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Sample records for biomass steam gasification

  1. Hydrogen production from biomass over steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, R.; Potetz, A.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Weber, G. [Bioenergy 2020+, Guessing (Austria)

    2010-12-30

    Renewable hydrogen is one option for a clean energy carrier in the future. There were several research programs in the past, to produce hydrogen on a renewable basis by electrolysis, direct conversion of water or by gasification of biomass. None of these options were developed to a stage, that they could be used on a commercial basis. At the moment almost all hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels and one main consumer of hydrogen are refineries. So a good option to demonstrate the production of renewable hydrogen and bring it later into the market is over refineries. The most economic option to produce renewable hydrogen at the moment is over gasification of biomass. In Austria an indirect gasification system was developed and is demonstrated in Guessing, Austria. The biomass CHP Guessing uses the allothermal steam dual fluidised bed gasifier and produces a high grade product gas, which is used at the moment for the CHP in a gas engine. As there is no nitrogen in the product gas and high hydrogen content, this gas can be also used as synthesis gas or for production of hydrogen. The main aim of this paper is to present the experimental and simulation work to convert biomass into renewable hydrogen. The product gas of the indirect gasification system is mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Within the ERA-Net project ''OptiBtLGas'' the reforming of methane and the CO-shift reaction was investigated to convert all hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to hydrogen. On basis of the experimental results the mass- and energy balances of a commercial 100 MW fuel input plant was done. Here 3 different cases of complexity of the overall plant were simulated. The first case was without reforming and CO-shift, only by hydrogen separation. The second case was by including steam - reforming and afterwards separation of hydrogen. The third case includes hydrocarbon reforming, CO-shift and hydrogen separation. In all cases the off-gases (CO

  2. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from December 1977 to October 1980. The study was comprised of laboratory studies, process development, and economic analyses. The laboratory studies were conducted to develop operating conditions and catalyst systems for generating methane-rich gas, synthesis gases, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide; these studies also developed techniques for catalyst recovery, regeneration, and recycling. A process development unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to evaluate laboratory systems at conditions approximating commercial operations. The economic analyses, performed by Davy McKee, Inc. for PNL, evaluated the feasibility of adapting the wood-to-methane and wood-to-methanol processes to full-scale commercial operations. Plants were designed in the economic analyses to produce fuel-grade methanol from wood and substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam.

  3. The study of reactions influencing the biomass steam gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Franco; F. Pinto; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita [INETI-DEECA, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-05-01

    Steam gasification studies were carried out in an atmospheric fluidised bed. The gasifier was operated over a temperature range of 700 900{sup o}C whilst varying a steam/biomass ratio from 0.4 to 0.85 w/w. Three types of forestry biomass were studied: Pinus pinaster (softwood), Eucalyptus globulus and holm-oak (hardwood). The energy conversion, gas composition, higher heating value and gas yields were determined and correlated with temperature, steam/biomass ratio, and species of biomass used. The results obtained seemed to suggest that the operating conditions were optimised for a gasification temperature around 830{sup o}C and a steam/biomass ratio of 0.6 0.7 w/w, because a gas richer in hydrogen and poorer in hydrocarbons and tars was produced. These conditions also favoured greater energy and carbon conversions, as well the gas yield. The main objective of the present work was to determine what reactions were dominant within the operation limits of experimental parameters studied and what was the effect of biomass type on the gasification process. As biomass wastes usually have a problem of availability because of seasonal variations, this work analysed the possibility of replacing one biomass species by another, without altering the gas quality obtained. 19 refs., 8 figs. 2 tabs.

  4. Gasification of biomass chars in steam-nitrogen mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: hanzade@itu.edu.tr; Yaman, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Kucukbayrak, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-05-15

    Some agricultural and waste biomass samples such as sunflower shell, pinecone, rapeseed, cotton refuse and olive refuse were first pyrolyzed in nitrogen, and then, their chars were gasified in a gas mixture of steam and nitrogen. Experiments were performed using the thermogravimetric analysis technique. Pyrolysis of the biomass samples was performed at a heating rate of 20 K/min from ambient to 1273 K in a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere of 40 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}. The obtained chars were cooled to ambient temperature and then gasified up to 1273 K in a dynamic atmosphere of 40 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} of a mixture of steam and nitrogen. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis profiles from gasification of the chars were derived, and the mass losses from the chars were interpreted in terms of temperature. It was concluded that gasification characteristics of biomass chars were fairly dependent on the biomass properties such as ash and fixed carbon contents and the constituents present in the ash. Different mechanisms in the three temperature intervals, namely water desorption at lower temperatures, decomposition of hydroxide minerals to oxide minerals and formation of carbon monoxide at medium temperatures and production of hydrogen at high temperatures govern the behavior of the char during the gasification process. The chars from pinecone and sunflower shell could be easily gasified under the mentioned conditions. In order to further raise the conversion yields, long hold times should be applied at high temperatures. However, the chars from rapeseed and olive refuse were not gasified satisfactorily. Low ash content and high fixed carbon content biomass materials are recommended for use in gasification processes when char from pyrolysis at elevated temperatures is used as a feedstock.

  5. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Steam-air fluidized bed gasification of distillers grains: Effects of steam to biomass ratio, equivalence ratio and gasification temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Eskridge, Kent; Jones, David D; Hanna, Milford A

    2009-03-01

    In this study, thermochemical biomass gasification was performed on a bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Distillers grains, a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstock for the gasification. The goal was to investigate the effects of furnace temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition, carbon conversion efficiency and energy conversion efficiency of the product gas. The experiments were conducted using a 3x3x3 full factorial design with temperatures of 650, 750 and 850 degrees C, steam to biomass ratios of 0, 7.30 and 14.29 and equivalence ratios of 0.07, 0.15 and 0.29. Gasification temperature was found to be the most influential factor. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents, carbon conversion and energy efficiencies. Increasing equivalence ratio decreased the hydrogen content but increased carbon conversion and energy efficiencies. The steam to biomass ratio was optimal in the intermediate levels for maximal carbon conversion and energy efficiencies.

  7. Transient behavior of devolatilization and char reaction during steam gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jihong; Lee, Jeungwoo; Lee, Uendo; Hwang, Jungho

    2013-04-01

    Steam gasification of biomass is a promising method for producing high quality syngas for polygeneration. During the steam gasification, devolatilization and char reaction are key steps of syngas production and the contributions of the two reactions are highly related to gasification conditions. In this study, the transient characteristics of devolatilization and char reaction in biomass steam gasification were investigated by monitoring cumulative gas production and composition changes in terms of reaction temperature and S/B ratio. Contribution of each reaction stage on the product gas yield was studied in detail. The results provide important insight for understanding the complex nature of biomass gasification and will guide future improvements to the biomass gasification process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reaction Mechanism of Tar Evolution in Biomass Steam Gasification for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingo Katayama; Masahiro Suzuki; Atsushi Tsutsumi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction mechanism of tar evolution in steam gasification of biomass was investigated with a continuous cross-flow moving bed type differential reactor, in which tar and gases can be fractionated according to reaction time. We estimated that time profile of tar and gas evolution in the gasification of cellulose, xylan, and lignin, and compared it with experimental product time profile of real biomass gasification. The experimental tar evolution rate is different from estimated tar evolution rate. The estimated tar evolution rate has a peak at 20 s. On the other hand, the experimental tar evolution rate at 20 s is little, and tar at initial stage includes more water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. It can be concluded that in the real biomass steam gasification the evolution of tar from cellulose and lignin component was found to be precipitated by that from hemi-cellulose component. (authors)

  9. Air-steam gasification of biomass in a fluidised bed: Process optimisation by enriched air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campoy, Manuel; Gomez-Barea, Alberto; Vidal, Fernando B.; Ollero, Pedro [Bioenergy Group, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros (University of Seville), Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n. 41092 - Seville (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    The effect of oxygen concentration in the gasification agent was studied by enriched-air-steam biomass gasification tests in a bubbling fluidised-bed gasification (FBG) plant. The oxygen content in the enriched air was varied from 21% (v/v, i.e. air) to 40% (v/v), aiming at simulating FBG where enriched air is produced by membranes. The stoichiometric ratio (ratio of actual to stoichiometric oxygen flow rates) and steam-to-biomass ratio (ratio of steam to biomass, dry and ash-free, flow rates) were varied from 0.24 to 0.38 and from 0 to 0.63, respectively. The tests were conducted under simulated adiabatic and autothermal conditions, to reproduce the behaviour of larger industrial FBG. The temperature of the inlet gasification mixture was fixed consistently at 400 C for all tests, a value that can be achieved by energy recovery from the off-gas in large FBG without tar condensation. It was shown that the enrichment of air from 21 to 40% v/v made it possible to increase the gasification efficiency from 54% to 68% and the lower heating value of the gas from 5 to 9.3 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, while reaching a maximum carbon conversion of 97%. The best conditions were found at intermediate values of steam-to-biomass ratio, specifically within the range 0.25-0.35. The enriched-air-steam gasification concept explored in this work seems to be an interesting option for the improvement of standalone direct air-blown FBG because it considerably improves the process efficiency while maintaining the costs relatively low as compared to oxygen-steam gasification. (author)

  10. Experimental and predicted approaches for biomass gasification with enriched air-steam in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qirang; Huang, Yaji; Niu, Miaomiao; Yang, Gaoqiang; Shao, Zhiwei

    2014-10-01

    Thermo-chemical gasification of sawdust refuse-derived fuel was performed on a bench-scale fluidised bed gasifier with enriched air and steam as fluidising and oxidising agents. Dolomite as a natural mineral catalyst was used as bed material to reform tars and hydrocarbons. A series of experiments were carried out under typical operating conditions for gasification, as reported in the article. A modified equilibrium model, based on equilibrium constants, was developed to predict the gasification process. The sensitivity analysis of operating parameters, such as the fluidisation velocity, oxygen percentage of the enriched air and steam to biomass ratios on the produced gas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the predicted syngas composition was in better agreement with the experimental data compared with the original equilibrium model. The higher fluidisation velocity enhanced gas-solid mixing, heat and mass transfers, and carbon fines elutriation, simultaneously. With the increase of oxygen percentage from 21% to 45%, the lower heating value of syngas increased from 5.52 MJ m(-3) to 7.75 MJ m(-3) and cold gas efficiency from 49.09% to 61.39%. The introduction of steam improved gas quality, but a higher steam to biomass ratio could decrease carbon conversion and gasification efficiency owing to a low steam temperature. The optimal value of steam to biomass ratio in this work was 1.0. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Bio-syngas production from agro-industrial biomass residues by steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacioni, Tatiana Ramos; Soares, Diniara; Domenico, Michele Di; Rosa, Maria Fernanda; Moreira, Regina de Fátima Peralta Muniz; José, Humberto Jorge

