 100% of the phenol content of the resin without impacting its effectiveness compared to commercial formulations based on petroleum derived phenol. This survey shows that considerable progress has been made towards reaching the goal of a price competitive renewable resin, but that further research is required to meet the twin challenges of low renewable resin cost and satisfactory quality requirements. Particular areas of concern are wood panel press times, variability of renewable resin properties, odour, lack of reactive sites compared to phenol and potential for increased emissions of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  18. Thermo-chemical and biological conversion potential of various biomass feedstocks to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential and the economy of producing ethanol from gasification-fermentation of various biomass feedstocks. The biomass feedstocks include winter cover crops (wheat, rye, clover, hairy betch), summer cover crop (sunhemp), chicken litter, and woody biomass. ...

  19. Systems Based Approaches for Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Bioenergy and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Auburn’s Center for Bioenergy and Bioproducts conducts research on production of synthesis gas for use in power generation and the production of liquid fuels. The overall goal of our gasification research is to identify optimal processes for producing clean syngas to use in production of fuels and chemicals from underutilized agricultural and forest biomass feedstocks. This project focused on construction and commissioning of a bubbling-bed fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent shakedown of the gasification and gas cleanup system. The result of this project is a fully commissioned gasification laboratory that is conducting testing on agricultural and forest biomass. Initial tests on forest biomass have served as the foundation for follow-up studies on gasification under a more extensive range of temperatures, pressures, and oxidant conditions. The laboratory gasification system consists of a biomass storage tank capable of holding up to 6 tons of biomass; a biomass feeding system, with loss-in-weight metering system, capable of feeding biomass at pressures up to 650 psig; a bubbling-bed fluidized-bed gasification reactor capable of operating at pressures up to 650 psig and temperatures of 1500oF with biomass flowrates of 80 lb/hr and syngas production rates of 37 scfm; a warm-gas filtration system; fixed bed reactors for gas conditioning; and a final quench cooling system and activated carbon filtration system for gas conditioning prior to routing to Fischer-Tropsch reactors, or storage, or venting. This completed laboratory enables research to help develop economically feasible technologies for production of biomass-derived synthesis gases that will be used for clean, renewable power generation and for production of liquid transportation fuels. Moreover, this research program provides the infrastructure to educate the next generation of engineers and scientists needed to implement these technologies.

  20. Pyrolysis as a key process in biomass combustion and thermochemical conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvero Petar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a fuel with a highly volatile content and due to that, pyrolysis as a part of the combustion process, has a dominant role in the overall process development, as well as on final products and the process efficiency. It is of key importance to investigate the influence of the process parameters; as temperature, furnace/reactor environment, fuel properties, type, particle size, geometry, and the structure of the pyrolysis process has an influence regards the design of the combustion/pyrolysis equipment and the final products of the processes. This paper gives some results of the investigation’s related to this problem, mainly focussing on wooden biomass as the most important biomass type, as well as a comparison with relevant documented literature. Besides that, pyrolysis based technologies are one of the key directions in synthetic fuels production based on biomass. Biomass pyrolysis process parameters are crucial in reactor design as well as the quantity and quality of the final products. This paper provides discussion dedicated to this aspect with a focus on slow pyrolysis, targeting charcoal as the key product, and fast pyrolysis, targeting synthetic gas as the key product.

  1. Thermochemical Conversion of Woody Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, Hemant P. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Maine and its industries identified more efficient utilization of biomass as a critical economic development issue. In Phase I of this implementation project, a research team was assembled, research equipment was implemented and expertise was demonstrated in pyrolysis, hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oils, catalyst synthesis and characterization, and reaction engineering. Phase II built upon the infrastructure to innovate reaction pathways and process engineering, and integrate new approaches for fuels and chemical production within pulp and paper and other industries within the state. This research cluster brought together chemists, engineers, physicists and students from the University of Maine, Bates College, and Bowdoin College. The project developed collaborations with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory. The specific research projects within this proposal were of critical interest to the DoE - in particular the biomass program within EERE and the catalysis/chemical transformations program within BES. Scientific and Technical Merit highlights of this project included: (1) synthesis and physical characterization of novel size-selective catalyst/supports using engineered mesoporous (1-10 nm diameter pores) materials, (2) advances in fundamental knowledge of novel support/ metal catalyst systems tailored for pyrolysis oil upgrading, (3) a microcalorimetric sensing technique, (4) improved methods for pyrolysis oil characterization, (5) production and characterization of woody biomass-derived pyrolysis oils, (6) development of two new patented bio oil pathways: thermal deoxygenation (TDO) and formate assisted pyrolysis (FASP), and (7) technoeconomics of pyrolysis of Maine forest biomass. This research cluster has provided fundamental knowledge to enable and assess pathways to thermally convert biomass to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.

  2. Thermochemical behavior of pretreated biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Amit Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Mankind has to provide a sustainable alternative to its energy related problems. Bioenergy is considered as one of the potential renewable energy resources and as a result bioenergy market is also expected to grow dramatically in future. However, logistic issues are of serious concern while considering biomass as an alternative to fossil fuel. It can be improved by introducing pretreated wood pellet. The main objective of this thesis is to address thermochemical behaviour of steam exploded pretreated biomass. Additionally, process aspects of torrefaction were also considered in this thesis. Steam explosion (SE) was performed in a laboratory scale reactor using Salix wood chips. Afterwards, fuel and thermochemical aspects of SE residue were investigated. It was found that Steam explosion pretreatment improved both fuel and pellet quality. Pyrolysis of SE residue reveals that alerted biomass composition significantly affects its pyrolysis behaviour. Contribution from depolymerized components (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) of biomass was observed explicitly during pyrolysis. When devolatilization experiment was performed on pellet produced from SE residue, effect of those altered components was observed. In summary, pretreated biomass fuel characteristics is significantly different in comparison with untreated biomass. On the other hand, Process efficiency of torrefaction was found to be governed by the choice of appropriate operating conditions and the type of biomass.

  3. Elemental and thermo-chemical analysis of oil palm fronds for biomass energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm frond is the most abundant yet untapped biomass waste in Malaysia. This paper investigates the characteristics of raw oil palm fronds and its ash to evaluate its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for gasification process using single throat downdraft gasifier. The morphological nature, elemental content, proximate and ultimate analysis and calorific value were studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence were used to investigate the surface morphology, elemental and mineralogical nature of oil palm frond and its ash. The results were compared with other agricultural and forestry biomass wastes. From proximate analysis volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash were found to be 83.5%, 15.2% and 1.3%, respectively on dry basis. From ultimate analysis result values of 44.58%, 4.53%, 0.71% and 0.07% for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur were found respectively on dry basis. Oxygen was determined by difference and found to be 48.81%. The proximate and ultimate analysis results indicate that oil palm frond is better than agricultural wastes and less than most forestry wastes to use as a feedstock in the gasification process in order to get a better quality of syngas. The amount of ash content in OPF was found to be much less than in agricultural wastes and higher than most forestry wastes. From x-ray fluorescence analysis CaO and K2O were found as the major oxides in oil palm fronds and rice husk ash with the amount of 28.46% and 15.71% respectively. The overall results of oil palm fronds were found to be satisfactory to use as a feedstock for the process of gasification.

  4. Evaluation of wastewater treatment requirements for thermochemical biomass liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D C [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Biomass can provide a substantial energy source. Liquids are preferred for use as transportation fuels because of their high energy density and handling ease and safety. Liquid fuel production from biomass can be accomplished by any of several different processes including hydrolysis and fermentation of the carbohydrates to alcohol fuels, thermal gasification and synthesis of alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct extraction of biologically produced hydrocarbons such as seed oils or algae lipids, or direct thermochemical conversion of the biomass to liquids and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. This report discusses direct thermochemical conversion to achieve biomass liquefaction and the requirements for wastewater treatment inherent in such processing. 21 refs.

  5. Thermochemical Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysts to Make Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-29

    This fact sheet discusses the Bioenergy Technologies Office's thermochemical conversion critical technology goal. And, how through the application of heat, robust thermochemical processes can efficiently convert a broad range of biomass.

  6. Bioenergy co-products derived from microalgae biomass via thermochemical conversion--life cycle energy balances and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, H H; Koh, C Y; Shaik, M S; Sharratt, P N

    2013-09-01

    An investigation of the potential to efficiently convert lipid-depleted residual microalgae biomass using thermochemical (gasification at 850 °C, pyrolysis at 550 °C, and torrefaction at 300 °C) processes to produce bioenergy derivatives was made. Energy indicators are established to account for the amount of energy inputs that have to be supplied to the system in order to gain 1 MJ of bio-energy output. The paper seeks to address the difference between net energy input-output balances based on a life cycle approach, from "cradle-to-bioenergy co-products", vs. thermochemical processes alone. The experimental results showed the lowest results of Net Energy Balances (NEB) to be 0.57 MJ/MJ bio-oil via pyrolysis, and highest, 6.48 MJ/MJ for gas derived via torrefaction. With the complete life cycle process chain factored in, the energy balances of NEBLCA increased to 1.67 MJ/MJ (bio-oil) and 7.01 MJ/MJ (gas). Energy efficiencies and the life cycle CO2 emissions were also calculated.

  7. Biomass valorisation by staged degasification A new pyrolysis-based thermochemical conversion option to produce value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, P. J.; den Uil, H.; Reith, J. H.; Kiel, J. H. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass leads to an array Of useful solid, liquid and gaseous products. Staged degasification is a pyrolysis-based conversion route to generate value-added chemicals from biomass. Because of different thermal stabilities of the main biomass constituents hemicellulose. ce

  8. A Comparison of Producer Gas, Biochar, and Activated Carbon from Two Distributed Scale Thermochemical Conversion Systems Used to Process Forest Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical biomass conversion systems have the potential to produce heat, power, fuels and other products from forest biomass at distributed scales that meet the needs of some forest industry facilities. However, many of these systems have not been deployed in this sector and the products they produce from forest biomass have not been adequately described or characterized with regards to chemical properties, possible uses, and markets. This paper characterizes the producer gas, biochar, and activated carbon of a 700 kg h−1 prototype gasification system and a 225 kg h−1 pyrolysis system used to process coniferous sawmill and forest residues. Producer gas from sawmill residues processed with the gasifier had higher energy content than gas from forest residues, with averages of 12.4 MJ m−3 and 9.8 MJ m−3, respectively. Gases from the pyrolysis system averaged 1.3 MJ m−3 for mill residues and 2.5 MJ m−3 for forest residues. Biochars produced have similar particle size distributions and bulk density, but vary in pH and carbon content. Biochars from both systems were successfully activated using steam activation, with resulting BET surface area in the range of commercial activated carbon. Results are discussed in the context of co-locating these systems with forest industry operations.

  9. Lab-scale development of a high temperature aerosol particle sampling probe system for field measurements in thermochemical conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindskog, M.; Malik, A.; Pagels, J.; Sanati, M. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology

    2010-07-01

    Thermochemical conversion of biomass requires both combustion in an oxygen rich environment and gasification in an oxygen deficient environment. Therefore, the mass concentration of fly ash from combustion processes is dominated by inorganic compounds, and the particulate matter obtained from gasification is dominated by carbonaceous compounds. The fine fly ash particles can initiate corrosion and fouling and also increases emissions of fine particulates to the atmosphere. This study involved the design of a laboratory scale setup consisting of a high temperature sampling probe and an aerosol generation system to study the formation of fine particle from biomass gasification processes. An aerosol model system using potassium chloride (KCl) as the ash compound and Di Octyl Sebacate oil (DOS) as the volatile organic part was used to test the high temperature sampling probe. Tests conducted at 200 degrees C showed good reproducibility of the aerosol generator. The tests also demonstrated suitable dilution ratios which enabled the denuder to absorb all of the gaseous organic compounds in the set up, thus enabling measurement of only the particle phase. Condensable organic concentrations of 1-68 mg/m{sup 3} were easily handled by the high temperature sampling probe system, indicating that the denuder worked well. Additional tests will be performed using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMST) to verify that the denuder can capture all of the gaseous organic compounds also when condensed onto agglomerated soot particles. 6 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  10. Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

    2011-05-01

    The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

  11. Contributions ECN biomass to 'Developments in thermochemical biomass conversion' conference. 17-22 September 2000, Tyrol, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerrigter, H.; Daey Ouwens, C.; Van Doorn, J.; Van der Drift, A.; Hofmans, H.; Huijnen, H.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Moonen, R.H.W.; Mozaffarian, M.; Neeft, J.P.A.; Oosting, T.P.; Den Uil, H.; Visser, H.J.M.; Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN , Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the contributions (7) of the business unit ECN Biomass of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) in Petten, Netherlands, to the title conference. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the seven papers: (1) Effect of fuel size and process temperature on fuel gas quality from CFB gasification of biomass; (2) Gas mixing in a pilot scale (500 KW{sub th}) air blown circulating fluidised bed biomass gasifier; (3) Guideline for sampling and analysis of 'tars' and particles in biomass producer gases; (4) Biomass ash - bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in fluidised bed combustion and gasification; (5) Production of substitute natural gas by biomass hydrogasification; (6) CASST. A new and advanced process for biomass gasification; and (7) New developments in the field of tri-generation from biomass and waste. A survey.

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  13. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  14. Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass.

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Sahir, A.; Tan, E.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Meyer, P.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  16. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.

  17. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sahir, A. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis. Both the in situ and ex situ conceptual designs, using the underlying assumptions, project MFSPs of approximately $3.5/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE). The performance assumptions for the ex situ process were more aggressive with higher distillate (diesel-range) products. This was based on an assumption that more favorable reaction chemistry (such as coupling) can be made possible in a separate reactor where, unlike in an in situ upgrading reactor, one does not have to deal with catalyst mixing with biomass char and ash, which pose challenges to catalyst performance and maintenance. Natural gas was used for hydrogen production, but only when off gases from the process was not sufficient to meet the needs; natural gas consumption is insignificant in both the in situ and ex situ base cases. Heat produced from the burning of char, coke, and off-gases allows for the production of surplus electricity which is sold to the grid allowing a reduction of approximately 5¢/GGE in the MFSP.

  18. Catalytic conversion of biomass to fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, R. L.; Ushiba, K. K.; Cooper, M.; Mahawili, I.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents an assessment and perspective concerning the application of catalytic technologies to the thermochemical conversion of biomass resources to fuels. The major objectives of the study are: to provide a systematic assessment of the role of catalysis in the direct thermochemical conversion of biomass into gaseous and liquid fuels; to establish the relationship between potential biomass conversion processes and catalytic processes currently under development in other areas, with particular emphasis on coal conversion processes; and to identify promising catalytic systems which could be utilized to reduce the overall costs of fuels production from biomass materials. The report is divided into five major parts which address the above objectives. In Part III the physical and chemical properties of biomass and coal are compared, and the implications for catalytic conversion processes are discussed. With respect to chemical properties, biomass is shown to have significant advantages over coal in catalytic conversion processes because of its uniformly high H/C ratio and low concentrations of potential catalyst poisons. The physical properties of biomass can vary widely, however, and preprocessing by grinding is difficult and costly. Conversion technologies that require little preprocessing and accept a wide range of feed geometries, densities, and particle sizes appear desirable. Part IV provides a comprehensive review of existing and emerging thermochemical conversion technologies for biomass and coal. The underlying science and technology for gasification and liquefaction processes are presented.

  19. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols – FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

  20. Renewable energy from corn residues by thermochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei

    Declining fossil oil reserve, skyrocket price, unsecured supplies, and environment pollution are among the many energy problems we are facing today. It is our conviction that renewable energy is a solution to these problems. The long term goal of the proposed research is to develop commercially practical technologies to produce energy from renewable resources. The overall objective of my research is to study and develop thermochemical processes for converting bulky and low-energy-density biomass materials into bio-fuels and value-added bio-products. The rationale for the proposed research is that, once such processes are developed, processing facility can be set up on or near biomass product sites, reducing the costs associated with transport of bulky biomass which is a key technical barrier to biomass conversion. In my preliminary research, several conversion technologies including atmospheric pressure liquefaction, high pressure liquefaction, and microwave pyrolysis have been evaluated. Our data indicated that microwave pyrolysis had the potential to become a simple and economically viable biomass conversion technology. Microwave pyrolysis is an innovative process that provides efficient and uniform heating, and are robust to type, size and uniformity of feedstock and therefore suitable for almost any waste materials without needing to reduce the particle size. The proposed thesis focused on in-depth investigations of microwave pyrolysis of corn residues. My first specific aim was to examine the effects of processing parameters on product yields. The second specific research aim was to characterize the products (gases, bio-oils, and solid residues), which was critical to process optimization and product developments. Other research tasks included conducting kinetic modeling and preliminary mass and energy balance. This study demonstrated that microwave pyrolysis could be optimized to produce high value syngas, liquid fuels and pyrolytic carbons, and had a great

  1. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: Biochemical Versus Thermochemical Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P. Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  2. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  3. Thermochemical Biomass Gasification: A Review of the Current Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted on the use of thermochemical biomass gasification for producing biofuels, biopower and chemicals. The upstream processes for gasification are similar to other biomass processing methods. However, challenges remain in the gasification and downstream processing for viable commercial applications. The challenges with gasification are to understand the effects of operating conditions on gasification reactions for reliably predicting and optimizing the product compositions, and for obtaining maximal efficiencies. Product gases can be converted to biofuels and chemicals such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels, green gasoline, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, ethanol, methanol, and higher alcohols. Processes and challenges for these conversions are also summarized.

  4. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  5. Thermochemical conversion of waste tyres-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaki, Madona; Jeguirim, Mejdi

    2016-10-27

    A review of the energy recovery from waste tyres is presented and focuses on the three thermochemical processes used to valorise waste tyres: pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion/incineration. After recalling the chemical composition of tyres, the thermogravimetric behaviours of tyres or their components under different atmospheres are described. Different kinetic studies on the thermochemical processes are treated. Then, the three processes were investigated, with a particular attention given to the gasification, due to the information unavailability on this process. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical conversion to produce a hydrocarbon rich gas mixture, condensable liquids or tars, and a carbon-rich solid residue. Gasification is a form of pyrolysis, carried out at higher temperatures and under given atmosphere (air, steam, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc.) in order to yield mainly low molecular weight gaseous products. Combustion is a process that needs a fuel and an oxidizer with an ignition system to produce heat and/or steam. The effects of various process parameters such as temperature, heating rate, residence time, catalyst addition, etc. on the energy efficiency and the products yields and characteristics are mainly reviewed. These thermochemical processes are considered to be the more attractive and practicable methods for recovering energy and material from waste tyres. For the future, they are the main promising issue to treat and valorise used tyres. However, efforts should be done in developing more efficient technical systems.

  6. Conversion of biomass to selected chemical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallezot, Pierre

    2012-02-21

    This critical review provides a survey illustrated by recent references of different strategies to achieve a sustainable conversion of biomass to bioproducts. Because of the huge number of chemical products that can be potentially manufactured, a selection of starting materials and targeted chemicals has been done. Also, thermochemical conversion processes such as biomass pyrolysis or gasification as well as the synthesis of biofuels were not considered. The synthesis of chemicals by conversion of platform molecules obtained by depolymerisation and fermentation of biopolymers is presently the most widely envisioned approach. Successful catalytic conversion of these building blocks into intermediates, specialties and fine chemicals will be examined. However, the platform molecule value chain is in competition with well-optimised, cost-effective synthesis routes from fossil resources to produce chemicals that have already a market. The literature covering alternative value chains whereby biopolymers are converted in one or few steps to functional materials will be analysed. This approach which does not require the use of isolated, pure chemicals is well adapted to produce high tonnage products, such as paper additives, paints, resins, foams, surfactants, lubricants, and plasticisers. Another objective of the review was to examine critically the green character of conversion processes because using renewables as raw materials does not exempt from abiding by green chemistry principles (368 references).

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, E. C. D.; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, A.; Hensley, J.; Schaidle, J.; Biddy, M.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  8. Biomass Conversion Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-05

    To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today’s vehicles and infrastructure.

  9. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  10. Effects of thermo-chemical pre-treatment on anaerobic biodegradability and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, T.; Klaasse Bos, G.J.; Zeeman, G.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of different thermo-chemical pre-treatment methods were determined on the biodegradability and hydrolysis rate of lignocellulosic biomass. Three plant species, hay, straw and bracken were thermo-chemically pre-treated with calcium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate and maleic acid. After pre-

  11. Testing of an advanced thermochemical conversion reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of work conducted by MTCI to verify and confirm experimentally the ability of the MTCI gasification process to effectively generate a high-quality, medium-Btu gas from a wider variety of feedstock and waste than that attainable in air-blown, direct gasification systems. The system's overall simplicity, due to the compact nature of the pulse combustor, and the high heat transfer rates attainable within the pulsating flow resonance tubes, provide a decided and near-term potential economic advantage for the MTCI indirect gasification system. The primary objective of this project was the design, construction, and testing of a Process Design Verification System for an indirectly heated, thermochemical fluid-bed reactor and a pulse combustor an an integrated system that can process alternative renewable sources of energy such as biomass, black liquor, municipal solid waste and waste hydrocarbons, including heavy oils into a useful product gas. The test objectives for the biomass portion of this program were to establish definitive performance data on biomass feedstocks covering a wide range of feedstock qualities and characteristics. The test objectives for the black liquor portion of this program were to verify the operation of the indirect gasifier on commercial black liquor containing 65 percent solids at several temperature levels and to characterize the bed carbon content, bed solids particle size and sulfur distribution as a function of gasification conditions. 6 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  12. A review on conversion of biomass to biofuel by nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Akia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The world’s increasing demand for energy has led to an increase in fossil fuel consumption. However this source of energy is limited and is accompanied with pollution problems. The availability and wide diversity of biomass resources have made them an attractive and promising source of energy. The conversion of biomass to biofuel has resulted in the production of liquid and gaseous fuels that can be used for different means methods such as thermochemical and biological processes. Thermochemical processes as a major conversion route which include gasification and direct liquefaction are applied to convert biomass to more useful biofuel. Catalytic processes are increasingly applied in biofuel development. Nanocatalysts play an important role in improving product quality and achieving optimal operating conditions. Nanocatalysts with a high specific surface area and high catalytic activity may solve the most common problems of heterogeneous catalysts such as mass transfer resistance, time consumption, fast deactivation and inefficiency. In this regard attempts to develop new types of nanocatalysts have been increased. Among the different biofuels produced from biomass, biodiesel has attained a great deal of attention. Nanocatalytic conversion of biomass to biodiesel has been reported using different edible and nonedible feedstock. In most research studies, the application of nanocatalysts improves yield efficiency at relatively milder operating conditions compared to the bulk catalysts.

  13. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  14. Fuels production by the thermochemical transformation of the biomass; La production de carburants par transformation thermochimique de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, G. [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The biomass is a local and renewable energy source, presenting many advantages. This paper proposes to examine the biomass potential in France, the energy valorization channels (thermochemical chains of thermolysis and gasification) with a special interest for the hydrogen production and the research programs oriented towards the agriculture and the forest. (A.L.B.)

  15. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    and supply chain models specifically for biomass to bioenergy production. The study suggest that this species can be profitably managed for biomass production with rotation length of 11 to 12 years and with a stand tree density of 1,200 trees per acre. Optimum rotation length is greatly affected by seedlings costs and biomass productivity. In the fourth study, a evaluation of seven different feedstocks (loblolly pine, natural mixed hardwood, Eucalyptus, switchgrass, miscanthus, corn stover and sweet sorghum) is made in terms of supply chain, biomass delivered costs, dollar per ton of carbohydrate and dollar per million BTU delivered to a biorefinery. Forest feedstocks present better advantages in terms of a well established supply chain, year round supply and no need for biomass storage. In the same context biomass delivered costs, as well as cost to delivered one ton of carbohydrate and one million BTU is lower in forest feedstocks. In the fifth study, conversion costs, profitability and sensitivity analysis for a novel pretreatment process, green liquor, are modeled for ethanol production with loblolly pine, natural mixed hardwood and Eucalyptus as feedstocks, evaluated in two investment scenarios: green field and repurposing of an old kraft pulp mill. Better financial returns are perceived in the natural hardwood - repurposing scenario, mainly due to lower CAPEX and lower enzyme charge and cost. In the sixth study, conversion cost, CAPEX, ethanol yield and profitability for the thermochemical process (indirect gasification and production of mixed alcohol) is simulated for loblolly pine, natural hardwood, eucalyptus, corn stover and switchgrass. Higher ethanol yield with forest feedstock (due to higher content of %C and %H) result in better economic performance, when compare to agriculture biomass. This research indicates that forest feedstock outperform agriculture biomass in terms of delivered costs, supply chain, ethanol yield and process profitability. Loblolly

  16. Numerical investigation of a straw combustion boiler – Part I: Modelling of the thermo-chemical conversion of straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dernbecher Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a European project, a straw combustion boiler in conjunction with an organic Rankine cycle is developed. One objective of the project is the enhancement of the combustion chamber by numerical methods. A comprehensive simulation of the combustion chamber is prepared, which contains the necessary submodels for the thermo-chemical conversion of straw and for the homogeneous gas phase reactions. Part I introduces the modelling approach for the thermal decomposition of the biomass inside the fuel bed, whereas part II deals with the simulation of the gas phase reactions in the freeboard.

  17. Technical-economic assessment of the production of methanol from biomass. Conversion process analysis. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, E.I.; Simmons, J.A.; Price, J.D.; Nguyen, T.D.

    1979-07-12

    A comprehensive engineering system study was conducted to assess various thermochemical processes suitable for converting biomass to methanol. A summary of the conversion process study results is presented here, delineating the technical and economic feasibilities of producing methanol fuel from biomass utilizing the currently available technologies. (MHR)

  18. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  19. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to the plethora of chemicals used in modern society is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Due to the significant differences between biomass resources and the current feedstock, crude oil, new technologies need to be developed encompassing all steps...... in the value chain, from pretreatment to purification. Heterogeneous catalysis is at the heart of the petrochemical refinery and will likely play an equally important role in the future biomass-based chemical industry. Three potentially important routes to chemicals from biomass are highlighted in this chapter....... The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source of biomass...

  20. Evaluation energy efficiency of bioconversion knot rejects to ethanol in comparison to other thermochemically pretreated biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojiang; Qin, Menghua; Zhu, J Y; Tian, Guoyu; Li, Zongquan

    2013-02-01

    Rejects from sulfite pulp mill that otherwise would be disposed of by incineration were converted to ethanol by a combined physical-biological process that was comprised of physical refining and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The energy efficiency was evaluated with comparison to thermochemically pretreated biomass, such as those pretreated by dilute acid (DA) and sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL). It was observed that the structure deconstruction of rejects by physical refining was indispensable to effective bioconversion but more energy intensive than that of thermochemically pretreated biomass. Fortunately, the energy consumption was compensated by the reduced enzyme dosage and the elevated ethanol yield. Furthermore, adjustment of disk-plates gap led to reduction in energy consumption with negligible influence on ethanol yield. In this context, energy efficiency up to 717.7% was achieved for rejects, much higher than that of SPORL sample (283.7%) and DA sample (152.8%).

  1. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the inventi

  2. Bioenergy II : Biomass Valorisation by a Hybrid Thermochemical Fractionation Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, Paul J.; den Uil, Herman; Reith, Johannes H.; Lunshof, Anton; Hendriks, Carlijn; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; Heeres, Erik J.

    2009-01-01

    The need for green renewable sources is adamant because of the adverse effects of the increasing use of fossil fuels on our society. Biomass has been considered as a very attractive candidate for green energy carriers, chemicals and materials. The development of cheap and efficient fractionation tec

  3. Enzyme nanoassemblies for biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass represents a vast resource for the production of the world’s fuel and chemical feedstock needs. The use of enzymes to effect these bioconversions offers an alternative that is potentially more specific and environmentally-friendly than harsher chemical methodologies. Some species of anaero...

  4. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to liquid energy sources; Hydrothermale Konversion von Biomasse zu fluessigen Energietraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Michael; Peters, Mario; Klemm, Marco; Nelles, Michael [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Beside thermo-chemical processes like pyrolysis, torrefaction and gasification another process group called hydrothermal conversion of biomass comes into the focus of research and development. Especially for wet biomass this process has several advantages: as the reaction medium is water wet biomass not needs to be dried. Beside the reaction pathways, which are still not completely understood, it is important to investigate reactor concepts. That gives the possibility to continuously process the given biomass to deduce specific process conditions for the production of chemicals and fuels. Experiments were conducted in a newly developed tubular reactor at temperatures from 150 to 270 C and reaction times from 1 to 6 min. By studying the HPLC analysis of the liquid products the formation and degradation of several products which may be utilized as base materials for chemicals and fuels (furfural, 5-HMF etc.) was conducted. The experiments illustrate the possibility to influence product composition to a certain extend only by varying temperature and time of the hydrothermal process. That could result in an economic and feasible way to produce intermediate chemicals from biomass. In a second step these product analysis will be used to develop catalysts and investigate the possibilities of in-situ-hydrogenation and synthesis of further valuable chemicals and fuels. (orig.)

  5. Thermochemical recovery of heat contained in flue gases by means of bioethanol conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchenko, D. I.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper consideration is being given to the use of bioethanol in the schemes of thermochemical recovery of heat contained in exit flue gases. Schematic diagrams illustrate the realization of thermochemical heat recovery by implementing ethanol steam conversion and conversion of ethanol by means of products of its complete combustion. The feasibility of attaining a high degree of recovery of heat contained in flue gases at the moderate temperature (up to 450°C) of combustion components is demonstrated in the example of the energy balance of the system for thermochemical heat recovery. The simplified thermodynamic analysis of the process of ethanol steam conversion was carried out in order to determine possible ranges of variation of process variables (temperature, pressure, composition) of a reaction mixture providing the efficient heat utilization. It was found that at the temperature above 600 K the degree of ethanol conversion is near unity. The equilibrium composition of products of reaction of ethanol steam conversion has been identified for different temperatures at which the process occurs at the ratio H2O/EtOH = 1 and at the pressure of 0.1 MPa. The obtained results of calculation agree well with the experimental data.

  6. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  7. Comparative study of thermochemical processes for hydrogen production from biomass fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Masoni, Lorenzo; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2010-08-01

    Different thermochemical configurations (gasification, combustion, electrolysis and syngas separation) are studied for producing hydrogen from biomass fuels. The aim is to provide data for the production unit and the following optimization of the "hydrogen chain" (from energy source selection to hydrogen utilization) in the frame of the Italian project "Filiera Idrogeno". The project focuses on a regional scale (Tuscany, Italy), renewable energies and automotive hydrogen. Decentred and small production plants are required to solve the logistic problems of biomass supply and meet the limited hydrogen infrastructures. Different options (gasification with air, oxygen or steam/oxygen mixtures, combustion, electrolysis) and conditions (varying the ratios of biomass and gas input) are studied by developing process models with uniform hypothesis to compare the results. Results obtained in this work concern the operating parameters, process efficiencies, material and energetic needs and are fundamental to optimize the entire hydrogen chain.

  8. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus

  9. Thermochemical Conversion of Lignin for Fuels and Chemicals: A Review Conversion thermochimique de la lignine en carburants et produits chimiques : une revue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffres B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is one of the biomass components potentially usable as renewable resource to produce fuels or chemicals. After separation from the lignocellulosic matrix, this macromolecule is nowadays essentially valorized by combustion in paper mills. If second generation ethanol is produced in the future from lignocellulosic biomass, some increasing reserves of lignin will be available in addition to the ones coming from the paper industry. The main thermochemical ways such as pyrolysis, solvolysis, hydrothermal conversion and hydroconversion considered for the valorization of the lignin are reviewed in this article. La lignine est une des composantes de la biomasse lignocellulosique potentiellement valorisable comme ressource renouvelable pour la production de carburants ou de produits chimiques. Après séparation de la matrice lignocellulosique, cette macromolécule est de nos jours essentiellement utilisée comme combustible dans l’industrie papetière. Outre cette filière papetière, la production d’éthanol de seconde génération à partir de la cellulose aura comme conséquence la mise à disponibilité d’encore plus grandes quantités de lignine. De nouvelles applications pourront donc être proposées pour l’utilisation de cette bio-ressource. Les différentes voies thermochimiques : pyrolyse, solvolyse, conversion hydrothermale et hydroconversion envisagées pour la valorisation de la lignine sont décrites dans cet article.

  10. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol) from biomass, which has been to some degree successful, its conversion to high value-added chemicals is equally important. Among various biomass conversion pathways, catalytic conversion is usually preferred, as it provides a cost-effective and eco-benign route to the desired products with high selectivities. The research of this thesis is focused on the conversion of biomass to various chemicals of commercial interest by selective catalytic oxidation. Molecular oxygen is chosen as the oxidant considering its low cost and environment friendly features in comparison with commonly used hydrogen peroxide. However, the activation of molecular oxygen usually requires high reaction temperatures, leading to over oxidation and thus lower selectivities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop effective catalysts for such conversion systems. We use kegging-type heteropoly acids (HPAs) as a platform for catalysts design because of their high catalytic activities and ease of medication. Using HPA catalysts allows the conversion taking place at relatively low temperature, which is beneficial to saving production cost as well as to improving the reaction selectivity. The strong acidity of HPA promotes the hydrolysis of biomass of giant molecules (e.g. cellulose), which is the first as well as the most difficult step in the conversion process. Under certain circumstances, a HPA combines the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, acting as an efficient homogeneous catalyst during the reaction while being easily separated as a heterogeneous catalyst after the reaction. We have successfully applied HPAs in several biomass conversion systems. Specially, we prepared a HPA-based bi-functional catalyst

  11. Fundamental study of novel mid-and low-temperature solar thermochemical energy conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to application of mid-and low-temperature solar thermochemical technology was in-troduced and investigated.Concentrated solar thermal energy in the range of 150―300℃ can be effi-ciently converted into high-grade solar fuel by integrating this technique with the endothermic reaction of hydrocarbons.The conversion mechanism of upgrading the low-grade solar thermal energy to high-grade chemical energy was examined based on the energy level.The new mechanism was used to integrate two novel solar thermal power systems:A solar/methanol fuel hybrid thermal power plant and a solar-hybrid combined cycle with inherent CO2 separation using chemical-looping combustion,for developing highly efficient solar energy use to generate electricity.An innovative prototype of a 5-kW solar receiver/reactor,as the key process for realizing the proposed system,was designed and manu-factured.Furthermore,experimental validation of energy conversion of the mid-and low-temperature solar thermochemical processes were conducted.In addition,a second practical and viable approach to the production of hydrogen,in combination with the novel mid-and low-temperature solar thermo-chemical process,was proposed and demonstrated experimentally in the manufactured solar re-ceiver/reactor prototype through methanol steam reforming.The results obtained here indicate that the development of mid-and low-temperature solar thermochemical technology may provide a promising and new direction to efficient utilization of low-grade solar thermal energy,and may enable step-wise approaches to cost-effective,globally scalable solar energy systems.

  12. Fundamental study of novel mid- and low-temperature solar thermochemical energy conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN HongGuang; HONG Hui; SUI Jun; LIU QiBin

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to application of mid- and low-temperature solar thermochemical technology was in-troduced and investigated. Concentrated solar thermal energy in the range of 150--300℃ can be effi-ciently converted into high-grade solar fuel by integrating this technique with the endothermic reaction of hydrocarbons. The conversion mechanism of upgrading the low-grade solar thermal energy to high-grade chemical energy was examined based on the energy level. The new mechanism was used to integrate two novel solar thermal power systems: A solar/methanol fuel hybrid thermal power plant and a solar-hybrid combined cycle with inherent CO2 separation using chemical-looping combustion, for developing highly efficient solar energy use to generate electricity. An innovative prototype of a 5-kW solar receiver/reactor, as the key process for realizing the proposed system, was designed and manu-factured. Furthermore, experimental validation of energy conversion of the mid- and low-temperature solar thermochemical processes were conducted. In addition, a second practical and viable approach to the production of hydrogen, in combination with the novel mid- and low-temperature solar thermo-chemical process, was proposed and demonstrated experimentally in the manufactured solar re-ceiver/reactor prototype through methanol steam reforming. The results obtained here indicate that the development of mid- and low-temperature solar thermochemical technology may provide a promising and new direction to efficient utilization of low-grade solar thermal energy, and may enable step-wise approaches to cost-effective, globally scalable solar energy systems.

  13. Valorization of agroindustrial solid residues and residues from biofuel production chains by thermochemical conversion: a review, citing Brazil as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Virmond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides high industrial development, Brazil is also an agribusiness country. Each year about 330 million metrics tons (Mg of biomass residues are generated, requiring tremendous effort to develop biomass systems in which production, conversion and utilization of bio-based products are carried out efficiently and under environmentally sustainable conditions. For the production of biofuels, organic chemicals and materials, it is envisaged to follow a biorefinery model which includes modern and proven green chemical technologies such as bioprocessing, pyrolysis, gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and other catalytic processes in order to make more complex molecules and materials on which a future sustainable society will be based. This paper presents promising options for valorization of Brazilian agroindustrial biomass sources and residues originating from the biofuel production chains as renewable energy sources and addresses the main aspects of the thermochemical technologies which have been applied.

  14. Biomass recalcitrance: a multi-scale, multi-factor, and conversion-specific property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2015-07-01

    Recalcitrance of plant biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis for biofuel production is thought to be a property conferred by lignin or lignin-carbohydrate complexes. However, chemical catalytic and thermochemical conversion pathways, either alone or in combination with biochemical and fermentative pathways, now provide avenues to utilize lignin and to expand the product range beyond ethanol or butanol. To capture all of the carbon in renewable biomass, both lignin-derived aromatics and polysaccharide-derived sugars need to be transformed by catalysts to liquid hydrocarbons and high-value co-products. We offer a new definition of recalcitrance as those features of biomass which disproportionately increase energy requirements in conversion processes, increase the cost and complexity of operations in the biorefinery, and/or reduce the recovery of biomass carbon into desired products. The application of novel processing technologies applied to biomass reveal new determinants of recalcitrance that comprise a broad range of molecular, nanoscale, and macroscale factors. Sampling natural genetic diversity within a species, transgenic approaches, and synthetic biology approaches are all strategies that can be used to select biomass for reduced recalcitrance in various pretreatments and conversion pathways.

  15. Biomass Conversion into Solid Composite Fuel for Bed-Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the conversion of different types of biomass into solid composite fuel. The subject of research is the heat conversion of biomass into solid composite fuel. The research object is the biomass of the Tomsk region (Russia: peat, waste wood, lake sapropel. Physical experiment of biomass conversion is used as method of research. The new experimental unit for thermal conversion of biomass into carbon residue, fuel gas and pyrolysis condensate is described. As a result of research such parameters are obtained: thermotechnical biomass characteristics, material balances and product characteristics of the heat-technology conversion. Different methods of obtaining solid composite fuel from the products of thermal technologies are considered. As a result, it is established: heat-technology provides efficient conversion of the wood chips and peat; conversion of the lake sapropel is inefficient since the solid composite fuel has the high ash content and net calorific value.

  16. Biomass as an energy source: thermodynamic constraints on the performance of the conversion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, M; Baggio, P; Fiori, L; Grigiante, M

    2008-10-01

    In the present work an equilibrium model (gas-solid), based on the minimization of the Gibbs energy, has been used in order to estimate the theoretical yield and the equilibrium composition of the reaction products (syngas and char) of biomass thermochemical conversion processes (pyrolysis and gasification). The data obtained from this model have also been used to calculate the heating value of the fuel gas, in order to evaluate the overall energy efficiency of the thermal conversion stage. The proposed model has been applied both to partial oxidation and steam gasification processes with varying air to biomass (ER) and steam to carbon (SC) ratio values and using different feedstocks; the obtained results have been compared with experimental data and with other model predictions obtaining a satisfactory agreement.

  17. Process and apparatus for the conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  18. Zeolite-catalyzed biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Yang, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been a central element in the efficient conversion of fossil resources to fuels and chemicals, but their role in biomass utilization is more ambiguous. Zeolites constitute a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts and developments in recent years have demonstrated...... their potential to find broad use in the conversion of biomass. In this perspective we review and discuss the developments that have taken place in the field of biomass conversion using zeolites. Emphasis is put on the conversion of lignocellulosic material to fuels using conventional zeolites as well...

  19. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Leslie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  20. Lignin biomass conversion into chemicals and fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melián Rodríguez, Mayra

    Second-generation biomass or lignocellulosic biomass, which is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is a very important and promising feedstock for the renewable production of fuels and chemicals of the future. Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer, representing 30......% of the weight and 40% of the energy content of lignocellulosic biomass. While designated applications for cellulose already exist in form of the current pulp and paper production as well as its prospective hydrolysis and fermentation into biofuels (mainly bioethanol), sustainable ways to valorize the lignin...

  1. Lactic acid fermentation-aided biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.M. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1996-09-01

    The preservation of fisheries biomass by lactic acid fermentation is discussed. This method is favourably compared to acid ensiling and fish meal production in terms of safety considerations, energy requirements, simplicity of process and product quality. (Author)

  2. Photon up-conversion increases biomass yield in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kavya R; Jose, Steffi; Suraishkumar, Gadi K

    2014-12-01

    Photon up-conversion, a process whereby lower energy radiations are converted to higher energy levels via the use of appropriate phosphor systems, was employed as a novel strategy for improving microalgal growth and lipid productivity. Photon up-conversion enables the utilization of regions of the solar spectrum, beyond the typical photosynthetically active radiation, that are usually wasted or are damaging to the algae. The effects of up-conversion of red light by two distinct sets of up-conversion phosphors were studied in the model microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Up-conversion by set 1 phosphors led to a 2.85 fold increase in biomass concentration and a 3.2 fold increase in specific growth rate of the microalgae. While up-conversion by set 2 phosphors resulted in a 30% increase in biomass and 12% increase in specific intracellular neutral lipid, while the specific growth rates were comparable to that of the control. Furthermore, up-conversion resulted in higher levels of specific intracellular reactive oxygen species in C. vulgaris. Up-conversion of red light (654 nm) was shown to improve biomass yields in C. vulgaris. In principle, up-conversion can be used to increase the utilization range of the electromagnetic spectrum for improved cultivation of photosynthetic systems such as plants, algae, and microalgae.

  3. Nanostructure enzyme assemblies for biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass represents a vast resource for production of the world’s fuel and chemical feedstock needs. The use of enzymes to effect these bioconversions offers an alternative that is potentially more specific and environmentally-friendly than harsher chemical methodologies. Some species of anaerobic ...

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Tan, Eric; Dutta, Abhijit; Jacobson, Jacob; Cafferty, Kara

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.; Meyer, P.; Snowden-Swan, L.; Padmaperuma, A.; Tan, E.; Dutta, A.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  6. AVAILABILITY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RESIDUES FROM MAJOR AGRICULTURAL CROPS FOR ENERGY CONVERSION THROUGH THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant residues from the major agricultural crops (wheat, rice, corn, soybean, sugarcane, coffee and cotton are abundantly available renewable resources that can be used to supply energy through thermochemical conversion processes. The available amounts of plant residues from these crops and their physical properties (moisture content, particle size, bulk density and porosity were determined. The annual residues from the wheat, rice, corn, soybean, sugarcane, coffee and cotton were 763.42, 698.10, 1729.92, 416.62, 16.85, 4.01 and 107.13 million tons, respectively. The total amount of plant residues was estimated at 3736.05 million tons with total energy content of 66.92 EJ. These residues can replace 2283.52 million tons of coal, 1551.78 million tons of oil and 1847.63 million m3 of natural gas. The moisture contents were 7.79, 6.58, 6.40, 7.30, 8.15, 7.86 and 7.45% for the wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, soybean stalk, sugarcane stalk, coffee husk and cotton stalk, respectively. The corn stalk and sugarcane stalk had a convex particle size distribution, the soybean stalk and cotton stalk had a concave particle size distribution, the wheat straw and rice straw had an increasing trend particle size distribution and the coffee husk had a decreasing trend particle size distribution. The average particle sizes for the wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, soybean stalk, sugarcane stalk, coffee husk and cotton stalk were 0.42, 0.40, 0.49, 0.43, 0.55, 0.67 and 0.38 mm, respectively. The average bulk density was 160.75, 166.29, 127.32, 242.34, 110.86, 349.06 and 230.55 kg m-3 for the wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, soybean stalk, sugarcane stalk, coffee husk and cotton stalk, respectively. The average porosity was 51.25, 83.20, 58.51, 68.03, 77.58, 64.85 and 74.55% for the wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, soybean stalk, sugarcane stalk, coffee husk and cotton stalk, respectively. The results obtained from this study indicate that different

  7. Subcritical hydrothermal conversion of organic wastes and biomass. Reaction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amadeus Castro Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal conversion is a procedure which emulates organic matter’s natural conversion into bio-crude having physical and chemical properties analogous to petroleum. The artificial transformation of biomass requi- res previous knowledge of the main reaction routes and product availability. The main component of biomass (depolymerisation by hydrolysis is presented in hydrothermal cellulose conversion, producing oligosaccharides which exhibit dehydration and retro-aldol condensation reactions for transforming into furfurals and carboxylic acids. Other biomass components (such as lignin, proteins, and fat esters present both hydrolysis and pyrolysis reaction routes. As long as biomass mainly contains carbohydrates, subcritical hydrothermal conversion products and their wastes will be fundamentally analogous to those displaying cellulose. These substances have added- value by far surpassing raw material’s acquisition cost. When the main hydrothermal conversion products’ O/C, H/C molar ratios as reported in literature are plotted, an evolutionary tralectory for conversion products appears to be closely or even overlapped with fossil fuels’ geological evolution.

  8. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  9. Potential of summer legumes for thermochemical conversion to synthetic fuel in the southeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallow periods during the summer in some crop rotations of the Southeast USA could potentially be used to grow feedstocks for energy production. The objective of this study was to evaluate Crotolaria juncea and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) as species to be used as feedstocks for thermochemical conver...

  10. Evaluation of the conversion efficiency of the 180Nm3/h Johansson Biomass Gasifier™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntshengedzeni S. Mamphweli, Edson L. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification is the thermochemical conversion of biomass materials into a producer gas, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, nitrogen and water vapour. The 180Nm3/h System Johansson Biomass Gasifier (SJBG at Eskom research and Innovation Centre is used for research and development initiatives, and also for demonstration purposes. The aim of this research was to investigate the efficiency of the gasifier and. This is done through an analysis of the gas profiles at the gasifier using a custom-built gas and temperature measurement system. Non-Dispersive Infrared gas detection technique is applied to monitor the volume and quality of producer gas. Palladium/Nickel gas sensing is applied to monitor the hydrogen content in the gas stream. Temperature in the gasifier is monitored through the use of type K thermocouples. The gas and temperature sensors are connected to the data logger interfaced to a computer. The heating value of the producer gas was determined from the percentage composition of the combustible gases. Evaluation of the efficiency of this gasifier was done before the installation of a 300Nm3/h at a rural village. The gasifier achieved an efficiency of 75% with an average gas heating value of 6MJ/Nm3.

  11. Biomass energy conversion workshop for industrial executives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The rising costs of energy and the risks of uncertain energy supplies are increasingly familiar problems in industry. Bottom line profits and even the simple ability to operate can be affected by spiralling energy costs. An often overlooked alternative is the potential to turn industrial waste or residue into an energy source. On April 9 and 10, 1979, in Claremont, California, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the Western Solar Utilization Network (WSUN) held a workshop which provided industrial managers with current information on using residues and wastes as industrial energy sources. Successful industrial experiences were described by managers from the food processing and forest product industries, and direct combustion and low-Btu gasification equipment was described in detail. These speakers' presentations are contained in this document. Some major conclusions of the conference were: numerous current industrial applications of wastes and residues as fuels are economic and reliable; off-the-shelf technologies exist for converting biomass wastes and residues to energy; a variety of financial (tax credits) and institutional (PUC rate structures) incentives can help make these waste-to-energy projects more attractive to industry. However, many of these incentives are still being developed and their precise impact must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  12. Biomass conversion. The interface of biotechnology, chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskar, Chinnappan [Myongji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology; Baskar, Shikha [Uttarakhand Technical Univ. (India). THDC Inst. of Hydropower Engineering and Technology, Tehri; Dhillon, Ranjit S. (eds.) [Punjab Aricultural Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-11-01

    Gives state-of-the-art of biomass conversion plus future development. Connects the applications into the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science. Written by international experts. The consumption of petroleum has surged during the 20th century, at least partially because of the rise of the automobile industry. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas provide more than three quarters of the world's energy. Unfortunately, the growing demand for fossil fuel resources comes at a time of diminishing reserves of these nonrenewable resources. The worldwide reserves of oil are sufficient to supply energy and chemicals for only about another 40 years, causing widening concerns about rising oil prices. The use of biomass to produce energy is only one form of renewable energy that can be utilized to reduce the impact of energy production and use on the global environment. Biomass can be converted into three main products such as energy, biofuels and fine chemicals using a number of different processes. Today, it is a great challenge for researchers to find new environmentally benign methodology for biomass conversion, which are industrially profitable as well. This book focuses on the conversion of biomass to biofuels, bioenergy and fine chemicals with the interface of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry and materials science. An international scientific authorship summarizes the state-of-the-art of the current research and gives an outlook on future developments.

  13. Methods to improve biomass quality for thermal conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardona Zea, D.A.; Hein, L.G.; Elbersen, H.W.; Poppens, R.P.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2011-01-01

    The utilisation of biomass for thermal conversion present limitations in terms of the content of ash and inorganic minerals producing different problems in the combustion systems. Implementing some methods at the growing, harvesting and pre-processing phases upstream in the production chain, increas

  14. Inorganic Species Behaviour in Thermochemical Processes for Energy Biomass Valorisation Comportement des espèces inorganiques dans les procédés thermochimiques de valorisation énergétique de la biomasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froment K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic species from biomass (wood or agricultural waste exhibit large variations in compositions and amounts, depending on the origin of the biomass (nature, growing conditions and location. Different thermal conversion processes (combustion, pyrolysis, gasification or other and various technologies (grate furnace, fixed or fluidized bed, entrained flow reactor using biomass, provide a wide variety of operating conditions with differences in atmosphere, pressure and temperature. During any thermal process and mainly depending on initial composition of the biomass, process temperature and atmosphere, some of the inorganic species react and may form liquid or gas compounds, alone or combined with other species: they may either be trapped at different locations during the process or released in the gas. The potential interactions of inorganic species with reactor walls, bed materials (in fluidized bed reactors, transfer lines and downstream process units are not well understood for most species. Both technical and economic issues about inorganic species behaviour are probably growing to become important in a near future: pressure on timber markets is growing and prices have already been rising : one solution is to replace this noble and "clean" resource (wood by ash richer feedstock, like straw, dedicated energetic cultures, agricultural or even municipal solid waste. Biogas production from waste deposits is a good example to show how waste can be valorised. Going further (thermochemical conversion with such ash rich feedstock will increase the potential of their re-use but also the technical difficulties in a dramatic extent; soil enrichment for the agriculture currently largely depends on the re-use of biomass, completed with artificial fertilisers. The question how to re-use the inorganic material in biomass after thermo-chemical conversion is an important subject. The objective of this paper is to present a global review of the technological

  15. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion.

  16. Biomass Conversion to Produce Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuel Via Hot-vapor Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydrotreating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huamin; Elliott, Douglas C; French, Richard J; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2016-12-25

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels. Among the various thermochemical and biochemical routes, fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrotreating is considered to be a promising near-term opportunity. This paper reports on experimental methods used 1) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-oils in a fluidized-bed reactor and 2) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oils in a two-stage, fixed-bed, continuous-flow catalytic reactor. The configurations of the reactor systems, the operating procedures, and the processing and analysis of feedstocks, bio-oils, and biofuels are described in detail in this paper. We also demonstrate hot-vapor filtration during fast pyrolysis to remove fine char particles and inorganic contaminants from bio-oil. Representative results showed successful conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuel-range hydrocarbon biofuels and, specifically, the effect of hot-vapor filtration on bio-oil production and upgrading. The protocols provided in this report could help to generate rigorous and reliable data for biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreating research.

  17. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project......Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods......, based on severe physio-chemical processes, are effective, however, they are also costly and energy demanding. An alternative biological pretreatment method, based on the well-known biomass preservation of ensiling, has been proposed. Ensiling holds potential as an integrated storage and pretreatment...

  18. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  19. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  20. Effects of hot-water extraction on the thermochemical conversion of shrub willow via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot-water extraction (TM) (HWE) is a pretreatment technology designed to facilitate the subsequent hydrolysis of cellulose by removing the majority of the hemicellulose and ash content from the solid biomass. The HWE process generates salable sugars and other products as part of the process. The bio...

  1. Comprehensive Characterization of Napier Grass as a Feedstock for Thermochemical Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isah Y. Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study on Napier grass leaf (NGL, stem (NGS and leaf and stem (NGT was carried out. Proximate, ultimate and structural analyses were evaluated. Functional groups and crystalline components in the biomass were examined. Pyrolysis study was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer under nitrogen atmosphere of 20 mL/min at constant heating rate of 10 K/min. The results reveal that Napier grass biomass has high volatile matter, higher heating value, high carbon content and lower ash, nitrogen and sulfur contents. Structural analysis shows that the biomass has considerable cellulose and lignin contents which are good candidates for good quality bio-oil production. From the pyrolysis study, degradation of extractives, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin occurred at temperature around 478, 543, 600 and above 600 K, respectively. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using reaction order model. New equations that described the process were developed using the kinetic parameters and data compared with experimental data. The results of the models fit well to the experimental data. The proposed models may be a reliable means for describing thermal decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass under nitrogen atmosphere at constant heating rate.

  2. Energy Conversion Analysis of a Novel Solar Thermochemical System Coupled with Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vinck, Ian; Ozalp, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuels have been the main supply of power generation for use in manufacturing, transportation, residential and commercial sectors. However, environmentally adverse effects of fossil fuel conversion systems combined with pending shortage raise major concerns. As a promising approach to tackle these challenges, this paper presents a novel energy conversion system comprising of a solar thermal reactor coupled with hydrogen fuel cell and carbon fuel cell for electricity generation. The syst...

  3. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  4. Multiscale Mathematics for Biomass Conversion to Renewable Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plechac, Petr [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2016-03-01

    The overall objective of this project was to develop multiscale models for understanding and eventually designing complex processes for renewables. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first attempt at modeling complex reacting systems, whose performance relies on underlying multiscale mathematics and developing rigorous mathematical techniques and computational algorithms to study such models. Our specific application lies at the heart of biofuels initiatives of DOE and entails modeling of catalytic systems, to enable economic, environmentally benign, and efficient conversion of biomass into either hydrogen or valuable chemicals.

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Pyroligneous Acid Obtained by Thermochemical Conversion of Schisandra chinensis Baill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of renewable resources is a major challenge globally. Biomass is an important renewable energy source and an alternative to fossil fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass is a promising method for simultaneous production of biochar, bio-oil, pyroligneous acid (PA, and gaseous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis process and products yields of Schisandra chinensis fruits with different pyrolysis powers. The obtained PA was extracted with organic solvents, including ethyl formate, dichloromethane, methanol and tetrahydrofuran. The antioxidant activities, including the free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, of the PA extracts were investigated. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were used as positive controls. A dichloromethane extract of PA showed excellent antioxidant properties compared to the other extracts. The chemical compositions of the PA extracts were determined by GC-MS, and further proved that the dichloromethane extract had the best antioxidant characteristics among the extracts tested.

  6. Antioxidant properties of pyroligneous acid obtained by thermochemical conversion of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhui; Li, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development of renewable resources is a major challenge globally. Biomass is an important renewable energy source and an alternative to fossil fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass is a promising method for simultaneous production of biochar, bio-oil, pyroligneous acid (PA), and gaseous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis process and products yields of Schisandra chinensis fruits with different pyrolysis powers. The obtained PA was extracted with organic solvents, including ethyl formate, dichloromethane, methanol and tetrahydrofuran. The antioxidant activities, including the free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, of the PA extracts were investigated. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were used as positive controls. A dichloromethane extract of PA showed excellent antioxidant properties compared to the other extracts. The chemical compositions of the PA extracts were determined by GC-MS, and further proved that the dichloromethane extract had the best antioxidant characteristics among the extracts tested.

  7. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    evaluated under different operating conditions, including catalyst geometry, S/C ratio, O/C ratio, GHSV, and N2 dilution. An understanding of how to optimize catalytic tar removal efficiency by varying operating conditions has been developed. GE collaborated with UoMn in examining inorganic impurities effects. Catalysts were pre-impregnated with inorganic impurities commonly present in biomass gasification syngas, including Si, Ca, Mg, Na, K, P and S. UoMn performed catalyst characterization and has acquired fundamental understandings of impurities effect on catalytic tar removal. Based on experimental data and the proposed reaction pathway, GE constructed a model to predict kinetic performance for biomass gasification tar cleanup process. Experimental data (eg. tar conversion, reactor inlet and outlet temperatures, product distribution) at different operating conditions were used to validate the model. A good fit between model predictions and experimental data was found. This model will be a valuable tool in designing the tar removal reactor and identifying appropriate operating conditions. We attended the 2011 DOE Biomass Program Thermochemical Platform Review held in Denver, CO from February 16 to 18 and received very positive comments from the review panel. Further, syngas utility and biomass to power/fuel companies expressed strong interest in our tar removal technology.

  8. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tokarevsky, V. [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  9. Transformation, Conversion, Storage, Transportation of thermal energy by thermochemical processes and thermo-hydraulic processes

    OpenAIRE

    Stitou, Driss

    2013-01-01

    The research presented aims to meet the major challenges of sustainable management and rational use of energy (transport and storage of heat energy), to develop thermodynamic analysis tools and propose appropriate solutions for minimizing environmental impacts resulting from the transformation or conversion of thermal energy. The different developed themes are based on three axes. The first part concerns the development of thermodynamic analysis tools for the assessment, design and optimizati...

  10. A-xylosidase enhanced conversion of plant biomass into fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Borrusch, Melissa

    2016-08-02

    The invention relates to increasing the availability of fermentable sugars from plant biomass, such as glucose and xylose. As described herein, .alpha.-xylosidases can be employed with cellulases to enhance biomass conversion into free, fermentable sugar residues.

  11. Biomass Conversion in Ionic Liquids - in-situ Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas

    exhibited high initial conversion rates but suffered from pronounced product inhibition. The rates were 2-3 higher if water was removed simultaneously during reaction. Independent of whether water was presence or not activation energies energies were found to be 100-102 kJ/mol. For CrCl2 the initial rates......Due to rising oil prices and global warming caused by CO2 emissions, there is an increased demand for new types of fuels and chemicals derived from biomass. This thesis investigates catalytic conversion of cellulose into sugars in ionic liquids and the important platform chemical 5...... activation energies suggest that the ionic liquid acts co-catalytic by stabilizing the oxocarbenium transition state. The chromium catalyzed conversion of glucose to HMF in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with CrCl3⋅6H2O and CrCl2 as catalysts was investigated. The CrCl3⋅6H2O catalyst...

  12. Biomass conversion and expansion factors are afected by thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Duque Enes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of Biomass Conversion and Expansion Factors (BCEFs in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. stands subjected to thinning.Area of the study: The study area refers to different ecosystems of maritime pine stands inNorthern Portugal.Material and methods: The study is supported by time data series and cross sectional data collected in permanent plots established in the North of Portugal. An assessment of BCEF values for the aboveground compartments and for total was completed for each studied stand. Identification of key variables affecting the value of the BCEFs in time and with thinning was conducted using correlation analysis. Predictive models for estimation of the BCEFs values in time and after thinning were developed using nonlinear regression analysis.Research highlights: For periods of undisturbed growth, the results show an allometric relationship between the BCEFs, the dominant height and the mean diameter. Management practices such as thinning also influence the factors. Estimates of the ratio change before and after thinning depend on thinning severity and thinning type. The developed models allow estimating the biomass of the stands, for the aboveground compartments and for total, based on information of stand characteristics and of thinning descriptors. These estimates can be used to assess the forest dry wood stocks to be used for pulp, bioenergy or other purposes, as well as the biomass quantification to support the evaluation of the net primary productivity.Keywords: carbon; softwood; thinning; volume; wood energy; maritime pine.

  13. Ergosterol-to-Biomass Conversion Factors for Aquatic Hyphomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Mark O.; Chauvet, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen strains of aquatic hyphomycete species that are common on decaying leaves in running waters were grown in liquid culture and analyzed for total ergosterol contents. Media included an aqueous extract from senescent alder leaves, a malt extract broth, and a glucose-mineral salt solution. Concentrations of ergosterol in fungal mycelium ranged from 2.3 to 11.5 mg/g of dry mass. The overall average was 5.5 mg/g. Differences among both species and growth media were highly significant but followed no systematic pattern. Stationary-phase mycelium had ergosterol contents 10 to 12% lower or higher than mycelium harvested during the growth phase, but these differences were only significant for one of four species examined. Availability of plant sterols in the growth medium had no clear effect on ergosterol concentrations in two species tested. To convert ergosterol contents determined in field samples to biomass values of aquatic hyphomycetes, a general multiplicative factor of 182 is proposed. More accurate estimates would be obtained with species-specific factors. Using these in combination with estimates of the proportion of the dominant species in a naturally established community on leaves resulted in biomass estimates that were typically 20% lower than those obtained with the general conversion factor. Improvements of estimates with species-specific factors may be limited, however, by intraspecific variability in fungal ergosterol content. PMID:16348874

  14. MULTISCALE MATHEMATICS FOR BIOMASS CONVERSION TO RENEWABLE HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachos, Dionisios; Plechac, Petr; Katsoulakis, Markos

    2013-09-05

    The overall objective of this project is to develop multiscale models for understanding and eventually designing complex processes for renewables. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first attempt at modeling complex reacting systems, whose performance relies on underlying multiscale mathematics. Our specific application lies at the heart of biofuels initiatives of DOE and entails modeling of catalytic systems, to enable economic, environmentally benign, and efficient conversion of biomass into either hydrogen or valuable chemicals. Specific goals include: (i) Development of rigorous spatio-temporal coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) mathematics and simulation for microscopic processes encountered in biomass transformation. (ii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links stochastic simulation to a deterministic partial differential equation (PDE) model for an entire reactor. (iii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links KMC simulation with quantum density functional theory (DFT) calculations. (iv) Development of parallelization of models of (i)-(iii) to take advantage of Petaflop computing and enable real world applications of complex, multiscale models. In this NCE period, we continued addressing these objectives and completed the proposed work. Main initiatives, key results, and activities are outlined.

  15. Conversion of henequen pulp to microbial biomass by submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blancas, A. (Center of Scientific Research of Yucatan, Merida, Mexico); Alpizar, L.; Larios, G.; Saval, S.; Huitron, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico has cellulosic by-products that could be developed as renewable food sources for animal consumption. Sugarcane bagasse and henequen pulp are the most important of these materials because they are abundant, cheap, renewable, and nontoxic, in addition to being underutilized. A significant research and development effort has centered on the production of single-cell protein from sugarcane begasse. Nevertheless, there are no large-scale processes that utilize this substrate as a source of carbon, probably because of the extensive physical or chemical pretreatment that is needed. Henequen pulp is a by-product which is obtained in large amounts in southeastern Mexico in the process of removing fibers from the leaves of agave (sisal). A group has been working on a fermentative process that will increase the protein content of the henequen pulp by microbial conversion. The primary aim is to carry out the conversion without chemical pretreatment of the substrate and without a separation step for cells and residual substrate. A gram-negative cellulolytic bacteria has been isolated which grows well on microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, and xylane and it is able to convert an appreciable fraction of henequen pulp to microbial biomass. In this article, some results on the effect of substrate and nitrogen source concentration, on the protein enrichment of the henequen pulp, as well as the content of essential amino acids of fermented henequen pulp are presented. 4 figures.

  16. Conversion of Biomass Syngas to DME Using a Microchannel Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Cao, Chunshe; Elliott, Douglas C.; Stevens, Don J.; White, James F.

    2005-03-01

    The capability of a microchannel reactor for direct synthesis of dimethylether (DME) from biomass syngas was explored. The reactor was operated in conjunction with a hybrid catalyst system consisting of methanol synthesis and dehydration catalysts, and the influence of reaction parameters on syngas conversion was investigated. The activities of different dehydration catalysts were compared under DME synthesis conditions. Reaction temperature and pressure exhibited similar positive effects on DME formation. A catalytic stability test of the hybrid catalyst system was performed for 880 hours, during which CO conversion only decreased from 88% to 81%. In the microchannel reactor, the catalyst deactivation rate appeared to be much slower than in a tubular fixed-bed reactor tested for comparison. Test results also indicated that the dehydration reaction rate and the water depletion rate via a water-gas-shift reaction should be compatible in order to achieve high selectivity to DME. Using the microchannel reactor, it was possible to achieve a space time yield almost three times higher than commercially demonstrated performance results. A side-by-side comparison indicated that the heat removal capability of the microchannel reactor was at least six times greater than that of a commercial slurry reactor under similar reaction conditions.

  17. Biological conversion of biomass to methane. Quarterly progress report, September 1--November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T

    1978-12-01

    The viability of wheat straw as a feedstock for methane production by anaerobic digestion was investigated and the results obtained compared with that obtained with corn stover. Poor conversion was obtained with the wheat straw under thermophilic conditions, but better than that obtained with corn. In addition the residue has no value as an animal feed. A mild thermochemical pretreatment of the corn prior to anaerobic digestion improved the conversion efficiency and the value of the residue as an animal feed. It is assumed that similar pretreatment of wheat straw would improve its conversion efficiency. Slurry and pumping characteristics of wheat straw particles were reported. (JSR)

  18. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    2014-05-20

    This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels would reduce society's dependence on nonrenewable petroleum resources while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. The major nonfood component of biomass is lignocellulose, a matrix of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. New approaches are needed to effect facile conversion of lignocellulose solids to liquid fuels and to other chemical precursors without the formation of intractable side products and with sufficient specificity to give economically sustainable product streams. We have devised a novel catalytic system whereby the renewable feedstocks cellulose, organosolv lignin, and even lignocellulose composites such as sawdust are transformed into organic liquids. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH), while the catalyst is a copper-doped porous metal oxide (PMO) prepared from inexpensive, Earth-abundant starting materials. This transformation occurs in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. The reducing equivalents for these transformations are derived by the reforming of MeOH (to H2 and CO), which thereby serves as a "liquid syngas" in the present case. Water generated by deoxygenation processes is quickly removed by the water-gas shift reaction. The Cu-doped PMO serves multiple purposes, catalyzing substrate hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation as well as the methanol reforming and shift reactions. This one-pot "UCSB process" is quantitative, giving little or no biochar residual. Provided is an overview of these catalysis studies beginning with reactions of the model compound dihydrobenzofuran that help define the key processes occurring. The initial step is phenyl-ether bond hydrogenolysis, and this is followed by

  19. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  20. Comparison of thermal conversion methods of different biomass types into gaseous fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, O. M.; Sinelshchikov, V. A.; Sytchev, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    Thermal conversion methods of different biomass types into gaseous fuel are considered. The comparison of the gas mixtures characteristics (volume yield, composition and calorific value) that can be produced from the main biomass types by gasification and pyrolysis is presented. The merits and demerits of these methods are discussed. It is shown that the two-stage pyrolysis technology, which consists of the biomass pyrolysis and the consequent high-temperature conversion of pyrolysis gases and vapors into synthesis gas by filtration through a porous carbon medium, allows to achieve both a high degree of biomass conversion into gaseous fuel and a high energy efficiency.

  1. Contributions at the DGMK conference conversion of biomass. Conferene report; Beitraege zur DGMK-Fachbereichstagung Konversion von Biomassen. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference on conversion of biomass between 10th and 12th May 2010 in Gelsenkirchen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) How much does carbon need humans? (H. Puetter); (2) Enhanced exergy and energetic efficiency of utilization biomass by mean of bio methane and bio-SNG (E. Oettel); (3) Determination of specified costs and ecologic effects of BTL fuels (R. Stahlschmidt); (4) Conversion of cellulose in sugar alcohols as entry point of a biorefinery concept (R. Palkovits); (5) bio coke as a product of substitution for fossil metallurgical coke (S.H. Freitas Seabra da Rocha); (6) About the development of a thermochemical gasification of biomass for combined heat and power generation in Germany in the years 2008/2009 (D. Braekow); (7) Updraft gasification: A status on the harboore technology (R. Heeb); (8) Hydrogen production from biomass by means of an adsorption supported reformation in a dual circulation fluidised-bed plant (A. Schuster); (9) Flow gasification of high viscous suspension fuels (T. Kolb); (10) Gasification of different raw materials in a staged melt gasification with subsequent hot gas cleaning and CO shift catalysis (M. Kleinhappl); (11) Methanization of biogenic syngas - Influence of operation parameters of gasification on gas quality and catalyst deactivation (Th. Kienberger); (12) Bio-SNG - future regenerative energy source in the gas grid of E.ON (M. Adelt); (13) Heterogeneous degradation of pyrolysis oil at activated carbon (W. Wiest); (14) Ti-based Cu/Ni nanocatalyst for steam reformation of model tars (F. Wiedenmann); (15) Cleaning of fuel gas from the gasification of biomass by means of electro filter (H. Oldenburg); (16) Dedusting of product gas behind biomass gasification reactors with Herding {sup registered} ALPHA filter (W. Duerlich); (17) An investigation of enhancement of performance for the utilization of lean gas and syngas in gas motors (J. Krueger); (18) Amount of pollutants in waste

  2. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels wou

  3. A Review of Thermal Co-Conversion of Coal and Biomass/Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime Hilaire Tchapda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is relatively cleaner than coal and is the only renewable carbon resource that can be directly converted into fuel. Biomass can significantly contribute to the world’s energy needs if harnessed sustainably. However, there are also problems associated with the thermal conversion of biomass. This paper investigates and discusses issues associated with the thermal conversion of coal and biomass as a blend. Most notable topics reviewed are slagging and fouling caused by the relatively reactive alkali and alkaline earth compounds (K2O, Na2O and CaO found in biomass ash. The alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM present and dispersed in biomass fuels induce catalytic activity during co-conversion with coal. The catalytic activity is most noticeable when blended with high rank coals. The synergy during co-conversion is still controversial although it has been theorized that biomass acts like a hydrogen donor in liquefaction. Published literature also shows that coal and biomass exhibit different mechanisms, depending on the operating conditions, for the formation of nitrogen (N and sulfur species. Utilization aspects of fly ash from blending coal and biomass are discussed. Recommendations are made on pretreatment options to increase the energy density of biomass fuels through pelletization, torrefaction and flash pyrolysis to reduce transportation costs.

  4. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein.

  5. Holistic analysis of thermochemical processes by using solid biomass for fuel production in Germany; Ganzheitliche Analyse thermochemischer Verfahren bei der Nutzung fester Biomasse zur Kraftstoffproduktion in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henssler, Martin

    2015-04-28

    According to the German act ''Biokraftstoff-Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung'', biofuels must show a CO{sub 2eq}-reduction compared to the fossil reference fuel (83.8 g CO{sub 2eq}/MJ{sub fuel} /Richtlinie 98/70/EG/) of 35 % beginning with 2011. In new plants, which go into operation after the 31.12.2016 the CO{sub 2eq}-savings must be higher than 50 % in 2017 and higher than 60 % in 2018 /Biokraft-NachV/. The biofuels (methyl ester of rapeseed, bioethanol and biomethane) considered in this study do not meet these requirements for new plants. To comply with these rules new processes must be deployed. Alternative thermochemical generated fuels could be an option. The aim of this work is to evaluate through a technical, ecological and economic analysis (Well-to-Wheel) whether and under what conditions the thermochemical production of Fischer-Tropsch-diesel or -gasoline, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) complies with the targets. Four different processes are considered (fast pyrolysis and torrefaction with entrained flow gasifier, CHOREN Carbo-V {sup registered} -gasifier, Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER-) gasifier). Beside residues such as winter wheat straw and residual forest wood, wood from short-rotation plantations is taken into account. The technical analysis showed that at present status (2010) two and in 2050 six plants can be operated energy-self-sufficient. The overall efficiency of the processes is in the range of 41.5 (Fischer-Tropsch-diesel or -gasoline) and 59.4 % (H{sub 2}). Furthermore, it was found that for 2010, all thermochemical produced fuels except the H{sub 2}-production from wood from short-rotation plantations in decentralised or central fast pyrolysis and in decentralised torrefactions with entrained flow gasifier keep the required CO{sub 2eq}-saving of 60 %. In 2050, all thermochemical produced fuels will reach these limits. The CO{sub 2eq}-saving is between 72 (H{sub 2}) and 95 % (Fischer

  6. Potential and challenges of zeolite chemistry in the catalytic conversion of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaert, Thijs; Van Aelst, Joost; Dijkmans, Jan; De Clercq, Rik; Schutyser, Wouter; Dusselier, Michiel; Verboekend, Danny; Sels, Bert F

    2016-02-01

    Increasing demand for sustainable chemicals and fuels has pushed academia and industry to search for alternative feedstocks replacing crude oil in traditional refineries. As a result, an immense academic attention has focused on the valorisation of biomass (components) and derived intermediates to generate valuable platform chemicals and fuels. Zeolite catalysis plays a distinct role in many of these biomass conversion routes. This contribution emphasizes the progress and potential in zeolite catalysed biomass conversions and relates these to concepts established in existing petrochemical processes. The application of zeolites, equipped with a variety of active sites, in Brønsted acid, Lewis acid, or multifunctional catalysed reactions is discussed and generalised to provide a comprehensive overview. In addition, the feedstock shift from crude oil to biomass involves new challenges in developing fields, like mesoporosity and pore interconnectivity of zeolites and stability of zeolites in liquid phase. Finally, the future challenges and perspectives of zeolites in the processing of biomass conversion are discussed.

  7. Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John

    2014-07-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.

  8. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  9. Syngas Production By Thermochemical Conversion Of H2o And Co2 Mixtures Using A Novel Reactor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlman, Howard [Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc, Lancaster, PA (United States); Chen, Chien-Hua [Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc, Lancaster, PA (United States)

    2014-08-27

    The Department of Energy awarded Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) an SBIR Phase II contract (#DE-SC0004729) to develop a high-temperature solar thermochemical reactor for syngas production using water and/or carbon dioxide as feedstocks. The technology aims to provide a renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, promote energy independence and mitigate adverse issues associated with climate change by essentially recycling carbon from carbon dioxide emitted by the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. To commercialize the technology and drive down the cost of solar fuels, new advances are needed in materials development and reactor design, both of which are integral elements in this program.

  10. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps...... in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal...... of fungal habitats and ecological specializations are hot spots for fungal biomass conversion? How can the best fungal enzymes be found and optimized for industrial use? How can they be produced most efficiently-in fungal expression hosts? How have industrial biotechnology and biomass conversion research...

  11. Thermochemical and trace element behavior of coal gangue, agricultural biomass and their blends during co-combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Cheng, Siwei; Fang, Ting; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2014-08-01

    The thermal decomposition behavior of coal gangue, peanut shell, wheat straw and their blends during combustion were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. The coal gangue/agricultural biomass blends were prepared in four weight ratios and oxidized under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C by various heating rates. Kinetic models were carried out to evaluate the thermal reactivity. The overall mass balance was performed to assess the partition behavior of coal gangue, peanut shell and their blends during combustion in a fixed bed reactor. The decomposition processes of agricultural biomass included evaporation, release of volatile matter and combustion as well as char oxidation. The thermal reactivity of coal gangue could be improved through the addition of agricultural biomass in suitable proportion and subsequent appropriate heating rate during combustion. In combination with the heating value and base/acid ratio limitations, a blending ratio of 30% agricultural biomass is conservatively selected as optimum blending.

  12. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

  13. Evaluation of storage methods for the conversion of corn stover biomass to sugars based on steam explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Qin, Lei; Jin, Ming-Jie; Pang, Feng; Li, Bing-Zhi; Kang, Yong; Dale, Bruce E; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-03-01

    Effects of dry and wet storage methods without or with shredding on the conversion of corn stover biomass were investigated using steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugar conversions and yields for wet stored biomass were obviously higher than those for dry stored biomass. Shredding reduced sugar conversions compared with non-shredding, but increased sugar yields. Glucan conversion and glucose yield for non-shredded wet stored biomass reached 91.5% and 87.6% after 3-month storage, respectively. Data of micro-structure and crystallinity of biomass indicated that corn stover biomass maintained the flexible and porous structure after wet storage, and hence led to the high permeability of corn stover biomass and the high efficiency of pretreatment and hydrolysis. Therefore, the wet storage methods would be desirable for the conversion of corn stover biomass to fermentable sugars based on steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  14. Impact of harvest time and switchgrass cultivar on conversion to sugars and pyrolysis oils using biochemical and thermochemical routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial grass native to much of North America, is undergoing development as a dedicated energy crop. While high-biomass yield is necessary for the development of switchgrass as a bioenergy crop, composition of the biomass and nutrient content as they relate to...

  15. Energy conversion of biomass with supercritical and subcritical water using large-scale plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Idzumi; Sako, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting unused or waste biomass as an alternative fuel is currently receiving much attention because of the potential reductions in CO2 emissions and the lower cost in comparison to expensive fossil fuels. If we are to use biomass domestically or industrially, we must be able to convert biomass to high-quality and easy-to-use liquid, gas, or solid fuels that have high-calorific values, low moisture and ash contents, uniform composition, and suitable for stored over long periods. In biomass treatment, hot and high-pressure water including supercritical and subcritical water is an excellent solvent, as it is clean and safe and its action on biomass can be optimized by varying the temperature and pressure. In this article, the conversion of waste biomass to fuel using hot and high-pressure water is reviewed, and the following examples are presented: the production of large amounts of hydrogen from waste biomass, the production of cheap bioethanol from non-food raw materials, and the production of composite powder fuel from refractory waste biomass in the rubble from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Several promising techniques for the conversion of biomass have been demonstrated in large-scale plants and commercial deployment is expected in the near future.

  16. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 1: predictive model for cropland conversion to biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass cultivation requires detailed analysis of spatial production potential of possible biorefinery locations, with emphasis on feedstock production cost minimization. Integrated assessment of publicly available spatial data on current crop production, soil type, and yield potential, coupled with techno-economic production cost estimates, can support a functional method for rapid analysis of potential biorefinery sites. A novel predictive model was developed to determine cropland conversion using a probabilistic profit based equation for multiple biomass crops: giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, and sorghum (with either canola or barley as a winter crop. The three primary regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain were used as a case study and with a single parameter uncertainty analysis was completed. According to the model, the county chosen to represent the Coastal Plain (Duplin County had the largest potential acreage that would be converted (15,071 ha, 7.1% total land, 9.3% of cropland primarily to sorghum with canola as a winter crop. Large portions were also predicted to convert to giant reed and switchgrass, depending on the price and yield parameters used. The Piedmont (Granville County, 7697 ha, 5.5% total land, 6.9% cropland and Mountain (Henderson County, 2117 ha, 2.2% total land, 2.3% cropland regions were predicted to convert primarily to switchgrass acreage for biomass production, with much less available biomass overall compared to the Coastal Plain. This model provided meaningful insight into regional cropping systems and feedstock availability, allowing for improved business planning in designated regions. Determination of cropland conversion is imperative to develop realistic biomass logistical operations, which in conjunction can assist with rapid determination of profitable biomass availability. After this rapid analysis method is conducted in-depth on-ground biorefinery

  18. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scarlata, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, E. C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ross, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Sexton, D. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  19. Planning guide biomass conversion plants consisting of concrete. Planning, dimensioning and operation; Planungshilfe Biogasanlagen aus Beton. Planung, Bemessung, Ausfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middel, Matthias (ed.)

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, the construction of biomass conversion plants for the production of clean energy experienced a boom. This boom will still continue for some years. The operation of biomass conversion plants imposes high demands on the construction. Simultaneously, the operators of biomass conversion plants expect a long trouble-free service life of their plants. Biogas plants consisting of concrete meet these requirements, if these are carefully planned and performed. The book under consideration provides the necessary expertise for this.