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the steam gasification potential of three residues from Brazilian agro-industry by assessing their reaction kinetics and syngas production at temperatures from 650 to 850°C and a steam partial pressure range of 0.05 to 0.3bar. The transition temperature between kinetic control and diffusion control regimes was identified. Prior to the gasification tests, the raw biomasses, namely apple pomace, spent coffee grounds and sawdust, were pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed quartz tubular reactor under controlled conditions. Gasification tests were performed isothermally in a magnetic suspension thermobalance and the reaction products were analyzed by a gas chromatograph with TCD/FID detectors. According to the characterization results, the samples presented higher carbon and lower volatile matter contents than the biomasses. Nevertheless, all of the materials had high calorific value. Syngas production was influenced by both temperature and steam partial pressure. Higher concentrations of H 2 and CO were found in the conversion range of 50-80% and higher concentrations of CO 2 in conversions around 10%, for all the gasified biochars. The H 2 /CO decreased with increasing temperature, mainly in kinetic control regime, in the lower temperature range. The results indicate the gasification potential of Brazilian biomass residues and are an initial and important step in the development of gasification processes in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of fluidized bed steam gasification of biomass - Modeling and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loha, Chanchal; Chatterjee, Pradip K. [Thermal Engineering Group, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, CSIR, Durgapur 713 209 (India); Chattopadhyay, Himadri [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2011-03-15

    This paper presents the investigation of the performance from different biomasses in a fluidized bed gasifier where steam has been used as gasifying as well as fluidizing agent. An experimental setup is fabricated to study the gasification performance of rice husk, which is of special relevance to rice-producing countries like China and India. An equilibrium modeling approach is deployed to predict the gas composition which has been compared with the experimental results. Calibration of the model with appropriate modeling coefficients was necessary to achieve close resemblance with the experimental values. Further, the model is used to predict the gas compositions from other biomass and benchmarked with the performance of coal. In this study, the gasification temperature is varied from 650 C to 800 C, whereas the steam-to-biomass ratio (S/B) is varied from 0.75 to 2.00. As the gasification temperature increases, the production of H{sub 2} and CO increases but the generation of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} reduces. The steam-to-biomass ratio was again found to influence the production rates. With increasing steam input, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were found to increase while CO reduces. (author)

  13. Practical achievements on biomass steam gasification in a rotary tubular coiled-downdraft reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Renny; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Gupta, Shalini

    2016-12-01

    Today, the impending stringent environmental norms and concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves have added impetus on development of cutting edge technologies for production of alternative fuels from renewable sources, like biomass. The concept of biomass pyro-gasification offers a platform for production of (a) hydrogen, (b) hydrocarbons and (c) value added chemicals, etc. In this context, there exists potential for hydrogen production from biomass by superheated steam gasification. Apart from H 2 , gaseous products of biomass steam gasification contain CO, CH 4 and other hydrocarbons that can be converted to hydrogen through cracking, steam reforming and water gas shift reactions. In the present work, the characteristics of biomass steam gasification in an indigenously designed rotary tubular coiled-downdraft reactor for high value gaseous fuel production from rice husk was studied through a series of experiments. The robust reactor system enhances biomass conversion to gaseous products by improved mass and heat transfer within the system induced by a coiled flow pattern with increased heat transfer area. Also, the system has improved upon the reliability of operation and offered greater continuity of the process and easier control in comparison with a conventional process by making use of an innovative gas cooler assembly and efficient venturi-mixing system for biomass and steam. Subsequently, the effects of reactor temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio and residence time on overall product gas yield and hydrogen yield were investigated. From the experimental results, it can be deduced that an optimum reactor temperature of 750 °C, steam-to-biomass ratio of 2.0 and a residence time of 3.0 min contributed highest gas yield (1.252 Nm 3  kg -1 moisture-free biomass). Based on the obtained experimental results, a projected potential hydrogen yield of 8.6 wt% of the moisture-free biomass could be achieved, and is also practical for production of

  14. Steam gasification of acid-hydrolysis biomass CAHR for clean syngas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Yao, Jingang; Yang, Huijun; Yan, Beibei; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Main characteristics of gaseous product from steam gasification of acid-hydrolysis biomass CAHR have been investigated experimentally. The comparison in terms of evolution of syngas flow rate, syngas quality and apparent thermal efficiency was made between steam gasification and pyrolysis in the lab-scale apparatus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature and steam to CAHR ratio on gas quality, syngas yield and energy conversion. The results showed that syngas and energy yield were better with gasification compared to pyrolysis under identical thermal conditions. Both high gasification temperature and introduction of proper steam led to higher gas quality, higher syngas yield and higher energy conversion efficiency. However, excessive steam reduced hydrogen yield and energy conversion efficiency. The optimal value of S/B was found to be 3.3. The maximum value of energy ratio was 0.855 at 800°C with the optimal S/B value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metal catalysts for steam reforming of tar derived from the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dalin; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    Biomass gasification is one of the most important technologies for the conversion of biomass to electricity, fuels, and chemicals. The main obstacle preventing the commercial application of this technology is the presence of tar in the product gas. Catalytic reforming of tar appears a promising approach to remove tar and supported metal catalysts are among the most effective catalysts. Nevertheless, improvement of catalytic performances including activity, stability, resistance to coke deposition and aggregation of metal particles, as well as catalyst regenerability is greatly needed. This review focuses on the design and catalysis of supported metal catalysts for the removal of tar in the gasification of biomass. The recent development of metal catalysts including Rh, Ni, Co, and their alloys for steam reforming of biomass tar and tar model compounds is introduced. The role of metal species, support materials, promoters, and their interfaces is described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

    2012-07-01

    Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparative experimental study of biomass, lignite and hard coal steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinski, A.; Howaniec, N.; Stanczyk, K. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    In the paper the results of experimental comparative study on steam gasification of lignite, hard coal and energy crops, such as Spartina pectinata, Helianthus tuberosus L, Sida hermaphrodita R. and Miscanthus X Giganteus in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor at the temperature of 700 {sup o}C were presented. The effectiveness of steam gasification in terms of gas flows, composition and carbon conversion was tested. The ability of coal and biomass to undergo thermochemical transformations was determined based on their chars reactivities. The tested biomass samples were relatively more reactive but produced less synthesis gas and of lower calorific value. Comparison of the reactivities and other physical and chemical properties of coals and biomass, selected based on the gasification process requirements, with a use of the principal component analysis showed that biomass samples differ from the remaining samples due to the highest content of volatiles, oxygen and hydrogen in a sample and the highest amount of carbon dioxide in produced synthesis gas. Hard coals were characterized by the lowest carbon conversion and reactivities R{sub 50} and R{sub max}. Moreover, the negative correlation between the reactivity and the heat of combustion, calorific value, carbon content in a sample and total gas yield produced in the process as well as a positive correlation between R{sub 50} and R{sub max} and volatiles, oxygen content in a sample and carbon dioxide concentration in produced gas were observed.

  18. Biomass steam gasification for production of SNG – Process design and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröbl, Thomas; Walter, Heimo; Haider, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model for the SNG-production process from biomass to raw-SNG is prepared. ► A thermodynamic equilibrium model of the Biomass-Heatpipe-Reformer is developed. ► A sensitivity analysis on the most important operation parameters is carried out. ► Adopting the steam excess ratio a syngas ideally suitable for SNG production is generated. ► Thermodynamic equilibrium models are a useful tool for process design. -- Abstract: A process design for small-scale production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) by steam gasification of woody biomass is performed. In the course of this work, thermodynamic models for the novel process steps are developed and implemented into an already existing model library of commercial process simulation software IPSEpro. Mathematical models for allothermal steam gasification of biomass as well as for cleaning and methanation of product gas are provided by applying mass balances, energy balances and thermodynamic equilibrium equations. Using these models the whole process is integrated into the simulation software, a flowsheet for an optimum thermal integration of the single process steps is determined and energy savings are identified. Additionally, a sensitivity study is carried out in order to analyze the influence of various operation parameters. Their effects on amount and composition of the product gas and process efficiency are evaluated and discussed within this article.

  19. Commercial steam reforming catalysts to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. 2: Catalytic tar removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Caballero, M.A.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Corella, J. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1998-07-01

    Eight different commercial catalysts, nickel based, for steam reforming of naphthas and of natural gas are tested in biomass gasification for hot gas cleanup and conditioning. They were manufactured by BASF AG, ICI-Katalco, UCI, and Haldor Topsoee a/s. The catalysts were tested in a slip flow after a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type at small pilot-plant scale (10--20 kg of biomass/h). The gasifying agent used is steam-oxygen mixtures. A guard bed containing a calcined dolomite is used to decrease the tar content in the gas at the inlet of the catalytic bed. Main variables studied are catalyst type, bed temperature, H{sub 2}O + O{sub 2} to biomass feed ratio, and time-on-stream. All catalysts for reforming of naphthas show to be very active and useful for tar removal and gas conditioning (in biomass gasification). 98% tar removal is easily obtained with space velocities of 14,000 h{sup {minus}1} (n.c.). No catalysts deactivation is found in 48 h-on-stream tests when the catalyst temperature is relatively high (780--830 C). Using a simple first-order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, apparent energies of activation (of around 58 kJ/mol) and preexponential factors are obtained for the most active catalysts.

  20. Energy efficient thermochemical conversion of very wet biomass to biofuels by integration of steam drying, steam electrolysis and gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2017-01-01

    A novel system concept is presented for the thermochemical conversion of very wet biomasses such as sewage sludge and manure. The system integrates steam drying, solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) and gasification for the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG). The system is analyzed...... by thermodynamic modelling and the analysis shows that the system can handle mechanically dried biomasses with a water content of 70 wt% and an ash content of up to 50 wt% (dry basis). A high tolerable ash content is an advantage because very wet biomasses, such as sewage sludge and manure, have a high ash content....... The analysis shows that the total efficiency of the novel system is 69–70% depending on the biomass ash content, while the biomass to SNG energy ratio is 165%, which is near the theoretical maximum because electrolytic hydrogen is supplied to the synthesis gas. It is proposed to combine the novel system...