  20. Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

    2003-12-01

    Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals. Extracellular cellulases produced by fungi are commercially developed for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation by appropriate biocatalysts in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial biocatalysts, SSF of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity leading to higher than required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial biocatalysts whose growth and fermentation requirements match the optimum conditions for commercial fungal cellulase activity (pH 5.0 and 50 deg. C). These isolates fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to L(+)-lactic acid. Xylose was metabolized through the pentose-phosphate pathway by these organisms as evidenced by the fermentation profile and analysis of the fermentation products of 13C1-xylose by NMR. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, 13C-lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products. All three strains fermented crystalline cellulose to lactic acid with the addition of fungal cellulase (Spezyme CE) (SSF) at an optimum of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. These isolates also fermented cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate simultaneously. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these

  1. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve...

  2. Fundamental mechanisms for conversion of volatiles in biomass and waste combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Hindiyarti, L.; Marshall, P.; Livbjerg, H.; Dagaut, P.; Jensen, Anker; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the volatile oxidation chemistry in biomass and waste fired systems, emphasizing reactions important for pollutants emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, HCl, aerosols). The project aims to extend existing models and databases with a number of chemical subsystems that are presently not well understood, but are particularly important in connection with combustion of biomass and waste. The project is divided into 3 tasks. Task 1: Conversion of chlorine, sulfur and alkali gas phase components in combustion of biomass. Task 2: Formation mechanisms for NO{sub x} in the freeboard of grate combustion of biomass. Task 3: Oxidation mechanisms for oxygenated hydrocarbons in the volatiles from pyrolysis of biomass. (au)

  3. Anaerobic conversion of microalgal biomass to sustainable energy carriers--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Tuovinen, Olli H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2013-05-01

    This review discusses anaerobic production of methane, hydrogen, ethanol, butanol and electricity from microalgal biomass. The amenability of microalgal biomass to these bioenergy conversion processes is compared with other aquatic and terrestrial biomass sources. The highest energy yields (kJ g(-1) dry wt. microalgal biomass) reported in the literature have been 14.8 as ethanol, 14.4 as methane, 6.6 as butanol and 1.2 as hydrogen. The highest power density reported from microalgal biomass in microbial fuel cells has been 980 mW m(-2). Sequential production of different energy carriers increases attainable energy yields, but also increases investment and maintenance costs. Microalgal biomass is a promising feedstock for anaerobic energy conversion processes, especially for methanogenic digestion and ethanol fermentation. The reviewed studies have mainly been based on laboratory scale experiments and thus scale-up of anaerobic utilization of microalgal biomass for production of energy carriers is now timely and required for cost-effectiveness comparisons.

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...

  6. Biomass gasification: the understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly al

  7. Atomic layer deposition overcoating: tuning catalyst selectivity for biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Gu, Xiang-Kui; Canlas, Christian; Kropf, A Jeremy; Aich, Payoli; Greeley, Jeffrey P; Elam, Jeffrey W; Meyers, Randall J; Dumesic, James A; Stair, Peter C; Marshall, Christopher L

    2014-11-01

    The terraces, edges, and facets of nanoparticles are all active sites for heterogeneous catalysis. These different active sites may cause the formation of various products during the catalytic reaction. Here we report that the step sites of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) can be covered precisely by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method, whereas the terrace sites remain as active component for the hydrogenation of furfural. Increasing the thickness of the ALD-generated overcoats restricts the adsorption of furfural onto the step sites of Pd NPs and increases the selectivity to furan. Furan selectivities and furfural conversions are linearly correlated for samples with or without an overcoating, though the slopes differ. The ALD technique can tune the selectivity of furfural hydrogenation over Pd NPs and has improved our understanding of the reaction mechanism. The above conclusions are further supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  8. Implications of cellobiohydrolase glycosylation for use in biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Stephen R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cellulase producing ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina, is known to secrete a range of enzymes important for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It is also widely used for the commercial scale production of industrial enzymes because of its ability to produce high titers of heterologous proteins. During the secretion process, a number of post-translational events can occur, however, that impact protein function and stability. Another ascomycete, Aspergillus niger var. awamori, is also known to produce large quantities of heterologous proteins for industry. In this study, T. reesei Cel7A, a cellobiohydrolase, was expressed in A. niger var. awamori and subjected to detailed biophysical characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme contains six times the amount of N-linked glycan than the enzyme purified from a commercial T. reesei enzyme preparation. The activities of the two enzyme forms were compared using bacterial (microcrystalline and phosphoric acid swollen (amorphous cellulose as substrates. This comparison suggested that the increased level of N-glycosylation of the recombinant Cel7A (rCel7A resulted in reduced activity and increased non-productive binding on cellulose. When treated with the N-glycosidase PNGaseF, the molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme approached that of the commercial enzyme and the activity on cellulose was improved.

  9. Reduced bed temperature at thermo-chemical conversion of difficult fuels; Saenkt baeddtemperatur vid termokemisk omvandling av svaara braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik; Haraldsson, Conny; Johansson, Andreas; Claesson, Frida; Baefver, Linda; Ryde, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    This work investigates the prospect of reducing the concentrations of alkali chlorides in the flue gas by lowering the temperature in the bottom zone of a fluidized bed (FB) furnace below the often used 850 deg C. The directive of a retention time of at least two seconds above 850 deg C is fulfilled by the raise of the flue gas temperature that follows the combustion of unburned gases at the point of injection of secondary and tertiary air, above the bottom bed zone. The aim of the present experiments is to determine the dependency between the temperature and the amount of alkali metals leaving the bottom bed for some selected waste and biomass fuels. The results are intended for plant owners as well as boiler manufacturers. The experiments were performed in an FB-reactor, which was externally heated to specific temperatures between 550 and 850 deg C. The reactor is made of a quartz glass tube with an inner diameter of 60 mm and a length of 1.2 m. The fluidized bed rests upon a porous plate of sintered quartz. The bed material used was 180 gram purified sea sand with particle sizes between 0.1 and 0.3 mm. The fluidizing gas was a mixture of nitrogen and air, introduced in the bottom of the reactor by mass flow controllers. At the outlet of the reactor, the flue gas was divided between conventional gas analyzers and an ICP-MS instrument. The gas flow to the ICP-MS instrument was cooled before a slip stream was sucked out via a capillary to a nebulizer from which the sample gas was led to the ICP-MS instrument. The function of the nebulizer is normally to form an aerosol of liquids, but here it was used solely as a pump. In addition, a known flow of krypton was added into the nebulizer to be used as an internal standard. The novel technique to measure the amount of alkali metals on-line from a batch fired FB-reactor has been shown to work in practice and to provide interesting results, which so far is qualitative only. Further development and calibration work is

  10. Reduced bed temperature at thermo-chemical conversion of difficult fuels; Saenkt baeddtemperatur vid termokemisk omvandling av svaara braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik; Haraldsson, Conny; Johansson, Andreas; Claesson, Frida; Baefver, Linda; Ryde, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    This work investigates the prospect of reducing the concentrations of alkali chlorides in the flue gas by lowering the temperature in the bottom zone of a fluidized bed (FB) furnace below the often used 850 deg C. The directive of a retention time of at least two seconds above 850 deg C is fulfilled by the raise of the flue gas temperature that follows the combustion of unburned gases at the point of injection of secondary and tertiary air, above the bottom bed zone. The aim of the present experiments is to determine the dependency between the temperature and the amount of alkali metals leaving the bottom bed for some selected waste and biomass fuels. The results are intended for plant owners as well as boiler manufacturers. The experiments were performed in an FB-reactor, which was externally heated to specific temperatures between 550 and 850 deg C. The reactor is made of a quartz glass tube with an inner diameter of 60 mm and a length of 1.2 m. The fluidized bed rests upon a porous plate of sintered quartz. The bed material used was 180 gram purified sea sand with particle sizes between 0.1 and 0.3 mm. The fluidizing gas was a mixture of nitrogen and air, introduced in the bottom of the reactor by mass flow controllers. At the outlet of the reactor, the flue gas was divided between conventional gas analyzers and an ICP-MS instrument. The gas flow to the ICP-MS instrument was cooled before a slip stream was sucked out via a capillary to a nebulizer from which the sample gas was led to the ICP-MS instrument. The function of the nebulizer is normally to form an aerosol of liquids, but here it was used solely as a pump. In addition, a known flow of krypton was added into the nebulizer to be used as an internal standard. The novel technique to measure the amount of alkali metals on-line from a batch fired FB-reactor has been shown to work in practice and to provide interesting results, which so far is qualitative only. Further development and calibration work is

  11. THERMO-MECHANICAL PULPING AS A PRETREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS FOR BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP, an existing and well known technology in the pulp and paper industry, is proposed as a potential pretreatment pathway of agriculture biomass for monomeric sugar production in preparation for further fermentation into alcohol species. Three agricultural biomass types, corn stover, wheat straw, and sweet sorghum bagasse, were pretreated in a TMP unit under two temperature conditions, 160 ºC and 170 ºC, and hydrolyzed using cellulase at 5, 10, and 20 FPU/g OD biomass. Wheat straw biomass was further pretreated at different conditions including: i soaking with acetic acid, ii longer steaming residence time (15 and 30 min, and iii refined at lower disk gap (0.0508 and 0.1524 mm. Preliminary results showed that carbohydrate conversion increased from 25% to 40% when the TMP temperature was increased from 160 to 170 ºC. Carbohydrate conversion was relatively similar for the three biomasses under the same pretreatment conditions and enzyme loading. Acetic acid soaking and refining at a reduce disk gap increases carbohydrate conversion. Further studies within this technological field to identify optimum process and TMP conditions for pretreatment are suggested.

  12. Characterization of second generation biomass under thermal conversion and the fate of nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuntoli, J.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the characterization of several biomass materials under thermal conversion conditions using small--scale equipment. The fuels are tested under the conditions of slow and fast heating rate pyrolysis and combustion, with the main goal of investigating the chemistry of fuel

  13. Formation, Molecular Structure, and Morphology of Humins in Biomass Conversion : Influence of Feedstock and Processing Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zandvoort, Ilona; Wang, Yuehu; Rasrendra, Carolus B.; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Heeres, Hero J.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2013-01-01

    Neither the routes through which humin byproducts are formed, nor their molecular structure have yet been unequivocally established. A better understanding of the formation and physicochemical properties of humins, however, would aid in making biomass conversion processes more efficient. Here, an ex

  14. One-Pot Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose and of Woody Biomass Solids to Liquid Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, Theodore D.; Barta, Katalin; Iretskii, Alexei V.; Ford, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient methodologies for converting biomass solids to liquid fuels have the potential to reduce dependence on imported petroleum while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. Here, we report quantitative catalytic conversions of wood and cellulosic solids to liquid and gaseous products in a

  15. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  17. Power Generation from Biomass by Thermochemical Processes%热化学过程中生物电能的产生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A V Bridgwater

    2007-01-01

    Bioenergy is now accepted as having the potential to provide the major part of the projected renewable energy provisions of the future as biofuels in the form of gas,liquid or solid fuels or electricity and heat. There are three main routes to providing these biofuels-thermal conversion,biological conversion and physical conversion - all of which employ a range of chemical reactor configurations and designs.This paper focuses on thermochemical conversion processes for their higher efficiencies, lower costs and greater versatility in providing a wide range of energy, fuel and chemical options.In particular the so-called advanced technologies of gasification and fast pyrolysis are described and discussed.The primary products that can be derived as gas, liquid and solid fuels are characterised, as well as the secondary products of electricity and/or heat, liquid fuels and a considerable number of chemicals. The main technical and non-technical barriers to the market deployment of the various technologies are summarised.%目前,生物能被视为在未来有潜力提供大部分可再生能源的储备,它可以以气体、液体或固体燃料形式提供生物燃料或者用于发电和供热.有三种主要的提供生物能的途径,即热转换、生物转换和物理转换,这些方法都需要配置和设计各种各样的化学反应器.文章重点研究能高效、低成本、高度通用地提供大量能量、燃料和化学产品的热化学转换过程.特别研究和讨论了所谓的先进的气化和快速热解技术,其主要产品可以是气体、液体或固体燃料,而其副产品则是电能和/或热能、液体燃料及大量的化学品.文章还对阻碍不同技术的市场配置的主要技术性和非技术性壁垒进行了概述.

  18. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  19. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dael, M.; Van Passel, S.; Witters, N. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R. [VITO, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Reumermann, P. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Josink Esweg 34, 7545 PN Enschede (Netherlands); Marquez Luzardo, N. [School of Life Sciences and Environmental Technology, Avans Hogeschool, Hogeschoollaan 1, 4800 RA Breda (Netherlands); Broeze, J. [Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2, 6703 HD Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conversion Park (ECP) is introduced. A biomass ECP can be defined as a synergetic, multi-dimensional biomass conversion site with a highly integrated set of conversion technologies in which a multitude of regionally available biomass (residue) sources are converted into energy and materials. A techno-economic assessment is performed on a case study in the Netherlands to illustrate the concept and to comparatively assess the highly integrated system with two mono-dimensional models. The three evaluated models consist of (1) digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, (2) co-digestion of manure and co-substrates, and (3) integration. From a socio-economic point of view it can be concluded that it is economically and energetically more interesting to invest in the integrated model than in two separate models. The integration is economically feasible and environmental benefits can be realized. For example, the integrated model allows the implementation of a co-digester. Unmanaged manure would otherwise represent a constant pollution risk. However, from an investor's standpoint one should firstly invest in the municipal solid waste digester since the net present value (NPV) of this mono-dimensional model is higher than that of the multi-dimensional model. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the most influencing parameters. Our results are of interest for companies involved in the conversion of biomass. The conclusions are useful for policy makers when deciding on policy instruments concerning manure processing or biogas production.

  20. Energy from Biomass: technology assessment of small-medium scale biomass conversion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cutz Ijchajchal, Luis Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor Bioenergy is a key resource to addressing challenges such as climate change (anthropogenic CO₂ emissions), pollution (suspended particles), energy security and human well-being. Currently, most of the biomass produced worldwide is consumed for cooking and space heating which has raised concerns among governments and policy-makers, especially due to threats to human health. The present thesis focuses on studying the technical and economic feasibi...

  1. New candidate for biofuel feedstock beyond terrestrial biomass for thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis/gasification) enhanced by carbon dioxide (CO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Young Jae; Yi, Haakrho

    2012-11-01

    The enhanced thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis/gasification) of various macroalgae using carbon dioxide (CO(2)) as a reaction medium was mainly investigated. The enhanced thermo-chemical process was achieved by expediting the thermal cracking of volatile chemical species derived from the thermal degradation of the macroalgae. This process enables the modification of the end products from the thermo-chemical process and significant reduction of the amount of condensable hydrocarbons (i.e., tar, ∼50%), thereby directly increasing the efficiency of the gasification process.

  2. Biomass conversions in subcritical and supercritical water: driving force, phase equilibria, and thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W.; Kooi, H.J. van der; Swaan Arons, J. de [Physical Chemistry and Molecular Thermodynamics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Two biomass conversion processes have been studied: hydrothermal upgrading (HTU) under subcritical water conditions; supercritical water gasification (SCWG) in supercritical water. For the design of the two biomass conversion processes, the following contributions of thermodynamics have been presented: phase behaviour and phase equilibria in the reactor and separators; indication of the favourable operation conditions and the trends in product distribution for the conversion reactions; construction of heat exchange network and exergy analysis. A wide variety of fluids have been dealt with, from small molecules to large molecules, including non-polar and polar substances. The statistical association fluids theory (SAFT) equation of state has been applied to calculate the mass distribution in different phases and to estimate the entropy and enthalpy values for different mass streams. (author)

  3. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal contribution to biorefinery processes, which are instrumental for improved resource efficiency and central to the new bioeconomy. Which types of processes, inherent to fungal physiology and activities in nature, are exploited in the new industrial processes? Which families of the fungal kingdom and which types of fungal habitats and ecological specializations are hot spots for fungal biomass conversion? How can the best fungal enzymes be found and optimized for industrial use? How can they be produced most efficiently-in fungal expression hosts? How have industrial biotechnology and biomass conversion research contributed to mycology and environmental research? Future perspectives and approaches are listed, highlighting the importance of fungi in development of the bioeconomy.

  4. Application of Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis in Biomass to Liquid Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwu Lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is a set of catalytic processes that can be used to produce fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas (mixture of CO and H2, which can be derived from natural gas, coal, or biomass. Biomass to Liquid via Fischer–Tropsch (BTL-FT synthesis is gaining increasing interests from academia and industry because of its ability to produce carbon neutral and environmentally friendly clean fuels; such kinds of fuels can help to meet the globally increasing energy demand and to meet the stricter environmental regulations in the future. In the BTL-FT process, biomass, such as woodchips and straw stalk, is firstly converted into biomass-derived syngas (bio-syngas by gasification. Then, a cleaning process is applied to remove impurities from the bio-syngas to produce clean bio-syngas which meets the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis requirements. Cleaned bio-syngas is then conducted into a Fischer–Tropsch catalytic reactor to produce green gasoline, diesel and other clean biofuels. This review will analyze the three main steps of BTL-FT process, and discuss the issues related to biomass gasification, bio-syngas cleaning methods and conversion of bio-syngas into liquid hydrocarbons via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Some features in regard to increasing carbon utilization, enhancing catalyst activity, maximizing selectivity and avoiding catalyst deactivation in bio-syngas conversion process are also discussed.

  5. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, Christopher J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Aulich, Ted R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Folkedahl, Bruce C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Strege, Joshua R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Patel, Nikhil [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Shockey, Richard E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2009-05-27

    The Center for Biomass Utilization® 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.

  6. Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, William A.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Vogel, Fredreric; Steffin, Carsten R.

    2009-02-24

    A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

  7. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  8. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased...... and grass silage at both 170 and 180°C, but at 190°C the overall sugar yield was better for HTT of dry grass. Conclusions: This study unequivocally establishes that ensiling of grass as a biomass pretreatment method comes with a loss of WSC. The loss of WSC by ensiling is not necessarily compensated...

  9. Biomass pre-extraction, hydrolysis and conversion process improvements fro an integrated biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Robert [Virdia, Inc., Danville, VA (United States)

    2014-12-23

    In this project, Virdia will show that it can improve the production of sugars suitable for the conversion into advanced biofuels from a range of woods. Several biomass feedstocks (Pine wood chips & Eucalyptus wood chips) will be tested on this new integrated biorefinery platform. The resultant drop-in biodiesel can be a cost-effective petroleum-replacement that can compete with projected market prices

  10. Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Daehwan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cha, Minseok [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Westpheling, Janet [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  11. Combustion of thermochemically torrefied sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the upgrading of sugar bagasse by thermochemical and dry torrefaction methods and their corresponding combustion behavior relative to raw bagasse. The combustion reactivities were examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochemical torrefaction was carried out by chemical pre-treatment of bagasse with acid followed by heating at 160-300°C in nitrogen environment, while dry torrefaction followed the same heating treatment without the chemical pretreatment. The results showed thermochemical torrefaction generated chars with combustion properties that are closer to various ranks of coal, thus making it more suitable for co-firing applications. Thermochemical torrefaction also induced greater densification of bagasse with a 335% rise in bulk density to 340kg/m(3), increased HHVmass and HHVvolume, greater charring and aromatization and storage stability. These features demonstrate the potential of thermochemical torrefaction in addressing the practical challenges in using biomass such as bagasse as fuel.

  12. Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Continuous reactor system results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Butner, R.S.; Baker, E.G.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process for converting high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous fuels. This system, in which thermocatalytic conversion takes place in an aqueous environment, was designed to overcome the problems usually encountered with high-water-content feedstocks. The process uses a reduced nickel catalyst at temperatures as low as 350{degree}C and pressures ranging from 2000 to 4000 psig -- conditions favoring the formation of gas consisting mostly of methane. The results of numerous batch tests showed that the system could convert feedstocks not readily converted by conventional methods. Fifteen tests were conducted in a continuous reactor system to further evaluate the effectiveness of the process for high-moisture biomass gasification and to obtain conversion rate data needed for process scaleup. During the tests, the complex gasification reactions were evaluated by several analytical methods. The results of these tests show that the heating value of the gas ranged from 400 to 500 Btu/scf, and if the carbon dioxide is removed, the product gas is pipeline quality. Conversion of the feedstocks was high. Engineering analysis indicates that, based on these results, a tubular reactor can be designed that should convert greater than 99% of the carbon fed as high-moisture biomass to a gaseous product in a reaction time of less than 11 min.

  13. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  14. Effective conversion of biomass tar into fuel gases in a microwave reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with conversion of naphthalene (C10H8) as a biomass tar model compound by means of thermal and catalytic treatments. A modified microwave oven with a maximum output power of 700 W was used as the experimental reactor. Experiments were performed in a wide temperature range of 450-1200°C at a predetermined residence time of 0.24-0.5 s. Dolomite and Y-zeolite were applied to convert naphthalene catalytically into useful gases. Experimental results on naphthalene conversion showed that conversion efficiency and yield of gases increased significantly with the increase of temperature. More than 90% naphthalene conversion efficiency was achieved by thermal treatment at 1200°C and 0.5 s. Nevertheless, this treatment was unfavorable for fuel gases production. The main product of this treatment was soot. Catalytic treatment provided different results with that of thermal treatment in which fuel gases formation was found to be the important product of naphthalene conversion. At a high temperature of 900°C, dolomite had better conversion activity where almost 40 wt.% of naphthalene could be converted into hydrogen, methane and other hydrocarbon gases.

  15. Recovery Act. Demonstration of a Pilot Integrated Biorefinery for the Efficient, Direct Conversion of Biomass to Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetzle, Dennis [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Tamblyn, Greg [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Caldwell, Matt [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Hanbury, Orion [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Schuetzle, Robert [Greyrock Energy, Sacramento, CA (United States); Rodriguez, Ramer [Greyrock Energy, Sacramento, CA (United States); Johnson, Alex [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Deichert, Fred [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Jorgensen, Roger [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Struble, Doug [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-12

    The Renewable Energy Institute International, in collaboration with Greyrock Energy and Red Lion Bio-Energy (RLB) has successfully demonstrated operation of a 25 ton per day (tpd) nameplate capacity, pilot, pre-commercial-scale integrated biorefinery (IBR) plant for the direct production of premium, “drop-in”, synthetic fuels from agriculture and forest waste feedstocks using next-generation thermochemical and catalytic conversion technologies. The IBR plant was built and tested at the Energy Center, which is located in the University of Toledo Medical Campus in Toledo, Ohio.

  16. Algal biomass conversion to bioethanol - a step-by-step assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Razif; Yip, Jason W S; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Ghani, Wan A W A K; Cherrington, Tamara; Danquah, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The continuous growth in global population and the ongoing development of countries such as China and India have contributed to a rapid increase in worldwide energy demand. Fossil fuels such as oil and gas are finite resources, and their current rate of consumption cannot be sustained. This, coupled with fossil fuels' role as pollutants and their contribution to global warming, has led to increased interest in alternative sources of energy production. Bioethanol, presently produced from energy crops, is one such promising alternative future energy source and much research is underway in optimizing its production. The economic and temporal constraints that crop feedstocks pose are the main downfalls in terms of the commercial viability of bioethanol production. As an alternative to crop feedstocks, significant research efforts have been put into utilizing algal biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Whilst the overall process can vary, the conversion of biomass to bioethanol usually contains the following steps: (i) pretreatment of feedstock; (ii) hydrolysis; and (iii) fermentation of bioethanol. This paper reviews different technologies utilized in the pretreatment and fermentation steps, and critically assesses their applicability to bioethanol production from algal biomass. Two different established fermentation routes, single-stage fermentation and two-stage gasification/fermentation processes, are discussed. The viability of algal biomass as an alternative feedstock has been assessed adequately, and further research optimisation must be guided toward the development of cost-effective scalable methods to produce high bioethanol yield under optimum economy.

  17. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  18. Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal Biomass: Algal Biomass Production in Open Pond Systems and Processing Through Dewatering for Downstream Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grundl, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This report describes in detail a set of aspirational design and process targets to better understand the realistic economic potential for the production of algal biomass for subsequent conversion to biofuels and/or coproducts, based on the use of open pond cultivation systems and a series of dewatering operations to concentrate the biomass up to 20 wt% solids (ash-free dry weight basis).

  19. Direct conversion of chitin biomass to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in concentrated ZnCl2 aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Deng, Tiansheng;

    2013-01-01

    The direct conversion of chitin biomass to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in ZnCl2 aqueous solution was studied systemically. D-Glucosamine (GlcNH2) was chosen as the model compound to investigate the reaction, and 5-HMF could be obtained in 21.9% yield with 99% conversion of GlcNH2. Optimization...... to be 67 wt.% ZnCl2 aqueous solution, at 120 °C without co-catalyst. The reactions were further studied by in situ NMR, and no intermediate or other byproducts, except humins, were observed. Finally, the substrate scope was expanded from GlcNH2 to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and various chitosan polymers...

  20. Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1988-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Analysis of magma-thermal conversion of biomass to gaseous fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1982-02-01

    A wide range of magma types and pluton geometries believed to occur within the upper 10 km of the crust provide suitable sources of thermal energy for conversion of water-biomass mixtures to higher quality gaseous fuel. Gaseous fuel can be generated within a magma body, within the hot subsolidus margins of a magma body, or within surface reaction vessels heated by thermal energy derived from a magma body. The composition, amount, and energy content of the fuel gases generated from water-biomass mixtures are not sensitive to the type, age, depth, or temperature of a magma body thermal source. The amount and energy content of the generated fuel is almost entirely a function of the proportion of biomass in the starting mixture. CH/sub 4/ is the main gas that can be generated in important quantities by magma thermal energy under most circumstances. CO is never an important fuel product, and H/sub 2/ generation is very limited. The rates at which gaseous fuels can be generated are strongly dependent on magma type. Fuel generation rates for basaltic magmas are at least 2 to 3 times those for andesitic magmas and 5 to 6 times those for rhyolitic magmas. The highest fuel generation rates, for any particular magma body, will be achieved at the lowest possible reaction vessel operating temperature that does not cause graphite deposition from the water-biomass starting mixture. The energy content of the biomass-derived fuels is considerably greater than that consumed in the generation and refinement process.

  2. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  3. Yearbook 1993: Bioenergy Research Programme. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakangas, Eija

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of the energy technology programs of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. The aim of the program is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. R&D projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling, and utilization of biofuels. The total funding for 1993 was 45 million FIM and the number of projects 50. The research area of biomass conversion consists of 7 projects in 1993, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 10 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1993 and the plans for 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry and power plants than it is possible at present day appliances. The conversion research in 1993 was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extraction of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and combustion tests. The target of the bioenergy utilization research is to demonstrate three to four new utilization technologies or methods. Each of these plants should have a potential of 0.2 - 0.3 million toe. The 1993 projects consisted of three main categories: reduction of emissions from small-scale combustion equipment, development of different equipment and methods for new power plant technologies, and the studies concerning additional usage of wood fuels in forest industry.

  4. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony

    2012-04-13

    This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  6. Effect of Maize Biomass Composition on the Optimization of Dilute-Acid Pretreatments and Enzymatic Saccharification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Salvador, A.F.; Weijde, van der R.T.; Dolstra, O.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    At the core of cellulosic ethanol research are innovations leading to reductions in the chemical and energetic stringency of thermochemical pretreatments and enzymatic saccharification. In this study, key compositional features of maize cell walls influencing the enzymatic conversion of biomass into

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  8. Progress in the technology of energy conversion from woody biomass in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tjutju Nurhayati; Yani Waridi; Han Roliadi

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable and renewable natural resources as biomass that contains carbon and hydrogen elements can be a potential raw materials for energy conversion. In Indonesia, they comprise variable-sized wood from forests (i.e. natural forests, plantations and community forests that commonly produce small-diameter logs used as firewood by local people), woody residues from logging and wood industries, oil-palm shell waste from crude palm oil factories, coconut shell wastes from coconut plantations, traditional markets as well as skimmed coconut oil and straws from rice cultivation.Four kinds of energy-conversion technologies have been empirically tested in Indonesia. First, gasification of rubber wood from unproductive rubber trees to generate heat energy for the drying of fermented chocolate seeds. Secondly, energy conversion from organic vegetable waste by implementing thermophylic fermentation methods that produce biogas as a fuel and for generating electricity and also concurrently generate organic by-products called hygen compost. Thirdly, gasification of charcoal and wood sawdust for electricity generation. Finally, environment-friendly energy conversion by carbonizing small-diameter logs, sawdust, wood slabs and coconut shells into charcoal. This yielded charcoal integrated with wood vinegar production through condensation of smoke/vapors emitted during carbonization, thereby mitigating the impact of air pollution. Among the four experimental technologies that of integrated charcoal and wood vinegar production had been spectacularly developed and favored by rural communities. This technology brought added value to the process and product due to the wood vinegar,useful as bio-pesticide,plant-growth hormone and organic fertilizer. Such integrated and environment-friendly production, therefore,should be sustained, because Indonesia occupies a significant and worldwide position as charcoal-producing and marketing country.The technology of integrated wood vinegar

  9. One-pot catalytic conversion of cellulose and of woody biomass solids to liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Theodore D; Barta, Katalin; Iretskii, Alexei V; Ford, Peter C

    2011-09-07

    Efficient methodologies for converting biomass solids to liquid fuels have the potential to reduce dependence on imported petroleum while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. Here, we report quantitative catalytic conversions of wood and cellulosic solids to liquid and gaseous products in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. Little or no char is formed during this process. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH) and the catalyst, a copper-doped porous metal oxide, is composed of earth-abundant materials. The major liquid product is a mixture of C(2)-C(6) aliphatic alcohols and methylated derivatives thereof that are, in principle, suitable for applications as liquid fuels.

  10. The biomass valorization / the electric power in processes: innovation and challenges; valorisation de la biomasse / l'electricite dans les procedes: innovation et defis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahy, M. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Leclercq, M. [Ministere de l' Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de L' Energie et des Matieres Premieres; Gosse, G. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 75 - Paris (France); Lacour, P.A. [AFOCEL, 34 - St Clement de Riviere (France); Ballerini, D.; Duplan, J.L.; Monot, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 69 - Lyon (France); Seiler, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Ancelme, A. [Syndicat National des Producteurs d' Alcools Agricoles (SNPAA), 92 - Neuilly (France); Vermeersch, G. [Sofiproteol, 75 - Paris (France); Hervouet, V. [Total, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Rouveirolles, P. [Renault, 92 6 Boulogne Billancourt (France); Bellot, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Pascual, C. [ELYO Cylergie, 69 - Ecully (France); Girard, M. [PRONOVIAL, 51 - Reims (France); Bernard, D. [ARKEMA, 69 - Lyon (France); Dussaud, J.; Vrevin, L. [Ahlstrom Research and Services, Edinburgh, Midlothian (United Kingdom); Mentink, L. [Roquette Freres (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    In a context of an insufficient offer on processes/technology, this day is devoted to the processes adapted to the biomass conversion in energy, fuels and other products. It provides presentations on the biomass economy and regulations, the different channels, the thermochemical processes to produce synthetic fuels and hydrogen, the ethanol production, refiners, automotive industry, an electric power, producer point of view, the byproducts. (A.L.B.)

  11. Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.

  12. Biomass gasification: the understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, X.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China)

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly alternatives to conventional petrochemical fuels for the production of electricity, hydrogen, synthetic transportation biofuels and other chemicals. The product gas normally contains the major compon...

  13. Tin-catalyzed conversion of biomass-derived triose sugar and formaldehyde to α-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sho; Motokura, Ken; Sakamoto, Yasuharu; Miyaji, Akimitsu; Baba, Toshihide

    2014-05-07

    The direct conversion of biomass-derived 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and formaldehyde to α-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (HBL) was achieved through the use of tin(iv) chloride and a small amount of water and the yield reached up to 70%. The reaction mechanism was also investigated by incorporating d2-formaldehyde into the reaction mixtures.

  14. On the gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water : over de vergassing van natte biomassa in superkritiek water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a challenging thermo-chemical conversion route for wet biomass and waste streams into hydrogen and/or methane. At temperatures and pressures above the critical point the physical properties of water differ strongly from liquid water or steam. Because of the

  15. A Theoretical Study of two Novel Concept Systems for Maximum Thermal-Chemical Conversion of Biomass to Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two concept systems that are based on the thermochemical process of high-temperature steam gasification of lignocellulosic biomass and municipal solid waste are introduced. The primary objectives of the concept systems are 1 to develop the best scientific, engineering, and technology solutions for converting lignocellulosic biomass, as well as agricultural, forest and municipal waste to clean energy (pure hydrogen fuel, and 2 to minimize water consumption and detrimental impacts of energy production on the environment (air pollution and global warming. The production of superheated steam is by hydrogen combustion using recycled hydrogen produced in the first concept system while in the second concept system concentrated solar energy is used for the steam production. A membrane reactor that performs the hydrogen separation and water gas shift reaction is involved in both systems for producing more pure hydrogen and CO2 sequestration. Based on obtaining the maximum hydrogen production rate the hydrogen recycled ratio is around 20% for the hydrogen combustion steam heating system. Combined with pure hydrogen production, both high temperature steam gasification systems potentially possess more than 80% in first law overall system thermodynamic efficiencies.

  16. Development of a system for characterizing biomass quality of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick Thomas

    The purpose of this research was twofold: (i) to develop a system for screening lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels and (ii) to evaluate brown midrib corn stover as feedstock for ethanol production. In the first study (Chapter 2), we investigated the potential of corn stover from bm1-4 hybrids for increased ethanol production and reduced pretreatment intensity compared to corn stover from the isogenic normal hybrid. Corn stover from hybrid W64A X A619 and respective isogenic bm hybrids was pretreated by aqueous ammonia steeping using ammonium hydroxide concentrations from 0 to 30%, by weight, and the resulting residues underwent simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) to ethanol. Dry matter (DM) digested by SSCF increased with increasing ammonium hydroxide concentration across all genotypes (P>0.0001) from 277 g kg-1 DM in the control to 439 g kg-1 DM in the 30% ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. The bm corn stover materials averaged 373 g kg-1 DM of DM digested by SSCF compared with 335 g kg-1 DM for the normal corn stover (Pcell-wall carbohydrate hydrolysis of corn stover, (ii) the lowest initial cell-wall carbohydrate concentration, (iii) the lowest dry matter remaining after pretreatment, and (iv) the highest amount of monosaccharides released during enzymatic hydrolysis. However, bm corn stover did not reduce the severity of aqueous ammonia steeping pretreatment needed to maximize DM hydrolysis during SSCF compared with normal corn stover. In the remaining studies (Chapters 3 thru 5), a system for analyzing the quality of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels (i.e., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation) was developed. To accomplish this, a carbohydrate availability model was developed to characterize feedstock quality. The model partitions carbohydrates within a feedstock material into fractions based on their availability to be converted to fermentable

  17. Thermochemical characterization of pigeon pea stalk for its efficient utilization as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katyal, S.K.; Iyer, P.V.R.

    2000-05-01

    Pigeon pea stalk is a widely available biomass species in India. In this article the potential use of pigeon pea stalk as a fuel source through thermochemical conversion methods such as combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis has been investigated through experimentation using a thermogravimetric analyzer and pilot-plant-scale equipment. It has been proposed that pigeon pea stalks can be effectively utilized in two ways. The first is to pyrolyze the material to produce value-added products such as char, tar, and fuel gas. The second alternative is to partially pyrolyze the material to remove tar-forming volatiles, followed by gasification of reactive char to generate producer gas.

  18. Phosphorus-assisted biomass thermal conversion: reducing carbon loss and improving biochar stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhao

    Full Text Available There is often over 50% carbon loss during the thermal conversion of biomass into biochar, leading to it controversy for the biochar formation as a carbon sequestration strategy. Sometimes the biochar also seems not to be stable enough due to physical, chemical, and biological reactions in soils. In this study, three phosphorus-bearing materials, H3PO4, phosphate rock tailing (PRT, and triple superphosphate (TSP, were used as additives to wheat straw with a ratio of 1: 0.4-0.8 for biochar production at 500°C, aiming to alleviate carbon loss during pyrolysis and to increase biochar-C stabilization. All these additives remarkably increased the biochar yield from 31.7% (unmodified biochar to 46.9%-56.9% (modified biochars. Carbon loss during pyrolysis was reduced from 51.7% to 35.5%-47.7%. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the additives had no effect on thermal stability of biochar but did enhance its oxidative stability. Microbial mineralization was obviously reduced in the modified biochar, especially in the TSP-BC, in which the total CO2 emission during 60-d incubation was reduced by 67.8%, compared to the unmodified biochar. Enhancement of carbon retention and biochar stability was probably due to the formation of meta-phosphate or C-O-PO3, which could either form a physical layer to hinder the contact of C with O2 and bacteria, or occupy the active sites of the C band. Our results indicate that pre-treating biomass with phosphors-bearing materials is effective for reducing carbon loss during pyrolysis and for increasing biochar stabilization, which provides a novel method by which biochar can be designed to improve the carbon sequestration capacity.

  19. The prominent role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the ant-fungus biomass conversion symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L; Grell, M N

    2014-06-01

    Molecular studies have added significantly to understanding of the role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the efficient biomass conversion, which takes place in the fungus garden of leaf-cutting ants. It is now clear that the fungal symbiont expresses the full spectrum of genes for degrading cellulose and other plant cell wall polysaccharides. Since the start of the genomics era, numerous interesting studies have especially focused on evolutionary, molecular, and organismal aspects of the biological and biochemical functions of the symbiosis between leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp. and Acromyrmex spp.) and their fungal symbiont Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Macroscopic observations of the fungus-farming ant colony inherently depict the ants as the leading part of the symbiosis (the myrmicocentric approach, overshadowing the mycocentric aspects). However, at the molecular level, it is fungal enzymes that enable the ants to access the nutrition embedded in recalcitrant plant biomass. Our hypothesis is that the evolutionary events that established fungus-farming practice were predisposed by a fascinating fungal evolution toward increasing attractiveness to ants. This resulted in the ants allowing the fungus to grow in the nests and began to supply plant materials for more fungal growth. Molecular studies also confirm that specialized fungal structures, the gongylidia, with high levels of proteins and rich blend of enzymes, are essential for symbiosis. Harvested and used as ant feed, the gongylidia are the key factor for sustaining the highly complex leaf-cutting ant colony. This microbial upgrade of fresh leaves to protein-enriched animal feed can serve as inspiration for modern biorefinery technology.

  20. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  1. Enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass into fermentable sugars for biorefinery operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dahai

    2011-12-01

    Depleting petroleum reserves and potential climate change caused by fossil fuel consumption have attracted significant attention towards the use of alternative renewable resources for production of fuels and chemicals. Lignocellulosic biomass provides a plentiful resource for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals and could serve as an important contributor to the world energy portfolio in the near future. Successful biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass requires an efficient and economical pretreatment method, high glucose/xylose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of both hexose and pentose to ethanol. High enzyme loading is a major economic bottleneck for the commercial processing of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Optimizing the enzyme cocktail for specific types of pretreated biomass allows for a significant reduction in enzyme loading without sacrificing hydrolysis yield. Core glycosyl hydrolases were isolated and purified from various sources to help rationally optimize an enzyme cocktail to digest ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) treated corn stover. The four core cellulases were endoglucanase I (EG I), cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II) and beta-Glucosidase (betaG). The two core hemicellulases were an endoxylanase (EX) and a beta-xylosidase (betaX). A diverse set of accessory hemicellulases from bacterial sources was found necessary to enhance the synergistic action of cellulases hydrolysing AFEX pretreated corn stover. High glucose (around 80%) and xylose (around 70%) yields were achieved with a moderate enzyme loading (˜20 mg protein/g glucan) using an in-house developed enzyme cocktail and this cocktail was compared to commercial enzyme. Studying the binding properties of cellulases to lignocellulosic substrates is critical to achieving a fundamental understanding of plant cell wall saccharification. Lignin auto-fluorescence and degradation products

  2. Green technology for conversion of renewable hydrocarbon based on plasma-catalytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirchyk, Igor; Nedybaliuk, Oleg; Chernyak, Valeriy; Demchina, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    The ability to convert renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals is one of the most important steps on our path to green technology and sustainable development. However, the complex composition of biomass poses a major problem for established conversion technologies. The high temperature of thermochemical biomass conversion often leads to the appearance of undesirable byproducts and waste. The catalytic conversion has reduced yield and feedstock range. Plasma-catalytic reforming technology opens a new path for biomass conversion by replacing feedstock-specific catalysts with free radicals generated in the plasma. We studied the plasma-catalytic conversion of several renewable hydrocarbons using the air plasma created by rotating gliding discharge. We found that plasma-catalytic hydrocarbon conversion can be conducted at significantly lower temperatures (500 K) than during the thermochemical ( 1000 K) and catalytic (800 K) conversion. By using gas chromatography, we determined conversion products and found that conversion efficiency of plasma-catalytic conversion reaches over 85%. We used obtained data to determine the energy yield of hydrogen in case of plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol and compared it with other plasma-based hydrogen-generating systems.

  3. Cell Wall Targeted in planta Iron Accumulation Enhances Biomass Conversion and Seed Iron Concentration in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haibing; Wei, Hui; Ma, Guojie; Antunes, Mauricio S.; Vogt, Stefan; Cox, Joseph; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Xiping; Bu, Lintao; Gleber, S. Charlotte; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Makowski, Lee; Himmel, Michael E.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McCann, Maureen C.; Murphy, Angus S.; Peer, Wendy A.

    2016-10-01

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  4. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 10 and biomass conversion 6. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2- 0.3 million toe/a till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small-scale combustion concepts, but large-scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilisation of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe/a by the year 2000 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  5. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  6. Engineering bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison between two numerical models describing the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. Both models consider the incoming biomass as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed...... of the syngas predicted by the two models is equal to about 7%. The application to different types of biomass shows that the difference in the predictions increases as the carbon content grows. The phenomenological model, in fact, generally considers higher conversion rates of this element to volatiles...

  7. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, Februray 1, 1980-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The project will result in two distinct products: (1) a biomass allocation model which will serve as a tool for the energy planner. (2) the experimental data is being generated to help compare and contrast the behavior of a large number of biomass material in thermochemical environments. Based on information in the literature, values have been developed for regional biomass costs and availabilities and for fuel costs and demands. This data is now stored in data banks and may be updated as better data become available. Seventeen biomass materials have been run on the small TGA and the results partially analyzed. Ash analysis has been performed on 60 biomass materials. The Effluent Gas Analyzer with its associated gas chromatographs has been made operational and some runs have been carried out. Using a computerized program for developing product costs, parametric studies on all but 1 of the 14 process configurations being considered have been performed. Background economic data for all the configuration have been developed. Models to simulate biomass gasifications in an entrained and fixed bed have been developed using models previously used for coal gasification. Runs have been carried out in the fluidized and fixed bed reactor modes using a variety of biomass materials in atmospheres of steam, O/sub 2/ and air. Check aout of the system continues using fabricated manufacturing cost and efficiency data. A users manual has been written.

  8. A thermochemical energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyeguti, K.; Indzima, T.

    1982-08-09

    Mercury is used as the active mass of the anode in the converter and 0/sub 2/ is used as the active cathode material. The reaction of Mercury + 1/2 0/sub 2/-Hg0 occurs with a discharge. With heating to 500/sup 0/C the regeneration of the Mercury, Hg0 yields Mercury + 1/2 0/sub 2/, occurs. The device for performing the thermochenical conversion of energy contains an element body, an oxygen chamber, an oxygen electrode, a chamber with an alkaline liquid electrolyte, a separator, an auxiliary separator, an electrode and a chamber with the Mercury. The thermochemical reaction occurs in the reactor to which the Hg0 is transported along a pipe which has a refrigerator and a valve. The Mercury is fed into the element from a reservoir. The Mercury reduced in the reactor and in a reaction tower is fed into it through a closed cycle. The bellows is connected with the reactor by a pipe with a refrigerator. Through it the 0/sub 2/ goes in a closed cycle to the chamber. The current forming reactions are Hg + 20H-anion yields Hg0 + H/sub 2/0 + 2e and 1/2 0/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/0 + 2e yields 20H-anion. The voltage on the outleads of the element is approximately 0.3 volts.

  9. Critical Influence of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Aging and Decomposition on the Utility of Biomass Conversion in Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Konstantin I; Krivodaeva, Elena A; Romashov, Leonid V; Zalesskiy, Sergey S; Kachala, Vadim V; Burykina, Julia V; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2016-07-11

    Spectral studies revealed the presence of a specific arrangement of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) molecules in solution as a result of a hydrogen-bonding network, and this arrangement readily facilitates the aging of 5-HMF. Deterioration of the quality of this platform chemical limits its practical applications, especially in synthesis/pharma areas. The model drug Ranitidine (Zantac®) was synthesized with only 15 % yield starting from 5-HMF which was isolated and stored as an oil after a biomass conversion process. In contrast, a much higher yield of 65 % was obtained by using 5-HMF isolated in crystalline state from an optimized biomass conversion process. The molecular mechanisms responsible for 5-HMF decomposition in solution were established by NMR and ESI-MS studies. A highly selective synthesis of a 5-HMF derivative from glucose was achieved using a protecting group at O(6) position.

  10. Multiscale modeling and experimental interpretation of perovskite oxide materials in thermochemical energy storage and conversion for application in concentrating solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kevin J.

    Decarbonization of the electric grid is fundamentally limited by the intermittency of renewable resources such as wind and solar. Therefore, energy storage will play a significant role in the future of grid-scale energy generation to overcome the intermittency issues. For this reason, concentrating solar power (CSP) plants have been a renewable energy generation technology of interest due to their ability to participate in cost effective and efficient thermal energy storage. However, the ability to dynamically dispatch a CSP plant to meet energy demands is currently limited by the large quantities of sensible thermal energy storage material needed in a molten salt plant. Perovskite oxides have been suggested as a thermochemical energy storage material to enhance the energy storage capabilities of particle-based CSP plants, which combine sensible and chemical modes of energy storage. In this dissertation, computational models are used to establish the thermochemical energy storage potential of select perovskite compositions, identify system configurations that promote high values of energy storage and solar-to-electric efficiency, assess the kinetic and transport limitation of the chemical mode of energy storage, and create receiver and reoxidation reactor models capable of aiding in component design. A methodology for determining perovskite thermochemical energy storage potential is developed based on point defect models to represent perovskite non-stoichiometry as a function of temperature and gas phase oxygen partial pressure. The thermodynamic parameters necessary for the model are extracted from non-stoichiometry measurements by fitting the model using an optimization routine. The procedure is demonstrated for Ca0.9Sr0.1MnO 3-d which displayed combined energy storage values of 705.7 kJ/kg -1 by cycling between 773 K and 0.21 bar oxygen to 1173 K and 10 -4 bar oxygen. Thermodynamic system-level models capable of exploiting perovskite redox chemistry for energy

  11. Compact conversion of natural gas and biomass to DME in microstructured reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrstad, Rune

    2010-07-01

    Efficient production of easily distributable fuel from natural gas or biomass in the small-to-medium scale calls for a more compact and efficient process than using conventional technology. Microstructured reactors have improved heat and mass transfer properties which make them suitable for process intensified production of liquid fuel from synthesis gas and demonstration plants using such technology are announced. Dimethyl ether (DME) can be used as an intermediate in the production of several industrial chemicals and DME is also used as an aerosol propellant because of its environmentally benign properties. Since DME has high cetane number and is considered as an ultra-clean fuel with reduced NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and PM emissions, DME has emerged as a substitute for auto diesel fuel and bio-DME is one of the most promising second-generation biofuels. DME can be prepared in a one-step process from synthesis gas, which is thermodynamically and economically favourable to the two step process consisting of methanol synthesis followed by dehydration of methanol to DME. As the direct process is strongly exothermic, the reaction heat has to be effectively removed from the reaction system in order to maintain a safe and economic operational mode. Direct DME synthesis possesses a high volumetric heat production rate and hence the temperature control is a main challenge. Besides this, parameters such as syngas composition, pressure, contact time and catalytic system affect the conversion and yield. In this work direct DME synthesis from syngas in a microstructured packed bed reactor was demonstrated to operate at practically isothermal conditions. The performance of the catalyst was enhanced by elimination of the undesired phenomena related to the exothermic process, such as hot spot formation and side reactions. The influence of process parameters on methanol selectivity and DME productivity was studied. The highest CO conversion was achieved by a H{sub 2}-rich syngas at

  12. SUNgas: Thermochemical Approaches to Solar Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jane

    2013-04-01

    Solar energy offers an intelligent solution to reduce anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and to meet an expanding global demand for energy. A transformative change from fossil to solar energy requires collection, storage, and transport of the earth's most abundant but diffuse and intermittent source of energy. One intriguing approach for harvest and storage of solar energy is production of clean fuels via high temperature thermochemical processes. Concentrated solar energy is the heat source and biomass or water and carbon dioxide are the feedstocks. Two routes to produce fuels using concentrated solar energy and a renewable feed stock will be discussed: gasification of biomass or other carbonaceous materials and metal oxide cycles to produce synthesis gas. The first and most near term route to solar fuels is to gasify biomass. With conventional gasification, air or oxygen is supplied at fuel-rich levels to combust some of the feedstock and in this manner generate the energy required for conversion to H2 and CO. The partial-combustion consumes up to 40% of the energetic value of the feedstock. With air combustion, the product gas is diluted by high levels of CO2 and N2. Using oxygen reduces the product dilution, but at the expense of adding an oxygen plant. Supplying the required heat with concentrated solar radiation eliminates the need for partial combustion of the biomass feedstock. As a result, the product gas has an energetic value greater than that of the feedstock and it is not contaminated by the byproducts of combustion. The second promising route to solar fuels splits water and carbon dioxide. Two-step metal-oxide redox cycles hold out great potential because they the temperature required to achieve a reasonable degree of dissociation is lower than direct thermal dissociation and O2 and the fuel are produced in separate steps. The 1^st step is the endothermic thermal dissociation of the metal oxide to the metal or lower-valence metal oxide. The 2

  13. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  14. Characterisation of agroindustrial solid residues as biofuels and potential application in thermochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmond, Elaine; De Sena, Rennio F; Albrecht, Waldir; Althoff, Christine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, selected agroindustrial solid residues from Brazil - biosolids from meat processing wastewater treatment and mixture of sawdust with these biosolids; residues from apple and orange juice industries; sugarcane bagasse; açaí kernels (Euterpe oleracea) and rice husk - were characterised as solid fuels and an evaluation of their properties, including proximate and ultimate composition, energy content, thermal behaviour, composition and fusibility of the ashes was performed. The lower heating value of the biomasses ranged from 14.31 MJkg(-1) to 29.14 MJkg(-1), on a dry and ash free basis (daf), all presenting high volatile matter content, varying between 70.57 wt.% and 85.36 wt.% (daf) what improves the thermochemical conversion of the solids. The fouling and slagging tendency of the ashes was predicted based on the fuel ash composition and on the ash fusibility correlations proposed in the literature, which is important to the project and operation of biomass conversion systems. The potential for application of the Brazilian agroindustrial solid residues studied as alternative energy sources in thermochemical processes has been identified, especially concerning direct combustion for steam generation.

  15. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dael, Van M.; Passel, van S.; Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R.; Reumermann, P.; Luzardo, N.M.; Witters, N.; Broeze, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conve

  16. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Venteris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. We summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. Our growth model is used to predict average biomass production for two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp., one fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412, and one freshwater strain (order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas, land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area, a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1. Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive strain, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 1.8 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank UFs are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations.

  17. Reactors for Catalytic Methanation in the Conversion of Biomass to Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, Tilman J; Biollaz, Serge M A

    2015-01-01

    Production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from biomass is an important step to decouple the use of bioenergy from the biomass production with respect to both time and place. While anaerobic digestion of wet biomass is a state-of-the art process, wood gasification to producer gas followed by gas cleaning and methanation has only just entered the demonstration scale. Power-to-Gas applications using biogas from biomass fermentation or producer gas from wood gasification as carbon oxide source are under development. Due to the importance of the (catalytic) methanation step in the production of SNG from dry biomass or within Power-to-Gas applications, the specific challenges of this step and the developed reactor types are discussed in this review.

  18. A Novel NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 Involved in the Detoxification of Aldehyde Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and...

  19. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  20. Influence of feedstock particle size on lignocellulose conversion--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Bernardo C; Dien, Bruce S; Ting, K C; Singh, Vijay

    2011-08-01

    Feedstock particle sizing can impact the economics of cellulosic ethanol commercialization through its effects on conversion yield and energy cost. Past studies demonstrated that particle size influences biomass enzyme digestibility to a limited extent. Physical size reduction was able to increase conversion rates to maximum of ≈ 50%, whereas chemical modification achieved conversions of >70% regardless of biomass particle size. This suggests that (1) mechanical pretreatment by itself is insufficient to attain economically feasible biomass conversion, and, therefore, (2) necessary particle sizing needs to be determined in the context of thermochemical pretreatment employed for lignocellulose conversion. Studies of thermochemical pretreatments that have taken into account particle size as a factor have exhibited a wide range of maximal sizes (i.e., particle sizes below which no increase in pretreatment effectiveness, measured in terms of the enzymatic conversion resulting from the pretreatment, were observed) from pretreatment employed, with maximal size range decreasing as follows: steam explosion > liquid hot water > dilute acid and base pretreatments. Maximal sizes also appeared dependent on feedstock, with herbaceous or grassy biomass exhibiting lower maximal size range (biomass (>3 mm). Such trends, considered alongside the intensive energy requirement of size reduction processes, warrant a more systematic study of particle size effects across different pretreatment technologies and feedstock, as a requisite for optimizing the feedstock supply system.

  1. A high performance Trichoderma reesei strain that reveals the importance of xylanase III in cellulosic biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Hikaru; Kawai, Tetsushi; Ida, Noriko; Shida, Yosuke; Shioya, Kouki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Okada, Hirofumi; Tani, Shuji; Sumitani, Jun-ichi; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the Trichoderma reesei X3AB1strain enzyme preparations to convert cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is enhanced by the replacement of xyn3 by Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase 1 gene (aabg1), as shown in our previous study. However, subsequent experiments using T. reesei extracts supplemented with the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 xylanase III (XYN III) and GH Family 11 XYN II showed increased conversion of alkaline treated cellulosic biomass, which is rich in xylan, underscoring the importance of XYN III. To attain optimal saccharifying potential in T. reesei, we constructed two new strains, C1AB1 and E1AB1, in which aabg1 was expressed heterologously by means of the cbh1 or egl1 promoters, respectively, so that the endogenous XYN III synthesis remained intact. Due to the presence of wild-type xyn3 in T. reesei E1AB1, enzymes prepared from this strain were 20-30% more effective in the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated rice straw than enzyme extracts from X3AB1, and also outperformed recent commercial cellulase preparations. Our results demonstrate the importance of XYN III in the conversion of alkaline-pretreated cellulosic biomass by T. reesei.

  2. Conversion of biomass, prediction and solution methods for ash agglomeration and related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Fuels Conversion and Environment, Petten (Netherlands); Olsen, A. [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    When biomass is used as fuel for thermal conversion plants, minerals from the fuel can be responsible for major problems. Generally, these problems are associated with the existence and development of low melting compounds or eutectics, which form sticky layers. In a fluidised bed, this can result in bed-agglomeration and defluidisation. This causes local high temperature, which often accelerates the process. It ultimately can lead to a completely sintered bed content with a glassy phase gluing the bed particles together and shut-down of the plant. The main objective of the title project is to develop a methodology to predict ash/bed agglomeration and sintering problems, to indicate related problems and, furthermore, to identify solution methods to make different types of biomass streams more viable for energy production. Within the present study, selected fuels are subjected to different existing methods together with some new ones, in order to determine the agglomeration temperature. The selected fuels are verge grass, Danish wheat straw (both stored dry and partly leached due to rainfall), sewage sludge, cacao shells and willow as a reference. The methods used within the study are chemical analysis of fuel and ashes, determination of standard ash melting temperatures, compression strength measurements of the ash, DTA/TG analysis of the ash, SEM and ESEM (high temperature environmental scanning microscopy), two different lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed combustion facilities, a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed gasifier and a circulating fluidised bed gasifier. The lab-scale facilities have been used to test potential measures to reduce the problem of agglomeration. These measures are the use of additives (kaolin, magnesite, dolomite, gibbsite and sewage sludge) and non-quartz bed materials (alumina and mullite). The work performed within the project has lead to the following results. Chemical analysis of the fuel can give a first indication of whether there might

  3. Recent trends in ionic liquid (IL) tolerant enzymes and microorganisms for biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Maria Del Carmen; Saadeddin, Anas

    2015-01-01

    Second generation biofuel production depends on lignocellulosic (LC) biomass transformation into simple sugars and their subsequent fermentation into alcohols. However, the main obstacle in this process is the efficient breakdown of the recalcitrant cellulose to sugar monomers. Hence, efficient feedstock pretreatment and hydrolysis are necessary to produce a cost effective biofuel. Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) have been recognized as a promising solvent able to dissolve different biomass feedstocks, providing higher sugar yields. However, most of the hydrolytic enzymes and microorganisms are inactivated, completely or partially, in the presence of even low concentrations of IL, making necessary the discovery of novel hydrolytic enzymes and fermentative microorganisms that are tolerant to ILs. In this review, the current state and the challenges of using ILs as a pretreatment of LC biomass was evaluated, underlining the advances in the discovery and identification of new IL-tolerant enzymes and microorganisms that could improve the bioprocessing of biomass to fuels and chemicals.

  4. Conversion of Cellulosic Biomass into Chemicals using Heterogeneous and Electrochemical Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vuyyuru, Koteswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative Elektrizität aus Wind und Sonne einerseits und Biomasse andererseits sind 2 fundamentale Grundpfeiler einer zukünftigen nachhaltigen Versorgung mit Energie und Chemikalien. Diese beiden Bereiche existieren und entwickeln sich im Moment weitgehend unabhängig voneinander. Diese Dissertation unternimmt den konzeptionellen Versuch, durch eine Untersuchung der elektrochemischen Umwandlung von Biomasse und einem Vergleich zu herkömmlichen thermisch katalysierten Prozessen diese beiden ...

  5. A field study on the conversion ratio of phytoplankton biomass carbon to chlorophyll-a in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Shuguo; Wang Xuchen; Han Boping

    2009-01-01

    A one-year field study was conducted to determine the conversion ratio of phytoplankton biomass carbon (Phyto-C) to chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in Jiaozhou Bay, China. We measured suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) and phytoplankton Chl-a samples collected in surface water monthly from March 2005 to February 2006. The temporal and spatial variations of Chl-a and POC concentrations were observed in the bay. Based on the field measurements, a linear regression model II was used to generate the conversion ratio of Phyto-C to Chl-a. In most cases, a good linear correlation was found between the observed POC and Chl-a concentrations, and the calculated conversion ratios ranged from 26 to 250 with a mean value of 56 ìg ìg~(-1). The conversion ratio in the fall was higher than that in the winter and spring months, and had the lowest values in the summer. The ratios also exhibited spatial variations, generally with low values in the near shore regions and relatively high values in offshore waters. Our study suggests that temperature was likely to be the main factor influencing the observed seasonal variations of conversion ratios while nutrient supply and light penetration played important roles in controlling the spatial variations.

  6. Functional carbons and carbon nanohybrids for the catalytic conversion of biomass to renewable chemicals in the condensed phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Matthiesen; Thomas Hoff; Chi Liu; Charles Pueschel; Radhika Rao; Jean-Philippe Tessonnier

    2014-01-01

    The production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass provides opportunities to synthesize chemicals with new functionalities and grow a more sustainable chemical industry. However, new challenges emerge as research transitions from petrochemistry to biorenewable chemistry. Com-pared to petrochemisty, the selective conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates requires most catalytic reactions to take place at low temperatures (<300 °C) and in the condensed phase to pre-vent reactants and products from degrading. The stability of heterogeneous catalysts in liquid water above the normal boiling point represents one of the major challenges to overcome. Herein, we review some of the latest advances in the field with an emphasis on the role of carbon materials and carbon nanohybrids in addressing this challenge.

  7. Functional carbons and carbon nanohybrids for the catalytic conversion of biomass to renewable chemicals in the condensed phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthiesen, John; Hoff, Thomas; Liu, Chi; Pueschel, Charles; Rao, Radhika; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass provides opportunities to synthesize chemicals with new functionalities and grow a more sustainable chemical industry. However, new challenges emerge as research transitions from petrochemistry to biorenewable chemistry. Compared to petrochemisty, the selective conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates requires most catalytic reactions to take place at low temperatures (< 300°C) and in the condensed phase to prevent reactants and products from degrading. The stability of heterogeneous catalysts in liquid water above the normal boiling point represents one of the major challenges to overcome. Herein, we review some of the latest advances in the field with an emphasis on the role of carbon materials and carbon nanohybrids in addressing this challenge.

  8. Superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surface-enhanced separation performance of porous inorganic membranes for biomass-to-biofuel conversion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Bischoff, Brian L.; Jang, Gyoung G.; Theiss, Timothy J.; Davis, Mark F.

    2016-11-14

    A new class of porous membranes is introduced to provide unique separation mechanisms by surface interactions and capillary condensation. High-performance architectural surface selective (HiPAS) membranes were designed for high perm-selective flux and high-temperature tolerance for hot vapor processing and liquid processing Due to surface-enhanced selectivity, larger-fluxes were achieved by utilizing larger pore sizes (~8 nm for vapor phase and micron-sized pores for liquid phase separations). This paper describes a membrane-based separation concept for biomass conversion pathways and demonstrates the initial data for selective permeation of toluene-water and toluene-phenol-water relevant to biofuel processing.

  9. Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Progress report, June 15, 1996--March 10, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danna, K.J.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, we want to determine the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu). The apoplast not only contains cellulose, the substrate for the enzymes, but also can tolerate large amounts of foreign protein. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulase expression in plants, we have chosen enzymes with high temperature optima; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source.

  10. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  11. High-performance liquid-catalyst fuel cell for direct biomass-into-electricity conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Deng, Yulin

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we report high-performance fuel cells that are catalyzed solely by polyoxometalate (POM) solution without any solid metal or metal oxide. The novel design of the liquid-catalyst fuel cells (LCFC) changes the traditional gas-solid-surface heterogeneous reactions to liquid-catalysis reactions. With this design, raw biomasses, such as cellulose, starch, and even grass or wood powders can be directly converted into electricity. The power densities of the fuel cell with switchgrass (dry powder) and bush allamanda (freshly collected) are 44 mW cm(-2) and 51 mW cm(-2) respectively. For the cellulose-based biomass fuel cell, the power density is almost 3000 times higher than that of cellulose-based microbial fuel cells. Unlike noble-metal catalysts, POMs are tolerant to most organic and inorganic contaminants. Therefore, almost any raw biomass can be used directly to produce electricity without prior purification.

  12. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1995, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 14 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1995 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry as at power plants than it is possible at present appliances. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel-oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. The main aim of the research in bioenergy utilization is to create the technological potential for increasing the bioenergy use. The aim is further defined as to get into commercial phase 3-4 new techniques or methods and to start several demonstrations, which will have 0.2-0.3 million toe bioenergy utilization potential

  13. Catalytic Deoxygenation of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors to Improve Bio-oil Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayton, David C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-12-22

    The President’s Advanced Energy Initiative called for a change in the way Americans fuel their vehicles to promote improved energy security. Increasing biofuels production from domestic lignocellulosic resources requires advanced technology development to achieve the aggressive targets set forth to reduce motor gasoline consumption by 20% in ten years (by 2017). The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Office of the Biomass Program (currently Bioenergy Technologies Office) is actively funding research and development in both biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies to accelerate the deployment of biofuels technologies in the near future to meet the goals of the Advanced Energy Initiative. Thermochemical conversion technology options include both gasification and pyrolysis to enable the developing lignocellulosic biorefineries and maximize biomass resource utilization for production of biofuels.

  14. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into olefins and aromatics with ZSM-5: the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Vispute, Tushar; Xiao, R; Huber, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of ten biomass-derived feedstocks, i.e.glucose, sorbitol, glycerol, tetrahydrofuran, methanol and different hydrogenated bio-oil fractions, with different hydrogen to carbon effective (H/C{sub eff}) ratios was conducted in a gas-phase flow fixed-bed reactor with a ZSM-5 catalyst. The aromatic + olefin yield increases and the coke yield decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed. There is an inflection point at a H/C{sub eff} ratio = 1.2, where the aromatic + olefin yield does not increase as rapidly as it does prior to this point. The ratio of olefins to aromatics also increases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. CO and CO₂ yields go through a maximum with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. The deactivation rate of the catalyst decreases significantly with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Coke was formed from both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the ten feedstocks showed that the formation of coke from homogeneous reactions decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Feedstocks with a H/C{sub eff} ratio less than 0.15 produce large amounts of undesired coke (more than 12 wt%) from homogeneous decomposition reactions. This paper shows that the conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into aromatics and olefins using zeolite catalysts can be explained by the H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed.

  15. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  16. Thermochemical hydrolysis of macroalgae Ulva for biorefinery: Taguchi robust design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Linzon, Yoav; Vitkin, Edward; Yakhini, Zohar; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Golberg, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the impact of all process parameters on the efficiency of biomass hydrolysis and on the final yield of products is critical to biorefinery design. Using Taguchi orthogonal arrays experimental design and Partial Least Square Regression, we investigated the impact of change and the comparative significance of thermochemical process temperature, treatment time, %Acid and %Solid load on carbohydrates release from green macroalgae from Ulva genus, a promising biorefinery feedstock. The average density of hydrolysate was determined using a new microelectromechanical optical resonator mass sensor. In addition, using Flux Balance Analysis techniques, we compared the potential fermentation yields of these hydrolysate products using metabolic models of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase and Clostridium acetobutylicum. We found that %Acid plays the most significant role and treatment time the least significant role in affecting the monosaccharaides released from Ulva biomass. We also found that within the tested range of parameters, hydrolysis with 121 °C, 30 min 2% Acid, 15% Solids could lead to the highest yields of conversion: 54.134–57.500 gr ethanol kg‑1 Ulva dry weight by S. cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase. Our results support optimized marine algae utilization process design and will enable smart energy harvesting by thermochemical hydrolysis.

  17. Bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2013-01-01

    to describe the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. In this work both models consider the incoming solid fuel as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed is treated as a 0D system, but the thermo......Because of the complexity to describe and solve thermo-chemical processes occurring in a fuel bed in grate-fired boiler, it is often necessary to simplify the process and use modeling techniques based on overall mass, energy and species conservation. A comparison between two numerical models......-chemical processes are divided in two successive sections: drying and conversion (which includes pyrolysis, gasification and combustion). The second model is an empirical 1D approach. The two models need input data such as composition, temperature and feeding rate of biomass and primary air. Temperature, species...

  18. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chien-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially

  19. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chien-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially

  20. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.

    2017-03-28

    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  1. Recent progress on biomass co-pyrolysis conversion into high-quality bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H; Lim, J K; Hameed, B H

    2016-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis of biomass with abundantly available materials could be an economical method for production of bio-fuels. However, elimination of oxygenated compounds poses a considerable challenge. Catalytic co-pyrolysis is another potential technique for upgrading bio-oils for application as liquid fuels in standard engines. This technique promotes the production of high-quality bio-oil through acid catalyzed reduction of oxygenated compounds and mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This work aims to review and summarize research progress on co-pyrolysis and catalytic co-pyrolysis, as well as their benefits on enhancement of bio-oils derived from biomass. This review focuses on the potential of plastic wastes and coal materials as co-feed in co-pyrolysis to produce valuable liquid fuel. This paper also proposes future directions for using this technique to obtain high yields of bio-oils.

  2. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest global threats of the 21st century. Fossil fuels constitute by far the most important energy source for transportation and the different governments are starting to take action to promote the use of cleaner fuels. Biomass-derived fuels are a promising alternative for diversifying fuel sources, reducing fossil fuel dependency and abating greenhouse gas emissions. The research interest has quickly shifted from first-generation biofuels, obtained from food co...

  3. Two-Stage Conversion of Land and Marine Biomass for Biogas and Biohydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nkemka, Valentine

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of fossil fuels by renewable fuels such as biogas and biohydrogen will require efficient and economically competitive process technologies together with new kinds of biomass. A two-stage system for biogas production has several advantages over the widely used one-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). However, it has not yet been widely implemented on a large scale. Biohydrogen can be produced in the anaerobic two-stage system. It is considered to be a useful fuel for t...

  4. Nanostructured materials and their role as heterogeneous catalysts in the conversion of biomass to biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Chris

    Prior to the discovery of inexpensive and readily available fossil fuels, the world relied heavily on biomass to provide its energy needs. Due to a worldwide growth in demand for fossil fuels coupled with the shrinkage of petroleum resources, and mounting economic, political, and environmental concerns, it has become more pressing to develop sustainable fuels and chemicals from biomass. The present dissertation studies multiple nanostructured catalysts investigated in various processes related to gasification of biomass into synthesis gas, and further upgrading to biofuels and value added chemicals. These reactions include: syngas conditioning, alcohol synthesis from carbon monoxide hydrogenation, and steam reforming ethanol to form higher hydrocarbons. Nanomaterials were synthesized, characterized, studied in given reactions, and then further characterized post-reaction. Overall goals were aimed at determining catalytic activities towards desired products and determining which material properties were most desirable based on experimental results. Strategies to improve material design for second-generation materials are suggested based on promising reaction results coupled with pre and post reaction characterization analysis.

  5. The effect of Pleurotus ostreatus arabinofuranosidase and its evolved variant in lignocellulosic biomasses conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolongo, Loredana; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Amore, Antonella; Giacobbe, Simona; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2014-11-01

    The fungal arabinofuranosidase from Pleurotus ostreatus PoAbf recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris rPoAbf and its evolved variant rPoAbf F435Y/Y446F were tested for their effectiveness to enhance the enzymatic saccharification of three lignocellulosic biomasses, namely Arundo donax, corn cobs and brewer's spent grains (BSG), after chemical or chemical-physical pretreatment. All the raw materials were subjected to an alkaline pretreatment by soaking in aqueous ammonia solution whilst the biomass from A. donax was also pretreated by steam explosion. The capability of the wild-type and mutant rPoAbf to increase the fermentable sugars recovery was assessed by using these enzymes in combination with different (hemi)cellulolytic activities. These enzymatic mixtures were either entirely of commercial origin or contained the cellulase from Streptomyces sp. G12 CelStrep recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli in substitution to the commercial counterparts. The addition of the arabinofuranosidases from P. ostreatus improved the hydrolytic efficiency of the commercial enzymatic cocktails on all the pretreated biomasses. The best results were obtained using the rPoAbf evolved variant and are represented by increases of the xylose recovery up to 56.4%. These data clearly highlight the important role of the accessory hemicellulolytic activities to optimize the xylan bioconversion yields.

  6. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard

    2014-09-16

    Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. In this contribution we summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. We present strain-specific growth model results from two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp.), a fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412), and a freshwater strain of the order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE) and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas), land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL) to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area), a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1, BGY). Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive species, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 2.0 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low rank sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on site rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank sites are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations. Keywords: algae

  7. Biological research survey for the efficient conversion of biomass to biofuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Michael Stuart; Andrews, Katherine M. (Computational Biosciences)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this four-week late start LDRD was to assess the current status of science and technology with regard to the production of biofuels. The main focus was on production of biodiesel from nonpetroleum sources, mainly vegetable oils and algae, and production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. One goal was to assess the major technological hurdles for economic production of biofuels for these two approaches. Another goal was to compare the challenges and potential benefits of the two approaches. A third goal was to determine areas of research where Sandia's unique technical capabilities can have a particularly strong impact in these technologies.

  8. Conversion of raw lignocellulosic biomass into branched long-chain alkanes through three tandem steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunrui; Ding, Daqian; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-07-07

    Synthesis of branched long-chain alkanes from renewable biomass has attracted intensive interest in recent years, but the feedstock for this synthesis is restricted to platform chemicals. Here, we develop an effective and energy-efficient process to convert raw lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., corncob) into branched diesel-range alkanes through three tandem steps for the first time. Furfural and isopropyl levulinate (LA ester) were prepared from hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of corncob in toluene/water biphasic system with added isopropanol, which was followed by double aldol condensation of furfural with LA ester into C15 oxygenates and the final hydrodeoxygenation of C15 oxygenates into branched long-chain alkanes. The core point of this tandem process is the addition of isopropanol in the first step, which enables the spontaneous transfer of levulinic acid (LA) into the toluene phase in the form of LA ester through esterification, resulting in LA ester co-existing with furfural in the same phase, which is the basis for double aldol condensation in the toluene phase. Moreover, the acidic aqueous phase and toluene can be reused and the residues, including lignin and humins in aqueous phase, can be separated and carbonized to porous carbon materials.

  9. Evaluation of research in plant biomass production for liquid fuel conversion: The case of India, Brazil and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.M. (Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify research activities in the field of plant biomass production for liquid fuel conversion and to evaluate research in areas outside the USA and EEC. Results are presented for three countries: Japan, India and Brazil. Research groups were identified from a range of information sources. Data were collected by interview and related to funding, information access, staffing, publication policy and degree of awareness of other research groups in the field. Bibliometric analysis and peer review were used as indicators in an attempt to assess research output. The findings are discussed in relation to agro-industrial policy in Japan, the use of marginal land in India and the Proalcohol program in Brazil.

  10. Fuel-nitrogen conversion in the combustion of small amines using dimethylamine and ethylamine as biomass-related model fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucassen, Arnas; Zhang, Kuiwen; Warkentin, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Laminar premixed flames of the two smallest isomeric amines, dimethylamine and ethylamine, were investigated under one-dimensional low-pressure (40mbar) conditions with the aim to elucidate pathways that may contribute to fuel-nitrogen conversion in the combustion of biomass. For this, identical...... flames of both fuels diluted with 25% Ar were studied for three different stoichiometries (Φ=0.8, 1.0, and 1.3) using in situ molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Quantitative mole fractions of reactants, products and numerous stable and reactive intermediates were determined by electron ionization...... (EI) MBMS with high mass resolution to separate overlapping features from species with different heavy elements by exact mass. Species assignment was assisted by using single-photon vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization (PI) MBMS. The results indicate formation of a number of nitrogenated...

  11. The structural characterization of corn stalks hemicelluloses during active oxygen cooking as a pretreatment for biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bin Shi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The structural characteristics of corn stalks hemicelluloses during the active oxygen cooking process as a pretreatment of biomass conversion were investigated in this work. The hemicelluloses obtained from the corn stalks, pulp, and yellow liquor were evaluated by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and 1H-13C 2D hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC spectroscopy. Based on the sugar and GPC analysis, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy, it could be concluded that the hemicelluloses were composed of backbones of (1→4-β-D-xylopyranose substituted α-L-arabinofuranose and 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid. During the cooking process, the hemicelluloses with more side chains were removed from raw material. The backbones were significantly damaged as well. Additionally, the ester linkages in the raw material were completely broken after the cooking.

  12. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)–(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized. PMID:27877800

  13. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume......Wh of electricity from straw through gasification would lead to a global warming potential of 0.08 kg CO2e, non-renewable energy use of 0.2 MJ primary, acidification of 1.3 g SO2e, respiratory inorganics of 0.08 g PM2.5e and eutrophication potential of -1.9 g NO3e. The production of electricity from straw based...

  14. Integrated process for the catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas into transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Vanessa Lebarbier; Smith, Colin; Flake, Matthew; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gray, Michel J.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of renewable fuels that will enable cost competitiveness with petroleum-derived fuels remains a grand challenge for U.S. scientists. In this paper, we report on an integrated catalytic approach for producing transportation fuels from biomass-derived syngas. The composition of the resulting hydrocarbon fuel can be modulated to meet specified requirements. Biomass-derived syngas is first converted over an Rh-based catalyst into a complex aqueous mixture of condensable C2+ oxygenated compounds (predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate). This multi-component aqueous mixture then is fed to a second reactor loaded with a ZnxZryOz mixed oxide catalyst, which has tailored acid-base sites, to produce an olefin mixture rich in isobutene. The olefins then are oligomerized using a solid acid catalyst (e.g., Amberlyst-36) to form condensable olefins with molecular weights that can be targeted for gasoline, jet, and/or diesel fuel applications. The product rich in long-chain olefins (C7+) is finally sent to a fourth reactor that is needed for hydrogenation of the olefins into paraffin fuels. Simulated distillation of the hydrotreated oligomerized liquid product indicates that ~75% of the hydrocarbons present are in the jet-fuel range. Process optimization for the oligomerization step could further improve yield to the jet-fuel range. All of these catalytic steps have been demonstrated in sequence, thus providing proof-of-concept for a new integrated process for the production of drop-in biofuels. This unique and flexible process does not require external hydrogen and also could be applied to non-syngas derived feedstock, such as fermentation products (e.g., ethanol, acetic acid, etc.), other oxygenates, and mixtures thereof containing alcohols, acids, aldehydes and/or esters.

  15. Biomass conversion in the fungal garden of the leaf-cutter ant Acromyrmex echinatior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Nygaard, Sanne; Linde, Tore

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that fungal enzymes play a significant role in the fungal garden conversion of the fresh-cut leaves into accessible food for the ant larvae (Schiøtt et al. 2008, BMC Microbiol, 8:40; Licht et al. 2010, Evolution 64: 2055-2069). However, so far specific documentation...... of conversion of also the cellulose fibers itself has been scarce. In the current study, we have taken an experimental approach allowing us to discover which genes are specifically expressed in the upper, middle, and bottom layers of the fungal garden. Using the DeepSAGE technique (Nielsen et al. 2006, Nucleic...... Acids Res 34:e133) short cDNA tags of the mRNA molecules produced in each of the fungal garden layers were achieved. Subtractive comparisons were made, identifying the genes at least 2x over-expressed in the bottom layer compared to the upper layer. Extended sequence of the selected genes were acquired...

  16. A techno-economic review of thermochemical cellulosic biofuel pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tristan R

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in the thermochemical processing of biomass have resulted in efforts to commercialize several cellulosic biofuel pathways. Until commercial-scale production is achieved, however, techno-economic analysis is a useful methodology for quantifying the economic competitiveness of these pathways with petroleum, providing one indication of their long-term feasibility under the U.S. revised Renewable Fuel Standard. This review paper covers techno-economic analyses of thermochemical cellulosic biofuel pathways in the open literature, discusses and compares their results, and recommends the adoption of additional analytical methodologies that will increase the value of future pathway analyses.

  17. Hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes for improved conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to monosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanson Spencer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High enzyme loading is a major economic bottleneck for the commercial processing of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Optimizing the enzyme cocktail for specific types of pretreated biomass allows for a significant reduction in enzyme loading without sacrificing hydrolysis yield. This is especially important for alkaline pretreatments such as Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX pretreated corn stover. Hence, a diverse set of hemicellulases supplemented along with cellulases is necessary for high recovery of monosaccharides. Results The core fungal cellulases in the optimal cocktail include cellobiohydrolase I [CBH I; glycoside hydrolase (GH family 7A], cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II; GH family 6A, endoglucanase I (EG I; GH family 7B and β-glucosidase (βG; GH family 3. Hemicellulases tested along with the core cellulases include xylanases (LX1, GH family 10; LX2, GH family 10; LX3, GH family 10; LX4, GH family 11; LX5, GH family 10; LX6, GH family 10, β-xylosidase (LβX; GH family 52, α-arabinofuranosidase (LArb, GH family 51 and α-glucuronidase (LαGl, GH family 67 that were cloned, expressed and/or purified from different bacterial sources. Different combinations of these enzymes were tested using a high-throughput microplate based 24 h hydrolysis assay. Both family 10 (LX3 and family 11 (LX4 xylanases were found to most efficiently hydrolyze AFEX pretreated corn stover in a synergistic manner. The optimal mass ratio of xylanases (LX3 and LX4 to cellulases (CBH I, CBH II and EG I is 25:75. LβX (0.6 mg/g glucan is crucial to obtaining monomeric xylose (54% xylose yield, while LArb (0.6 mg/g glucan and LαGl (0.8 mg/g glucan can both further increase xylose yield by an additional 20%. Compared with Accellerase 1000, a purified cocktail of cellulases supplemented with accessory hemicellulases will not only increase both glucose and xylose yields but will also decrease the total enzyme loading

  18. Cellulase immobilization on superparamagnetic nanoparticles for reuse in cellulosic biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Segato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current cellulosic biomass hydrolysis is based on the one-time use of cellulases. Cellulases immobilized on magnetic nanocarriers offer the advantages of magnetic separation and repeated use for continuous hydrolysis. Most immobilization methods focus on only one type of cellulase. Here, we report co-immobilization of two types of cellulases, β-glucosidase A (BglA and cellobiohydrolase D (CelD, on sub-20 nm superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles demonstrated 100% immobilization efficiency for both BglA and CelD. The total enzyme activities of immobilized BglA and CelD were up to 67.1% and 41.5% of that of the free cellulases, respectively. The immobilized BglA and CelD each retained about 85% and 43% of the initial immobilized enzyme activities after being recycled 3 and 10 times, respectively. The effects of pH and temperature on the immobilized cellulases were also investigated. Co-immobilization of BglA and CelD on MNPs is a promising strategy to promote synergistic action of cellulases while lowering enzyme consumption.