  1. Allothermal steam gasification of biomass in cyclic multi-compartment bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier/combustor - new reactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliuta, Ion; Leclerc, Arnaud; Larachi, Faïçal

    2010-05-01

    A new reactor concept of allothermal cyclic multi-compartment fluidized bed steam biomass gasification is proposed and analyzed numerically. The concept combines space and time delocalization to approach an ideal allothermal gasifier. Thermochemical conversion of biomass in periodic time and space sequences of steam biomass gasification and char/biomass combustion is simulated in which the exothermic combustion compartments provide heat into an array of interspersed endothermic steam gasification compartments. This should enhance unit heat integration and thermal efficiency and procure N(2)-free biosyngas with recourse neither to oxygen addition in steam gasification nor contact between flue and syngas. The dynamic, one-dimensional, multi-component, non-isothermal model developed for this concept accounts for detailed solid and gas flow dynamics whereupon gasification/combustion reaction kinetics, thermal effects and freeboard-zone reactions were tied. Simulations suggest that allothermal operation could be achieved with switch periods in the range of a minute supporting practical feasibility for portable small-scale gasification units. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of steam gasification reactivity of algal and lignocellulosic biomass: influence of inorganic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hognon, Céline; Dupont, Capucine; Grateau, Maguelone; Delrue, Florian

    2014-07-01

    This study aims at comparing the steam gasification behaviour of two species of algal biomass (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arthrospira platensis) and three species of lignocellulosic biomass (miscanthus, beech and wheat straw). Isothermal experiments were carried out in a thermobalance under chemical regime. Samples had very different contents in inorganic elements, which resulted in different reactivities, with about a factor of 5 between samples. For biomasses with ratio between potassium content and phosphorus and silicon content K/(Si+P) higher than one, the reaction rate was constant during most of the reaction and then slightly increased at high conversion. On the contrary, for biomasses with ratio K/(Si+P) lower than one, the reaction rate decreased along conversion. A simple kinetic model was proposed to predict these behaviours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomass Steam Gasification with In-Situ CO2 Capture for Enriched Hydrogen Gas Production: A Reaction Kinetics Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work. This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of hydrogen production process via biomass steam gasification with calcium oxide as sorbent in a gasifier. A modelling framework consisting of kinetics models for char gasification, methanation, Boudouard, methane reforming, water gas shift and carbonation reactions to represent the gasification and CO2 adsorption in the gasifier, is developed and implemented in MATLAB. The scope of the work includes an investigation of the influence of the temperature, steam/biomass ratio and sorbent/biomass ratio on the amount of hydrogen produced, product gas compositions and carbon conversion. The importance of different reactions involved in the process is also discussed. It is observed that hydrogen production and carbon conversion increase with increasing temperature and steam/biomass ratio. The model predicts a maximum hydrogen mole fraction in the product gas of 0.81 occurring at 950 K, steam/biomass ratio of 3.0 and sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.0. In addition, at sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.52, purity of H2 can be increased to 0.98 mole fraction with all CO2 present in the system adsorbed.

  4. Design, Optimization and Energetic Efficiency of Producing Hydrogen-Rich Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chih Kuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the conceptual design of biomass steam gasification (BSG processes using raw oil palm (ROP and torrefied oil palm (TOP are examined in an Aspen Plus simulator. Through thermodynamic analysis, it is verified that the BSG process with torrefied feedstock can effectively enhance the hydrogen yield. When the heat recovery design is added into the BSG process, the system energetic efficiency (SEE is significantly improved. Finally, an optimization algorithm with respect to SEE and hydrogen yield is solved, and the optimum operating conditions are validated by simulations.

  5. Dairy Biomass-Wyoming Coal Blends Fixed Gasification Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gordillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated animal feeding operations such as dairies produce a large amount of manure, termed as dairy biomass (DB, which could serve as renewable feedstock for thermal gasification. DB is a low-quality fuel compared to fossil fuels, and hence the product gases have lower heat content; however, the quality of gases can be improved by blending with coals. This paper deals with air-steam fixed-bed counterflow gasification of dairy biomass-Wyoming coal blend (DBWC. The effects of equivalence ratio (1.6<Φ<6.4 and steam-to-fuel ratio (0.4

  6. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading : Technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification

  7. Simulation of biomass-steam gasification in fluidized bed reactors: Model setup, comparisons and preliminary predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Lim, C Jim; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu; Grace, John R

    2016-12-01

    A user-defined solver integrating the solid-gas surface reactions and the multi-phase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) approach is built based on the OpenFOAM software. The solver is tested against experiments. Then, biomass-steam gasification in a dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasifier is preliminarily predicted. It is found that the predictions agree well with the experimental results. The bed material circulation loop in the DFB can form automatically and the bed height is about 1m. The voidage gradually increases along the height of the bed zone in the bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) of the DFB. The U-bend and cyclone can separate the syngas in the BFB and the flue gas in the circulating fluidized bed. The concentration of the gasification products is relatively higher in the conical transition section, and the dry and nitrogen-free syngas at the BFB outlet is predicted to be composed of 55% H 2 , 20% CO, 20% CO 2 and 5% CH 4 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogen production by biomass steam gasification in fluidized bed reactor with Co catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuhiko Tasaka; Atsushi Tsutsumi; Takeshi Furusawa

    2006-01-01

    The catalytic performances of Co/MgO catalysts were investigated in steam gasification of cellulose and steam reforming of tar derived from cellulose gasification. For steam reforming of cellulose tar in a secondary fixed bed reactor, 12 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst attained more than 80% of tar reduction. The amount of produced H 2 and CO 2 increased with the presence of catalyst, and kept same level during 2 hr at 873 K. It is indicated that steam reforming of cellulose tar proceeds sufficiently over Co/MgO catalyst. For steam gasification of cellulose in a fluidized bed reactor, it was found that tar reduction increases with Co loading amount and 36 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst showed 84% of tar reduction. The amounts of produced gas kept for 2 hr indicating that 36 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst is stable during the reaction. It was concluded that these Co catalysts are promising systems for the steam gasification of cellulose and steam reforming of cellulose tar. (authors)

  9. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon...

  10. Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jun; Lu, Qiang; Dong, Changqing; Du, Xiaoze; Dahlquist, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ECR technique was proposed to convert biomass gasification tar model compounds. • Electric current enhanced the reforming efficiency remarkably. • The highest toluene conversion reached 99.9%. • Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 exhibited good stability during the ECR performance. - Abstract: Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H 2 and CO were the major gas products, while CO 2 and CH 4 were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion

  11. Biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed: hot gas cleanup and upgrading with steam-reforming catalysts of big size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Caballero, M.A. [University Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J. [University of Saragossa (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Several commercial steam reforming (nickel-based) catalysts were tested for tar elimination and gas upgrading in biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed. The characteristic or novelty of this work is that the catalysts are not crushed or ground but are used in their commercial size and shape. Catalysts were tested at pilot scale in two fixed beds located in a slip flow downstream from the gasifier. The equivalence ratio used in the upstream gasifier and steam content in the flue gas have an important effect on the kinetics of the tar removal reaction. (author)

  12. Hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of char from biomass fast pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: influence of temperature and steam on hydrogen yield and syngas composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Luo, Si-yi; Hu, Zhi-quan; Xiao, Bo; Cheng, Gong

    2010-07-01

    Steam gasification experiments of biomass char were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The experiments were completed at bed temperature of 600-850 degrees C, a steam flow rate of 0-0.357 g/min/g of biomass char, and a reaction time of 15min. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of bed temperature and steam flow rate on syngas yield and its compositions. The results showed that both high gasification temperature and introduction of proper steam led to higher yield of dry gas and higher carbon conversion efficiency. However, excessive steam reduced gas yield and carbon conversion efficiency. The maximum dry gas yield was obtained at the gasification temperature of 850 degrees C and steam flow rate of 0.165 g/min/g biomass char. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  14. Behavior of Heavy Metals in Steam Fluidized Bed Gasification of Contaminated Biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Vosecký, Martin; Kameníková, Petra; Skoblia, Sergej; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2011), s. 2284-2291 ISSN 0887-0624 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/07/0977; GA MŠk 2B08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : gasification * heavy metals * contaminated biomass Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2011

  15. Kinetic models comparison for steam gasification of coal/biomass blend chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Yang, Haiping; Sun, Lushi; Su, Sheng; Wang, Baowen; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo

    2014-11-01

    The non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA) was applied to different chars produced from lignite (LN), sawdust (SD) and their blends at the different mass ratios in order to investigate their thermal reactivity under steam atmosphere. Through TGA analysis, it was determined that the most prominent interaction between sawdust and lignite occurred at the mass ratio of sawdust/lignite as 1:4, but with further dose of more sawdust into its blends with lignite, the positive interaction deteriorated due to the agglomeration and deactivation of the alkali mineral involved in sawdust at high steam gasification temperature. Through systematic comparison, it could be observed that the random pore model was the most suitable among the three gas-solid reaction models adopted in this research. Finally, rational kinetic parameters were reached from these gas-solid reaction models, which provided a basis for design and operation of the realistic system of co-gasification of lignite and sawdust in this research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Commercial steam reforming catalysts to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. 1: Hot gas upgrading by the catalytic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Corella, J. [Univ. of Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-01

    Commercial steam reforming (nickel-based) catalysts are used for hot gas cleaning and upgrading in biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. The gasifier used was an atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed with an internal diameter of 15 cm and a total height of 3.2 m and was continuously fed with 5--20 kg of biomass/h. Eight different catalysts from four different manufacturers (BASF AG, TOPSOE A/S, ICI, and UCI) have been tested. They were located in a downflow fixed-bed reactor of 4 cm i.d. placed in a slip flow after the gasifier. A guard bed with a calcined dolomite was also used before the catalytic bed to decrease the tar content in the raw gas below the limit of 2 g of tar/m{sup 3}{sub n}, thus avoiding the catalyst deactivation by coke formation. The main variables studied were the temperature of the catalytic bed and the gas composition in the bed. Effects concerning tar elimination will be reported in part 2 of this work. This paper is mainly devoted to characterization of catalysts and to upgrading of the flue gas. H{sub 2} and CO contents increased by 4--14 and 1--8 vol%, dry basis, respectively. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and steam contents decreased by 0--14, 87--99, and 2--6 vol %, dry basis, respectively. Other parameters varied in the following ways: the lower heating value decreased by 0.3--1.7 MJ/m{sup 3}{sub n}, gas yield increased by 0.1--0.4 m{sup 3}{sub n}/kg of biomass daf, and apparent thermal efficiency increased by 1--20%. The results presented allow screening of the best catalysts to get an upgraded and useful gas in biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures.

  17. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  18. Biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed: Reforming of the gas composition with commercial steam reforming catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Orio, A.; Aznar, P. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-01

    Four commercial catalysts for steam reforming of higher hydrocarbons (naphthas) and three for steam reforming of light hydrocarbons are tested for hot gas clean up and upgrading in biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed. The catalysts used originate from four manufacturers: BASF, AG, ICI-Katalco, Haldor Topsoe a/s, and United Catalysts Inc. The work is performed in a small pilot plant (1--2 kg of biomass fed/h) with three reactors in series: gasifier, guard bed of dolomite, and full flow catalytic bed. Samples of gas are taken before and after the catalytic bed at different times-on-stream. It is shown how the H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and steam contents in the flue gas change because of the catalytic bed approaching contents near to the ones corresponding to the equilibrium state. Variations in the heating value of the gas and gas yield as a result of the catalytic bed are also reported.

  19. Biomass to hydrogen-rich syngas via catalytic steam gasification of bio-oil/biochar slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Yao, Jingang; Liu, Jing; Yan, Beibei; Shan, Rui

    2015-12-01

    The catalytic steam gasification of bio-oil/biochar slurry (bioslurry) for hydrogen-rich syngas production was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor using LaXFeO3 (X=Ce, Mg, K) perovskite-type catalysts. The effects of elemental substitution in LaFeO3, temperature, water to carbon molar ratio (WCMR) and bioslurry weight hourly space velocity (WbHSV) were examined. The results showed that La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 gave the best performance among the prepared catalysts and had better catalytic activity and stability than the commercial 14 wt.% Ni/Al2O3. The deactivation caused by carbon deposition and sintering was significantly depressed in the case of La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 catalyst. Both higher temperature and lower WbHSV contributed to more H2 yield. The optimal WCMR was found to be 2, and excessive introducing of steam reduced hydrogen yield. The La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 catalyst gave a maximum H2 yield of 82.01% with carbon conversion of 65.57% under the optimum operating conditions (temperature=800°C, WCMR=2 and WbHSV=15.36h(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  1. Biomass gasification and in-bed contaminants removal: performance of iron enriched olivine and bauxite in a process of steam/O2 gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisano, D; Freda, C; Nanna, F; Fanelli, E; Villone, A

    2012-08-01

    A modified Olivine, enriched in iron content (10% Fe/Olivine), and a natural bauxite, were tested in the in-bed reduction of tar and alkali halides (NaCl and KCl) released in a process of biomass steam/O(2) gasification. The tests were carried out at an ICBFB bench scale reactor under the operating conditions of: 855-890 °C, atmospheric pressure, 0.5 steam/biomass and 0.33 ER ratios. From the use of the two materials, a reduction in the contaminant contents of the fuel gas produced was found. For the alkali halides, a decrease up to 70%(wt) was observed for the potassium concentration, while for sodium, the reduction was found to be quite poor. For the organic content, compared to unmodified Olivine, the chromatographically determined total tar quantity showed a removal efficiency of 38%(wt). Moreover, regarding the particulate content a rough doubling in the fuel gas revealed a certain brittleness of the new bed material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Syngas suitability for solid oxide fuel cells applications produced via biomass steam gasification process: Experimental and modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieratti, Elisa; Baratieri, Marco; Ceschini, Sergio; Tognana, Lorenzo; Baggio, Paolo

    The technologies and the processes for the use of biomass as an energy source are not always environmental friendly. It is worth to develop approaches aimed at a more sustainable exploitation of biomass, avoiding whenever possible direct combustion and rather pursuing fuel upgrade paths, also considering direct conversion to electricity through fuel cells. In this context, it is of particular interest the development of the biomass gasification technology for synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) production, and the utilization of the obtained gas in fuel cells systems, in order to generate energy from renewable resources. Among the different kind of fuel cells, SOFCs (solid oxide fuel cells), which can be fed with different type of fuels, seem to be also suitable for this type of gaseous fuel. In this work, the syngas composition produced by means of a continuous biomass steam gasifier (fixed bed) has been characterized. The hydrogen concentration in the syngas is around 60%. The system is equipped with a catalytic filter for syngas purification and some preliminary tests coupling the system with a SOFCs stack are shown. The data on the syngas composition and temperature profile measured during the experimental activity have been used to calibrate a 2-dimensional thermodynamic equilibrium model.

  3. Biomass gasification with steam and oxygen mixtures at pilot scale and with catalytic gas upgrading. Pt. 1: performance of the gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, M.A.; Caballero, M.A.; Olivares, A.; Perez, P.; Frances, E. [University of Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Corella, J. [University `Complutense` of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Biomass gasification with steam + O{sub 2} mixtures is studied at small pilot plant (10-20 kg/h) scale. The gasifier used is a turbulent fluidised bed of 15 cm. i.d. and 3.3 m high. The pilot plant has a downstream slip flow to study the catalytic upgrading of the raw gas. A guard bed with dolomite and a catalytic bed with a steam reforming catalyst are used and eight different commercial catalysts have been tested to date. Product distribution from the gasifier, including gas proposition and tar content in the gas, are here shown in detail at different (steam + oxygen)/biomass and (H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2}) ratios and gasification temperatures (800-880{sup o}C). (author)

  4. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  5. The effect of Jatropha torrified biomass and coal preparation on steam co-gasification in a fixed bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloqaili, Mashal Mohammed

    Coal fired power stations produce vast amounts of harmful products that may affect our health and environment. Co-gasification of coal and biomass could be a solution to this issue as an emerging technology. Biomass may reduce emissions significantly and it may contribute to reducing capital operational cost while providing high gas yields. This research tests the co-gasification of coal and biomass blended chars. Coal and biomass were both prepared. Coal Illinois No #6 was prepared as coal semi-char and coal-char while Jatropha biomass was torrefied at six different temperatures ranging from [200-300] ºC. The co-gasification experiments was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. A gasification temperature was 900 ºC and a constant flow rate of 100 mL/min. Carbon conversion, maximum char reactivity, products yield and amount of hydrogen produced were evaluated and studied based on data obtained from the G.C. Additionally, weight of bed material and ash leftover weight from gasification process were significantly contributed in calculating the carbon conversion percentages.

  6. Steam reforming of biomass gasification tar using benzene as a model compound over various Ni supported metal oxide catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Sung Hoon; Sohn, Jung Min; Park, Junhong; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Kim, Seung-Soo; Park, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    The steam reforming of benzene as a model compound of biomass gasification tar was carried out over various Ni/metal oxide catalysts. The effects of the support, temperature, Ni-precursor, Ni loading and reaction time were examined, and their catalytic performance was compared with that of a commercial Ni catalyst. Among the Ni/metal oxide catalysts used, 15 wt% Ni/CeO(2)(75%)-ZrO(2)(25%) showed the highest catalytic performance owing to its greater redox characteristics and increased surface area, irrespective of the reaction temperature. The catalytic activity of 15 wt% Ni/CeO(2)(75%)-ZrO(2)(25%) was higher than that of the commercial Ni catalyst. Moreover, the catalyst activity was retained due to its excellent resistance to coke deposition even after 5h. The Ni-precursor played a critical role in the catalytic activity. With the exception of nickel nitrate, all the Ni-precursors (chloride and sulfate) caused deactivation of the catalyst.

  7. Steam gasification of wood biomass in a fluidized biocatalytic system bed gasifier: A model development and validation using experiment and Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme BPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Vecchione

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in biomass biocatalytic gasification is the correct prediction of gasification products, with particular attention to the Topping Atmosphere Residues (TARs. In this work, performedwithin the European 7FP UNIfHY project, we develops and validate experimentally a model which is able of predicting the outputs,including TARs, of a steam-fluidized bed biomass gasifier. Pine wood was chosen as biomass feedstock: the products obtained in pyrolysis tests are the relevant model input. Hydrodynamics and chemical properties of the reacting system are considered: the hydrodynamic approach is based on the two phase theory of fluidization, meanwhile the chemical model is based on the kinetic equations for the heterogeneous and homogenous reactions. The derived differentials equations for the gasifier at steady state were implemented MATLAB. Solution was consecutively carried out using the Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme by varying steam/biomass ratio (0.5-1 and operating temperature (750-850°C.The comparison between models and experimental results showed that the model is able of predicting gas mole fractions and production rate including most of the representative TARs compounds

  8. Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzinger, G.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility

  9. Biomass gasification in fluidized bed at pilot-scale with steam-oxygen mixtures. Product distribution for very different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, J.; Aznar, M.P.; Caballero, M.A.; Frances, E.; Corella, J. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1997-11-01

    Biomass gasification in a fluidized bed with steam-O{sub 2} mixtures has been studied in detail at pilot plant scale. The gasifier used was 15 cm i.d. and 3.2 m high, and it was fed with pine wood chips at flow rates of 5-20 kg/h. Main operating variables studied were gasifier bed temperature (780-890{degree}C), steam to oxygen in the feeding ratio (2-3 mol/mol), and gasifying agent (H{sub 2}O + O{sub 2}) to biomass feed ratio (0.6-1.6 kg/kg daf). Product distribution here shown includes gas, tar and char yields, gas composition (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} steam,...) and heating value, tar composition and content in the flue gas, gas heating value, apparent thermal efficiency, etc. Under good operating conditions the following gas is obtained: tar content of 5 g/Nm{sup 3}, 30 vol % H{sub 2}, heating value of 16.0 MJ/Nm{sub 3} (dry basis), gas yield of 1.2 Nm{sup 3} (dry basis)/kg biomass fed. 28 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  10. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  11. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Toluene as a Model Compound of Biomass Gasification Tar Using Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Dahlquist

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nickel supported on SBA-15 doped with CeO2 catalysts (Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 was prepared, and used for steam reforming of toluene which was selected as a model compound of biomass gasification tar. A fixed-bed lab-scale set was designed and employed to evaluate the catalytic performances of the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts. Experiments were performed to reveal the effects of several factors on the toluene conversion and product gas composition, including the reaction temperature, steam/carbon (S/C ratio, and CeO2 loading content. Moreover, the catalysts were subjected to analysis of their carbon contents after the steam reforming experiments, as well as to test the catalytic stability over a long experimental period. The results indicated that the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts exhibited promising capabilities on the toluene conversion, anti-coke deposition and catalytic stability. The toluene conversion reached as high as 98.9% at steam reforming temperature of 850 °C and S/C ratio of 3 using the Ni-CeO2(3wt%/SBA-15 catalyst. Negligible coke formation was detected on the used catalyst. The gaseous products mainly consisted of H2 and CO, together with a little CO2 and CH4.

  12. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  13. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  14. Biomass gasification with steam in fluidized bed: Effectiveness of CaO, MgO, and CaO-MgO for hot raw gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.; Aznar, M.P. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Corella, J. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The upgrading of the raw hot gas from a bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasifier is studied using cheap calcined minerals or rocks downstream from the gasifier. Biomass gasification is made with steam (not air) at 750--780 C and about 0.5--1.0 kg of biomass/h. Calcined solids used are dolomite (MgO-CaO), pure calcite (CaO), and pure magnesite (MgO). Variables studied have been temperature of the secondary bed (780--910 C), time of contact or space-time of the gas (0.08--0.32 kg{center_dot}h/m{sup 3}n), and particle diameter (1--4 mm) and type of mineral. Their effects on tar conversion, tar amount in the exit gas, product distribution, and gas composition are presented. Using a macrokinetic model for the tar disappearance network, the activities of the stones are expressed by their apparent kinetic constant. Apparent energies of activation for tar elimination (42--47 kJ/mol) and preexponential and effectiveness factors are given for all tested solids of which the most active is the calcined dolomite.

  15. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix A. Feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to SNG. Plant production is 21.6 MM scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $95,115,000 - September, 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. For utility financing, the gas production costs are respectively $5.09, $5.56, $6.50, and $8.34 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton delivered to the plant at a moisture content of 49.50 wt %. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $6.62, $7.11, $8.10, and $10.06 per MM Btu. The cost calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for by-product char is 58.3%.

  16. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 200 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a result of an additional study made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The report has as its basis the original 2000 tons of wood per day study generated from process development unit testing performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of this additional work was to determine the feasibility of a smaller scale plant one tenth the size of the original or 200 tons of dry wood feed per day. Plant production based on this wood feed is 100 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $34,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are, respectively, $1.20, $1.23, $1.30, and $1.44 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $1.60, $1.63, $1.70, and $1.84 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. The costs calculated by the utility financing method include a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.0%.