  19. Structural analysis of Catliq® bio-oil produced by catalytic liquid conversion of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    Liq® process compared with combustion is that also wet material can be processed. In the process, the waste is transformed to bio-oil, combustible gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The raw material used in this study was DDGS (Dried Distilled Grain with Solubles), a residual product in 1st generation......) process is a second generation process for the production of bio-oil from different biomass-based waste materials. The process is carried out at subcritical conditions (280-350 °C and 180-250 bar) and in the presence of homogeneous (KOH) and heterogeneous (ZrO2) catalysts. The great advantage with the Cat...... ethanol production, available in huge quantities. DDGS is today used as animal feed but in a future with increasing production of DDGS, converting it into bio-oil may be an attractive alternative. The bio-oil can be used for green electricity production or it can be upgraded to bio-diesel. In the current...

  20. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard

    2016-11-29

    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  1. Change of physical and chemical properties of the solid phase during biomass pyrolysis; Aenderung der physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften des Feststoffs waehrend der Biomassepyrolyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, Wolfgang [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik; Rincon, Sonia; Gomez, Alexander [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica

    2009-01-15

    The effects of the final pyrolysis temperature on the development of the chemical composition and on the porosity of biomass undergoing pyrolysis are investigated through experiments in a thermobalance at laboratory scale of grams. Changes in the grain size of individual particles of biomass during pyrolysis are also investigated as a function of temperature in a microscope equipped with heating and camera. Oil palm shells are selected as raw materials due to their availability as biomass residue and their physical and chemical characteristics. These experiments are important for reactor design purposes in the field of thermochemical conversion, offering important information for the mathematical modelling of the processes. (orig.)

  2. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from grass to bioethanol using materials pretreated with alkali and the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yee Liong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Grasses are abundant in many climatic regions of the world and have been regarded as weeds by many. This work investigated the use of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass in the production of bioethanol. Two pretreated grasses were compared as the initial substance in the hydrolysis process followed by bacteria fermentation. For the purpose of breaking down lignin, alkali pretreatment, where grass was soaked in 7% NaOH, was used. For biological pretreatment, grass was incubated for 3 weeks with the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both types of pretreated materials were subjected to Trichoderma reesei ATCC 26921 enzyme hydrolysis. Glucose content from alkali-pretreated samples was 1.6-fold higher than fungus-pretreated samples. Hydrolysates from the pretreatments were fermented using the ethanol insensitive strain Escherichia coli K011. After 24 hours of fermentation, the ethanol yield from alkali-pretreated material was 1.5 times higher than the biological-pretreated material. It can be concluded that NaOH-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had a better ethanol yield compared to biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate, but biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had better ethanol conversion efficiency, which was 18.5 g/g. These results indicated that wild grass is capable of becoming an important biomass for small local bioethanol production.

  3. Removal and Conversion of Tar in Syngas from Woody Biomass Gasification for Power Utilization Using Catalytic Hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification has yet to obtain industrial acceptance. The high residual tar concentrations in syngas prevent any ambitious utilization. In this paper a novel gas purification technology based on catalytic hydrocracking is introduced, whereby most of the tarry components can be converted and removed. Pilot scale experiments were carried out with an updraft gasifier. The hydrocracking catalyst was palladium (Pd. The results show the dominant role of temperature and flow rate. At a constant flow rate of 20 Nm3/h and temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C the tar conversion rates reached 44.9%, 78.1% and 92.3%, respectively. These results could be increased up to 98.6% and 99.3% by using an operating temperature of 700 °C and lower flow rates of 15 Nm3/h and 10 Nm3/h. The syngas quality after the purification process at 700 °C/10 Nm3/h is acceptable for inner combustion (IC gas engine utilization.

  4. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  5. Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Annual report, March 11, 1997--March 14, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danna, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu) is to be determined. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulose expression in plants, enzymes with high temperature optima were chosen; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source. During the past year (year 2 of the grant), efforts have been focused on testing expression of endoglucanase E{sub 1}, from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, in the apoplast of both tobacco suspension cells and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Using the plasmids constructed during the first year, transgenic cells and plants that contain the gene for the E{sub 1} catalytic domain fused to a signal peptide sequence were obtained. This gene was constructed so that the fusion protein will be secreted into the apoplast. The enzyme is made in large quantities and is secreted into the apoplast. More importantly, it is enzymatically active when placed under optimal reaction conditions (high temperature). Moreover, the plant cells and intact plants exhibit no obvious problems with growth and development under laboratory conditions. Work has also continued to improve binary vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, to determine activity of E{sub 1} at various temperatures, and to investigate the activity of the 35S Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter in E. coli. 9 figs.

  6. Biomass Compositional Analysis for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  7. Biomass compositional analysis for energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R

    2009-01-01

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  8. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum, natural gas and coal supply most of the energy consumed worldwide and their massive utilization has allowed our society to reach high levels of development in the past century.[...

  9. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, jr., David J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Argo, Andrew [Sundrop Fuels, Golden, CO (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cafferty, Kara [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chiu, Yi-Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to

  10. Improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass by a three-stage process comprising dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Lin, Richen; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-10-01

    The effects of pre-treatment methods on saccharification and hydrogen fermentation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass were investigated. When raw biomass and biomass pre-treated by steam heating, by microwave heating, and by ultrasonication were used as feedstock, the hydrogen yields were only 8.8-12.7 ml/g total volatile solids (TVS) during dark fermentation. When biomass was pre-treated by steam heating with diluted acid and by microwave heating with diluted acid, the dark hydrogen yields significantly increased to 75.6 ml/g TVS and 83.3 ml/g TVS, respectively. Steam heating with diluted acid is the preferred pre-treatment method of C. pyrenoidosa biomass to improve hydrogen yield during dark fermentation and photofermentation, which is followed by methanogenesis to increase energy conversion efficiency (ECE). A total hydrogen yield of 198.3 ml/g TVS and a methane yield of 186.2 ml/g TVS corresponding to an overall ECE of 34.0% were obtained through the three-stage process (dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis).

  11. Synergistic evaluation of the biomass/coal blends for co-gasification purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gaqa, S Mamphweli, D Katwire, E Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 95% of electricity in South Africa is generated from coal, which is a fossil fuel that has detrimental environmental impacts. Eskom has started investigating the possibility of co-firing coal with biomass to improve their carbon footprint. However, co-firing utilizes approximately 80% of water and results in extensive environmental impacts. This research seeks to investigate the possibility of co-gasification of coal and biomass, which is a thermochemical process that uses about a third of the water required by a coal-fired power station, and results in much lower emissions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was conducted to investigate the existence of a synergy between coal and biomass during gasification. Various coal/biomass blends were investigated using TGA. The synergistic effect between the two feedstock as determined through TGA allowed the prediction of the gasification characteristics of the blends that most likely gave the highest conversion efficiency. Preliminary results suggested the existence of this synergy.

  12. Biomass in Multifunction Crop Plants: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-163

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, S. R.

    2011-10-01

    An array of cellulase, hemicellulase, and accessory enzymes were tested for their ability to increase the conversion levels and rates of biomass to sugar after being subjected to thermochemical pretreatment. The genes were cloned by Oklahoma State University and expressed, purified, and tested at NREL. Several enzymes were noted to be effective in increasing conversion levels, however expression levels were typically very low. The overall plan was to express these enzymes in corn as a possible mechanism towards decreased recalcitrance. One enzyme, cel5A endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, was transformed into both tobacco and corn. The transgenic corn stover and tobacco were examined for their susceptibility to thermochemical pretreatment followed by enzymatic digestion.

  13. Obtaining fuel oils from the low temperature conversion of biomass waste; Obtencao de oleo combustivel a partir da conversao a baixa temperatura de biomassa residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Cinelli, Leonardo Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Romeiro, Gilberto Alves; Damasceno, Raimundo Nonato [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: gilbertoromeiro@ig.com.br; Senra, Paulo Mauricio de Albuquerque [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: paulo.senra@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper refers to the characterization and application of oil obtained through the 'Low Temperature Conversion Process' applied to industrial waste generated in the treatment of effluent from the petrochemical industry. Physical and chemical parameters, such as viscosity, density, sulfur content, flash point, point of fluidity were obtained. The characterization of the oil obtained indicates the possibility of classifying it as oil fuel. Also, studying the application of the oil in engines. Developed from studies on the feasibility of producing biodiesel from sludge of sewage treatment plants in Germany of the 1980s, the 'Low Temperature Conversion-LTC' technique, is a thermo chemical process, whose main goal is to extend the life of liabilities environment. The LTC is being applied in various biomass of urban, industrial and agricultural origin, looking up through the thermal conversion transform them into products of potential commercial value. Depending on the type of biomass used in the process, are obtained a fraction lipophilic and a carbonaceous solid waste in a varying of proportions, plus a fraction hydrophilic and conversion gas. The lipophilic fraction is targeted to studies about the feasibility of its application as fuel or other compounds with possible commercial application (such as greases, oils, resins, etc.), while the carbonaceous residue is directed to studies about its activation for the used as activated charcoal, in addition to the possible direct use as energy.

  14. From waste water treatment to land management: Conversion of aquatic biomass to biochar for soil amelioration and the fortification of crops with essential trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Cole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-07-01

    Macroalgae can be grown in industrial waste water to sequester metals and the resulting biomass used for biotechnological applications. We have previously cultivated the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium at a coal-fired power station to treat a metal-contaminated effluent from that facility. We then produced biochar from this biomass and determined the suitability of both the biomass and the biochar for soil amelioration. The dried biomass of Oedogonium cultivated in the waste water contained several elements for which there are terrestrial biosolids criteria (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se and Zn) and leached significant amounts of these elements into solution. Here, we demonstrate that these biomass leachates impair the germination and growth of radishes as a model crop. However, the biochar produced from this same biomass leaches negligible amounts of metal into solution and the leachates support high germination and growth of radishes. Biochar produced at 750 °C leaches the least metal and has the highest recalcitrant C content. When this biochar is added to a low-quality soil it improves the retention of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Mo) from fertilizer in the soil and the growth of radishes by 35-40%. Radishes grown in the soils amended with the biochar have equal or lower metal contents than radishes grown in soil without biochar, but much higher concentrations of essential trace elements (Mo) and macro nutrients (P, K, Ca and Mg). The cultivation of macroalgae is an effective waste water bioremediation technology that also produces biomass that can be used as a feedstock for conversion to biochar for soil amelioration.

  15. Biomass-based hydrogen production: A review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinci, Yildiz [Department of Technical Programs, Izmir Vocational High School, Dokuz Eylul University, Education Campus Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, various processes for conversion of biomass into hydrogen gas are comprehensively reviewed in terms of two main groups, namely (i) thermo-chemical processes (pyrolysis, conventional gasification, supercritical water gasification (SCWG)), and (ii) biological conversions (fermentative hydrogen production, photosynthesis, biological water gas shift reactions (BWGS)). Biomass-based hydrogen production systems are discussed in terms of their energetic and exergetic aspects. Literature studies and potential methods are then summarized for comparison purposes. In addition, a biomass gasification process via oxygen and steam in a downdraft gasifier is exergetically studied for performance assessment as a case study. The operating conditions and strategies are really important for better performance of the system for hydrogen production. A distinct range of temperatures and pressures is used, such as that the temperatures may vary from 480 to 1400 C, while the pressures are in the range of 0.1-50 MPa in various thermo-chemical processes reviewed. For the operating conditions considered the data for steam biomass ratio (SBR) and equivalence ratio (ER) range from 0.6 to 10 and 0.1 to 0.4, respectively. In the study considered, steam is used as the gasifying agent with a product gas heating value of about 10-15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, compared to an air gasification of biomass process with 3-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The exergy efficiency value for the case study system is calculated to be 56.8%, while irreversibility and improvement potential rates are found to be 670.43 and 288.28 kW, respectively. Also, exergetic fuel and product rates of the downdraft gasifier are calculated as 1572.08 and 901.64 kW, while fuel depletion and productivity lack ratios are 43% and 74.3%, respectively. (author)

  16. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    , enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  17. Comparative assessment of marine biomass materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Show, I.T. Jr.; Piper, L.E.; Lupton, S.E.; Stegen, G.R.

    1979-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess potential marine biomass sources and their preprocessing requirements. For the assessment of marine biomass sources, a priority list of marine plants was developed based on maximum potential organic yields, maximum potential calorific yields, and chemical composition. Yields were maximized and undesirable chemical properties minimized. The priority list was used to estimate maximum potential yields from US coastal water (from shore to the 200-mile limit of the Fisheries Conservation Zone). Preprocessing schemes were compared based on a comparative evaluation of energy consumption for each preprocessing step. The priority list of potential biomass sources produced 13 potential genera; five showed calorific yields far in excess of the other eight. These five (Laminaria, Chondrus, Fucus, Gracilaria, and Macrocystis) had calorific yields in excess of 50 x 10/sup 3/ kcal/m/sup 2/ - yr. No genus was found to be universally applicable to all US territorial waters. It was estimated that maximum potential national yield without mechanical nutrient upwelling could be as high as 30 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/yr (30 quad). Results of the preprocessing study indicated that harvesting and size reduction operations may consume a large proportion of the energy available from the harvested biomass. It was found that biochemical conversion preprocessing incurs the least energy loss. It was also found that thermochemical conversion is probably not appropriate for marine biomass due to preprocessing energy losses.

  18. Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2000-03-01

    Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

  19. Screening of various low-grade biomass materials for low temperature gasification: Method development and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Ravenni, Giulia; Holm, Jens Kai;

    2015-01-01

    method and the subsequent use of the method to identify promising e but currently unproven, low-grade biomass resources for conversion in Pyroneer systems. The technical assessment is conducted by comparing the results from a series of physical-mechanical and thermochemical experiments to a set of proven...... references. The technical assessment is supplemented by an evaluation of practical application and overall energy balance. Applying the developed method to 4 references and 18 unproven low-grade potential fuels, indicated that one of these unproven candidates was most likely unsuited for Pyroneer...

  20. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas (Robocasting Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM); Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); James, Darryl L. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX)

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  1. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  2. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt % wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3,000 psi. By comparison, conventional pumping systems are capable of pumping slurries containing only 10--20 wt % wood flour in wood oil under similar conditions. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a 3,000 psi pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed during 1983--84. Following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. During the period January 1985 through July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3,000 psi and temperatures from 350{degrees}C to 430{degrees}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt % residual oxygen were produced. 43 refs., 81 figs., 52 tabs.

  3. Heterobimetallic Zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, Enables Efficient Conversion of Biomass Derived Ethanol to Renewable Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M.; Geiger, Robert A.; Moses-Debusk, Melanie; Keller, Martin; Buchanan, Michelle V.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-11-01

    Direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10-15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.

  4. Biological mineral range effects on biomass conversion to aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic fast pyrolysis over HZSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of 20 biomass samples, comprising 10 genotypes of switchgrass, sorghum and miscanthus grown in two different soils with high and low poultry manure input conditions, and having a wide biological range of mineral content, were subjected to catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) over HZMS-5 using py-G...

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  6. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  7. Biomass Steam Gasification with In-Situ CO2 Capture for Enriched Hydrogen Gas Production: A Reaction Kinetics Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work. This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of hydrogen production process via biomass steam gasification with calcium oxide as sorbent in a gasifier. A modelling framework consisting of kinetics models for char gasification, methanation, Boudouard, methane reforming, water gas shift and carbonation reactions to represent the gasification and CO2 adsorption in the gasifier, is developed and implemented in MATLAB. The scope of the work includes an investigation of the influence of the temperature, steam/biomass ratio and sorbent/biomass ratio on the amount of hydrogen produced, product gas compositions and carbon conversion. The importance of different reactions involved in the process is also discussed. It is observed that hydrogen production and carbon conversion increase with increasing temperature and steam/biomass ratio. The model predicts a maximum hydrogen mole fraction in the product gas of 0.81 occurring at 950 K, steam/biomass ratio of 3.0 and sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.0. In addition, at sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.52, purity of H2 can be increased to 0.98 mole fraction with all CO2 present in the system adsorbed.

  8. Effects of biomass particle size on yield and composition of pyrolysis bio-oil derived from Chinese tallow tree (Triadica Sebifera L. and energy cane (Saccharum complex in an inductively heated reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of fluctuating petroleum costs and a growing demand for energy, the need for an alternative and sustainable energy source has increased. A viable solution for this problem can be attained by using thermochemical conversion, pyrolysis, of existing biomass sources for the production of liquid fuels. This study focuses on the effect that biomass particle size has on the conversion of biomass into liquid pyrolysis oil. Energy cane and Chinese tallow tree biomass were pyrolyzed at 550 ℃. The particle size ranges studied were < 0.5, 0.5 to 1.4, 1.4 to 2.4 and, 2.4 to 4.4 mm. The results indicate that the range from 0.5-1.4 mm is a better range for optimizing bio-oil production while keeping water content low.

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  10. Solar Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Synthesis Gas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-00335

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netter, J.

    2013-08-01

    The CRADA is established to facilitate the development of solar thermal technology to efficiently and economically convert biomass into useful products (synthesis gas and derivatives) that can replace fossil fuels. NREL's High Flux Solar Furnace will be utilized to validate system modeling, evaluate candidate reactor materials, conduct on-sun testing of the process, and assist in the development of solar process control system. This work is part of a DOE-USDA 3-year, $1M grant.

  11. Evaluation of the Relative Merits of Herbaceous and Woody Crops for Use in Tunable Thermochemical Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon-Hyun [Ceres, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Martinalbo, Ilya [Choren USA, LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes the work and findings of the grant work conducted from January 2009 until September 2011 under the collaboration between Ceres, Inc. and Choren USA, LLC. This DOE-funded project involves a head-to-head comparison of two types of dedicated energy crops in the context of a commercial gasification conversion process. The main goal of the project was to gain a better understanding of the differences in feedstock composition between herbaceous and woody species, and how these differences may impact a commercial gasification process. In this work, switchgrass was employed as a model herbaceous energy crop, and willow as a model short-rotation woody crop. Both crops are species native to the U.S. with significant potential to contribute to U.S. goals for renewable liquid fuel production, as outlined in the DOE Billion Ton Update (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/billion_ton_update.html, 2011). In some areas of the U.S., switching between woody and herbaceous feedstocks or blending of the two may be necessary to keep a large-scale gasifier operating near capacity year round. Based on laboratory tests and process simulations it has been successfully shown that suitable high yielding switchgrass and willow varieties exist that meet the feedstock specifications for large scale entrained flow biomass gasification. This data provides the foundation for better understanding how to use both materials in thermochemical processes. It has been shown that both switchgrass and willow varieties have comparable ranges of higher heating value, BTU content and indistinguishable hydrogen/carbon ratios. Benefits of switchgrass, and other herbaceous feedstocks, include its low moisture content, which reduce energy inputs and costs for drying feedstock. Compared to the typical feedstock currently being used in the Carbo-V® process, switchgrass has a higher ash content, combined with a lower ash melting temperature. Whether or not this may cause inefficiencies in the

  12. Thermochemical water decomposition. [hydrogen separation for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    At present, nearly all of the hydrogen consumed in the world is produced by reacting hydrocarbons with water. As the supply of hydrocarbons diminishes, the problem of producing hydrogen from water alone will become increasingly important. Furthermore, producing hydrogen from water is a means of energy conversion by which thermal energy from a primary source, such as solar or nuclear fusion of fission, can be changed into an easily transportable and ecologically acceptable fuel. The attraction of thermochemical processes is that they offer the potential for converting thermal energy to hydrogen more efficiently than by water electrolysis. A thermochemical hydrogen-production process is one which requires only water as material input and mainly thermal energy, or heat, as an energy input. Attention is given to a definition of process thermal efficiency, the thermodynamics of the overall process, the single-stage process, the two-stage process, multistage processes, the work of separation and a process evaluation.

  13. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to

  14. Investigating the Role of Extensin Proteins in Poplar Biomass Recalcitrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Margaret Brigham; Decker, Stephen R.; Bedinger, Patricia A.

    2016-04-13

    The biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuel is hindered by cell wall recalcitrance, which can limit the ability of cellulases to access and break down cellulose. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hydroxyproline-rich cell wall proteins (extensins) are present in poplar stem biomass, and whether these proteins may contribute to recalcitrance. Three classical extensin genes were identified in Populus trichocarpa through bioinformatic analysis of poplar genome sequences, with the following proposed names: PtEXTENSIN1 (Potri.001G019700); PtEXTENSIN2 (Potri.001G020100); PtEXTENSIN3 (Potri.018G050100). Tissue print immunoblots localized the extensin proteins in poplar stems to regions near the vascular cambium. Different thermochemical pretreatments reduced but did not eliminate hydroxyproline (Hyp, a proxy for extensins) from the biomass. Protease treatment of liquid hot water-pretreated poplar biomass reduced Hyp content by a further 16% and increased subsequent glucose yield by 20%. These data suggest that extensins may contribute to recalcitrance in pretreated poplar biomass, and that incorporating protease treatment into pretreatment protocols could result in a small but significant increase in the yield of fermentable glucose.

  15. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid from hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches - Its origin and influence on biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helena; Mogensen, Kit H.; Jeppesen, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    An unknown major compound, characteristically occurring during processing of oil palm empty fruit bunches was identified with LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS to be 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunches contains 4-hydroxybenzoic acid so a tempting conclusion was that the 4-hydroxybenzoic...... or fucose, e.g. pectin rich biomasses. Assessment of the influence of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches as well as its presence during fermentation showed that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is not inhibiting or mediating neither on the enzymatic hydrolysis...

  16. Biomass Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels Using the MixAlcoTM Process Conversion de la biomasse en combustibles hydrocarbonés au moyen du procédé MixAlcoTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taco-Vasquez S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MixAlcoTM process converts biomass to hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline using the following generic steps: pretreatment, fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, oligomerization and saturation. This study describes the production of bio-gasoline from chicken manure and shredded office paper, both desirable feedstocks that do not require pretreatment. Using a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from marine soil, the biomass was fermented to produce a dilute aqueous solution of carboxylate salts, which were subsequently descummed and dried. The dry salts were thermally converted to raw ketones, which were distilled to remove impurities. Using Raney nickel catalyst, the distilled ketones were hydrogenated to mixed secondary alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. Using zeolite HZSM-5 catalyst, these alcohols were oligomerized to hydrocarbons in a plug -flow reactor. Finally, these unsaturated hydrocarbons were hydrogenated to produce a mixture of hydrocarbons that can be blended into commercial gasoline. Le procédé MixAlcoTM convertit la biomasse en hydrocarbures (par exemple, en essence selon les étapes génériques suivantes : prétraitement, fermentation, écumage, déshydratation, cétonisation thermique, distillation, hydrogénation, oligomérisation et saturation. Cette étude décrit la production de bioessence à partir de fumier de poulet et de papier en lambeaux, ces deux sources étant des matières premières convoitées ne nécessitant pas de prétraitement. À l’aide d’une culture mixte de microorganismes dérivés de sols marins, la biomasse a été soumise à une fermentation de manière à produire une solution aqueuse diluée de sels de carboxylates, ultérieurement écumés et séchés. Les sels séchés ont été thermiquement convertis en cétones brutes, ensuite distillées afin d’éliminer les impuretés. À l’aide du catalyseur à base de nickel de Raney, les c

  17. Effect of temperature and biomass-water ratio to yield and product characteristics of hydrothermal treatment of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviananda, Cyrilla; Rahmawati, Ria F.; Prasetya, Agus; Purnomo, Chandra W.; Yuliansyah, Ahmad T.; Cahyono, Rochim B.

    2017-03-01

    Hydrothemal treatment is a thermochemical process that converts biomass into a coal-like materials called hydrochar by applying elevated temperature to biomass in a suspension with water under saturated pressure for a certain time. With this conversion process, easy to handle fuel with well-defined properties can be created from biomass residues, even with high moisture content. In this research, the effects of temperature (200-330°C) and biomass to water ratio (5%-20%) at initial pressure of 1.0 MPa to hydrothermal treatment of biomass (in the form of sawdust) were examined. All samples were then characterized in terms of yield, proximate analysis, calorific value,and changes in functional groups by FTIR. Approximately 52-69% of the original material was recovered as hydrochar. The gross calorific value ranged from 5472-7032 cal/g compared 5180 cal/g in the raw material. Fixed carbon ranged from 26.035-wt% compared with 26.269 wt% in the raw material.

  18. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

    1996-03-21

    There is growing evidence that global warming could become a major global environmental threat during the 21st century. The precautionary principle commands preventive action, at both national and international levels, to minimize this potential threat. Many near-term, relatively inexpensive, mitigation options are available. In addition, long-term research is required to evaluate and develop advanced, possibly more expensive, countermeasures, in the eventuality that they may be required. The utilization of power plant CO{sub 2} and its recycling into fossil fuel substitutes by microalgae cultures could be one such long-term technology. Microalgae production is an expanding industry in the U.S., with three commercial systems (of approximately 10 hectare each) producing nutriceuticals, specifically beta-carotene, extracted from Dunaliella, and Spirulina biomass. Microalgae are also used in wastewater treatment. Currently production costs are high, about $10,000/ton of algal biomass, almost two orders of magnitude higher than acceptable for greenhouse gas mitigation. This report reviews the current state-of-the-art, including algal cultivation and harvesting-processing, and outlines a technique for achieving very high productivities. Costs of CO{sub 2} mitigation with microalgae production of oils ({open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}) are estimated and future R&D needs outlined.

  19. Biomass Conversion and Expansion Factors for Young Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Trees Planted on Non-Forest Lands in Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan DUTCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study biomass conversion and expansion factors (BCEFs were developed for young Norway spruce trees planted on non-forest lands, in order to support quantification of carbon stock changes in biomass pools of afforestation works. Regression models for stem volume and stem wood density were also developed. The data set included 250 trees collected from 25 plantations between 1 and 12 years old, located in the Eastern Carpathians of Romania. The study shows that BCEFs decreased with increasing tree dimensions, following an exponential trend. In all proposed models the highest prediction was reached when both variables considered (i.e. root-collar diameter and height were used together. However, used separately, height produced a slightly higher prediction compared to root-collar diameter. Stem volume was well predicted by both root-collar diameter and height. Anyway, a significant improvement in prediction resulted when both variables were used together. Stem wood density decreased sharply with the increase of the two tree dimensions used as variables.

  20. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel – Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortright, Randy [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of producing liquid fuels, particularly jet fuel, from lignocellulosic materials, such as corn stover. This project was led by Virent, Inc. (Virent) which has developed a novel chemical catalytic process (the BioForming® platform) capable of producing “direct replacement” liquid fuels from biomass-derived feedstocks. Virent has shown it is possible to produce an advantaged jet fuel from biomass that meets or exceeds specifications for commercial and military jet fuel through Fuel Readiness Level (FRL) 5, Process Validation. This project leveraged The National Renewable Energy Lab’s (NREL) expertise in converting corn stover to sugars via dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. NREL had previously developed this deconstruction technology for the conversion of corn stover to ethanol. In this project, Virent and NREL worked together to condition the NREL generated hydrolysate for use in Virent’s catalytic process through solids removal, contaminant reduction, and concentration steps. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was contracted in this project for the procurement, formatting, storage and analysis of corn stover and Northwestern University developed fundamental knowledge of lignin deconstruction that can help improve overall carbon recovery of the combined technologies. Virent conducted fundamental catalytic studies to improve the performance of the catalytic process and NREL provided catalyst characterization support. A technoeconomic analysis (TEA) was conducted at each stage of the project, with results from these analyses used to inform the direction of the project.

  1. Process analysis of the conversion of styrene to biomass and medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate in a two-phase bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Casey, Eoin; Duane, Gearoid F; Mitic, Dragana; Hume, Aisling R; Kenny, Shane T; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2011-10-01

    The improvement and modeling of a process for the supply of the volatile aromatic hydrocarbon, styrene, to a fermentor for increased biomass production of the medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas putida CA-3 was investigated. Fed-batch experiments were undertaken using different methods to provide the styrene. Initial experiments where styrene was supplied as a liquid to the bioreactor had detrimental effects on cell growth and inhibited PHA polymer accumulation. By changing the feed of gaseous styrene to liquid styrene through the air sparger a 5.4-fold increase in cell dry-weight was achieved (total of 10.56 g L(-1)) which corresponds to a fourfold improvement in PHA production (3.36 g L(-1)) compared to previous studies performed in our laboratory (0.82 g L(-1)). In addition this final improved feeding strategy reduced the release of styrene from the fermentor 50-fold compared to initial experiments (0.12 mL total styrene released per 48 h run). An unstructured kinetic model was developed to describe cell growth along with substrate and oxygen utilization. The formation of dispersed gas (air) and liquid (styrene) phases in the medium and the transfer of styrene between the aqueous and dispersed liquid droplet phases was also modeled. The model provided a detailed description of these phase transitions and helped explain how the feeding strategy led to improved process performance in terms of final biomass levels. It also highlighted the key factors to be considered during further process improvement.

  2. Comparative study on two-step concentrated acid hydrolysis for the extraction of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Yanuar Philip; Putra, Robertus Dhimas Dhewangga; Widyaya, Vania Tanda; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin; Kim, Chang Soo

    2014-07-01

    Among all the feasible thermochemical conversion processes, concentrated acid hydrolysis has been applied to break the crystalline structure of cellulose efficiently and scale up for mass production as lignocellulosic biomass fractionation process. Process conditions are optimized by investigating the effect of decrystallization sulfuric acid concentration (65-80 wt%), hydrolysis temperature (80°C and 100°C), hydrolysis reaction time (during two hours), and biomass species (oak wood, pine wood, and empty fruit bunch (EFB) of palm oil) toward sugar recovery. At the optimum process condition, 78-96% sugars out of theoretically extractable sugars have been fractionated by concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis of the three different biomass species with 87-90 g/L sugar concentration in the hydrolyzate and highest recalcitrance of pine (softwood) was determined by the correlation of crystallinity index and sugar yield considering reaction severity.

  3. Optimal design of a model energy conversion device

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Lincoln; Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Fuel cells, batteries, thermochemical and other energy conversion devices involve the transport of a number of (electro-)chemical species through distinct materials so that they can meet and react at specified multi-material interfaces. Therefore, morphology or arrangement of these different materials can be critical in the performance of an energy conversion device. In this paper, we study a model problem motivated by a solar-driven thermochemical conversion device that splits water into hyd...

  4. OECD/NEA thermochemical database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Kee Hoh; Song, Dae Yong; Shin, Hyun Kyoo; Park, Seong Won; Ro, Seung Gy

    1998-03-01

    This state of the art report is to introduce the contents of the Chemical Data-Service, OECD/NEA, and the results of survey by OECD/NEA for the thermodynamic and kinetic database currently in use. It is also to summarize the results of Thermochemical Database Projects of OECD/NEA. This report will be a guide book for the researchers easily to get the validate thermodynamic and kinetic data of all substances from the available OECD/NEA database. (author). 75 refs.

  5. Development of a seasonal thermochemical storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, R.; Maraz, N.; Eversdijk, J.; Finck, C.J.; Henquet, E.M.P.; Oversloot, H.P.; Spijker, J.C. van 't; Geus, A.C. de

    2012-01-01

    In our laboratories, a seasonal thermochemical storage system for dwellings and offices is being designed and developed. Based on a thermochemical sorption reaction, space heating, cooling and generation of domestic hot water will be achieved with up to 100% renewable energy, by using solar energy a

  6. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times.

  7. Direct Conversion of Wheat Straw into Electricity with a Biomass Flow Fuel Cell Mediated by Two Redox Ion Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Liu, Wei; Du, Xu; Liu, Congmin; Zhang, Zhe; Sun, Feifei; Yang, Le; Xu, Dong; Guo, Hua; Deng, Yulin

    2017-02-08

    In this paper, a biomass flow fuel cell to directly convert wheat straw to electricity at low temperature (80-90 °C) and atmospheric pressure is presented. Two redox ion pairs, Fe(3+) /Fe(2+) and VO2(+) /VO(2+) , acting as redox catalysts and charge carriers, were used in the anode and cathode flow tanks, respectively. The wheat straw was first oxidized by Fe(3+) in the anode tank at approximately 100 °C. The reduced Fe(2+) in the anode was used to construct a fuel cell with VO2(+) in the cathode. The VO2(+) ions were reduced to VO(2+) and regenerated to VO2(+) by oxygen oxidation. The wheat straw flow fuel cell showed a power output of 100 mW cm(-2) . Mediated with liquid Fe(3+) carriers, the solid powder of wheat straw could be gradually degraded into low-molecular-weight organic molecules and even oxidized to CO2 at the anode without using noble-metal catalysts. The overpotential for the electrodes of the flow fuel cell was examined and the energy cost was estimated.

  8. Efficient Conversion of Lignin to Electricity Using a Novel Direct Biomass Fuel Cell Mediated by Polyoxometalates at Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Zhu, J Y

    2016-01-01

    A novel polyoxometalates (POMs) mediated direct biomass fuel cell (DBFC) was used in this study to directly convert lignin to electricity at low temperatures with high power output and Faradaic efficiency. When phosphomolybdic acid H3 PMo12 O40 (PMo12) was used as the electron and proton carrier in the anode solution with a carbon electrode, and O2 was directly used as the final electron acceptor under the catalysis of Pt, the peak power density reached 0.96 mW cm(-2), 560 times higher than that of phenol-fueled microbial fuel cells (MFCs). When the cathode reaction was catalyzed by PMo12, the power density could be greatly enhanced to 5 mW cm(-2). Continuous operation demonstrated that this novel fuel cell was promising as a stable electrochemical power source. Structure analysis of the lignin indicated that the hydroxyl group content was reduced whereas the carbonyl group content increased. Both condensation and depolymerization takes place during the PMo12 oxidation of lignin.

  9. Biological conversion of biomass to methane corn stover studies. Project report, December 1, 1977-August 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T; Quindry, G E

    1979-06-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the methane fermentation process using corn stover obtained from the University of Illinois farms and processed through four parallel fermenters each having a capacity of 775 liters. A continuous feed system was employed to determine the conversion efficiency. The dewatering characteristics of the effluents and the quality of the liquid and solid residues were determined. The biodegradability of corn stover is low. Data obtained at a fermentation temperature of 59 +-1/sup 0/C show that only 36 percent of the volatile solids are biodegradable. The first order rate constant for this conversion was found to be 0.25 day/sup -1/. Pretreatment with caustic (NaOH) concentration of 0.30 molar (5 g/100 g dry stover) and a temperature of 115/sup 0/C for one hour increased the biodegradable fraction to 71 percent of the volatile solids. The reactor slurries were easily dewatered by both vacuum filtration and centrifugation. Corn stover does not appear to be attractive economically at the present energy prices. At a chemical cost of $154/tonne ($140/ton), the NaOH pretreatment adds approximately $5.2/tonne to the cost of processing the stover. At a methane yield of 0.25 m/sup 3//kg of solids fed, this adds a total cost of $2/100 m/sup 3/ ($0.57/MCF) for this process alone. Addition of stover acquisition costs ($20/dry tonne of stover), total processing costs without gas cleanup ($21/tonne) and residue disposal ($3/tonne of wet cake), the cost of fuel gas would be in the neighborhood of $9.76/GJ ($10.30/10/sup 6/ Btu).This cost excludes all profit, taxes, etc. associated with private financing. Depending upon financing methods, tax incentives, etc., it may be necessary to add up to an additional $2.00/GJ to the cost of this fuel gas.

  10. Open-loop thermochemical cycles for the production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of open-loop thermochemical cycles (cycles which have additional or other feedstocks than water and produce materials in addition to hydrogen and oxygen) is introduced. Preliminary analysis of possible feedstocks available indicates substantial quantities of hydrogen could possibly be produced through open-cycles. The advantages of open-cycles include the conversion of unwanted waste products to useful products while producing hydrogen. A compilation of open processes which would have SO/sub 2/ in addition to water as feedstock and which would produce sulfuric acid in addition to hydrogen and oxygen is given.

  11. Recent review of thermochemical hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, G. E.

    A survey is presented on the development to date of thermochemical water decomposition methods for the production of hydrogen. It is shown that: (1) both the technological feasibility of thermochemical processes and their competitiveness with water electrolysis have been demonstrated; (2) the scaling up of thermochemical methods to industrial production levels may proceed with existing technology; (3) the slowing down of programs concerned with the development of high temperature nuclear reactors could delay the scaling up of thermochemical hydrogen production to industrial levels; (4) this delay could, however, increase interest in such water decomposition processes as those employing photoreactions; and (5) the efficiency of thermochemical hydrogen production is highest in the case of systems with dedicated heat sources rated above 1000 MWth.

  12. Qualitative and kinetic analysis of torrefaction of lignocellulosic biomass using DSC-TGA-FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Acharya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermochemical conversion technique to improve the fuel properties of lignocellulosic biomass by treating at temperature 200 ℃-300 ℃ in the minimum oxygen environment for a reasonable residence time. In this study, thermal decomposition and thermal activities of miscanthus and wheat straw during the torrefaction at 200 ℃, 275 ℃, and 300 ℃ in a nitrogen environment for 45 minutes of residence time are analyzed in a simultaneous thermogravimetric analyzer (micro TGA with a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and a macro-TGA. The output of the micro TGA is fed into the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR and qualitative analysis of the gaseous product is carried out. The composition of different gas products during the torrefaction of biomass are compared critically and kinetics were analyzed. It is found that the weight loss due to degradation of initial biomass in second stage (torrefaction process is a much faster conversion process than the weight loss process in the first stage (drying process. The weight loss of biomass increases with increase in the residence time and torrefaction treatment temperatures. The yield after torrefaction is a solid bio-coal product. The torrefied product were less reactive and has nearly 25% better heating value than the raw biomass. Between the two feedstocks studied, torrefied miscanthus proved to be a more stable fuel than the torrefied wheat straw. The major gaseous components observed during torrefaction are water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, 1,2-Dibromethylene.

  13. Research overview of biological and chemical conversion methods and identification of key research areas for SERI. Final task report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T. A.; Connolly, J. S.; Inman, R. E.; Reed, T. B.; Seibert, M.

    1978-09-01

    A qualitative overview of the current and future research areas of the Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch is presented. The goals of the Branch and the general areas of Branch activities are mapped out: energy and petrochemical substitutes from biomass, thermochemical conversion, and photoconversion. Each of these three areas in some detail are discussed in some detail in a general overview. Specific parts of the three major areas which have been selected are discussed in the context of present Department of Energy sponsored research including the Fuels from Biomass and Office of Basic Energy Sciences programs, for initial SERI in-house research emphasis. Finally, the Branch research efforts planned through FY 79 are outlined.

  14. Biomass energy and marginal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the conditions and effects of a possible development of the biomass energy upgrading in uneconomical or not rentable areas. The physical, social and economical characteristics of these regions (in France) are described; then the different types of biomass are presented (agricultural wastes, energetic cultures, forest and land products and residues, food processing effluents, municipal wastes) as well as the various energy process (production of alcohol, methane, thermochemical processes, vegetable oils). The development and the feasability of these processes in marginal areas are finally analyzed taking into account the accessibility of the biomass and the technical and commercial impacts.