  17. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  18. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  19. Wood biomass gasification in the world today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolikj, Ognjen; Perishikj, Radovan; Mikulikj, Jurica

    1999-01-01

    Today gasification technology of different kinds represents a more and more interesting option of the production of energy forms. The article describes a biomass gasification plant (waste wood) Sydkraft, Vernamo from Sweden. (Author)

  20. Simulation of Steam Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor with Energy Self-Sufficient Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaree Suwatthikul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biomass gasification process is widely accepted as a popular technology to produce fuel for the application in gas turbines and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. Chemical reactions of this process can be separated into three reaction zones: pyrolysis, combustion, and reduction. In this study, sensitivity analysis with respect to three input parameters (gasification temperature, equivalence ratio, and steam-to-biomass ratio has been carried out to achieve energy self-sufficient conditions in a steam gasification process under the criteria that the carbon conversion efficiency must be more than 70%, and carbon dioxide gas is lower than 20%. Simulation models of the steam gasification process have been carried out by ASPEN Plus and validated with both experimental data and simulation results from Nikoo & Mahinpey (2008. Gasification temperature of 911 °C, equivalence ratio of 0.18, and a steam-to-biomass ratio of 1.78, are considered as an optimal operation point to achieve energy self-sufficient condition. This operating point gives the maximum of carbon conversion efficiency at 91.03%, and carbon dioxide gas at 15.18 volumetric percentages. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA is included to compare the environmental performance of conventional and energy self-sufficient gasification for steam biomass gasification.

  1. High-temperature entrained flow gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Biomass (wood and straw) gasification has been studied in a laboratory scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of reaction temperature, steam/carbon molar ratio, excess air ratio, and biomass type on the solid, liquid and gas products were investigated. The biomass was completely...... soot. Increasing excess air ratio from 0.25 to 0.50 gave no significant change in the producer gas yield, but the yields of H2, CO, and soot decreased, the CO2 yield increased, and the molar ratio of H2/CO decreased. Moreover, wood and straw gasification provided similar product compositions. At 1350°C...

  2. Small Scale Gasification of Biomass and Municipal Wastes for Heat and Electricity Production using HTAG Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiek Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and gasification technology utilizing high-cycle regenerative air/steam preheater has drawn increased attention in many application areas. The process is to be realized at temperature level above ash melting point using highly preheated agent. The use of highly preheated media above 900°C provides additional energy to conversion processes and results in considerable changes to the design of combustion and gasification equipment and its performance. This paper presents an advanced gasification system that utilizes high-temperature air and steam to convert biomass and municipal wastes into syngas production as well as selected results from experimental studies of high temperature air/steam gasification.

  3. Tar removal from biomass gasification streams: processes and catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quitete, Cristina P.B.; Souza, Mariana M.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomass gasification is a technology that has attracted great interest in synthesis of biofuels and oxo alcohols. However, this gas contains several contaminants, including tar, which need to be removed. Removal of tar is particularly critical because it can lead to operational problems. This review discusses the major pathways to remove tar, with a particular focus on the catalytic steam reforming of tar. Few catalysts have shown promising results; however, long-term studies in the context of real biomass gasification streams are required to realize their potential. (author)

  4. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  5. Studies on biomass char gasification and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhanping; You, Shijun; Ma, Xiaoyan

    2018-01-01

    The gasification performances of two kinds of biomass char by experiment methods are studied, including conversion rate and gasification gas component with temperature and time. Experimental results show that gasification temperature has important effects on the conversion rate and gas component. In the range of experimental temperature, char conversion rates are no more than 30.0%. The apparent activation energies and apparent reaction frequency factors of two biomass chars are obtained through kinetic studies.

  6. Modeling integrated biomass gasification business concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Ted Bilek; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pulp mills. This paper describes a generic modeling system for evaluating integrated biomass gasification business...

  7. Effect of combined slow pyrolysis and steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse on hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Prakash; Narayanan, Sheeba [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-11-15

    The present work aims at improving the generation of H2 from sugarcane bagasse in steam gasification process by incorporating slow pyrolysis technique. As a bench scale study, slow pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse is performed at various pyrolysis temperature (350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 .deg. C) and feed particle size (90biomass followed by steam gasification of char), first slow pyrolysis is carried out at the effective conditions (pyrolysis temperature and particle size) of char generation (determined from bench scale study) and steam gasification is at varying gasification temperature (600, 650, 700, 750 and 800 .deg. C) and steam to biomass (S/B) ratio (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) to determine the effective conditions of H{sub 2} generation. The effect of temperature and S/B on gas product composition and overall product gas volume was also investigated. At effective conditions (gasification temperature and S/B) of H2 generation, individual slow pyrolysis and steam gasification were also experimented to evaluate the performance of combined process. The effective condition of H{sub 2} generation in combined process was found to be 800 .deg. C (gasification temperature) and 5 (S/B), respectively. The combined process produced 35.90% and 23.60% more gas volume (overall) than slow pyrolysis and steam gasification process, respectively. With respect to H{sub 2} composition, the combined process generated 72.37% more than slow pyrolysis and 17.91% more than steam gasification process.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  9. Improved steam gasification of lignocellulosic residues in a fluidized bed with commercial steam reforming catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Corella, J.; Delgado, J.; Lahoz, J. (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The improved/two-stage steam gasification of biomass or lignocellulosic residues in fluidized bed with steam reforming catalysts placed in a downstream secondary reactor has been studied. Two commercial catalysts, R-67 and RKS-1 from Topsoee, were used at their incipient fluidization conditions. At 720-760 C and space-times of only 0.10-0.20 s, with catalyst sizes under 1.0 mm and with steam/biomass ratios of 1.2-1.6, tar conversions of 99.95% were achieved in the catalytic reactor. In this process, tar and methane in the flue gas can be easily lowered below 5 mg/m[sup 3](NTP) and 0.5 vol %, respectively, without using oxygen. The catalyst deactivation by coke from the tar cracking is the main problem of this process.

  10. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  11. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been further enhanced in recent years and special attention has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing interest in biomass gasification, several models have been proposed in order to explain and understand this complex process......, and the design, simulation, optimisation and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This paper presents and analyses several gasification models based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural networks. The thermodynamic models are found to be a useful tool for preliminary...

  12. Biomass gasification for production of 'green energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambre, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the differences between biomass gasification and biomass methanation, two ways of using biomass for decentralized production of energy. The stakes of biomass and biomass gasification for meeting the European and national energy goals and environmental targets are summarized. The gasification principle is described and in particular the FICFB optimized process from Repotec for the production of concentrated syngas. The four different ways of syngas valorization (combined heat and power (CHP), 'green methane' (SNG), 'green hydrogen' (gas shift) and liquid biofuels of 2. generation (Fisher-Tropsch)) are recalled and compared with each other. Finally, the economical and environmental key issues of the global chain are summarized with their technological and scientific key locks. The GAYA R and D project of Gaz de France Suez group, which aims at developing gasification and methanation demonstration plants through different programs with European partners, is briefly presented. (J.S.)

  13. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  14. Syngas yield during pyrolysis and steam gasification of paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Main characteristics of gaseous yield from steam gasification have been investigated experimentally. Results of steam gasification have been compared to that of pyrolysis. The temperature range investigated were 600-1000 °C in steps of 100 °C. Results have been obtained under pyrolysis conditions at same temperatures. For steam gasification runs, steam flow rate was kept constant at 8.0 g/min. Investigated characteristics were evolution of syngas flow rate with time, hydrogen flow rate and chemical composition of syngas, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency. Residuals from both processes were quantified and compared as well. Material destruction, hydrogen yield and energy yield is better with gasification as compared to pyrolysis. This advantage of the gasification process is attributed mainly to char gasification process. Char gasification is found to be more sensitive to the reactor temperature than pyrolysis. Pyrolysis can start at low temperatures of 400 °C; however char gasification starts at 700 °C. A partial overlap between gasification and pyrolysis exists and is presented here. This partial overlap increases with increase in temperature. As an example, at reactor temperature 800 °C this overlap represents around 27% of the char gasification process and almost 95% at reactor temperature 1000 °C.

  15. Kinetics of gasification of black liquor char by steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; van Heiningen, A.R.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the steam gasification kinetics of kraft black liquor char that were studied in a thermogravimetric analysis reactor. The effect of steam and hydrogen concentration on gasification rate can be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetics. An activation energy of 210 kJ/mol was obtained. Methane formation was negligible, and H 2 S was the major gaseous sulfur-containing product obtained over the temperature range studied, 873-973 K. The CO 2 concentration was higher than calculated for the water-shift reaction at equilibrium. A gasification mechanism is proposed whereby CO 2 is one of the primary gasification products

  16. Biomass Gasification Behavior in an Entrained Flow Reactor: Gas Product Distribution and Soot Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Lin, Weigang

    2012-01-01

    Biomass gasification and pyrolysis were studied in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of operating parameters and biomass types on the syngas composition were investigated. In general, the carbon conversion during biomass gasification was higher than 90......% at the optimal conditions of 1400 °C with steam addition. The biomass carbon that was not converted to gas in the gasification process only appeared as soot particles in the syngas in all of the experiments, except for the two experiments performed at 1000 °C, where a very small amount of char was also left....... In comparison to pyrolysis, lower yields of soot, H2, and CO were produced during gasification. The yield of soot could be reduced by a longer residence time, larger feeder air flow, lower oxygen concentration, higher excess air ratio, higher steam/carbon ratio, and higher reactor temperature. Changes...

  17. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...... cycles (IGCC). Plants characteristics are discussed while the plants sizes are defined form the available steam turbine as well as cultivation area.......A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...

  18. Catalytic gasification of dry and wet biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Potic, B.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic gasification of dry biomass and of wet biomass streams in hot compressed water are reviewed and discussed as potential technologies for the production of synthesis gas, hydrogen- and methane-rich gas. Next to literature data also new experimental results from our laboratory on catalytic

  19. Steam jacket dynamics in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide hydrocarbon reserves by utilization of deposits not economically mineable by conventional methods. In this context, UCG involves combusting coal in-situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from high economic potentials, in-situ combustion may cause environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution by by-product leakage. In order to prevent or significantly mitigate these potential environmental concerns, UCG reactors are generally operated below hydrostatic pressure to limit the outflow of UCG process fluids into overburden aquifers. This pressure difference effects groundwater inflow into the reactor and prevents the escape of product gas. In the close reactor vicinity, fluid flow determined by the evolving high reactor temperatures, resulting in the build-up of a steam jacket. Numerical modeling is one of the key components to study coupled processes in in-situ combustion. We employed the thermo-hydraulic numerical simulator MUFITS (BINMIXT module) to address the influence of reactor pressure dynamics as well as hydro-geological coal and caprock parameters on water inflow and steam jacket dynamics. The US field trials Hanna and Hoe Creek (Wyoming) were applied for 3D model validation in terms of water inflow matching, whereby the good agreement between our modeling results and the field data indicates that our model reflects the hydrothermal physics of the process. In summary, our validated model allows a fast prediction of the steam jacket dynamics as well as water in- and outflows, required to avoid aquifer contamination during the entire life cycle of in-situ combustion operations.