  15. Basic mechanisms of photosynthesis and applications to improved production and conversion of biomass to fuels and chemical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, M. [Georgia Institute of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Greenbaum, E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Wasielewski, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Natural photosynthesis, the result of 3.5 billion years of evolutionary experimentation, is the best proven, functional solar energy conversion technology. It is responsible for filling the vast majority of humanity`s energy, nutritional, and materials needs. Understanding the basic physical chemical principles underlying photosynthesis as a working model system is vital to further exploitation of this natural technology. These principles can be used to improve or modify natural photosynthesis so that it is more efficient or so that it can produce unusual products such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, ethanol, diesel fuel substitutes, biodegradable materials, or other high value chemical products. Principles garnered from the natural process can also be used to design artificial photosynthetic devices that employ analogs of natural antenna and reaction center function, self-assembly and repair concepts, photoinduced charge transfer processes, photoprotection, and dark reactions that facilitate catalytic action to convert light into, useful chemical or electrical energy. The present broad understanding of many structural and functional aspects of photosynthesis has resulted from rapid recent research progress. X-ray structures of several key photosynthetic reaction centers and antenna systems are available, and the overall principles controlling photoinduced energy and electron transfer are being established.

  16. Processing needs and methodology for wastewaters from the conversion of coal, oil shale, and biomass to synfuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The workshop identifies needs to be met by processing technology for wastewaters, and evaluates the suitability, approximate costs, and problems associated with current technology. Participation was confined to DOE Environmental Control Technology contractors to pull together and integrate past wastewater-related activities, to assess the status of synfuel wastewater treatability and process options, and to abet technology transfer. Particular attention was paid to probable or possible environmental restrictions which cannot be economically met by present technology. Primary emphasis was focussed upon process-condensate waters from coal-conversion and shale-retorting processes. Due to limited data base and time, the workshop did not deal with transients, upsets, trade-offs and system optimization, or with solids disposal. The report is divided into sections that, respectively, survey the water usage and effluent situation (II); identify the probable and possible water-treatment goals anticipated at the time when large-scale plants will be constructed (III); assess the capabilities, costs and shortcomings of present technology (IV); explore particularly severe environmental-control problems (V); give overall conclusions from the Workshop and recommendations for future research and study (VI); and, finally, present Status Reports of current work from participants in the Workshop (VII).

  17. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability.

  18. A review of catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for value-added fuel and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hervan Marion; Bu, Quan; Liang, Jianghui; Liu, Yujing; Mao, Hanping; Shi, Aiping; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant renewable resource and can be efficiently converted into bio-energy by a bio-refinery. From the various techniques available for biomass thermo-chemical conversion; microwave assisted pyrolysis (MAP) seems to be the very promising. The principles of microwave technology were reviewed and the parameters for the efficient production of bio-oil using microwave technology were summarized. Microwave technology by itself cannot efficiently produce high quality bio-oil products, catalysts are used to improve the reaction conditions and selectivity for valued products during MAP. The catalysts used to optimize MAP are revised in the development of this article. The origins for bio-oils that are phenol rich or hydrocarbon rich are reviewed and their experimental results were summarized. The kinetics of MAP is discussed briefly in the development of the article. Future prospects and scientific development of MAP are also considered in the development of this article.

  19. Biological conversion of biomass to methane beef lot manure studies. Semiannual progress report, June 1, 1976--November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T; Quindry, G E

    1978-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the methane fermentation process using beef feed lot manure as a substrate. Manure was obtained from the University of Illinois beef farm. This manure was processed through four parallel fermentors each having a capacity of 775 liters. A continuous feed system was employed to determine the conversion efficiency. The effluent from the fermentation units was evaluated to determine its dewatering characteristics and the quality of the liquid and solid residues. A simple simulation model was developed to evaluate the effect of various operating conditions on processing costs and the net income. These studies clearly show that thermophilic fermentation (58 to 60/sup 0/C) substantially increase the gas yield and the rate of gas production over that obtained at the mesophilic fermentation temperature. System stability is very good. Substantial decreases in temperature or significant increases in loadings did not disrupt the process. Solids recovery from the fermented slurry was accomplished with screens, vacuum drum filters and centrifuge. Solids capture was poor unless massive dosags of conditioning chemicals were added. In terms of investment and operating costs, simple screens (20 mesh size) would capture 75 to 80 percent of the recoverable suspended solids. Manure that is obtained from open lots, especially when it has been exposed to the environment for extended periods, offers little potential for methane production. The biodegradability of this material is so low that the cost of producing the gas far exceeds its value. Fresh manure such as that obtained from environmental lots produced significant quantities of gas. It is probable that an economic system can be developed using this material as a substrate.

  20. Mesophilic and thermophilic conditions select for unique but highly parallel microbial communities to perform carboxylate platform biomass conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B Hollister

    Full Text Available The carboxylate platform is a flexible, cost-effective means of converting lignocellulosic materials into chemicals and liquid fuels. Although the platform's chemistry and engineering are well studied, relatively little is known about the mixed microbial communities underlying its conversion processes. In this study, we examined the metagenomes of two actively fermenting platform communities incubated under contrasting temperature conditions (mesophilic 40°C; thermophilic 55 °C, but utilizing the same inoculum and lignocellulosic feedstock. Community composition segregated by temperature. The thermophilic community harbored genes affiliated with Clostridia, Bacilli, and a Thermoanaerobacterium sp, whereas the mesophilic community metagenome was composed of genes affiliated with other Clostridia and Bacilli, Bacteriodia, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Although both communities were able to metabolize cellulosic materials and shared many core functions, significant differences were detected with respect to the abundances of multiple Pfams, COGs, and enzyme families. The mesophilic metagenome was enriched in genes related to the degradation of arabinose and other hemicellulose-derived oligosaccharides, and the production of valerate and caproate. In contrast, the thermophilic community was enriched in genes related to the uptake of cellobiose and the transfer of genetic material. Functions assigned to taxonomic bins indicated that multiple community members at either temperature had the potential to degrade cellulose, cellobiose, or xylose and produce acetate, ethanol, and propionate. The results of this study suggest that both metabolic flexibility and functional redundancy contribute to the platform's ability to process lignocellulosic substrates and are likely to provide a degree of stability to the platform's fermentation processes.

  1. Hydrogen production from high-moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Y.; Onuma, M.T. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Wet biomass (water hyacinth, banana trees, cattails, green algae, kelp, etc.) grows rapidly and abundantly around the world. However, wet biomass is not regarded as a promising feedstock for conventional thermochemical conversion processes because the cost of drying the material is too high. Prior work has shown that low concentrations of glucose (a model compound for whole biomass) and various wet biomass species (water hyacinth, algae) can be completely gasified in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C and 34.5 MPa after a 30 s residence time. But higher concentrations of glucose evidenced incomplete conversion. For this reason, flow reactors were fabricated which could accommodate packed beds of catalyst, and studies were initiated of the steam reforming (gasification) reactions in the presence of various candidate heterogeneous catalysts. The goal is to identify active catalysts for steam reforming biomass slurries in supercritical water. Soon after tests began, a suitable class of carbon-based catalysts was discovered. These catalysts effect complete (>99%) conversion of high-concentration glucose (up to 22% by weight) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. High space velocities are realized [>20 (g/hr)/g], and the catalyst is stable over a period of several hours. The carbon catalyst is not expensive, and exists in a wide variety of forms and compositions. After this discovery, work has focused on four interrelated tasks: (1) tests to identify the most active form and composition of the catalyst; (2) tests employing the preferred catalyst to study the effect of feedstock composition on carbon conversion and gas composition; (3) studies of catalyst deactivation and subsequent reactivation, including the in-house synthesis of bifunctional catalysts which incorporate promoters and stabilizers; and (4) the design and fabrication of a larger, new reactor with a slurry feeder intended to handle high-concentration, wet biomass feeds.

  2. Mild hydrothermal conditioning prior to torrefaction and slow pyrolysis of low-value biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, R; Nachenius, R W; Agbo, K E; Hensgen, F; Bühle, L; Wachendorf, M; Ok, Y S; Tack, F M G; Prins, W; Ronsse, F; Meers, E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to establish whether hydrothermal conditioning and subsequent thermochemical processing via batch torrefaction or slow pyrolysis may improve the fuel quality of grass residues. A comparison in terms of fuel quality was made of the direct thermochemical processing of the feedstock versus hydrothermal conditioning as a pretreatment prior to thermochemical processing. Hydrothermal conditioning reduced ash content, and particularly nitrogen, potassium and chlorine contents in the biomass. The removal of volatile organic matter associated with thermochemical processes can increase the HHV to levels of volatile bituminous coal. However, slow pyrolysis only increased the HHV of biomass provided a low ash content (<6%) feedstock was used. In conclusion, hydrothermal conditioning can have a highly positive influence on the efficiency of thermochemical processes for upgrading low-value (high-ash) biomass to a higher quality fuel.

  3. Electrochemistry applied to biomass. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chum, H. L. [ed.

    1982-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of biomass-derived compounds, obtained through thermochemical pretreatments, into valuable organic chemicals, petrochemical substitutes, and energy-intensive chemicals is investigated. A hardwood-derived lignin obtained from ethanol extraction of the explosively depressurized aspen has been investigated. We have partially characterized this lignin material, and have also submitted it to electrolyses under controlled potential. The electrolytic conditions employed so far affect mainly the carbonyl groups of the ethanol-extracted steam-exploded aspen lignin. We have some evidence of demethoxylation and changed phenolic content after electrolysis. During product isolation, fractionation of the lignin occurs. The material with decreased methoxyl content may be suitable to replace phenol in phenol-formaldehyde-type resins. We are continuing these electrochemical and chemical investigations. Gel-permeation chromatography is being used to separate and characterize the several lignin fractions. In addition, we are carrying out electrolyses under more powerful reducing conditions which may lead to the cleavage of the main bonds in the lignin molecule (the ..beta..-0-4 ether linkages) producing monomeric and dimeric phenolic compounds. The electrochemistry and photoelectrochemistry of levulinic (4-oxo-pentanoic) acid, the major product of controlled degradation of cellulose by acids, have been investigated. This acid can be viewed as a major product of biomass thermochemical pretreatment or as a by-product of acid hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Since this acid can be present in waste streams of biomass processing, we investigated the photoelectrochemical reactions of this acid on slurries composed of semiconductor/metal particles. The semiconductor investigated was undoped n-TiO/sub 2/, as anatase, anatase-rutile mixture, or rutile.

  4. Evaluation of siderite and magnetite formation in BIFs by pressure-temperature experiments of Fe(III) minerals and microbial biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halama, Maximilian; Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria potentially contributed to the deposition of Archean banded iron formations (BIFs), before the evolution of cyanobacterially-generated molecular oxygen (O2), by using sunlight to oxidize aqueous Fe(II) and precipitate Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides. Once deposited at the seafloor, diagenetic reduction of the Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides by heterotrophic bacteria produced secondary Fe(II)-bearing minerals, such as siderite (FeCO3) and magnetite (Fe3O4), via the oxidation of microbial organic carbon (i.e., cellular biomass). During deeper burial at temperatures above the threshold for life, thermochemical Fe(III) reduction has the potential to form BIF-like minerals. However, the role of thermochemical Fe(III) reduction of primary BIF minerals during metamorphism, and its impact on mineralogy and geochemical signatures in BIFs, is poorly understood. Consequently, we simulated the metamorphism of the precursor and diagenetic iron-rich minerals (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite) at low-grade metamorphic conditions (170 °C, 1.2 kbar) for 14 days by using (1) mixtures of abiotically synthesized Fe(III) minerals and either microbial biomass or glucose as a proxy for biomass, and (2) using biogenic minerals formed by phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria. Mössbauer spectroscopy and μXRD showed that thermochemical magnetite formation was limited to samples containing ferrihydrite and glucose, or goethite and glucose. No magnetite was formed from Fe(III) minerals when microbial biomass was present as the carbon and electron sources for thermochemical Fe(III) reduction. This could be due to biomass-derived organic molecules binding to the mineral surfaces and preventing solid-state conversion to magnetite. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed siderite contents of up to 17% after only 14 days of incubation at elevated temperature and pressure for all samples with synthetic Fe(III) minerals and biomass, whereas 6% of the initial Fe(III) was

  5. Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  6. Applications of de-oiled microalgal biomass towards development of sustainable biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Paliwal, Chetan; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Mitra, Madhusree; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-08-01

    In view of commercialization of microalgal biofuel, the de-oiled microalgal biomass (DMB) is a surplus by-product in the biorefinery process that needs to be exploited to make the process economically attractive and feasible. This DMB, rich in carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals, can be used as feed, fertilizer, and substrate for the production of bioethanol/bio-methane. Further, thermo-chemical conversion of DMB results into fuels and industrially important chemicals. Future prospects of DMB also lie with its conversion into novel biomaterials like nanoparticles and carbon-dot which have biomedical importance. The lowest valued application of DMB is to use it for adsorption of dyes and heavy metals from industrial effluents. This study reviews how DMB can be utilized for different applications and in the generation of valuable co-products. The value addition of DMB would thereby improve the overall cost economics of the microalgal bio-refinery.

  7. Absolute Quantification of Individual Biomass Concentrations in a Methanogenic Coculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junicke, H.; Abbas, B.; Oentoro, J.; Van Loosdrecht, M.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of individual biomass concentrations is a crucial step towards an improved understanding of anaerobic digestion processes and mixed microbial conversions in general. The knowledge of individual biomass concentrations allows for the calculation of biomass specific conversion rates whic

  8. Review of solar high-temperature thermochemical reactor%太阳能高温热化学反应器研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婷婷; 朱跃钊; 陈海军; 马炎; 金丽珠; 杨丽; 廖传华

    2014-01-01

    将高温光热转换和热化学过程集成,可使太阳能和化石资源(包括水或生物质)提级为氢或合成气资源,是热点课题之一。太阳能高温反应器是实现该过程的关键,但存在均温性差、转化效率低及反应物烧结失效的缺点。本文简述了太阳能高温热化学转化过程的原理,回顾了其由直接热解水制氢演变至化石资源改质和提级的历程,分析了塔式和碟式高温热发电集热器(也称为吸热器或接收器)移植用作太阳能高温反应器的可行性及其局限。综述了直接照射式和间接照射式太阳能高温反应器的研究进展,评述了热管(板)在改善太阳能高温反应器均温性和提高传热效率上的优势,阐述了间接照射式太阳能高温反应器在热化学转化过程的典型示范。指出基于热管(板)的间接照射式太阳能高温反应器为主导发展方向之一。%Using solar energy to drive high-temperature thermochemical process has the potential to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas. Both solar energy and fossil resources (including water or biomass) are upgraded through this integrated process. Recently,research interests have been focused on this process. The solar high-temperature reactor (SHTR) is one of the keys to this process. The shortcomings of traditional SHTRs,such as large temperature gradient in reaction areas,low thermo-chemical conversion efficiency and inactivation of reactants due to sintering,are the main barriers to its commercialization. Principles of solar thermochemical conversion are briefly introduced. The solar high-temperature thermochemical conversion process was originally hydrogen production by direct thermal dissociation of water,and evolved to modification or upgrading of fossil resources. SHTRs were derived from solar collectors (also known as solar absorbers or receivers) commonly used in solar tower or dish concentrating power generation. The

  9. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip;

    2014-01-01

    such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because......For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels...... there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...

  10. Biomass gasification in fixed bed type down draft: theoretical and experimental aspects; Gasificacao de biomassa em leito fixo tipo concorrente: aspectos teoricos e experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Juan Daniel; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida

    2008-07-01

    Actually are recognizing the advantages of biomass in reducing dependence on fossil fuels and significant reduction in emissions of greenhouse effect gases such as Co2. Also are known the different conversion of biomass routes for their use or exploitation, such as thermochemical process (gasification, pyrolysis and combustion), the biological process (fermentation and transesterification) and the physical process (densification, reducing grain and mechanical pressing). In this sense, the gasification is regarded as the most promising mechanism to obtain a homogeneous gaseous fuel with sufficient quality in the small scale distributed generation. This work presents some aspects of biomass gasification in fixed bed, as well as some preliminary results in the evaluation and operation of fixed bed down draft gasifier with double stage air supply of the NEST, identifying the adequate air supply quantity (equivalence ratio in the range of 0,35 to 0,45) for obtaining a fuel gas with lower heating value around 4 MJ/N m3. (author)

  11. Gasification of biomass wastes in an entrained flow gasifier: Effect of the particle size and the residence time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Juan J.; Aranda-Almansa, Guadalupe [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Departamento de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Edificio Politecnico), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Bula, Antonio [Universidad del Norte, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Km.5 Antigua Via Puerto Colombia, Barranquilla (Colombia)

    2010-06-15

    Experimental tests in an entrained flow gasifier have been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of the biomass particle size and the space residence time on the gasifier performance and the producer gas quality. Three types of biomass fuels (grapevine pruning and sawdust wastes, and marc of grape) and a fossil fuel (a coal-coke blend) have been tested. The results obtained show that a reduction in the fuel particle size leads to a significant improvement in the gasification parameters. The thermochemical characterisation of the resulting char-ash residue shows a sharp increase in the fuel conversion for particles below 1 mm diameter, which could be adequate to be used in conventional entrained flow gasifiers. Significant differences in the thermochemical behaviour of the biomass fuels and the coal-coke blend have been found, especially in the evolution of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio with the space time, mainly due to the catalytic effect of the coal-coke ash. The reaction temperature and the space time have a significant effect on the H{sub 2}/CO ratio (the relative importance of each of these parameters depending on the temperature), this value being independent of the fuel particle size. (author)

  12. Supercritical Water Gasification of Wet Biomass: Modeling and Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakaboylu, O.

    2016-01-01

    In the following decades, biomass will play an important role among the other renewable energy sources globally as it is already the fourth largest energy resource after coal, oil and natural gas. It is possible to obtain gaseous, liquid or solid biofuels from biomass via thermochemical or biochemic

  13. Sustainable biomass-derived hydrothermal carbons for energy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Falco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal carbonisation of carbohydrate and protein-rich biomass was systematically investigated, in order to obtain more insights on the potentials of this thermochemical processing technique in relation to the production of functional carbon materials from crude biomass.

  14. Production of hydrogen from biomass by catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernik, S.; Wang, D.; Chornet, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Renewable Chemical Technologies and Materials

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen is the prototype of the environmentally cleanest fuel of interest for power generation using fuel cells and for transportation. The thermochemical conversion of biomass to hydrogen can be carried out through two distinct strategies: (a) gasification followed by water-gas shift conversion, and (b) catalytic steam reforming of specific fractions derived from fast pyrolysis and aqueous/steam processes of biomass. This paper presents the latter route that begins with fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce bio-oil. This oil (as a whole or its selected fractions) can be converted to hydrogen via catalytic steam reforming followed by a water-gas shift conversion step. Such a process has been demonstrated at the bench scale using model compounds, poplar oil aqueous fraction, and the whole pyrolysis oil with commercial Ni-based steam reforming catalysts. Hydrogen yields as high as 85% have been obtained. Catalyst initial activity can be recovered through regeneration cycles by steam or CO{sub 2} gasification of carbonaceous deposits.

  15. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang;

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  16. Thermochemical valorization and characterization of household biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Vekkos, K; Baratieri, M

    2016-04-15

    Valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW), by means of energy and material recovery, is considered to be a crucial step for sustainable waste management. A significant fraction of MSW is comprised from food waste, the treatment of which is still a challenge. Therefore, the conventional disposal of food waste in landfills is being gradually replaced by recycling aerobic treatment, anaerobic digestion and waste-to-energy. In principle, thermal processes like combustion and gasification are preferred for the recovery of energy due to the higher electrical efficiency and the significantly less time required for the process to be completed when compared to biological process, i.e. composting, anaerobic digestion and transesterification. Nonetheless, the high water content and the molecular structure of biowaste are constraining factors in regard to the application of thermal conversion pathways. Investigating alternative solutions for the pre-treatment and more energy efficient handling of this waste fraction may provide pathways for the optimization of the whole process. In this study, by means of utilizing drying/milling as an intermediate step, thermal treatment of household biowaste has become possible. Household biowaste has been thermally processed in a bench scale reactor by means of torrefaction, carbonization and high temperature pyrolysis. According to the operational conditions, fluctuating fractions of biochar, bio-oil (tar) and syngas were recovered. The thermochemical properties of the feedstock and products were analyzed by means of Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA), Ultimate and Proximate analysis and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR). The analysis of the products shows that torrefaction of dried household biowaste produces an energy dense fuel and high temperature pyrolysis produces a graphite-like material with relatively high yield.

  17. From biomass to sustainable biofuels in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zyl, W.H.; Den Haan, R.; Rose, S.H.; La Grange, D.C.; Bloom, M. [Stellenbosch Univ., Matieland (South Africa). Dept. of Microbiology; Gorgens, J.F.; Knoetze, J.H. [Stellenbosch Univ., Matieland (South Africa). Dept. of Process Engineering; Von Blottnitz, H. [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a global sustainable bioenergy project with particular reference to South Africa's strategy to develop biofuels. The current biofuel production in South Africa was presented along with the potential for biofuels production and other clean alternative fuels. The South African industrial biofuel strategy (IBS) was developed in 2007 with a mandate to create jobs in the energy-crop and biofuels value chain; attract investment into rural areas; promote agricultural development; and reduce the import of foreign oil. The proposed crops for bioethanol include sugar cane and sugar beet, while the proposed crops for biodiesel include sunflower, canola and soya beans. The exclusion of maize was based on food security concerns. Jatropha curcas was also excluded because it is considered to be an invasive species. In addition to environmental benefits, the production of biofuels from biomass in Africa offers improved energy security, economic development and social upliftment. All biofuel projects are evaluated to ensure that these benefits are realized. Although first generation technologies do not score well due to marginal energy balance, negative life cycle impacts or detriment to biodiversity, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass scores well in terms of enabling the commercialization of second generation biofuels. This paper discussed both the biochemical and thermochemical technological interventions needed to develop commercially-viable second generation lignocellulose conversion technologies to biofuels. tabs., figs.

  18. Biological conversion of forage sorghum biomass to ethanol by steam explosion pretreatment and simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation at high solid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Negro, Maria Jose; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Gonzalez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Mercedes [Renewable Energy Department-CIEMAT, Biofuels Unit, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    In this work, forage sorghum biomass was studied as feedstock for ethanol production by a biological conversion process comprising the steps of hydrothermal steam explosion pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes, and fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Steam explosion conditions were optimized using a response surface methodology considering temperature (180-230 C) and time (2-10 min). Sugar recovery in the pretreatment and the enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated solid were used to determine the optimum conditions, i.e., 220 C and 7 min. At these conditions, saccharification efficiency attained 89 % of the theoretical and the recovery of xylose in the prehydrolyzate accounted for 35 % of the amount of xylose present in raw material. Then, a simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation (SSF) process was tested at laboratory scale on the solid fraction of forage sorghum pretreated at optimum condition, in order to evaluate ethanol production. The effect of the enzyme dose and the supplementation with xylanase enzyme of the cellulolytic enzyme cocktail was studied at increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) in SSF media. Results show good performance of SSF in all consistencies tested with a significant effect of increasing enzyme load in SSF yield and final ethanol concentration. Xylanase supplementation allows increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) with good SSF performance and final ethanol content of 55 g/l after 4-5 days. Based on this result, about 190 l of ethanol could be obtained from 1 t of untreated forage sorghum, which means a transformation yield of 85 % of the glucose contained in the feedstock. (orig.)

  19. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  20. Analytical Investigations of Kinetic and Heat Transfer in Slow Pyrolysis of a Biomass Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J Ojolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of biomass for heat and power generation has aroused the interest of most researchers especially those of energy .In converting solid fuel to a usable form of energy,pyrolysis plays an integral role. Understanding this very important phenomenon in the thermochemical conversion processes and representing it with appropriate mathematical models is vital in the design of pyrolysis reactors and biomass gasifiers. Therefore, this study presents analytical solutions to the kinetic and the heat transfer equations that describe the slow pyrolysis of a biomass particle. The effects of Biot number, temperature and residence time on biomass particle decomposition were studied. The results from the proposed analytical models are in good agreement with the reported experimental results. The developed analytical solutions to the heat transfer equations which have been stated to be “analytically involved” showed average percentageerror and standard deviations 0.439 and 0.103 from the experimental results respectively as compared with previous model in literature which gives average percentage error and standard deviations 0.75 and 0.106 from the experimental results respectively. This work is of great importance in the design of some pyrolysis reactors/units and in the optimal design of the biomass gasifiers.

  1. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior during co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass model components blend with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu

    2014-10-01

    Co-thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and coal has been investigated as an effective way to reduce the carbon footprint. Successful evaluating on thermal behavior of the co-pyrolysis is prerequisite for predicting performance and optimizing efficiency of this process. In this paper, pyrolysis and kinetics characteristics of three kinds of lignocellulosic biomass model components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) blended with a kind of Chinese bituminous coal were explored by thermogravimetric analyzer and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The results indicated that the addition of model compounds had different synergistic effects on thermal behavior of the bituminous coal. The cellulose showed positive synergistic effects on the thermal decomposition of the coal bituminous coal with lower char yield than calculated value. For hemicellulose and lignin, whether positive or negative synergistic was related to the mixed ratio and temperature range. The distribution of the average activation energy values for the mixtures showed nonadditivity performance.

  2. University Capstone Project: Enhanced Initiation Techniques for Thermochemical Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Nitrogen in Spark-Plug Assisted Atmospheric -pressure Microwave Discharges by Rotational Raman Scattering.” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 50...et al. Effects of Corona , Spark and Surface Discharges on Ignition Delay and Deflagration-to-Detonation Times in Pulsed Detonation Engines. AIAA...non-equilibrium plasma ignition systems using microwave and nano-second repetitive discharge approaches, 2) a platform to characterize the ignition

  3. Biomass-powered Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Experimental and Modeling Studies for System Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a sustainable energy source which, through thermo-chemical processes of biomass gasification, is able to be converted from a solid biomass fuel into a gas mixture, known as syngas or biosyngas. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a power generation device that directly converts the chemical

  4. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  5. Conversion and assimilation of furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural by Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarnieri, Michael T.; Ann Franden, Mary; Johnson, Christopher W.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2017-02-08

    The sugar dehydration products, furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), are commonly formed during high-temperature processing of lignocellulose, most often in thermochemical pretreatment, liquefaction, or pyrolysis. Typically, these two aldehydes are considered major inhibitors in microbial conversion processes. Many microbes can convert these compounds to their less toxic, dead-end alcohol counterparts, furfuryl alcohol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfuryl alcohol. Recently, the genes responsible for aerobic catabolism of furfural and HMF were discovered in Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 to enable complete conversion of these compounds to the TCA cycle intermediate, 2-oxo-glutarate. In this work, we engineer the robust soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, to utilize furfural and HMF as sole carbon and energy sources via complete genomic integration of the 12 kB hmf gene cluster previously reported from Burkholderia phytofirmans. The common intermediate, 2-furoic acid, is shown to be a bottleneck for both furfural and HMF metabolism. When cultured on biomass hydrolysate containing representative amounts of furfural and HMF from dilute-acid pretreatment, the engineered strain outperforms the wild type microbe in terms of reduced lag time and enhanced growth rates due to catabolism of furfural and HMF. Overall, this study demonstrates that an approach for biological conversion of furfural and HMF, relative to the typical production of dead-end alcohols, enables both enhanced carbon conversion and substantially improves tolerance to hydrolysate inhibitors. This approach should find general utility both in emerging aerobic processes for the production of fuels and chemicals from biomass-derived sugars and in the biological conversion of high-temperature biomass streams from liquefaction or pyrolysis where furfural and HMF are much more abundant than in biomass hydrolysates from pretreatment.

  6. Technical and economic analysis of using biomass energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piaskowska-Silarska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article were presented the technical possibilities of obtaining solid biomass, biogas, landfill gas, a biogas from wastewater treatment plants, bioethanol and biodiesel. Then processes was described, allowing use of energy from biomass. As first was discussed the incineration which includes drying and degassing of the wood materials, wood gas burning at 1200°C, post-combustion gas and heat transfer in the heat exchanger. Then had been described gasification, or thermochemical conversion process, occurring at high temperature. It is two-stage process. In the first chamber at deficiency of air and at relatively low temperatures (450–800°C, the fuel is being degasified, resulting in creating combustible gas and a mineral residue (charcoal. In the second stage, secondary combustion chamber and at a temperature of about 1000–1200°C and in the presence of excess of oxygen resultant gas is burned. A further process is pyrolysis. It consists of the steps of drying fuel to a moisture level below 10%, milling the biomass into very small particles, the pyrolysis reaction, separation of solid products, cooling and collecting bio-oil. Then discusses co-generation, which is combined production of heat and electricity. In this situation where the biomass contains too much water it can be used for energy purposes through biochemical processes. The alcoholic fermentation results in decomposition of carbohydrates taking place under anaerobic conditions, and the product is bioethanol. Another biochemical process used for the production of liquid biofuels is esterification of vegetable oils. Methane fermentation in turn causes a decomposition of macromolecular organic substances with limited oxygen available. As a result, we obtain alcohols, lower organic acids, methane, carbon dioxide and water. There was analysis of economic increasing of solid biomass energy, biogas and liquid biofuels in the following article.

  7. Experimental and Simulation Studies on Biomass Torrefaction and Gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Tapasvi, Dhruv

    2015-01-01

    The potential for bioenergy in Norway is significant. This potential can be realized by improving the properties of biomass and making it a convenient and competitive alternative to other fuels. Torrefaction is the most promising biomass pretreatment technique to date, improving its effectiveness as a fuel in various thermochemical processes. Torrefaction considerably reduces moisture content but increases the heating value, hydrophobicity and grindability of biomass. Torrefact...

  8. Experimental and predicted approaches for biomass gasification with enriched air-steam in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qirang; Huang, Yaji; Niu, Miaomiao; Yang, Gaoqiang; Shao, Zhiwei

    2014-10-01

    Thermo-chemical gasification of sawdust refuse-derived fuel was performed on a bench-scale fluidised bed gasifier with enriched air and steam as fluidising and oxidising agents. Dolomite as a natural mineral catalyst was used as bed material to reform tars and hydrocarbons. A series of experiments were carried out under typical operating conditions for gasification, as reported in the article. A modified equilibrium model, based on equilibrium constants, was developed to predict the gasification process. The sensitivity analysis of operating parameters, such as the fluidisation velocity, oxygen percentage of the enriched air and steam to biomass ratios on the produced gas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the predicted syngas composition was in better agreement with the experimental data compared with the original equilibrium model. The higher fluidisation velocity enhanced gas-solid mixing, heat and mass transfers, and carbon fines elutriation, simultaneously. With the increase of oxygen percentage from 21% to 45%, the lower heating value of syngas increased from 5.52 MJ m(-3) to 7.75 MJ m(-3) and cold gas efficiency from 49.09% to 61.39%. The introduction of steam improved gas quality, but a higher steam to biomass ratio could decrease carbon conversion and gasification efficiency owing to a low steam temperature. The optimal value of steam to biomass ratio in this work was 1.0.

  9. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior...... to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted...... in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9gL-1), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid....

  10. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid.

  11. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    This report provides an economic analysis and feasibility study for the utilization by microalgal systems of carbon dioxide generated from coal-fired power plants. The resulting biomass could be a fuel substitute for fossil fuels.

  12. Preparation of a cost data bank for DOE/Biomass Energy Systems Branch. Fourth quarterly progress report, July 1-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kam, A.Y.; Dickenson, R.L.; Jones, J.L.; Bomberger, D.C.; Chatterjee, A.K.; Fong, W.S.; Meagher, P.C.; Wilhelm, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a biomass conversion technology and cost data bank for the Biomass Energy Systems Branch (BES) of DOE/Solar is described. Technical and economic analyses of a number of BES technology options are currently underway. A total of 22 biomass conversion technology options (14 thermochemical and 8 biochemical) have been selected for inclusion in the data bank. These options cover the production of electric power, steam, gases, liquids, and solid fuels from biomass. The majority of the options are believed to be available now or in the near term. A consistent methodology for construction of the data bank has been developed. For each option, the most up-to-date process/product data are gathered and analyzed. A base case is established to generate estimates for plant investments required, operating cost, and product cost. The estimates are then examined systematically to identify and quantify the uncertainties. The uncertainties are combined using statistical methods to produce error band estimates. Preliminary results for catalytic liquefaction (PETC and LBL processes), gasoline from biomass (China Lake process), and MBG from wood, ethanol fermentation are reported here. A sensitivity analysis for co-generation is also reported.

  13. Thermochemical heat storage - system design issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J. de; Trausel, F.; Finck, C.J.; Vliet, L.D. van; Cuypers, R.

    2014-01-01

    Thermochemical materials (TCMs) are a promising solution for seasonal heat storage, providing the possibility to store excess solar energy from the warm season for later use during the cold season, and with that all year long sustainable energy. With our fixed bed, vacuum reactors using zeolite as T

  14. Some Aspects of Thermochemical Decomposition of Peat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Losiuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers peculiar features of thermochemical decomposition of peat as a result of quick pyrolysis. Evaluation of energy and economic expediency of the preliminary peat decomposition process for obtaining liquid and gaseous products has been made in the paper. The paper reveals prospects pertaining to application of the given technology while generating electric power and heat.

  15. Some Aspects of Thermochemical Decomposition of Peat

    OpenAIRE

    Y. A. Losiuk; S. V. Gibric; S. V. Korchinenko

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers peculiar features of thermochemical decomposition of peat as a result of quick pyrolysis. Evaluation of energy and economic expediency of the preliminary peat decomposition process for obtaining liquid and gaseous products has been made in the paper. The paper reveals prospects pertaining to application of the given technology while generating electric power and heat.

  16. Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1) dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type.

  17. Syngas from biomass. Problems and solutions en route to a technical realisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinjus, E.; Dahmen, N.; Henrich, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). ITC-CPV

    2006-07-01

    A thermochemical two-step process called bioliq {sup registered} for the conversion of biomass in tailored synfuels and organic chemicals via the production of syngas as a versatile intermediate is being developed at the Karlsruhe research centre. The development work has been focused on syngas generation from liquefied biomass in a pressurized entrained flow gasifier. The sequential process steps have been successfully investigated in the laboratory and on the pilot plant scale. Fast pyrolysis has been chosen as a simple and cheap liquefaction step for lignocellulosic biomass. The LURGI twin-screw mixer reactor known from other technical applications was found to be well suited also for biomass fast pyrolysis. Pumpable, homogenous slurries of pyrolysis liquids with high loadings of pyrolysis char powder have been prepared with colloid mixers for subsequent gasification. Efficient and smooth slurry gasification to a tar-free, low methane syngas has been obtained with a number of different slurries in four testing campaigns in the 3 - 5 MWth entrained flow pilot gasifier of FUTURE ENERGY, Freiberg, at 26 bar. The continuing work will be supplemented by syngas cleaning and synthesis steps. A complete process line with around 2 MWth capacity from fast pyrolysis to synthesis with an 80 bar gasifier is under design, the pyrolysis plant already under construction in co-operation with LURGI. (orig.)

  18. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas.

  19. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  20. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. 4th Quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.

    1994-12-28

    Microalgae cultivation in large open ponds is the only photosynthetic process likely to directly utilize power plant flue gas CO{sub 2} for production of biomass. The algal biomass can be converted into substitutes for fossil fuels, in particular liquid fuels such as biodiesel (vegetable oil methyl or ethyl esters), thus reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and the potential for global warming. This concept is being investigated, among others, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory at Golden, Colorado, with support from PETC.

  1. Alternative route of process modification for biofuel production by embedding the Fischer-Tropsch plant in existing stand-alone power plant (10 MW) based on biomass gasification - Part I: A conceptual modeling and simulation approach (a case study in Thailand)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Cheali, Peam; Narataruksa, Phavanee

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of syngas shows a highly potential to improve the economic potential of the stand-alone power unit-based gasification plants as well as enhancing the growing demand of transportation fuels. The thermochemical conversion of biomass via gasification to heat and power generations from...... a base case process model coupled with techno-economic evaluation for the FT synthesis. In particular, the FT process configurations are designed and assessed using current kinetic laboratory data by our research group for modeling specific reactions in PFR reactor. The calculation of equipment sizing...

  2. A web service infrastructure for thermochemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Christopher P; Bhattacharjee, Subrata

    2008-07-01

    W3C standardized Web Services are becoming an increasingly popular middleware technology used to facilitate the open exchange of chemical data. While several projects in existence use Web Services to wrap existing commercial and open-source tools that mine chemical structure data, no Web Service infrastructure has yet been developed to compute thermochemical properties of substances. This work presents an infrastructure of Web Services for thermochemical data retrieval. Several examples are presented to demonstrate how our Web Services can be called from Java, through JavaScript using an AJAX methodology, and within commonly used commercial applications such as Microsoft Excel and MATLAB for use in computational work. We illustrate how a JANAF table, widely used by chemists and engineers, can be quickly reproduced through our Web Service infrastructure.

  3. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    OpenAIRE

    Littlefield, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    A plant was designed that uses a solar sulfur-ammonia thermochemical water-splitting cycle for the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen is useful as a fuel for stationary and mobile fuel cells. The chemical process simulator Aspen Plus® was used to model the plant and conduct simulations. The process utilizes the electrolytic oxidation of aqueous ammonium sulfite in the hydrogen production half cycle and the thermal decomposition of molten potassium pyrosulfate and gaseous sulfur trioxide in t...

  4. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of

  5. Energetic conversion of European semi-natural grassland silages through the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass: energy yields and the fate of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgen, Frank; Bühle, Lutz; Donnison, Iain; Heinsoo, Katrin; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Twelve European habitat types were investigated to determine the influence of the IFBB technique (integrated generation of biogas and solid fuel from biomass) on the fate of organic compounds and energy yields of semi-natural grassland biomass. Concentration of organic compounds in silage and IFBB press cake (PC), mass flows within that system and methane yields of IFBB press fluids (PF) were determined. The gross energy yield of the IFBB technique was calculated in comparison to hay combustion (HC) and whole crop digestion (WCD). The IFBB treatment increased fibre and organic matter (OM) concentrations and lowered non-fibre carbohydrates and crude protein concentrations. The PF was highly digestible irrespective of habitat types, showing mean methane yields between 312.1 and 405.0 LN CH4 kg(-1) VS. Gross energy yields for the IFBB system (9.75-30.19MWh ha(-1)) were in the range of HC, outperformed WCD and were influenced by the habitat type.

  6. In situ NMR spectroscopy: inulin biomass conversion in ZnCl₂ molten salt hydrate medium-SnCl₄ addition controls product distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Qiao, Yan; Deng, Tiansheng; Shi, Jing; Hou, Xianglin

    2015-01-22

    The dehydration of inulin biomass to the platform chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium was investigated. The influence of the Lewis acid catalyst, SnCl4, on the product distribution was examined. An in situ(1)H NMR technique was employed to follow the reaction at the molecular level. The experimental results revealed that only 5-HMF was obtained from degradation of inulin biomass in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium, while the LA was gradually becoming the main product when the reaction temperature was increased in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst SnCl4. In situ NMR spectroscopy could monitor the reaction and give valuable insight.

  7. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-01

    At the Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory, NREL scientists have more than 20 years of experience supporting the biomass conversion industry. They develop, refine, and validate analytical methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before, during, and after conversion processing. These high-quality compositional analysis data are used to determine feedstock compositions as well as mass balances and product yields from conversion processes.