  20. Catalytic gasification of biomass (Miscanthus) enhanced by CO2 sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, I; Debal, M; Matt, M; Girods, P; Kiennemann, A; Rogaume, Y; Courson, C

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this work concerns the coupling of biomass gasification reaction and CO 2 sorption. The study shows the feasibility to promote biomass steam gasification in a dense fluidized bed reactor with CO 2 sorption to enhance tar removal and hydrogen production. It also proves the efficiency of CaO-Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 /olivine bi-functional materials to reduce heavy tar production. Experiments have been carried out in a fluidized bed gasifier using steam as the fluidizing medium to improve hydrogen production. Bed materials consisting of CaO-based oxide for CO 2 sorption (CaO-Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 ) deposited on olivine for tar reduction were synthesized, their structural and textural properties were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) methods, and the determination of their sorption capacity and stability analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It appears that this CaO-Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 /olivine sorbent/catalyst presents a good CO 2 sorption stability (for seven cycles of carbonation/decarbonation). Compared to olivine and Fe/olivine in a fixed bed reactor for steam reforming of toluene chosen as tar model compound, it shows a better hydrogen production rate and a lower CO 2 selectivity due to its sorption on the CaO phase. In the biomass steam gasification, the use of CaO-Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 /olivine as bed material at 700 °C leads to a higher H 2 production than olivine at 800 °C thanks to CO 2 sorption. Similar tar concentration and lighter tar production (analyzed by HPLC/UV) are observed. At 700 °C, sorbent addition allows to halve tar content and to eliminate the heaviest tars.

  1. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500°C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900°C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700°C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500°C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900°C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500°C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900°C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge on pyrolysis and steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jihong; Mun, Tae-Young; Yang, Won; Lee, Uendo; Hwang, Jungho; Jang, Ensuk; Choi, Changsik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal treatment (HT) is energy efficient and increases fuel energy density. • Pyrolysis and steam gasification were performed with sewage sludge before/after HT. • Product gases resembled those from wood chips, particularly at high temperature. • HT increases sludge lignin content, possibly enhancing methane yield of product gas. • HT can improve sewage sludge for use as an alternative to biomass and fossil fuels. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment is a promising option for pretreatment drying of organic waste, due to its low energy consumption and contribution to increasing fuel energy density. In this study, the characteristics of hydrothermally treated sewage sludge were investigated, and pyrolysis and steam gasification were performed with the sludge before and after hydrothermal treatment. The overall composition of product gases from treated sludge was similar to that obtained from steam gasification of wood chips, particularly under high-temperature conditions. In addition, the increase in lignin content of sewage sludge following hydrothermal treatment could help enhance methane yield in product gas during pyrolysis and steam gasification. The findings suggest that hydrothermal treatment is an appropriate method for improving sewage sludge for use as an alternative to biomass and fossil fuels

  3. Chemicals Derived from Biomass Thermolysis and Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaidle, Joshua A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nimlos, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bratis, Adam D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-14

    The United States has the potential to sustainably produce over 1 billion dry tons of nonfood biomass per year by 2030. While conversion of this biomass into fuels has garnished significant attention, these renewable feedstocks can also be converted into valuable chemicals. Analogous to petroleum refining, the coproduction of fuels and chemicals from biomass enables more complete utilization of the feedstock and supports the growth of a bio-economy by improving biorefinery economics. This chapter provides an overview of biomass thermolysis and gasification technologies, highlights existing and future chemical production opportunities, and elaborates on specific challenges associated with product separation and purification.

  4. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, 781 039, Assam (India)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis - a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using the non-stoichometric equilibrium model (SOLGASMIX), we have assessed the outcome of gasification process for different combinations of operating conditions. Four key parameters have been used for optimization, viz. biomass type (saw dust, rice husk, bamboo dust), air or equivalence ratio (AR = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), temperature of gasification (T = 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 C), and gasification medium (air, air-steam 10% mole/mole mixture, air-steam 30%mole/mole mixture). Performance of the gasification process has been assessed with four measures, viz. molar content of H{sub 2} and CO in the producer gas, H{sub 2}/CO molar ratio, LHV of producer gas and overall efficiency of gasifier. The optimum sets of operating conditions for gasifier for FT synthesis are: AR = 0.2-0.4, Temp = 800-1000 C, and gasification medium as air. The optimum sets of operating conditions for decentralized power generation are: AR = 0.3-0.4, Temp = 700-800 C with gasification medium being air. The thermodynamic model and methodology presented in this work also presents a general framework, which could be extended for optimization of biomass gasification for any other application. (author)

  5. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis - a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using the non-stoichometric equilibrium model (SOLGASMIX), we have assessed the outcome of gasification process for different combinations of operating conditions. Four key parameters have been used for optimization, viz. biomass type (saw dust, rice husk, bamboo dust), air or equivalence ratio (AR = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), temperature of gasification (T = 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 o C), and gasification medium (air, air-steam 10% mole/mole mixture, air-steam 30%mole/mole mixture). Performance of the gasification process has been assessed with four measures, viz. molar content of H 2 and CO in the producer gas, H 2 /CO molar ratio, LHV of producer gas and overall efficiency of gasifier. The optimum sets of operating conditions for gasifier for FT synthesis are: AR = 0.2-0.4, Temp = 800-1000 o C, and gasification medium as air. The optimum sets of operating conditions for decentralized power generation are: AR = 0.3-0.4, Temp = 700-800 o C with gasification medium being air. The thermodynamic model and methodology presented in this work also presents a general framework, which could be extended for optimization of biomass gasification for any other application.

  6. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  7. Biomass utilization for the process of gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Spěvák

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as one of the renewable resources of energy has bright future in utilization, especially in obtaining various forms of energy (heat, electrical energy, gas.According to the conception of energy policy of the Czech Republic and according to the fulfillment of the indicators of renewable resources using until the year 2010, the research of thermophysical characteristics of biofuels was realized.There were acquired considerable amount of results by combustion and gasification process on the basis of three-year project „Biomass energy parameters.” By means of combustion and gasification tests of various (biomass fuels were acquired the results which were not published so far.Acquired results are published in the fuel sheets, which are divided into four parts. They consist of information on fuel composition, ash composition, testing conditions and measurand overview. Measurements were realized for the process of combustion, fluidized-bed gasification and fixed-bed gasification. Following fuels were tested: Acacia, Pine, Birch, Beech, Spruce, Poplar, Willow, Rape, Amaranth, Corn, Flax, Wheat, Safflower, Mallow, and Sorrel.

  8. Allothermal gasification of biomass using micron size biomass as external heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Li, Qian; Qi, Fangjie; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; He, Piwen

    2012-03-01

    An allothermal biomass gasification system using biomass micron fuel (BMF) as external heat source was developed. In this system, heat supplied to gasifier was generated from combustion of BMF. Biomass feedstock was gasified with steam and then tar in the produced gas was decomposed in a catalytic bed with NiO/γ-Al(2)O(3) catalyst. Finally the production gas was employed as a substitute for civil fuel gas. An overall energy analysis of the system was also investigated. The results showed that the lower heating value of the product gas reached more than 12 MJ/Nm(3). The combusted BMF accounted for 26.8% of the total energy input. Allothermal gasification based on the substituted BMF for conventional energy was an efficient and economical technology to obtain bioenergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on biomass pyrolysis and gasification in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, X.; Wang, Z.; Cheng, C.; Tang, S.; Lu, Z.; Li, D. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Thermal Engineering Department

    2000-08-01

    Experimental investigations of biomass pyrolysis and gasification were performed in a fluidized bed reactor with steam and nitrogen as fluid medium respectively. The size of the stainless steel reactor is 150mm ID and 1360mm in height. Five biomass samples including poplar sawdust, bagasse, cotton stem, eucalyptus globulus and pinus ratiata, have been tested on the facility at the temperatures ranging from 923K to 1073K. During each test run, biomass feedstock was fed into the reactor continuously for twelve minutes and without residue discharge, meanwhile seven gas samples were taken, five during the feeding process and two after the stop of feeding. The transient and accumulated gas yields were measured with a rotameter and a gas meter. The temperatures of the fluidized bed and freeboard were acquired by a system of thermocouples connected with a computer. The gas samples were analyzed on a gas chromatograph. On the basis of the experimental results, the variations of gas yield, gas composition, energy conversion efficiency and mass conversion efficiency with temperature are discussed for each biomass feedstock in both cases of steam and nitrogen fluidization. It has been revealed in this investigation that the presence of steam in the fluidized bed reactor stimulates tar cracking to form the gas species of C{sub 2}H{sub 4}and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, etc. 8 ref., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Generation of hydrogen rich gas through fluidized bed gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, M K; Datta, A B

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the process of generating hydrogen rich syngas through thermo chemical fluidized bed gasification of biomass. The experiments were performed in a laboratory scale externally heated biomass gasifier. Rice husk had been taken as a representative biomass and, steam had been used as the fluidizing and gasifying media. A thermodynamic equilibrium model was used to predict the gasification process. The work included the parametric study of process parameters such as reactor temperature and steam biomass ratio which generally influence the percentage of hydrogen content in the product gas. Steam had been used here to generate nitrogen free product gas and also to increase the hydrogen concentration in syngas with a medium range heating value of around 12 MJ/Nm3. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  12. Thermovolumetric investigations of steam gasification of coals and their chars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porada Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of steam gasification of three coals of various rank and three chars obtained from these coals by the ex-situ method at 900 °C was compared. In the coal gasification process, the pyrolysis stage plays a very important part, which is connected with its direct impact on the kinetics of gasification of the resulting char. What is more, taking into consideration the impact of pyrolysis conditions on char properties, it should be anticipated that the gasification kinetics of coal and char, formed from it by the ex situ method, will be different. In order to examine and compare the process of gasification of coals and chars, an isothermal thermovolumetric method, designed by the authors, was applied. For all the examined samples the measurements were performed at three temperatures, i.e. 850, 900, and 950 °C, and at the pressure of 0.1 MPa. An evaluation of the impact of raw material on the steam gasification of the examined samples was made. The carbon conversion degree and the kinetic parameters of CO and H2 formation reaction were calculated. It was observed that the course of gasification is different for coals and chars obtained from them and it can be concluded that coals are more reactive than chars. Values of kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation calculated for coals and corresponding chars are also different. Due to the observed differences the process of gasification of coals and of chars with steam should not be equated.

  13. Bio-syngas production from biomass catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Pengmei; Yuan, Zhenhong; Wu, Chuangzhi; Ma, Longlong; Chen, Yong; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2007-01-01

    A promising application for biomass is liquid fuel synthesis, such as methanol or dimethyl ether (DME). Previous studies have studied syngas production from biomass-derived char, oil and gas. This study intends to explore the technology of syngas production from direct biomass gasification, which may be more economically viable. The ratio of H 2 /CO is an important factor that affects the performance of this process. In this study, the characteristics of biomass gasification gas, such as H 2 /CO and tar yield, as well as its potential for liquid fuel synthesis is explored. A fluidized bed gasifier and a downstream fixed bed are employed as the reactors. Two kinds of catalysts: dolomite and nickel based catalyst are applied, and they are used in the fluidized bed and fixed bed, respectively. The gasifying agent used is an air-steam mixture. The main variables studied are temperature and weight hourly space velocity in the fixed bed reactor. Over the ranges of operating conditions examined, the maximum H 2 content reaches 52.47 vol%, while the ratio of H 2 /CO varies between 1.87 and 4.45. The results indicate that an appropriate temperature (750 o C for the current study) and more catalyst are favorable for getting a higher H 2 /CO ratio. Using a simple first order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, the apparent activation energies and pre-exponential factors are obtained for nickel based catalysts. The results indicate that biomass gasification gas has great potential for liquid fuel synthesis after further processing

  14. Catalytic gasification of oil-extracted residue biomass of Botryococcus braunii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Li, Dalin; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi; Watanabe, Makoto M

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic gasification of the oil-extracted residue biomass of Botryococcus braunii was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale continuous feeding dual bed reactor. Steam gasification at 1023 K over Ni-Fe/Mg/Al catalyst can completely reform tar derived from pyrolysis of the residue biomass into C1 gases and hydrogen, and has achieved 91%-C conversion to gaseous product (CO+CO2+CH4). Composition of product gas has higher contents of CO and H2 with their ratio (H2/CO) of around 2.4 which is slightly H2-rich syngas. Maximum hydrogen yield of 74.7 mmol g-biomass(-1) obtained in this work is much higher than that from gasification of other algal biomass reported in literature. The residue biomass of B. braunii can be a superior renewable source of syngas or hydrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Feasibility of Biomass Biodrying for Gasification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian, Arash

    An important challenge of biomass gasification is the limitation of feedstock quality especially the moisture content, which plays a significant role on the performance of gasification process. Gasification requires low moisture levels (20% and less) and several reports have emphasized on the moisture as a typical problem while gasifying biomass. Moisture affects overall reaction rates in the gasifiers as a result of temperature drop and ultimately increases tar content, decreases gas yield, changes the composition of produced gas and affects the efficiency. Therefore, it is mandatory to pre-treat the biomass before gasification and reduce the moisture content to the suitable and economic level. The well-known solutions are either natural drying (not practical for commercial plants) or conventional drying technologies (have high operating costs). Biodrying is an alternative process, which uses both convective air and heat of biological reactions as a source of energy, to reduce the moisture. In the biodrying reactor heat is generated from exothermic decomposition of organic fraction of biomass and that is why the process is called "self-heating process". Employing such technology for drying biomass at pre-treatment units of gasification process returns several economic and environmental advantages to mills. In Europe, municipal waste treatment (MSW) plants use the biodrying at commercial scale to degrade a part of the biodegradable fraction of waste to generate heat and reduce the moisture content for high quality SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) production. In Italy, wine industry is seeking to develop biodrying for energy recovery of grape wastes after fermentation and distillation, which returns economic benefits to the industry. In Canada, the development of biodrying technology for pulp and paper industry was started at Ecole polytechnique de Montreal as an option for sludge management solution. Therefore, batch biodrying reactor was successfully developed in 2004

  16. The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of biomass char samples and their effect on coal gasification reactivity during co-gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Lihle D; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Okolo, Gregory N; Strydom, Christien A; Bunt, John R

    2017-12-18

    The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of three biomass char samples and bituminous coal char were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyser in the temperature range of 850-950 °C. Char SB exhibited higher reactivities (R i , R s , R f ) than chars SW and HW. Coal char gasification reactivities were observed to be lower than those of the three biomass chars. Correlations between the char reactivities and char characteristics were highlighted. The addition of 10% biomass had no significant impact on the coal char gasification reactivity. However, 20 and 30% biomass additions resulted in increased coal char gasification rate. During co-gasification, chars HW and SW caused increased coal char gasification reactivity at lower conversions, while char SB resulted in increased gasification rates throughout the entire conversion range. Experimental data from biomass char gasification and biomass-coal char co-gasification were well described by the MRPM, while coal char gasification was better described by the RPM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Staged catalytic gasification/steam reforming of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2009-01-01

    Gasification/steam reforming of pyrolysis oil was studied in a staged reactor concept, which consisted of an inert fluidized bed and a catalytic fixed bed. Methane and C2−C3 free syngas is produced at a single temperature around 800 °C at atmospheric pressure. By lowering the temperature of the

  18. Hydrogen production from biomass gasification using biochar as a catalyst/support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dingding; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Daqian; Yang, Haiping; Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Xianhua; Chen, Hanping

    2016-09-01

    Biochar is a promising catalyst/support for biomass gasification. Hydrogen production from biomass steam gasification with biochar or Ni-based biochar has been investigated using a two stage fixed bed reactor. Commercial activated carbon was also studied as a comparison. Catalyst was prepared with an impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, specific surface and porosity analysis, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron micrograph. The effects of gasification temperature, steam to biomass ratio, Ni loading and bio-char properties on catalyst activity in terms of hydrogen production were explored. The Ni/AC catalyst showed the best performance at gasification temperature of 800°C, S/B=4, Ni loading of 15wt.%. Texture and composition characterization of the catalysts suggested the interaction between volatiles and biochar promoted the reforming of pyrolysis volatiles. Cotton-char supported Ni exhibited the highest activity of H2 production (64.02vol.%, 92.08mgg(-1) biomass) from biomass gasification, while rice-char showed the lowest H2 production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadego, C.

    1992-05-01

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  20. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen-rich syngas production and tar removal from biomass gasification using sacrificial tyre pyrolysis char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S.; Williams, Paul T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Tyre char is used as catalyst and syngas source in pyrolysis-reforming of biomass. • Metals in tyre char catalyse tar decomposition. • Increased steam and higher temperature promotes H 2 production. • Syngas H 2 /CO ratio varied between 1.3 to 2. • A waste derived catalyst degrades tar and is also sacrificed for char gasification. - Abstract: Carbonaceous materials have been proven to have a high catalytic activity for tar removal from the syngas produced from biomass gasification. The simultaneous reforming and gasification of pyrolysis gases and char could have a significant role in increasing the gas yield and decreasing the tar in the product syngas. This study investigates the use of tyre char as a catalyst for H 2 -rich syngas production and tar reduction during the pyrolysis-reforming of biomass using a two stage fixed bed reactor. The biomass sample was pyrolysed under nitrogen at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, the evolved pyrolysis volatiles were passed to a second stage with steam and the gases were reformed in the presence of tyre char as catalyst. The influence of catalyst bed temperature, steam to biomass ratio, reaction time and tyre ash metals were investigated. The influence of the catalytic activity of tyre ash minerals on composition of syngas and tar decomposition during the steam reforming of biomass was significant as the removal of minerals led to a decrease in the H 2 yield. Raising the steam injection rate and reforming temperature resulted in an increase in H 2 production as steam reforming and char gasification reactions were enhanced. The maximum H 2 content in the product syngas of 56 vol.% was obtained at a reforming temperature of 900 °C and with a steam to biomass mass ratio of 6 (g/g). Further investigation of the influence of the biomass:steam ratio on syngas quality showed that the H 2 :CO molar ratio was increased from 1.8 (steam: biomass ratio; 1.82 g g −1 ) to 3 (steam: biomass ratio; 6 g g −1 ).

  2. CO{sub 2} and steam gasification of a grapefruit skin char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Montesinos, F.; Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.; Rodriguez, J.J. [University of Pinar del Rio, Pinar del Rio (Cuba). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-03-01

    A kinetic study on the gasification of carbonized grapefruit (Citrus Aurantium) skin with CO{sub 2} and with steam is presented. The chars from this agricultural waste show a comparatively high reactivity, which can be mostly attributed to the catalytic effect of the inorganic matter. The ash content of the carbonized substrate used in this work falls around 15% (db) potassium being the main metallic constituent. The reactivity for both, CO{sub 2} and steam gasification, increases at increasing conversion and also does the reactivity per unit surface area, consistently with the aforementioned catalytic effect. Lowering the ash content of the char by acid washing leads to a decrease of reactivity thus confirming the catalytic activity of the inorganic matter present in the starting material. Saturation of this catalytic effect was not detected within the conversion range investigated covering in most cases up to 0.85 - 0.9. Apparent activation energy values within the range of 200-250 kJ/mol have been obtained for CO{sub 2} gasification whereas the values obtained for steam gasification fall mostly between 130 and 170 kJ/mol. These values become comparable with the reported in the literature for other carbonaceous raw materials including chars from biomass residues and coals under chemical control conditions. 28 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  4. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  5. High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

    Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash

  6. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw.

  9. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Chong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass

  10. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Soederstroem, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO 2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  11. A review of biomass gasification technologies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    This report provides an overview of existing technologies and projects in Denmark and Sweden with a focus on the Öresund region. Furthermore it presents the research and development of biomass gasification in the region and these two countries. The list of existing gasification plants from...... laboratory scale projects to big scale plants is given. The report ends with an overview of future gasification projects as well as potential experience exchanges that could occur between the countries. We regard biomass gasification as one of the key technologies in future renewable energy systems....

  12. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wennan

    2010-01-01

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  13. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  14. A critical review on biomass gasification, co-gasification, and their environmental assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an efficient process to obtain valuable products from biomass with several potential applications, which has received increasing attention over the last decades. Further development of gasification technology requires innovative and economical gasification methods with high efficiencies. Various conventional mechanisms of biomass gasification as well as new technologies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, co-gasification of biomass and coal as an efficient method to protect the environment by reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions has been comparatively discussed. In fact, the increasing attention to renewable resources is driven by the climate change due to GHG emissions caused by the widespread utilization of conventional fossil fuels, while biomass gasification is considered as a potentially sustainable and environmentally-friendly technology. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects should also be taken into account when designing such facilities, to guarantee the sustainable use of biomass. This paper also reviews the life cycle assessment (LCA studies conducted on biomass gasification, considering different technologies and various feedstocks.

  15. Taguchi approach for co-gasification optimization of torrefied biomass and coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Chih-Jung; Hung, Chen-I

    2013-09-01

    This study employs the Taguchi method to approach the optimum co-gasification operation of torrefied biomass (eucalyptus) and coal in an entrained flow gasifier. The cold gas efficiency is adopted as the performance index of co-gasification. The influences of six parameters, namely, the biomass blending ratio, oxygen-to-fuel mass ratio (O/F ratio), biomass torrefaction temperature, gasification pressure, steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F ratio), and inlet temperature of the carrier gas, on the performance of co-gasification are considered. The analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests that the O/F ratio is the most important factor in determining the performance and the appropriate O/F ratio is 0.7. The performance is also significantly affected by biomass along with torrefaction, where a torrefaction temperature of 300°C is sufficient to upgrade eucalyptus. According to the recommended operating conditions, the values of cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion at the optimum co-gasification are 80.99% and 94.51%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The cycle use test of Pt based catalyst for the steam reforming of naphthalene / benzene as model tar compounds of biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Takeshi; Saito, Katsuhiko; Sato, Masahide; Suzuki, Noboru [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst showed high and stable activity (carbon conv. to gas: 90%) for steam reforming of naphthalene/benzene at 1073 K with S/C=3, this catalyst gradually lost its activity at 1023 K with S/C=3 due to deposition of carboneous species. Two kinds of regeneration treatment was conducted to enlongate the life time of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Although regeneration treatment completely remove the carboneous species from catalyst, mild oxidation treatment led to decrease activity due to sintering of Pt particles. On the contrary, hydrogen treatment led to maintain activity until 5th cycle test. It was concluded from these obtained results that hydrogen treatment is suitable regeneration method during cycle test in the case of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. (orig.)