  8. Evaluation of Catalytic Effects in Gasification of Biomass at Intermediate Temperature and Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanou, P.; Rossum, van G.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes and examines an alternative thermo-chemical process for biomethane production from lignocellulosic biomass, termed self-gasification. Self-gasification of biomass is envisaged to utilize a high-pressure steam gasifier (30−80 bar) at temperatures of 600−900 °C and to use the alkal

  9. Pyrolysis of microalgal biomass in carbon dioxide environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-10-01

    This work mechanistically investigated the influence of CO2 in the thermo-chemical process of microalgal biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa) to achieve a fast virtuous cycle of carbon via recovering energy. This work experimentally justified that the influence of CO2 in pyrolysis of microalgal biomass could be initiated at temperatures higher than 530 °C, which directly led to the enhanced generation of syngas. For example, the concentration of CO from pyrolysis of M. aeruginosa increased up to ∼ 3000% at 670 °C in the presence of CO2. The identified universal influence of CO2 could be summarized by the expedited thermal cracking of VOCs evolved from microalgal biomass and by the unknown reaction between VOCs and CO2. This identified effectiveness of CO2 was different from the Boudouard reaction, which was independently occurred with dehydrogenation. Thus, microalgal biomass could be a candidate for the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification).

  10. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  11. Comparative investigations into pyrolysis of biomass and brown coal. Material balance and heat requirement in correlation with fuel properties; Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Pyrolyse von Biomasse und Braunkohle. Stoffbilanzen und Waermebedarf in Korrelation mit Rohstoffeigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, D.; Klinger, M.; Krzack, S.; Meyer, B. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Prediction of product distribution and composition for biomass and coal pyrolysis using thermodynamic simulation software is actually not possible or works not deficiently. Consistent data for pyrolysis product distribution and composition are a basic requirement for the implementation of pyrolysis in models representing thermochemical conversion of biogenous and fossil fuels as well as for the creation of detailed material and energy balances and the evaluation of such processes. Investigations into the pyrolysis behaviour of different biomass materials (wood, straw, silage) and German brown coals (Lusatia, Rhineland) in dependence on process temperature have been done in a lab scale device. Based on the obtained results, material and heat balances have been created taking all pyrolysis products into consideration. To obtain additional information about pyrolysis heat requirement investigations using a TG-DSC thermogravimetric analyser have been carried out. Differences between biomass and brown coal are found especially within the distribution of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon to the pyrolysis products. For the herbaceous biomass a heat release was detected regarding to the energy balance, while spruce wood possesses a relatively constant endothermic heat of reaction in the overall temperature range. This arises from the release of volatile components produced during cellulose decomposition. In the case of brown coal pyrolysis the products show a lower chemically bonded energy than the raw material. The obtained tendencies could be partly confirmed with the DSC investigations. (orig.)

  12. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  13. Fluidized-bed gasification of biomass: Conversion of fine carabon particles in the freeboard; Biomassevergasung in der Wirbelschicht: Umsatz von feinen Kohlenstoffpartikeln im Freeboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miccio, F. [Ist. Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR, Napoli (Italy); Moersch, O.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1998-09-01

    The conversion of carbon particles in gasification processes was investigated in a fluidized-bed reactor of the Institute of Chemical Engineering and Steam Boiler Technology of Stuttgart University. This reactor is heated electrically to process temperature, and freeboard coal particles can be sampled using an isokinetic probe. The fuel used in the experiments consisted of beech wood chips. The temperature and air rating, i.e. the main parameters of the process, were varied in order to investigate their influence on product gas quality and carbon conversion. The conversion rate is influenced to a significant extent by grain disintegration and discharge of carbon particles. In gasification conditions, a further conversion process takes place in the freeboard. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird die Umsetzung von Kohlenstoffpartikeln unter Vergasungsbedingungen untersucht. Die Versuche wurden an einem Wirbelschichtreaktor des Instituts fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen der Universitaet Stuttgart durchgefuehrt. Dieser Reaktor wird elektrisch auf Prozesstemperatur beheizt. Mit Hilfe einer isokinetischen Sonde koennen Proben von Kohlenstoffpartikeln im Freeboard genommen werden. Als Brennstoff wurden zerkleinerte Buchenholz-Hackschnitzel eingesetzt. Variiert wurden als Hauptparameter des Prozesses Temperatur und Luftzahl. Untersucht wurde der Einfluss dieser Parameter auf die Qualitaet des Produktgases und die Umsetzung des Kohlenstoffes. Kornzersetzungs- und Austragsvorgaenge von Kohlenstoffpartikeln spielen eine wichtige Rolle fuer den Kohlenstoffumsatz. Unter Vergasungsbedingungen findet im Freeboard eine weitere Umsetzung der Partikel statt. (orig.)

  14. Optimization of a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Plant for Low-Temperature Gasification of Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar González-Vázquez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into clean energies has been focused on finding an alternative to fossil fuels in order to reduce global warming while at the same time satisfying the world’s energy needs. Biomass gasification is seen as a promising thermochemical conversion technology as it allows useful gaseous products to be obtained from low-energy-density solid fuels. Air–steam mixtures are the most commonly used gasification agents. The gasification performances of several biomass samples and their mixtures were compared. One softwood (pine and one hardwood (chestnut, their torrefied counterparts, and other Spanish-based biomass wastes such as almond shell, olive stone, grape and olive pomaces or cocoa shell were tested, and their behaviors at several different stoichiometric ratios (SR and steam/air ratios (S/A were compared. The optimum SR was found to be in the 0.2–0.3 range for S/A = 75/25. At these conditions a syngas stream with 35% of H2 + CO and a gas yield of 2 L gas/g fuel were obtained, which represents a cold-gas efficiency of almost 50%. The torrefaction process does not significantly affect the quality of the product syngas. Some of the obtained chars were analyzed to assess their use as precursors for catalysts, combustion fuel or for agricultural purposes such as soil amendment.

  15. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 - Countries report. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Mandl, M. (Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2010-07-01

    This report has been developed by the members of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery: Co-production of Fuels, Chemicals, Power and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to improve international cooperation and information exchange between national bioenergy RD and D programs. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery covers a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals with a variety of market sectors with many interested stakeholders, a large number of biomass conversion technologies, and integrated concepts of both biochemical and thermochemical processes. This report contains an overview of the biomass, bioenergy and biorefinery situation, and activities, in the Task 42 member countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The overview includes: national bioenergy production, non-energetic biomass use, bioenergy related policy goals, national oil refineries, biofuels capacity for transport purposes, existing biorefinery industries, pilot and demo plants, and other activities of research and development (such as main national projects and stakeholders). Data are provided by National Task Leaders (NTLs), whose contact details are listed at the end of the report. (author)

  16. Thermochemical Storage of Middle Temperature Wasted Heat by Functionalized C/Mg(OH2 Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mastronardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the thermochemical performance implementation of Mg(OH2 as a heat storage medium, several hybrid materials have been investigated. For this study, high-performance hybrid materials have been developed by exploiting the authors’ previous findings. Expanded graphite (EG/carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Mg(OH2 hybrid materials have been prepared through Mg(OH2 deposition-precipitation over functionalized, i.e., oxidized, or un-functionalized EG or CNTs. The heat storage performances of the carbon-based hybrid materials have been investigated through a laboratory-scale experimental simulation of the heat storage/release cycles, carried out by a thermogravimetric apparatus. This study offers a critical evaluation of the thermochemical performances of developed materials through their comparison in terms of heat storage and output capacities per mass and volume unit. It was demonstrated that both EG and CNTs improves the thermochemical performances of the storage medium in terms of reaction rate and conversion with respect to pure Mg(OH2. With functionalized EG/CNTs-Mg(OH2, (i the potential heat storage and output capacities per mass unit of Mg(OH2 have been completely exploited; and (ii higher heat storage and output capacities per volume unit were obtained. That means, for technological applications, as smaller volume at equal stored/released heat.

  17. Revisiting the BaO2/BaO redox cycle for solar thermochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, A J; Sastre, D; Serrano, D P; Pizarro, P; Coronado, J M

    2016-03-21

    The barium peroxide-based redox cycle was proposed in the late 1970s as a thermochemical energy storage system. Since then, very little attention has been paid to such redox couples. In this paper, we have revisited the use of reduction-oxidation reactions of the BaO2/BaO system for thermochemical heat storage at high temperatures. Using thermogravimetric analysis, reduction and oxidation reactions were studied in order to find the main limitations associated with each process. Furthermore, the system was evaluated through several charge-discharge stages in order to analyse its possible degradation after repeated cycling. Through differential scanning calorimetry the heat stored and released were also determined. Oxidation reaction, which was found to be slower than reduction, was studied in more detail using isothermal tests. It was observed that the rate-controlling step of BaO oxidation follows zero-order kinetics, although at high temperatures a deviation from Arrhenius behaviour was observed probably due to hindrances to anionic oxygen diffusion caused by the formation of an external layer of BaO2. This redox couple was able to withstand several redox cycles without deactivation, showing reaction conversions close to 100% provided that impurities are previously eliminated through thermal pre-treatment, demonstrating the feasibility of this system for solar thermochemical heat storage.

  18. Comparative studies on thermochemical characterization of corn stover pretreated by white-rot and brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yelin; Yang, Xuewei; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Fuying

    2011-09-28

    The effects of white-rot and brown-rot fungal pretreatment on the chemical composition and thermochemical conversion of corn stover were investigated. Fungus-pretreated corn stover was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis to characterize the changes in chemical composition. Differences in thermochemical conversion of corn stover after fungal pretreatment were investigated using thermogravimetric and pyrolysis analysis. The results indicated that the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2 has great lignin-degrading ability, whereas the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis sp. IMER2 preferentially degrades the amorphous regions of the cellulose. The biopretreatment favors thermal decomposition of corn stover. The weight loss of IMER2-treated acid detergent fiber became greater, and the oil yield increased from 32.7 to 50.8%. After CD2 biopretreatment, 58% weight loss of acid detergent lignin was achieved and the oil yield increased from 16.8 to 26.8%.

  19. Sustainable biomass-derived hydrothermal carbons for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, Camillo

    2012-01-15

    The need to reduce humankind reliance on fossil fuels by exploiting sustainably the planet renewable resources is a major driving force determining the focus of modern material research. For this reason great interest is nowadays focused on finding alternatives to fossil fuels derived products/materials. For the short term the most promising substitute is undoubtedly biomass, since it is the only renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels as carbon source. As a consequence efforts, aimed at finding new synthetic approaches to convert biomass and its derivatives into carbon-based materials, are constantly increasing. In this regard, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) has shown to be an effective means of conversion of biomass-derived precursors into functional carbon materials. However the attempts to convert raw biomass, in particular lignocellulosic one, directly into such products have certainly been rarer. Unlocking the direct use of these raw materials as carbon precursors would definitely be beneficial in terms of HTC sustainability. For this reason, in this thesis the HTC of carbohydrate and protein-rich biomass was systematically investigated, in order to obtain more insights on the potentials of this thermochemical processing technique in relation to the production of functional carbon materials from crude biomass. First a detailed investigation on the HTC conversion mechanism of lignocellulosic biomass and its single components (i.e. cellulose, lignin) was developed based on a comparison with glucose HTC, which was adopted as a reference model. In the glucose case it was demonstrated that varying the HTC temperature allowed tuning the chemical structure of the synthesised carbon materials from a highly cross-linked furan-based structure (T = 180 C) to a carbon framework composed of polyaromatic arene-like domains. When cellulose or lignocellulosic biomass was used as carbon precursor, the furan rich structure could not be isolated at any of the

  20. Biomass to energy; La valorisation energetique de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  1. Vegetal and animal biomass; Les biomasses vegetales et animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combarnous, M. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. Energetique et Phenomenes de Transfert, UMR CNRS ENSAM, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation concerns all types of biomass of the earth and the seas and the relative implicit consumptions. After an evaluation of the food needs of the human being, the author discusses the solar energy conversion, the energetic flux devoted to the agriculture production, the food chain and the biomass. (A.L.B.)

  2. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantage Jet Fuel: Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elander, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-04

    NREL will provide scientific and engineering support to Virent Energy Systems in three technical areas: Process Development/Biomass Deconstruction; Catalyst Fundamentals; and Technoeconomic Analysis. The overarching objective of this project is to develop the first fully integrated process that can convert a lignocellulosic feedstock (e.g., corn stover) efficiently and cost effectively to a mix of hydrocarbons ideally suited for blending into jet fuel. The proposed project will investigate the integration of Virent Energy System’s novel aqueous phase reforming (APR) catalytic conversion technology (BioForming®) with deconstruction technologies being investigated by NREL at the 1-500L scale. Corn stover was chosen as a representative large volume, sustainable feedstock.

  3. Screening analysis of solar thermochemical hydrogen concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    2008-03-01

    A screening analysis was performed to identify concentrating solar power (CSP) concepts that produce hydrogen with the highest efficiency. Several CSP concepts were identified that have the potential to be much more efficient than today's low-temperature electrolysis technology. They combine a central receiver or dish with either a thermochemical cycle or high-temperature electrolyzer that operate at temperatures >600 C. The solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies of the best central receiver concepts exceed 20%, significantly better than the 14% value predicted for low-temperature electrolysis.

  4. Microencapsulation of salts for enhanced thermochemical storage materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, R.; Jong, A.J. de; Eversdijk, J.; Spijker, J.C. van 't; Oversloot, H.P.; Ingenhut, B.L.J.; Cremers, R.K.H.; Papen-Botterhuis, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical storage is a new and emerging long-term thermal storage for residential use (cooling, heating & domestic hot water generation), offering high thermal storage density without the need for thermal insulation during storage (Fig. 1). However, existing materials for thermochemical storage

  5. Climate Impact and Economic Feasibility of Solar Thermochemical Jet Fuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christoph; Batteiger, Valentin; Sizmann, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    Solar thermochemistry presents a promising option for the efficient conversion of H2O and CO2 into liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar energy. To explore the potential of this fuel production pathway, the climate impact and economic performance are analyzed. Key drivers for the economic and ecological performance are thermochemical energy conversion efficiency, the level of solar irradiation, operation and maintenance, and the initial investment in the fuel production plant. For the baseline case of a solar tower concentrator with CO2 capture from air, jet fuel production costs of 2.23 €/L and life cycle greenhouse gas (LC GHG) emissions of 0.49 kgCO2-equiv/L are estimated. Capturing CO2 from a natural gas combined cycle power plant instead of the air reduces the production costs by 15% but leads to LC GHG emissions higher than that of conventional jet fuel. Favorable assumptions for all involved process steps (30% thermochemical energy conversion efficiency, 3000 kWh/(m(2) a) solar irradiation, low CO2 and heliostat costs) result in jet fuel production costs of 1.28 €/L at LC GHG emissions close to zero. Even lower production costs may be achieved if the commercial value of oxygen as a byproduct is considered.

  6. Base-load solar thermal power using thermochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzi, A.; Lovegrove, K. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Filippi, E. [Ammonia Casale, Lugano (Switzerland); Fricker, H. [FC Consulting, Rickenbach (Switzerland); Schmitz-Goeb, M. [L and C Steinmuller GmbH, Process Engineering Div., Gummersbach (Germany); Chandapillai, M. [Siemens Power Generation Asia Pacific Sdn, Bhd., Industrial Power Plants, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-03-01

    Using a closed-loop thermochemical system based on the reversible ammonia reaction is one of the possible ways for building solar thermal power systems capable of providing electricity on a 24-hour basis without the need for any fossil fuel back-up. In a collaborative effort between industrial and academic partners from Australia, Switzerland, Germany and Malaysia, a study was undertaken to examine the techno-economic viability of this solar concept by formulating a preliminary design for a hypothetical 10 MW{sub e} demonstration system in Central Australia. It was found that a carefully designed demonstration solar power plant, which dominantly uses proven and standard materials, components and technologies, is likely to cost of the order of AUD 157 million and operate with a net solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of 18% and a capacity factor of 80%. This will result in leveled electricity costs (LEC) of about AUD 0.24 per kWh{sub e}. (authors)

  7. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  8. Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

    2005-09-23

    The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

  9. A Short Historical Review of Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass Une brève revue historique de la pyrolyse rapide de la biomasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlein D.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, we survey the historical progress of fast pyrolysis technologies for thermochemical liquefaction of biomass to produce so-called "bio-oil". Our focus is on the potential applications of bio-oil as a liquid fuel for heat and power generation. We point out some of the inherent properties of bio-oil that create difficulties standing in the way of these applications. Finally, we take a brief look at some processes that aim to valorize bio-oil by conversion to higher value liquid fuel products. Dans cette revue nous nous proposons de dresser un rappel historique des progrès relatifs aux technologies de liquéfaction thermochimiques par pyrolyse rapide, encore appelée pyrolyse flash, de la biomasse pour produire ce que l’on appelle communément une "bio-huile". Nous insisterons sur ses applications comme combustible liquide pour la production de chaleur et d’électricité. Nous ferons ressortir quelques propriétés spécifiques aux bio-huiles qui peuvent créer des difficultés d’usage. Nous terminerons par un bref aperçu de quelques procédés permettant de valoriser la bio-huile en carburants liquides de plus forte valeur ajoutée.

  10. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  11. Thermochemical factors affecting the dehalogenation of aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Daniel; McNeill, Kristopher; Cramer, Christopher J

    2013-12-17

    Halogenated aromatics are one of the largest chemical classes of environmental contaminants, and dehalogenation remains one of the most important processes by which these compounds are degraded and detoxified. The thermodynamic constraints of aromatic dehalogenation reactions are thus important for understanding the feasibility of such reactions and the redox conditions necessary for promoting them. Accordingly, the thermochemical properties of the (poly)fluoro-, (poly)chloro-, and (poly)bromobenzenes, including standard enthalpies of formation, bond dissociation enthalpies, free energies of reaction, and the redox potentials of Ar-X/Ar-H couples, were investigated using a validated density functional protocol combined with continuum solvation calculations when appropriate. The results highlight the fact that fluorinated aromatics stand distinct from their chloro- and bromo- counterparts in terms of both their relative thermodynamic stability toward dehalogenation and how different substitution patterns give rise to relevant properties, such as bond strengths and reduction potentials.

  12. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Eight cycles in a coordinated set of projects for Solar Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen production (STCH) were self-evaluated for the DOE-EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program at a Working Group Meeting on October 8 and 9, 2008. This document reports the initial selection process for development investment in STCH projects, the evaluation process meant to reduce the number of projects as a means to focus resources on development of a few most-likely-to-succeed efforts, the obstacles encountered in project inventory reduction and the outcomes of the evaluation process. Summary technical status of the projects under evaluation is reported and recommendations identified to improve future project planning and selection activities.

  13. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-10-01

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  14. Bioenergy from wastewater-based biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Sims

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE has stated that biomass is the only renewable resource that can supplant petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels in the near term. Wastewater is beginning to be viewed as a potential resource that can be exploited for biomass production and conversion to bioenergy. We suggest that using wastewater from municipalities and industries as a resource for cultivating biomass and combining wastewater treatment with the production of biomass for bioenergy would provide benefits to both industries. Two waste-based biomass production systems that currently have large nationwide infrastructures include: (1 wastewater treatment systems that can be used to cultivate algae biomass, and (2 land application/treatment systems for non-food terrestrial biomass. These existing infrastructures could be used in the relatively near future for waste-based biomass production and conversion to bioenergy, thereby reducing capital costs and scalability challenges while making a contribution to energy independence and national security.

  15. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  16. Selectively structural fractionation and economical-functionality conversion of lignocellulosic biomass%生物质原料的组分选择性拆分-功能经济性利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪章; 邱卫华; 王岚

    2014-01-01

    在充分认知生物质原料在化学成分、结构组成、酶解及发酵性能上的不均一性的基础上,提出“组分选择性拆分-功能经济性利用”的生物质炼制新途径,即最大限度保持生物质大分子原有结构、尽可能激活适于酶解组分的生物活性,同时实现中间产物最大价值化。基于生物质原料特性、转化过程和产品要求的关联,笔者创新性地构建了多条生物质炼制产业链,验证了生物质“组分选择性拆分-功能经济性利用”的生物质炼制工业技术体系的可行性、合理性和可靠性。“组分选择性拆分-功能经济性利用”是突围生物质炼制生物燃料、生物材料和生物化学品的经济技术问题的必由之路。%In this paper,an innovative biomass-refining path called“selective-fractionation and economical-functionality”was proposed,based on the recognition of heterogeneity of bio-mass,which in the purpose to as far as possible retain the original features of macromolecules, activate and improve the biotransformation performance of components suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis,maximize the value of intermediate products. According to the association of raw material features,conversion processes and products requirement,diversified biomass refining paths have been established to prove the feasibility,reasonability and reliability of“selective-fractionation and economical-functionality”. In conclusion,“selective-fractionation and eco-nomical-functionality”of lignocellulosic materials would be the novel way to break through the tight economic and technological predicament of biomass economy.

  17. Burkholderia phytofirmans inoculation-induced changes on the shoot cell anatomy and iron accumulation reveal novel components of Arabidopsis-endophyte interaction that can benefit downstream biomass deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai eZhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB elicit positive effects on plant growth and biomass yield. However, the actual mechanism behind the plant-PGPB interaction is poorly understood, and the literature is scarce regarding the thermochemical pretreatability and enzymatic degradability of biomass derived from PGPB-inoculated plants. Most recent transcriptional analyses of PGPB strain Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN inoculating potato in literature and Arabidopsis in our present study have revealed the expression of genes for ferritin and the biosynthesis and transport of siderophores (i.e. the molecules with high affinity for iron, respectively. The expression of such genes in the shoots of PsJN-inoculated plants prompted us to propose that PsJN-inoculation can improve the host plant’s iron uptake and accumulation, which facilitates the downstream plant biomass pretreatment and conversion to simple sugars. In this study, we employed B. phytofirmans PsJN to inoculate the Arabidopsis thaliana plants, and conducted the first investigation for its effects on the biomass yield, the anatomical organization of stems, the iron accumulation, and the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of harvested biomass. The results showed that the strain PsJN stimulated plant growth in the earlier period of plant development and enlarged the cell size of stem piths, and it also indeed enhanced the essential metals uptake and accumulation in host plants. Moreover, we found that the PsJN-inoculated plant biomass released more glucose and xylose after hot water pretreatment and subsequent co-saccharification, which provided a novel insight into development of lignocellulosic biofuels from renewable biomass resources.

  18. Base rate for the category extended lifetime thermal conversion of biomass (supplementary advise SDE+ 2014)renewable energy support scheme); Basisbedrag voor de categorie verlengde levensduur thermische conversie van biomassa (aanvullend advies SDE+ 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Wassenaar, J.A.; Jans, G. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    This memo supplements the final advice for the base rates 2014. On request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs the advice in this memo concerns the base rate for the title category: extended lifetime for thermal conversion of biomass, combined generation [Dutch] Deze notitie vormt een aanvulling op het eindadvies voor de basisbedragen 2014. Op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken wordt in deze notitie geadviseerd over het basisbedrag voor de categorie 'verlengde levensduur thermische conversie van biomassa, gecombineerde opwekking'. Ten opzichte van eerdere jaren is in dit advies sprake van een gewijzigde referentie-installatie, waardoor het advies van toepassing is op installaties die onder de huidige MEP-regeling vallen en als brandstof gebruik maken van B-hout. Deze notitie is tot stand gekomen na besloten marktconsultatie, waarbij vier beheerders van relevante BEC-installaties zijn geconsulteerd. Het geadviseerde basisbedrag voor warmte en elektriciteit bij gecombineerde opwekking uit verlengde levensduur thermische conversie van biomassa is 18,1 euro/GJ. Voor nadere informatie over de SDE-regeling van 2014 inclusief het 'Eindadvies basisbedragen SDE+ 2014' zie onderstaande link.

  19. Experimental and computational thermochemical study of oxindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Margarida S., E-mail: msmirand@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Matos, M. Agostinha R., E-mail: marmatos@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Morais, Victor M.F., E-mail: vmmorais@icbas.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, ICBAS, Universidade do Porto, P-4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Liebman, Joel F., E-mail: jliebman@umbc.ed [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    An experimental and computational thermochemical study was performed for oxindole. The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of solid oxindole was derived from the standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The respective standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, was measured by Calvet microcalorimetry. The standard molar enthalpy of formation in the gas phase was derived as -(66.8 {+-} 3.2) kJ . mol{sup -1}. Density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP hybrid functional and the 6-31G* and 6-311G** sets have also been performed in order to obtain the most stable conformation of oxindole. A comparison has been made between the structure of oxindole and that of the related two-ring molecules: indoline and 2-indanone and the one-ring molecules: pyrrolidine and 2,3-dihydropyrrole. The G3(MP2)//B3LYP method and appropriate reactions were used to obtain estimates of the standard molar enthalpy of formation of oxindole in the gas phase, at T = 298.15 K. Computationally obtained estimates of the enthalpy of formation of oxindole are in very good agreement with the experimental gas phase value. The aromaticity of oxindole was evaluated through the analysis of the nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) obtained from the B3LYP/6-311G** wave functions.

  20. Active Thermochemical Tables: thermochemistry for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscic, Branko [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pinzon, Reinhardt E [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Laszewski, Gregor von [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kodeboyina, Deepti [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Burcat, Alexander [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Leahy, David [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Montoy, David [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wagner, Albert F [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) are a good example of a significant breakthrough in chemical science that is directly enabled by the US DOE SciDAC initiative. ATcT is a new paradigm of how to obtain accurate, reliable, and internally consistent thermochemistry and overcome the limitations that are intrinsic to the traditional sequential approach to thermochemistry. The availability of high-quality consistent thermochemical values is critical in many areas of chemistry, including the development of realistic predictive models of complex chemical environments such as combustion or the atmosphere, or development and improvement of sophisticated high-fidelity electronic structure computational treatments. As opposed to the traditional sequential evolution of thermochemical values for the chemical species of interest, ATcT utilizes the Thermochemical Network (TN) approach. This approach explicitly exposes the maze of inherent interdependencies normally ignored by the conventional treatment, and allows, inter alia, a statistical analysis of the individual measurements that define the TN. The end result is the extraction of the best possible thermochemistry, based on optimal use of all the currently available knowledge, hence making conventional tabulations of thermochemical values obsolete. Moreover, ATcT offer a number of additional features that are neither present nor possible in the traditional approach. With ATcT, new knowledge can be painlessly propagated through all affected thermochemical values. ATcT also allows hypothesis testing and evaluation, as well as discovery of weak links in the TN. The latter provides pointers to new experimental or theoretical determinations that can most efficiently improve the underlying thermochemical body of knowledge.

  1. Wind, biomass, hydrogen: renewable energies; Vent, biomasse, hydrogene: energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotosson, V.; Brousse, Th.; Guillemet, Ph.; Scudeller, Y.; Crosnier, O.; Dugas, R.; Favier, F.; Zhou, Y.; Taberna, P.M.; Simon, P.; Toupin, M.; Belanger, D.; Ngo, Ch.; Djamie, B.; Guyard, Ch.; Tamain, B.; Ruer, J.; Ungerer, Ph.; Bonal, J.; Flamant, G

    2007-06-15

    This press kit gathers a series of articles about renewable energies: the compared availabilities of renewable energy sources (comparison at a given time); offshore wind turbines (projects under development, cost optimisation); hydrogen for transports: present day situation (production, transport and storage, hydrogen conversion into mechanical energy, indirect use in biomass conversion); biomass: future carbon source (resource potential in France, pyrolysis and fermentation, development of biofuels and synthetic fuels, stakes for agriculture); beneficial standards for the heat pumps market (market organization and quality approach); collecting solar energy (solar furnaces and future solar power plants, hydrogen generation). (J.S.)

  2. Thermo-Chemical Phenomena Simulation for Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-21

    Mineola, NY, 2002, pp.107-348. 14. Surzhikov S.T. Radiation. Modeling and Spectral Data. Lecture series 2002-07: Physico-Chemical Models for...Barrier Discharge, 17th International Conference on MHD Energy Conversion, Kanagawa, Japan, 14-17 July 2009. 17. Shang, J.S., Computational... MHD Energy Conversion, 2009 AFRL Point of Contact Dr. Donald B. Paul, AFRL/RB WPAFB, OH 937-255-7329, met weekly. Dr. Richard Rivir, AFRL/RZ

  3. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  4. Thermochemical energy storage : critical review and recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji Abedin, A.; Rosen, M.A. [University of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2010-07-01

    The global increase in energy demand and environmental concerns are promoting the use of more efficient and cleaner energy technologies. Examples include advanced systems for waste energy recovery and energy integration. Thermochemical thermal energy storage (TES) is an emerging method with the potential for high energy density storage. It is not yet commercial and research and development is needed to better understand and design the technology and to resolve other practical aspects before commercial implementation can occur. TES is an advanced technology for storing thermal energy that can mitigate environmental impacts and facilitate more efficient and clean energy systems. This paper presented the principles of thermochemical TES and recent advances. Thermochemical TES was also critically assessed and compared with other TES types. The advantages and disadvantages of thermochemical TES were also considered as they relate to other TES types. It was concluded that thermochemical TES has the highest potential to achieve the required compact thermal energy storage where space is limited. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Advances in catalytic conversion of biomass carbohydrates into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid%生物质碳水化合物催化转化制2,5-呋喃二甲酸的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贤响; 徐琼; 苏胜培; 尹笃林

    2016-01-01

    2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid(FDCA),an important biomass-based platform compound, may be used as an alternative of petrochemical resources for the synthesis of biodegradable polymers and other additives. Its applications were introduced and the recent advances in the catalytic conversion of biomass carbohydrates to FDCA,including conventional synthetic methods,catalytic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and other methods using biomass sugars as starting materials, were summarized in this paper. An efficient catalytic system for the direct conversion of biomass carbohydrates to FDCA is an important basis for technological breakthroughs in the field. Some suggestions were proposed for further research and development of the catalytic conversion of biomass carbohydrates to FDCA.%2,5-呋喃二甲酸(FDCA)是有望替代石化资源合成可降解高分子及助剂材料等的重要生物质基平台化合物。介绍了FDCA的用途,综述了以生物质碳水化合物为原料制备FDCA的方法,包括传统的合成方法、5-羟甲基糠醛催化氧化法以及以生物质糖类为原料制备的方法。开发高效催化反应体系是该领域亟待突破的重要瓶颈。对进一步开发从生物质碳水化合物催化转化成FDCA提出了一些建议和展望,为生物质催化精细转化领域创新提供参考。

  6. Using Fermentation and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Products: Biochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    Information about the Biomass Program's collaborative projects to improve processing routes for biochemical conversion, which entails breaking down biomass to make the carbohydrates available for conversion into sugars.

  7. Woody Biomass Conversion to JP-8 Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-15

    the downstream hydrotreating required to produce a drop-in transportation fuel. Furthermore, this process does not use a catalyst, making it tolerant...Approximately 40% of the hydrotreated TDO oil mass is in the JP-8 (180-250C), and 60% is in the F-76 (150-325C) boiling point range, respectively

  8. Conversion parameters determination for stand biomass estimation of four subtropical forest types based on national forest inventory system%亚热带4种森林生物量估算转换参数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯燕南; 吴惠俐; 项文化; 邓湘雯

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of stand biomass data of 4 typical forests (Cunninghamia lanceonata forest,Pinus massoniana forest, deciduous broadleaved forest and evergreen broadleaved forest) from National Forest Inventory in subtropical area, we determine conversion parameters for stand biomass estimation based on stand volumes and analyzed how stand characteristics affect the parameters. The results showed that: (1) The mean values of wood basic density (Wd) of dominant trees ofCunninghamia lanceonata forest,Pinus massoniana forest, deciduous broadleaved forest and evergreen broadleaved forest were 0.313 3, 0.412 5, 0.502 1 and 0.527 4, respectively. The Wd was affected by tree provenance, species, site conditions, stand age (A), stand density(D) and other factors. (2) The mean values of biomass expansion factor (Bef) ofCunninghamia lanceonata forest,Pinus massoniana forest, deciduous broadleaved forest and evergreen broadleaved forest were 1.308 9, 1.265 4, 1.423 3 and 1.308 9, respectively, and the mean values of root: shoot ratio (R) were 0.169 4, 0.177 2, 0.239 1 and 0.263 5, respectively. (3) TheBef and R values of these four forests were increased with the increases ofA, average diameter at breast height (Dbh) and average tree height (H), and reduced with the increases ofD, excepted the R values of thePinus massoniana forest had no obvious change with A. Due to obvious differences between these four forests, so we should select conversion parameters according to specific forest when estimating forest biomass.%对我国亚热带森林资源调查中典型的4种森林类型(杉木林、马尾松林、落叶阔叶林和常绿阔叶林)的林分生物量数据进行整合分析,计算4种森林类型从林分蓄积量估算林分生物量的主要转换参数平均值,并分析影响转换参数的林分因子。结果表明:(1)杉木林、马尾松林、落叶阔叶林和常绿阔叶林4种森林类型中优势树种的木材基本密度平均值分别为0.3133

  9. Interfacing feedstock logistics with bioenergy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Oak Ridge National Lab

    2010-07-01

    The interface between biomass production and biomass conversion platforms was investigated. Functional relationships were assembled in a modeling platform to simulate the flow of biomass feedstock from farm and forest to a densification plant. The model considers key properties of biomass for downstream pre-processing and conversion. These properties include moisture content, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash, particle size, specific density and bulk density. The model simulates logistical operations such as grinding to convert biomass to pellets that are supplied to a biorefinery for conversion to heat, power, or biofuels. Equations were developed to describe the physical aspects of each unit operation. The effect that each of the process variables has on the efficiency of the conversion processes was described.

  10. Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-30

    This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

  11. Capabilities to Support Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel M. Ginosar

    2009-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine if Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has the skilled staff, instrumentation, specialized equipment, and facilities required to take on work in thermochemical research, development, and demonstration currently being performed by the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). This study outlines the beneficial collaborations between INL and other national laboratories, universities, and industries to strengthen INL's thermochemical efforts, which should be developed to achieve the goals of the NHI in the most expeditious, cost effective manner. Taking on this work supports INL's long-term strategy to maintain leadership in thermochemical cycle development. This report suggests a logical path forward to accomplish this transition.

  12. New Developments in Thermo-Chemical Diffusion Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernd Edenhofer

    2004-01-01

    Thermo-chemical diffusion processes like carburising, nitriding and boronizing play an important part in modern manufacturing technologies. They exist in many varieties depending on the type of diffusing element used and the respective process procedure. The most important industrial heat treatment process is case-hardening, which consists of thermochemical diffusion process carburising or its variation carbonitriding, followed by a subsequent quench. The latest developments of using different gaseous carburising agents and increasing the carburising temperature are one main area of this paper. The other area is the evolvement of nitriding and especially the ferritic nitrocarburising process by improved process control and newly developed process variations using carbon, nitrogen and oxygen as diffusing elements in various process steps. Also boronizing and special thermo-chemical processes for stainless steels are discussed.

  13. Eighteen years of electric power generation by using sugar cane biomass in Cuba: retrospective, costs and environmental considerations; Dieciocho anos de generacion de electricidad con biomasa canera en Cuba: retrospectiva, costos y consideraciones ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Pippo, Walrido; Del Rey Ocampo, Joaquin [Universidad de La Habana (Cuba). Inst. de Materiales y Reactivos]. E-mail: pippo@imre.oc.uh.cu

    2002-07-01

    From the data of the electric power cogeneration of the sugar industry behaviour , the utilization of the energy bagasse potential as industrial residue from the sugar production and the associated costs. A preliminary comparison is established on the costs of conventional electric power generation and the costa resulting from generation using bagasse. The paper also considers the industry operation regime as one of the determinant aspects for obtaining significant quantities of wastes to be used in electric power generation and also in the production of other energy carriers from the using of new thermochemical and thermo energetic conversion technologies. The paper performs a retrospective analysis of the environmental costs biomass use, under the twenty century modern criteria.

  14. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  15. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  16. Value of Distributed Preprocessing of Biomass Feedstocks to a Bioenergy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T Wright

    2006-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system and the front-end of a biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass into a suitable feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many variables such as equipment cost and efficiency, and feedstock moisture content, particle size, bulk density, compressibility, and flowability affect the location and implementation of this unit operation. Previous conceptual designs show this operation to be located at the front-end of the biorefinery. However, data are presented that show distributed preprocessing at the field-side or in a fixed preprocessing facility can provide significant cost benefits by producing a higher value feedstock with improved handling, transporting, and merchandising potential. In addition, data supporting the preferential deconstruction of feedstock materials due to their bio-composite structure identifies the potential for significant improvements in equipment efficiencies and compositional quality upgrades. Theses data are collected from full-scale low and high capacity hammermill grinders with various screen sizes. Multiple feedstock varieties with a range of moisture values were used in the preprocessing tests. The comparative values of the different grinding configurations, feedstock varieties, and moisture levels are assessed through post-grinding analysis of the different particle fractions separated with a medium-scale forage particle separator and a Rototap separator. The results show that distributed preprocessing produces a material that has bulk flowable properties and fractionation benefits that can improve the ease of transporting, handling and conveying the material to the biorefinery and improve the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes.

  17. Thermochemical production of hydrogen via multistage water splitting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents and reviews the fundamental thermodynamic principles underlying thermochemical water splitting processes. The overall system is considered first and the temperature limitation in process thermal efficiency is developed. The relationship to an ideal water electrolysis cell is described and the nature of efficient multistage reaction processes is discussed. The importance of the reaction entropy change and the relation of the reaction free energy change to the work of separation is described. A procedure for analyzing thermochemical water splitting processes is presented and its use to calculate individual stage efficiency is demonstrated. A number of processes are used to illustrate the concepts and procedures.

  18. Thermochemical Water Splitting for Hydrogen Production Utilizing Nuclear Heat from an HTGR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xinxin; ONUKI Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    A very promising technology to achieve a carbon free energy system is to produce hydrogen from water, rather than from fossil fuels. Iodine-sulfur (IS) thermochemical water decomposition is one promising process. The IS process can be used to efficiently produce hydrogen using the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as the energy source supplying gas at 1000℃. This paper describes that demonstration experiment for hydrogen production was carried out by an IS process at a laboratory scale. The results confirmed the feasibility of the closed-loop operation for recycling all the reactants besides the water, H2, and O2. Then the membrane technology was developed to enhance the decomposition efficiency. The maximum attainable one-pass conversion rate of HI exceeds 90% by membrane technology, whereas the equilibrium rate is about 20%.

  19. Critical Evaluation of Thermochemical Properties of C1-C4 Species: Updated Group-Contributions to Estimate Thermochemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, S. M.; Simmie, J. M.; Curran, H. J.

    2015-03-01

    A review of literature on enthalpies of formation and molar entropies for alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, hydroperoxides, and their associated radicals has been compiled and critically evaluated. By comparing literature values, the overall uncertainty in thermochemical properties of small hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons can be highlighted. In general, there is good agreement between heat of formation values in the literature for stable species; however, there is greater uncertainty in the values for radical species and for molar entropy values. Updated values for a group-additivity method for the estimation of thermochemical properties based on the evaluated literature data are proposed. The new values can be used to estimate thermochemical data for larger, combustion-relevant species for which no calculations or measurements currently exist, with increased confidence.

  20. Assessment of thermochemical data on steel deoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, P.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to develop a method to judge the certainty on the information regarding to deoxidation equilibria of iron melts. To accomplish this objective, thermochemical data was collated and then evaluated. The basic knowledge on deoxidation conditions are framed by the non-ideal Henrian behaviour of diluted solutions of both deoxidizer and oxygen in liquid iron in equilibrium with a pure oxide. Conventional deoxidation reactions were considered at 1,873 K such that in their equilibrium constants, only first order interaction coefficients were considered. The criteria in selecting the most appropriated free energy equation was based on evaluating them under two critical composition points: 1 where they satisfy an oxygen to deoxidizer ratio dictated by its stoichiometry and 2 where oxygen contents at a given amount of deoxidizer reaches a minimum value. These data were plotted on logarithmic scales to appreciate the effects of deoxidizer’s valences. Once such information was classified, under restrictions 1 and 2, previous compositions were related to deoxidizer´s electronegativities.

    El presente artículo propone desarrollar un método para juzgar la certidumbre de la información pertinente al equilibrio de desoxidación de fundidos de hierro. Para lograr este objetivo, se recolectaron y evaluaron datos termoquímicos existentes. Las teorías sobre desoxidación se describen mediante el comportamiento Henriano de soluciones diluidas del agente desoxidante y el hierro fundido en equilibrio con un óxido. En este estudio, solo se consideran reacciones convencionales a 1.873 K, de forma tal que se consideraron las constantes de equilibrio y coeficientes de interacción de primer orden. El criterio empleado para utilizar la expresión más adecuada de la energía libre se basó en evaluar dos puntos críticos: uno, donde se satisface una relación oxígeno/desoxidante dictada por la estequiometría y dos,cuando el contenido de ox

  1. PFB air gasification of biomass. Investigation of product formation and problematic issues related to ammonia, tar and alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padban, Nader

    2000-09-01

    Fluidised bed thermal gasification of biomass is an effective route that results in 100 % conversion of the fuel. In contrast to chemical, enzymatic or anaerobic methods of biomass treatment, the thermal conversion leaves no contaminated residue after the process. The product gas evolved within thermal conversion can be used in several applications such as: fuel for gas turbines, combustion engines and fuel cells, and raw material for production of chemicals and synthetic liquid fuels. This thesis treats a part of the experimental data from two different gasifiers: a 90 kW{sub th} pressurised fluidised bubbling bed gasifier at Lund University and a 18 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed gasifier integrated with gas turbine (IGCC) in Vaernamo. A series of parallel and consecutive chemical reactions is involved in thermal gasification, giving origin to formation of a variety of products. These products can be classified within three major groups: gases, tars and oils, and char. The proportion of these categories of species in the final product is a matter of the gasifier design and the process parameters. The thesis addresses the technical and theoretical aspects of the biomass thermochemical conversion and presents a new approach in describing the gasification reactions. There is an evidence of fuel effect on the characteristics of the final products: a mixture of plastic waste (polyethylene) and biomass results in higher concentration of linear hydrocarbons in the gas than gasification of pure biomass. Mixing the biomass with textile waste (containing aromatic structure) results in a high degree of formation of aromatic compounds and light tars. Three topic questions within biomass gasification, namely: tar, NO{sub x} and alkali are discussed in the thesis. The experimental results show that gasification at high ER or high temperature decreases the total amount of the tars and simultaneously reduces the contents of the oxygenated and alkyl-substituted poly

  2. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, C J; Schmidt, D D; Olson, E S; Leroux, K M; Wocken, C A; Aulich, T A; WIlliams, K D

    2008-07-28

    Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with

  3. Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles......) and varying oxygen concentrations in the 5 to 20% range. A one-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilisation, char gasification/oxidation and heat/mass/momentum transfer) within single particles of different shapes...

  4. Fuels from biomass program. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the period Oct. 1, 1976--Sept. 30, 1977 is presented. Accomplishments are highlighted and plans for continued activities are included. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: the Fuels from Biomass Program; organizational and functional responsibilities; program funding; fiscal year 1977 summary tables; current projects: production and collection of biomass and conversion of biomass; bibliography; index of contractors; and, appendix--unsolicited proposal requirements. (JGB)

  5. Simulation study on combustion of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M. L.; Liu, X.; Cheng, J. W.; Liu, Y.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Biomass combustion is the most common energy conversion technology, offering the advantages of low cost, low risk and high efficiency. In this paper, the transformation and transfer of biomass in the process of combustion are discussed in detail. The process of furnace combustion and gas phase formation was analyzed by numerical simulation. The experimental results not only help to optimize boiler operation and realize the efficient combustion of biomass, but also provide theoretical basis for the improvement of burner technology.

  6. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE’s) Biomass Program works with industry, academia and its national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This document provides Program accomplishments for 2007.

  7. Biomass electrochemistry : from cellulose to sorbitol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Youngkook

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to study the potential role of electrochemistry in finding new routes for sustainable chemicals from biomass in aqueous-phase solutions. In order to assess the potential of electrochemistry in biomass conversion, we developed an online HPLC system by using a fracti

  8. Biomass energy systems program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  9. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation...

  10. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation c

  11. Thermochemically Driven Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TDGF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Goodwin

    2008-12-31

    This report concerns efforts to increase oil well productivity and efficiency via a method of heating the oil-bearing rock of the well, a technique known as Thermochemical Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TGDF). The technique uses either a chemical reaction or a combustion event to raise the temperature of the rock of the well, thereby increasing oil velocity, and oil pumping rate. Such technology has shown promise for future application to both older wellheads and also new sites. The need for such technologies in the oil extraction field, along with the merits of the TGDF technology is examined in Chapter 1. The theoretical basis underpinning applications of TGDF is explained in Chapter 2. It is shown that productivity of depleted well can be increased by one order of magnitude after heating a reservoir region of radius 15-20 m around the well by 100 degrees 1-2 times per year. Two variants of thermal stimulation are considered: uniform heating and optimal temperature distribution in the formation region around the perforation zone. It is demonstrated that the well productivity attained by using equal amounts of thermal energy is higher by a factor of 3 to 4 in the case of optimal temperature distribution as compared to uniform distribution. Following this theoretical basis, two practical approaches to applying TDGF are considered. Chapter 3 looks at the use of chemical intiators to raise the rock temperature in the well via an exothermic chemical reaction. The requirements for such a delivery device are discussed, and several novel fuel-oxidizing mixtures (FOM) are investigated in conditions simulating those at oil-extracting depths. Such FOM mixtures, particularly ones containing nitric acid and a chemical initiator, are shown to dramatically increase the temperature of the oil-bearing rock, and thus the productivity of the well. Such tests are substantiated by preliminary fieldwork in Russian oil fields. A second, more cost effective approach to TGDF is considered in

  12. Characterization of Spanish biomass wastes for energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Roberto; Pizarro, Consuelo; Lavín, Antonio G; Bueno, Julio L

    2012-01-01

    Energy plays an important role in the world's present and future. The best way to absorb the huge increase in energy demands is through diversification. In this context biomass appears as an attractive source for a number of environmental, economical, political and social reasons. There are several techniques used to obtain energy from biomass. Among these techniques, the most commonly used throughout the world is a thermo-chemical process to obtain heat. To optimize the combustion process in adequate reactors, a comprehensive study of the characterization of biomass fuel properties is needed, which includes proximate analysis (determination of moisture, ash, volatile and fixed carbon content), ultimate analysis (C, H, N, S and O composition) and calorimetry, focusing on biomass fuels obtained in Spain.

  13. PNEUMATIC CONVEYING OF BIOMASS PARTICLES: A REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping; Cui

    2006-01-01

    Processes involving biomass are of growing interest, but handling and conveying biomass particles are challenging due to the unusual physical properties of biomass particles. This paper reviews recent work on pneumatic conveying of biomass particles, especially agricultural particles and pulp fibres. Experimental work has been mainly carried out to determine a range of parameters, such as pressure drop, particle velocity, flow regime and electrostatic charging for both horizontal and vertical conveying. Models ranging from empirical to CFD models are also being developed. Difficulties in representing turbulence and interactions among biomass particles and between the particles and fluid have so far limited the success of advanced modeling. Further work is needed to improve understanding of multiphase biomass pneumatic conveying and to assist in the development of biomass energy and conversion processes.

  14. Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnoloģijās Aizstājot Fosilos Resursus (Pārskata Raksts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitis, J.; Abolins, J.

    2013-10-01

    Exhausting of world resources, increasing pollution, and climate change are compelling the shift of the world economy from continuous growth to a kind of economy based on integration of technologies into zero emissions production systems. Transition from non-renewable fossil resources to renewable resources provided by solar radiation and the current processes in biosphere is seen in the bio-refinery approach - replacing crude oil refineries by biomass refineries. Biotechnology and nano-technologies are getting accepted as important players along with conventional biomass refinery technologies. Systems design is a significant element in the integration of bio-refinery technologies in clusters. A number of case-studies, steam explosion auto-hydrolysis (SEA) in particular, are reviewed to demonstrate conversion of biomass into value-added chemicals and fuels. Analysis of energy flows is made as part of modelling the SEA processes, the eMergy (energy memory) approach and sustainability indices being applied to assess environmental impacts. Resursu izsīkums, vides piesārņojums un globāla mēroga klimatiskās izmaiņas ir civilizācijas izdzīvošanai būtiski faktori, kas virza pasaules ekonomikas pārmaiņas, atsakoties no nepārtrauktas izaugsmes idejas par labu tādai ekonomikai, kas balstās uz atjaunojošamies resursiem un dažādu tehnoloģiju integrācijemisiju principam atbilstošās ražošanas sistēmās. Saules radiācijas ierosinātajos planētas biosfērā notiekošajos procesos radīto organisko vielu pārstrādes kompleksi, kas operē ievērojot sabalansētu nulles emisiju principu, tiek uzlūkoti kā tās ekonomiskās (ražošanas) struktūras, kurām jānodrošina pāreja uz atjaunojošos resursu izmantošanu, aizstājot esošās fosilo resursu (naftas, ogļu) pārstrādes rūpnīcas. Līdzās jau apgūtajām biomasas rafinēšanas tehnoloģijām svarīga un pieaugoša loma ekonomiskās sistēmas resursu bāzes nomaiņā ir bio- un nanotehnolo

  15. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  16. A novel thermochemical energy storage and transportation concept based on concentrated solar irradiation-aided CaO-looping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Jonas; Müller, Karsten; Karagiannakis, George; Stubos, Athanasios; Arlt, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    To overcome the temporal and regional gap of surplus solar energy, the concept of thermochemical heat storage is discussed. In this particular case, the application of CaO and CaCO3 as energy carrying compounds for a trans-regional energy distribution concept is analyzed regarding the effective energetic and exergetic storage density. In a comprehensive sensitivity analysis, the influences of reaction temperature, conversion and heat recovery strategies are worked out. It can be seen that the effective storage density is strongly influenced by the preheating of reactants from ambient to reaction temperature. Thus, high conversion rates during forward and reverse reaction as well as improved heat recovery ratios are necessary to achieve a high energetic storage density. In case of effective exergetic storage density, carbonation temperature reaches an optimum. The method presented in this contribution can be applied to similar thermochemical heat storage systems and the results are of great importance for the process design and development of the suggested concept.

  17. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  18. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  19. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  20. Biomass power for rural development. Revised design report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Edward

    1999-10-03

    The retrofit of Dunkirk Steam Station to fire biomass fuels is an important part of the Consortium's goal--demonstrating the viability of commercial scale willow energy crop production and conversion to power. The goal for th biomass facilities at Dunkirk is to reliably cofire a combination of wood wastes and willow biomass with coal at approximately 20% by heat input.

  1. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  2. Application of high throughput pretreatment and co-hydrolysis system to thermochemical pretreatment. Part 2: Dilute alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjia; Gao, Xiadi; Demartini, Jaclyn D; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-11-01

    High throughput pretreatment (HTPH) and enzymatic hydrolysis systems are now vital for screening large numbers of biomass samples to investigate biomass recalcitrance over various pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Although hydrothermal pretreatment is currently being employed in most high throughput applications, thermochemical pretreatment at low and high pH conditions can offer additional insights to better understand the roles of hemicellulose and lignin, respectively, in defining biomass recalcitrance. Thus, after successfully applying the HTPH approach to dilute acid pretreatment [Gao et al. (2012) Biotechnol. Bioeng. 110(3): 754-762], extension to dilute alkali pretreatment was also achieved using a similar single-step neutralization and buffering concept. In the latter approach, poplar and switchgrass were pretreated with 1 wt% sodium hydroxide at 120°C for different reaction times. Following pretreatment, an H₂Cit⁻/HCit²⁻ buffer with a pH of 4.5 was used to condition the pretreatment slurry to a pH range of 4.69-4.89, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h of the entire mixture. Sugar yields showed different trends for poplar and switchgrass with increases in pretreatment times, demonstrating the method provided a clearly discernible screening tool at alkali conditions. This method was then applied to selected Populus tremuloides samples to follow ring-by-ring sugar release patterns. Observed variations were compared to results from hydrothermal pretreatments, providing new insights in understanding the influence of biomass structural differences on recalcitrance.

  3. Wood into the natural gas distribution system. Sweden and Finland as a pioneer for the gasification of biomass; Holz ins Gasnetz. Schweden und Finnland als Vorreiter fuer Grossanlagen zur Biomasse-Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Right now, the thermochemical gasification of biomass and waste is developed on many fronts due to the manifold and attractive options. In Lahti (Finland) a large plant for waste incineration already has gone into operation. A plant for energy production from biomethane from wood is currently being built in Gothenburg (Sweden).

  4. Evaluation of Brazilian biomasses as potential feedstocks for fuel production via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utilization of lignocellulosic materials to generate energy is constantly expanding around the world. In addition to the well-known biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, advanced biofuels obtained by thermochemical conversion routes have been explored, including pyrolysis oil, biochar and syng...

  5. Across-phase biomass pyrolysis stoichiometry, energy balance, and product formation kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive correlations between reactions occurring in the gas-, liquid- and solid-phases are necessary to economically utilize the thermochemical conversion of agricultural wastes impacting the food, water, and energy nexus. On the basis of an empirical mass balance (99.7%), this study established...

  6. Independent Assessment of Technology Characterizations to Support the Biomass Program Annual State-of-Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, B.

    2011-03-01

    This report discusses an investigation that addressed two thermochemical conversion pathways for the production of liquid fuels and addressed the steps to the process, the technology providers, a method for determining the state of technology and a tool to continuously assess the state of technology. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation as well as recommendations for improvements for future studies.

  7. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  8. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  9. Sustainable biomass-derived hydrothermal carbons for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, Camillo

    2012-01-15

    The need to reduce humankind reliance on fossil fuels by exploiting sustainably the planet renewable resources is a major driving force determining the focus of modern material research. For this reason great interest is nowadays focused on finding alternatives to fossil fuels derived products/materials. For the short term the most promising substitute is undoubtedly biomass, since it is the only renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels as carbon source. As a consequence efforts, aimed at finding new synthetic approaches to convert biomass and its derivatives into carbon-based materials, are constantly increasing. In this regard, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) has shown to be an effective means of conversion of biomass-derived precursors into functional carbon materials. However the attempts to convert raw biomass, in particular lignocellulosic one, directly into such products have certainly been rarer. Unlocking the direct use of these raw materials as carbon precursors would definitely be beneficial in terms of HTC sustainability. For this reason, in this thesis the HTC of carbohydrate and protein-rich biomass was systematically investigated, in order to obtain more insights on the potentials of this thermochemical processing technique in relation to the production of functional carbon materials from crude biomass. First a detailed investigation on the HTC conversion mechanism of lignocellulosic biomass and its single components (i.e. cellulose, lignin) was developed based on a comparison with glucose HTC, which was adopted as a reference model. In the glucose case it was demonstrated that varying the HTC temperature allowed tuning the chemical structure of the synthesised carbon materials from a highly cross-linked furan-based structure (T = 180 C) to a carbon framework composed of polyaromatic arene-like domains. When cellulose or lignocellulosic biomass was used as carbon precursor, the furan rich structure could not be isolated at any of the

  10. Co-gasification of biomass and plastics: pyrolysis kinetics studies, experiments on 100 kW dual fluidized bed pilot plant and development of thermodynamic equilibrium model and balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narobe, M; Golob, J; Klinar, D; Francetič, V; Likozar, B

    2014-06-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of volatilization reaction kinetics for 50 wt.% mixtures of plastics (PE) and biomass (wood pellets) as well as for 100 wt.% plastics was conducted to predict decomposition times at 850°C and 900°C using iso-conversional model method. For mixtures, agreement with residence time of dual fluidized bed (DFB) reactor, treated as continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), was obtained at large conversions. Mono-gasification of plastics and its co-gasification with biomass were performed in DFB pilot plant, using olivine as heterogeneous catalyst and heat transfer agent. It was found that co-gasification led to successful thermochemical conversion of plastics as opposed to mono-gasification. Unknown flow rates were determined applying nonlinear regression to energy and mass balances acknowledging combustion fuel, air, steam, feedstock, but also exiting char, tar, steam and other components in DFB gasification unit. Water-gas shift equilibrium and methanol synthesis requirements were incorporated into gasification model, based on measurements.

  11. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  12. The status quo and prospect of biomass power generation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Huiyong; Zhang Yanru

    2009-01-01

    Facing the pressure of fossil energy exhaustion and environment pollution, people begin to search for clean and renewable energy to partly substitute fossil energy and realize sustainable development. As the fourth type of ener-gy, biomass energy has many advantages: wide distribution, large quantity, being renewable, clean, storable and trans-portable and so on. By adopting thermo-chemical and biochemical technologies, biomass energy can be converted to high quality solid, liquid and gaseous energy products, and provide convenient heat and power energy for human being's production and daily life. This paper presented the status quo of biomass power generation industry in China and also introduced briefly the future development models.

  13. Thermochemical structure of the Earth's mantle and continental crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerri, Mattia

    A detailed knowledge of the Earth's thermal structure and chemical composition is fundamental in order to understand the processes driving the planet ormation and evolution. The inaccessibility of most of the Earth's interior makes the determination of its thermo-chemical conditions a challenging...... in determining crustal seismic discontinuities. In the second chapter, I deal about the possibility to disentangle the dynamic and isostatic contribution in shaping the Earth's surface topography. Dynamic topography is directly linked to mantle convection driven by mantle thermo-chemical anomalies, and can...... argue therefore that our understandings of the lithosphere density structure, needed to determine the isostatic topography, and of the mantle density and viscosity, required to compute the dynamic topography, are still too limited to allow a robust determination of mantle convection effects on the Earth...

  14. ALTERNATIVE FLOWSHEETS FOR THE SULFUR-IODINE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; LENTSCH,RD; BESENBRUCH,GE; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JE

    2003-02-01

    OAK-B135 A hydrogen economy will need significant new sources of hydrogen. Unless large-scale carbon sequestration can be economically implemented, use of hydrogen reduces greenhouse gases only if the hydrogen is produced with non-fossil energy sources. Nuclear energy is one of the limited options available. One of the promising approaches to produce large quantities of hydrogen from nuclear energy efficiently is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical water-splitting cycle, driven by high temperature heat from a helium Gas-Cooled Reactor. They have completed a study of nuclear-driven thermochemical water-splitting processes. The final task of this study was the development of a flowsheet for a prototype S-I production plant. An important element of this effort was the evaluation of alternative flowsheets and selection of the reference design.

  15. Quantitative Thermochemical Measurements in High-Pressure Gaseous Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun J.; Fischer, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We present our strategic experiment and thermochemical analyses on combustion flow using a subframe burst gating (SBG) Raman spectroscopy. This unconventional laser diagnostic technique has promising ability to enhance accuracy of the quantitative scalar measurements in a point-wise single-shot fashion. In the presentation, we briefly describe an experimental methodology that generates transferable calibration standard for the routine implementation of the diagnostics in hydrocarbon flames. The diagnostic technology was applied to simultaneous measurements of temperature and chemical species in a swirl-stabilized turbulent flame with gaseous methane fuel at elevated pressure (17 atm). Statistical analyses of the space-/time-resolved thermochemical data provide insights into the nature of the mixing process and it impact on the subsequent combustion process in the model combustor.

  16. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  17. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  18. Thermochemical data for CVD modeling from ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melius, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ab initio electronic-structure calculations are combined with empirical bond-additivity corrections to yield thermochemical properties of gas-phase molecules. A self-consistent set of heats of formation for molecules in the Si-H, Si-H-Cl, Si-H-F, Si-N-H and Si-N-H-F systems is presented, along with preliminary values for some Si-O-C-H species.

  19. Observations of Circumstellar Thermochemical Equilibrium: The Case of Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    We will present observations of phosphorus-bearing species in circumstellar envelopes, including carbon- and oxygen-rich shells 1. New models of thermochemical equilibrium chemistry have been developed to interpret, and constrained by these data. These calculations will also be presented and compared to the numerous P-bearing species already observed in evolved stars. Predictions for other viable species will be made for observations with Herschel and ALMA.

  20. Hydrogen peroxide thermochemical oscillator as driver for primordial RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Rowena; Brindley, John

    2014-06-06

    This paper presents and tests a previously unrecognized mechanism for driving a replicating molecular system on the prebiotic earth. It is proposed that cell-free RNA replication in the primordial soup may have been driven by self-sustained oscillatory thermochemical reactions. To test this hypothesis, a well-characterized hydrogen peroxide oscillator was chosen as the driver and complementary RNA strands with known association and melting kinetics were used as the substrate. An open flow system model for the self-consistent, coupled evolution of the temperature and concentrations in a simple autocatalytic scheme is solved numerically, and it is shown that thermochemical cycling drives replication of the RNA strands. For the (justifiably realistic) values of parameters chosen for the simulated example system, the mean amount of replicant produced at steady state is 6.56 times the input amount, given a constant supply of substrate species. The spontaneous onset of sustained thermochemical oscillations via slowly drifting parameters is demonstrated, and a scheme is given for prebiotic production of complementary RNA strands on rock surfaces.

  1. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  2. Correspondence Between Structure and Reactivity During Hydrothermal Conversion of Lignocellulosic Macromolecules Relation entre la structure ét la réactivité en conversion hydrothermale des macromolécules de lignocellulosique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbier J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, reaction pathway of a woody biomass under hydrothermal conditions is investigated in order to further understand reactions that occur during the thermochemical liquefaction of a lignocellulosic biomass. A multitechnique analytical approach combining chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques has been developed in order to characterize both chemical structure and molecular weight of the products. From our experiments, we can assume that the holocellulosic and the ligneous fractions of biomass have different reactivity under hydrothermal condition. Although hydrothermal conversion of holocellulose and lignin occur both according to a complex pathway composed of competitive fragmentation and condensation reactions, holocellulose reacts first by total fragmentation to low molecular weight compounds followed by the condensation of the fragment to heavy molecular weight compounds, whereas lignin reacts essentially by partial depolymerisation. Since compounds produced from both the holocellulosic and the ligneous fraction are together in the reaction medium then they condense each other during the conversion of lignocellulosic material. Ce travail porte sur l’étude des voies réactionnelles accompagnant la liquéfaction thermochimique du bois et de ses constituants lignocellulosiques lors d’un traitement hydrothermal. Pour ce faire, une approche analytique multi-technique originale combinant des méthodes chromatographiques et spectroscopiques complémentaires a été développée afin de caractériser les structures et les masses moléculaires des produits. Les résultats obtenus montrent que la fraction holocellulosique et la fraction ligneuse de la biomasse ont des réactivités très différentes. Bien que les deux matériaux réagissent selon des schémas réactionnels complexes faisant intervenir de nombreuses voies de fragmentation et de condensation compétitives, la fraction holocellulosique réagit par une première

  3. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell,D.A; Broadhead, L.W.; Harrell, W.J.

    2006-03-31

    geographically located to be able to service a regional market. Other states have active incentive programs to promote the industry. Mississippi has adopted an incentive program for ethanol and biodiesel; however, the State legislature has not funded this program, leaving Mississippi at a disadvantage when compared to other states in developing the bio-based liquid fuel industry. With all relevant factors being considered, Mississippi offers several advantages to developing the biodiesel industry. As a result of AgraPure's work and plan development, a private investor group has built a 7,000 gallon per day facility in central Mississippi with plans to build a 10 million gallon per year biodiesel facility. The development of a thermochemical conversion/generation facility requires a much larger financial commitment, making a longer operational time necessary to recover the capital invested. Without a renewable portfolio standard to put a floor under the price, or the existence of a suitable steam host, the venture is not economically viable. And so, it has not met with the success of the biodiesel plan. While the necessary components regarding feedstocks, location, permitting and technology are all favorable; the market is not currently favorable for the development of this type of project. In this region there is an abundance of energy generation capacity. Without subsidies or a Mississippi renewable portfolio standard requiring the renewable energy to be produced from Mississippi raw materials, which are not available for the alternative energy source selected by AgraPure, this facility is not economically viable.

  4. Thermochemical seasonal solar heat storage with MgCl2.6H2O. First upscaling of the reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondag, H.A. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kikkert, B.W.J.; Smeding, S.; Bakker, M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    In the summer, the available of solar heat exceeds the total heat demand of a building, but in the winter the heat demand is exceeding the solar supply. For the future conversion of a passive house into an energy neutral house, a solution is to store the excess of solar energy in summer, and to use it to meet the heat demand in winter. Water is traditionally used for storing heat (e.g. solar boiler), but seasonal heat storage requires large water tanks (>40m{sup 3}) that are too large to be placed inside an average family house. An alternative option is to store heat by means of chemical processes using the reversible reaction: A + B <-> C + heat. Such thermochemical heat storage has a 5 to 10 times higher energy storage density than water, with the additional benefit that, after charging, the heat can be stored for a long time without losses. With thermochemical materials, the entire heating demand of a low-energy house during winter could be met using a storage volume of 4 to 8 m3, that is charged during summer by solar collectors. Because of the large amount of thermochemical material required for such storages, as well as the strict safety regulations in the built environment, safety and cost of the materials are important aspects. Because of safety criteria, the focus in the present research is on water as the sorbate. Because of low cost and high storage density, the focus is on salt hydrates, rather than silicagel or zeolites. In this paper, R and D on system aspects, materials selection and characterization, as well as on reactor concepts is presented.

  5. Physical and thermochemical characterization of rice husk char as a potential biomass energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, S; Dey, S; Purakayastha, S; Ghosh, B

    2006-11-01

    The fixed bed pyrolysis of rice husk was studied under conventional conditions with the aim of determining the characteristics of the charcoal formed for its applicability as a solid fuel. Thermoanalytic methods were used to determine the kinetic parameters of its combustion. Palletisation using different binders and techniques to improve the time of sustained combustion of the char pallets were investigated. The optimum temperature for carbonization to obtain a char having moderately high heating value was found as 400 degrees C. For the active char combustion zone, the order of reaction was nearly 1, the activation energy 73.403 kJ/mol and the pre-exponential factor 4.97 x 10(4)min(-1). Addition of starch as a binder and 10% ferrous sulphate heptahydrate or sodium hypophosphite as an additive enhanced the ignitibility of the char pallets.

  6. Vertically Discontinuous Seismic Signatures From Continuous Thermochemical Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. C.; Kincaid, C.; Savage, B.

    2008-12-01

    To interpret seismic signatures associated with mantle upwellings, we must understand the distribution of thermochemical heterogeneities within mantle plumes. Thermochemical heterogeneities are expected to arise within plumes by the incorporation of subducted lithosphere (Eclogite and Harzburgite) that has reached the plume source region (thermal boundary layers in the mantle). We analyze laboratory experiments in conjunction with seismic velocity models to predict the seismic signature of thermochemical plumes. Laboratory experiments are fully three-dimensional and use glucose syrup (Rayleigh number: 106) to model the mantle and a two-layer subducted lithosphere, where composition (viscosity and density) is controlled by water content. Experiments show heterogeneous upwellings with variations in both temperature and composition that are more complex than predicted in previous plume models. Spatial distributions for temperature and composition in representative, repeatable types of thermochemical upwellings are tracked through time, scaled to mantle values and used to calculate predicted seismic velocities. Apparent seismic velocity signals are estimated for patterns in thermochemical heterogeneity with length scales ranging from 1 to 300 km and excess temperatures from 50 to 300°C. Results show that if plumes are purely thermal they can be identified in the usual way, by slow velocities. However, if plumes are a mixture of compositions, as predicted by laboratory models, their velocity structure is more complex. An Ecolgite lens within a plume at ~300km depth with an excess temperature of 250°C can have the same velocity as regular mantle with no excess temperature. A Harzburgite lobe of a plume head (up to half of the plume volume) at 300km depth with an excess temperature of 225°C can have the same Vs as regular mantle with no excess temperature, but can only mask up to 55°C in Vp. Spatial variations in temperature control velocity structure above 300km

  7. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  8. System and process for producing fuel with a methane thermochemical cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diver, Richard B.

    2015-12-15

    A thermochemical process and system for producing fuel are provided. The thermochemical process includes reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon to form an alkane and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. Another thermochemical process includes reducing a metal oxide to form a reduced metal oxide, reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon with the reduced metal oxide to form an alkane, and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. The system includes a reformer configured to perform a thermochemical process.

  9. Contentious Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  10. Conversational Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelisti, Anita L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines narcissistic communication and the ways it is exhibited in everyday conversation. Identifies the following behavioral referents: boasting, refocusing the topic of conversation on the self, exaggerating hand and body movements, using a loud tone of voice, and "glazing over" when others speak. Suggests that conversational…

  11. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Badger, Philip C [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  12. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  13. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  14. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    . Category 1 -- Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 -- Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to re-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in Texas

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    1 – Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 – Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in

  17. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03

    . Category 1 - Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 - Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A and M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass) and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in

  18. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    . Category 1 -- Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 -- Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to re-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in Texas

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai

    2012-05-03

    . Category 1 - Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 - Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A and M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass) and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in

  20. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    1 – Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 – Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in

  1. Biomass Supply Logistics and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Hess, J. Richard

    Feedstock supply system encompasses numerous unit operations necessary to move lignocellulosic feedstock from the place where it is produced (in the field or on the stump) to the start of the conversion process (reactor throat) of the biorefinery. These unit operations, which include collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation, represent one of the largest technical and logistics challenges to the emerging lignocellulosic biorefining industry. This chapter briefly reviews the methods of estimating the quantities of biomass, followed by harvesting and collection processes based on current practices on handling wet and dry forage materials. Storage and queuing are used to deal with seasonal harvest times, variable yields, and delivery schedules. Preprocessing can be as simple as grinding and formatting the biomass for increased bulk density or improved conversion efficiency, or it can be as complex as improving feedstock quality through fractionation, tissue separation, drying, blending, and densification. Handling and transportation consists of using a variety of transport equipment (truck, train, ship) for moving the biomass from one point to another. The chapter also provides typical cost figures for harvest and processing of biomass.

  2. Biomass supply logistics and infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Hess, J Richard

    2009-01-01

    Feedstock supply system encompasses numerous unit operations necessary to move lignocellulosic feedstock from the place where it is produced (in the field or on the stump) to the start of the conversion process (reactor throat) of the biorefinery. These unit operations, which include collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation, represent one of the largest technical and logistics challenges to the emerging lignocellulosic biorefining industry. This chapter briefly reviews the methods of estimating the quantities of biomass, followed by harvesting and collection processes based on current practices on handling wet and dry forage materials. Storage and queuing are used to deal with seasonal harvest times, variable yields, and delivery schedules. Preprocessing can be as simple as grinding and formatting the biomass for increased bulk density or improved conversion efficiency, or it can be as complex as improving feedstock quality through fractionation, tissue separation, drying, blending, and densification. Handling and transportation consists of using a variety of transport equipment (truck, train, ship) for moving the biomass from one point to another. The chapter also provides typical cost figures for harvest and processing of biomass.

  3. Protein measurements of microalgal and cyanobacterial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Cynthia Victoria González; García, María del Carmen Cerón; Fernández, Francisco Gabriel Acién; Bustos, Cristina Segovia; Chisti, Yusuf; Sevilla, José María Fernández

    2010-10-01

    The protein content of dry biomass of the microalgae Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus almeriensis, and Muriellopsis sp. and of the cyanobacteria Synechocystis aquatilis and Arthrospira platensis was measured by the Lowry method following disruption of the cells by milling with inert ceramic particles. The measurements were compared with the Kjeldahl method and by elemental analysis. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors for biomass obtained from exponentially growing cells with a steady state doubling time of approximately 23 h were 5.95 for nitrogen measured by Kjeldahl and 4.44 for total nitrogen measured by elemental analysis. The protein content in dry biomass ranged from 30% to 55%. The above conversion factors are useful for estimating the protein content of microalgal biomass produced in rapid steady state growth as encountered in many commercial production processes.

  4. Uncertainty estimation by Bayesian approach in thermochemical conversion of walnut hull and lignite coal blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukada, Musa

    2017-05-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to incorporate the uncertainties in the thermal behavior of walnut hull (WH), lignite coal, and their various blends using Bayesian approach. First of all, thermal behavior of related materials were investigated under different temperatures, blend ratios, and heating rates. Results of ultimate and proximate analyses showed the main steps of oxidation mechanism of (co-)combustion process. Thermal degradation started with the (hemi-)cellulosic compounds and finished with lignin. Finally, a partial sensitivity analysis based on Bayesian approach (Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations) were applied to data driven regression model (the best fit). The main purpose of uncertainty analysis was to point out the importance of operating conditions (explanatory variables). The other important aspect of the present work was the first performance evaluation study on various uncertainty estimation techniques in (co-)combustion literature.

  5. Characterization, thermochemical conversion studies, and heating value modeling of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Honghong; Mahinpey, Nader; Aqsha, Aqsha; Silbermann, Rico

    2016-02-01

    A study was carried out to examine the characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) from the City of Red Deer, Alberta, Canada. Experiments were performed for determining the moisture content, proximate and ultimate compositions, heating value of fourteen wastes in different categories. Their thermal weight loss behaviors under pyrolysis/torrefaction conditions were also investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). An empirical model was developed for the high heating value (HHV) estimation of MSW. A total of 193 experimental data were collected from this study and those in the literature, of which 161 data were used for model derivation; and, 32 additional data were used for model validation. The model was developed using multiple regression analysis and a stepwise regression method: HHV (MJ/kg)=0.350C+1.01H-0.0826O, which is expressed in terms of weight percentages on a dry basis of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). The validation results suggest that this model was effective in producing accurate outputs that were close to the experimental values. In addition, it had the lowest error level in comparison with seven other models from the literature.

  6. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  7. Levulinic acid production from waste biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,; Claudia Antonetti; Valentina De Luise,; Domenico Licursi,; Nicoletta Nassi

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning) were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic perform...

  8. Closed photobioreactors for production of microalgal biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Lan, Christopher Q; Horsman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Microalgal biomasses have been produced industrially for a long history for application in a variety of different fields. Most recently, microalgae are established as the most promising species for biofuel production and CO(2) bio-sequestration owing to their high photosynthesis efficiency. Nevertheless, design of photobioreactors that maximize solar energy capture and conversion has been one of the major challenges in commercial microalga biomass production. In this review, we systematically survey the recent developments in this field.

  9. New applications with time-dependent thermochemical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukkari, P. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laukkanen, L. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Penttilae, K. [Kemira Engineering Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    A new method (RATEMIX) to calculate multicomponent chemical reaction mixtures as a series of sequential thermochemical states was recently introduced. The procedure combines multicomponent thermodynamics with chemical kinetics and may be used to simulate the multicomponent reactors as a thermochemical natural process. The method combines the desired reaction rates sequentially with constrained Gibbs energy minimization. The reactant concentrations are determined by the experimental (Arrhenius) rate laws. During the course of the given reaction the subsequent side reactions are supposed to occur reversibly. At every sequential stage of the given reaction the temperature and composition of the reaction mixture are calculated by a thermodynamic subroutine, which minimizes the Gibbs energy of the system and takes into account the heat transfer between the system and its surroundings. The extents of reaction are included as algorithmic constraints in the Gibbs energy minimization procedure. Initially, the reactants are introduced to the system as inert copies to match both the mass and energy balance of the reactive system. During the calculation the copies are sequentially interchanged to the actual reactants which allows one to simulate the time-dependent reaction route by using the thermochemical procedure. For each intermediate stage, the temperature and composition are calculated and as well numerical estimates of the thermodynamic functions are obtained. The method is applicable in processes where the core thermodynamic and kinetic data of the system are known and the time-dependent heat transfer data can either be measured or estimated by calculation. The method has been used to simulate e.g. high temperature flame reactions, zinc vapour oxidation and a counter-current rotary drum with chemical reactions. The procedure has today been tested with SOLGASMIX, CHEMSAGE and HSC programs. (author)

  10. Non-equilibrium thermochemical heat storage in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagel, T.; Shao, H.; Singh, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical energy storage can play an important role in the establishment of a reliable renewable energy supply and can increase the efficiency of industrial processes. The application of directly permeated reactive beds leads to strongly coupled mass and heat transport processes that also...... compressible gas flow through a porous solid is presented along with its finite element implementation where solid-gas reactions occur and both phases have individual temperature fields. The model is embedded in the Theory of Porous Media and the derivation is based on the evaluation of the Clausius...

  11. Estimating Equivalency of Explosives Through A Thermochemical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-08

    The Cheetah thermochemical computer code provides an accurate method for estimating the TNT equivalency of any explosive, evaluated either with respect to peak pressure or the quasi-static pressure at long time in a confined volume. Cheetah calculates the detonation energy and heat of combustion for virtually any explosive (pure or formulation). Comparing the detonation energy for an explosive with that of TNT allows estimation of the TNT equivalency with respect to peak pressure, while comparison of the heat of combustion allows estimation of TNT equivalency with respect to quasi-static pressure. We discuss the methodology, present results for many explosives, and show comparisons with equivalency data from other sources.

  12. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  13. Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  14. Low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel; bridging from science to technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of some of the fundamental scientific aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel, in particular the characterisation of socalled expanded austenite is addressed. Selected technological examples of thermochemical treatment...... of stainless steel are presented....

  15. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafique, Rashad; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar

    2010-01-01

    -treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 degrees C-150 degrees C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect...

  16. Thermo-chemical Liquefaction of Corn Stalk Wei%玉米秸秆水热法催化液化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玮

    2011-01-01

    利用玉米秸秆为原料研究其在高压反应釜中的水热法液化过程.结果表明,反应温度为390℃,反应停留时间为15 min左右,升温速率为10℃min-1时,,生物油的得率最高.生物油的热值较高,成分也比较复杂.生物质的水热法液化能获得高能量密度产物,是一种具有良好发展前景的生物质转化技术.%The article analyzes the reacting temperature, heating rate and the reacting time of thermo-chemical liquefaction experiment of corn stalk in an autoclave. The experiment result shows that the yield rate of oil reaches its peak when the reacting temperature is 390℃, the reacting time is 15mins, and the heating rate is 10℃ per min. The bio-oil produced during the liquefaction has high energy density, but with complex components. Thermo-chemical liquefaction of biomass is an effective way to convert biomass into high energy density products.

  17. Investigation on thermal and trace element characteristics during co-combustion biomass with coal gangue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Fang, Ting; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2015-01-01

    The thermochemical behaviors during co-combustion of coal gangue (CG), soybean stalk (SS), sawdust (SD) and their blends prepared at different ratios have been determined via thermogravimetric analysis. The simulate experiments in a fixed bed reactor were performed to investigate the partition behaviors of trace elements during co-combustion. The combustion profiles of biomass was more complicated than that of coal gangue. Ignition property and thermal reactivity of coal gangue could be enhanced by the addition of biomass. No interactions were observed between coal gangue and biomass during co-combustion. The volatilization ratios of trace elements decrease with the increasing proportions of biomass in the blends during co-combustion. Based on the results of heating value, activation energy, base/acid ratio and gaseous pollutant emissions, the blending ratio of 20-30% biomass content is regarded as optimum composition for blending and could be applied directly at current combustion application with few modifications.

  18. Strategic conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of conversation that rely on a strong notion of cooperation don’t apply to strategic conversation — that is, to conversation where the agents’ motives don’t align, such as courtroom cross examination and political debate. We provide a game-theoretic framework that provides an analysis of both cooperative and strategic conversation. Our analysis features a new notion of safety that applies to implicatures: an implicature is safe when it can be reliably treated as a matter of public record. We explore the safety of implicatures within cooperative and non cooperative settings. We then provide a symbolic model enabling us (i to prove a correspondence result between a characterisation of conversation in terms of an alignment of players’ preferences and one where Gricean principles of cooperative conversation like Sincerity hold, and (ii to show when an implicature is safe and when it is not. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.2 BibTeX info

  19. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Various Biomass Feedstocks: Production and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil to Refinery Blendstocks (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.; Westover, T.; Howe, D.; Evans, R.; French, R.; Kutnyakov, I.

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale, cost-competitive deployment of thermochemical technologies to replace petroleum oil with domestic biofuels will require inclusion of high volumes of low-cost, diverse biomass types into the supply chain. However, a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of feedstock thermo-physical and chemical variability, particularly inorganic matter (ash), on the yield and product distribution

  20. Bibliographic Review about Solar Hydrogen Production Through Thermochemical Cycles; Revision Bibliografica sobre la Produccion de Hidrogeno Solar Mediante Ciclos Termoquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Saavedra, R.

    2007-12-28

    This report presents a summary of the different thermical processes used to obtain hydrogen through solar energy, paying more attention to the production of hydrogen from water through thermochemical cycles. In this aspect, it is briefly described the most interesting thermochemical cycles, focusing on thermochemical cycles based on oxides. (Author) 25 refs.