  17. BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

  18. Modeling Tar Recirculation in Biomass Fluidized Bed Gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineken, Wolfram; De la Cuesta de Cal, Daniel; Zobel, Nico

    2016-01-01

    A biomass gasification model is proposed and applied to investigate the benefits of tar recirculation within a gasification plant. In the model, tar is represented by the four species phenol, toluene, naphthalene, and benzene. The model is spatially one-dimensional, assuming plug flow for the

  19. Steam reforming and gasification of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mankind needs sustainable energy to adjust its footprint so the earth can support a growing and economically developing population. Biomass is a special sustainable energy source since, besides heat and power, it can also be used for the production of chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. To

  20. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural evolution of biomass char and its effect on the gasification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatehi, Hesameddin; Bai, Xue Song

    2017-01-01

    during the entire conversion process. This model is used to analyze the steam gasification process of biomass char of centimeter sizes. The results from the present multi-pore model are in better agreement with experimental data than those from a corresponding single pore model. Since the multi......-pore model accommodates the detailed intra-particle transport, it is a useful basis toward developing a more predictive model for biomass char gasification....... with different radii. The model is valid for biomass chars produced under relatively low heating rates, when the original beehive structure of the biomass is not destroyed during the pyrolysis stage. The contribution of different pores with different radius is taken into account using an effectiveness factor...

  2. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has propertie...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....... similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plant model is integrated with a steam cycle that utilizes waste heat from the plant and covers the on-site electricity consumption. The plant model predicts a fuel production efficiency of 67...

  3. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Adlhoch, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  4. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis

  5. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqiu; Yin, Xiuli; Xu, Jie; Ma, Longlong

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  6. Gas generation by co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, thermochemical biomass and coal co-gasification were performed on an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier, with air and steam as oxidizing and gasifying media. The experiments were completed at reaction temperatures of 875 °C–975 °C, steam-to-biomass ratio of 1.2, and biomass-to-coal ratio of 4. This research aims to determine the effects of reaction temperature on gas composition, lower heating value (LHV), as well as energy and exergy efficiencies, of the product gas. Over the ranges of the test conditions used, the product gas LHV varies between 12 and 13.8 MJ/Nm 3 , and the exergy and energy efficiencies of the product gas are in the ranges of 50.7%–60.8% and 60.3%–85.1%, respectively. The results show that high reaction temperature leads to higher H 2 and CO contents, as well as higher exergy and energy efficiencies of the product gas. In addition, gas LHV decreases with temperature. The molar ratio of H 2 /CO is larger than 1 at temperatures above 925 °C. Our experimental analysis shows that co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier for gas production is feasible and promising. -- Highlights: • An innovative steam co-gasification process for gas production was proposed. • Co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier was tested. • High temperature favors H 2 production. • H 2 and CO contents increase, whereas CO 2 and CH 4 levels decrease with increase in T. • Exergy and energy efficiencies of gases increase with increase in T

  7. On the gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water : over de vergassing van natte biomassa in superkritiek water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a challenging thermo-chemical conversion route for wet biomass and waste streams into hydrogen and/or methane. At temperatures and pressures above the critical point the physical properties of water differ strongly from liquid water or steam. Because of the

  8. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere

  9. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the biomass flow rate; (2 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature decreases the air and biomass flow rates; (3 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the energy and exergy efficiencies, especially at lower pressure ratios; (4 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature raises both efficiencies; and (5 overspray increases the energy efficiency and net cycle power slightly. The gas turbine exhibits the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the combustor the lowest. A comparison of the cycle with similar cycles fired by natural gas and differently configured cycles fueled by biomass shows that the cycle with natural gas firing has an energy efficiency 18 percentage points above the biomass fired cycle, and that steam injection increases the energy efficiency about five percentage points relative to the cycle without steam injection. Also, the influence of steam injection on energy efficiency is more significant than fog cooling.

  11. Analysis of green liquor influence on coal steam gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karczewski Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a clean and efficient technology with a long history dating up to the 19th century. The possible application of this process ranges from gas production and chemical synthesis to the energy sector and therefore this technology holds noticeable potential for future applications. In order to advance it, a new efficient approaches for this complex process are necessary. Among possible methods, a process enhancing additives, such as alkali and alkaline earth metals seems to be a promising way of achieving such a goal, but in practice might turn to be a wasteful approach for metal economy, especially in large scale production. This paper shows alkali abundant waste material that are green liquor dregs as a viable substitute. Green liquor dregs is a waste material known for its low potential as a fuel, when used separately, due to its low organic content, but its high ash content that is also abundant in alkali and alkaline earth elements seems to make it a suitable candidate for application in coal gasification processes. The aim of this work is an evaluation of the suitability of green liquor waste to work as a potential process enhancing additive for coal steam gasification process. During the experiment, three blends of hard coal and green liquor dregs were selected, with consideration for low corrosive potential and possibly high catalytic activity. The mixtures were gasified in steam under four different temperatures. Their energies syngas yield, coal conversion degree and energies of activation were calculated with use of Random Pore Model (RPM and Grain Model (GM which allowed for their comparison.

  12. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  13. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  14. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification; Approche thermodynamique des transformations de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissonnet, G.; Seiler, J.M.

    2003-07-01

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H{sub 2}. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H{sub 2}. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  15. Steam gasification of lignocellulosic residues in a fluidized bed at a small pilot scale; Effect of the type of feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herguido, J.; Corella, J.; Gonzalez-Saiz, J. (Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept., Univ. of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (ES))

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses different biomass materials such as pine sawdust, pine wood chips, cereal straw, and thistles (Cynara cardunculus) from energetic crops gasified with steam in a 15-cm-i.d. fluidized bed reactor. The gas, tar, and char yields, the composition and heating value of the gas produced, and the conversion of carbon have been determined at temperatures between 650 and 780{degrees}C (923-1053 K) for each material. The product distribution varies with the biomass used and the gasification temperature. The differences are very marked for the H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} contents in the gas product at low gasification temperatures. These differences decrease when the temperature increases to 780{degrees}C at which point a gas composition similar for all types of biomass tested is obtained by the achievement of equilibrium in the water-gas shift reaction.

  16. Modeling of reaction kinetics in bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, R.K.; Halvorsen, B.M. [Telemark University College, Kjolnes ring 56, P.O. Box 203, 3901 Porsgrunn (Norway); Pfeifer, C. [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Bubbling fluidized beds are widely used as biomass gasification reactors as at the biomass gasification plant in Gussing, Austria. The reactor in the plant is a dual circulating bubbling fluidized bed gasification reactor. The plant produces 2MW electricity and 4.5MW heat from the gasification of biomass. Wood chips as biomass and olivine particles as hot bed materials are fluidized with high temperature steam in the reactor. As a result, biomass undergoes endothermic chemical reaction to produce a mixture of combustible gases in addition to some carbon-dioxide (CO2). The combustible gases are mainly hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4). The gas is used to produce electricity and heat via utilization in a gas engine. Alternatively, the gas is further processed for gaseous or liquid fuels, but still on the process of development level. Composition and quality of the gas determine the efficiency of the reactor. A computational model has been developed for the study of reaction kinetics in the gasification rector. The simulation is performed using commercial software Barracuda virtual reactor, VR15. Eulerian-Lagrangian approach in coupling of gas-solid flow has been implemented. Fluid phase is treated with an Eulerian formulation. Discrete phase is treated with a Lagrangian formulation. Particle-particle and particle-wall interactions and inter-phase heat and mass transfer have been taken into account. Series of simulations have been performed to study model prediction of the gas composition. The composition is compared with data from the gasifier at the CHP plant in Güssing, Austria. The model prediction of the composition of gases has good agreements with the result of the operating plant.

  17. Biomass gasification : The understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly

  18. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Biomass gasification with preheated air: Energy and exergy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarkovic Rade M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the irreversibilities that occur during biomass gasification, gasifiers are usually the least efficient units in the systems for production of heat, electricity, or other biofuels. Internal thermal energy exchange is responsible for a part of these irreversibilities and can be reduced by the use of preheated air as a gasifying medium. The focus of the paper is biomass gasification in the whole range of gasification temperatures by the use of air preheated with product gas sensible heat. The energetic and exergetic analyses are carried with a typical ash-free biomass feed represented by CH1.4O0.59N0.0017 at 1 and 10 bar pressure. The tool for the analyses is already validated model extended with a heat exchanger model. For every 200 K of air preheating, the average decrease of the amount of air required for complete biomass gasification is 1.3% of the amount required for its stoichiometric combustion. The air preheated to the gasification temperature on the average increases the lower heating value of the product gas by 13.6%, as well as energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the process. The optimal air preheating temperature is the one that causes gasification to take place at the point where all carbon is consumed. It exists only if the amount of preheated air is less than the amount of air at ambient temperature required for complete gasification at a given pressure. Exergy losses in the heat exchanger, where the product gas preheats air could be reduced by two-stage preheating.

  20. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  1. Biomass Gasification Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, Birgitte K. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2014-07-22

    The overall objective of the BioChemCat project was to demonstrate the feasibility of using Advanced Wet Oxidation Steam-Explosion (AWEx) process to open and solubilize lignocellulosic biomass (LBM) coupled to an innovative mixed culture fermentation technology capable of producing a wide range of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from all sugars present in LBM. The VFAs will then be separated and converted to hydrocarbon biofuel through catalytic upgrading. By continuously removing VFAs as they are produced (extractive fermentation), we were able to recover the VFAs while both eliminating the need for pH adjustment and increasing the fermentation productivity. The recovered VFAs were then esterified and upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels through a parallel series of hydrogenolysis/decarboxylation and dehydration reactions. We also demonstrated that a portion of the residual lignin fraction was solubilized and converted into VFAs, also improving the yields of VFAs. The remaining lignin fraction was then shown to be available (after dewatering and drying) for use as a lignin-enriched fuel pellet or as a feedstock for further processing.

  2. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  3. Thermodynamic Investigation of an Integrated Gasification Plant with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Steam Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas...... was rather clean for feeding to the SOFC stacks after a simple cleaning step. Because all the fuel cannot be burned in the SOFC stacks, a burner was used to combust the remaining fuel. The off-gases from the burner were then used to produce steam for the bottoming steam cycle in a heat recovery steam...

  4. Process simulation of single-step dimethyl ether production via biomass gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Fudong; Chen, Hanping; Ding, Xuejun; Yang, Haiping; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Shihong; Dai, Zhenghua

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we simulated the single-step process of dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis via biomass gasification using ASPEN Plus. The whole process comprised four parts: gasification, water gas shift reaction, gas purification, and single-step DME synthesis. We analyzed the influence of the oxygen/biomass and steam/biomass ratios on biomass gasification and synthesis performance. The syngas H(2)/CO ratio after water gas shift process was modulated to 1, and the syngas was then purified to remove H(2)S and CO(2), using the Rectisol process. Syngas still contained trace amounts of H(2)S and about 3% CO(2) after purification, which satisfied the synthesis demands. However, the high level of cold energy consumption was a problem during the purification process. The DME yield in this study was 0.37, assuming that the DME selectivity was 0.91 and that CO was totally converted. We performed environmental and economic analyses, and propose the development of a poly-generation process based on economic considerations.

  5. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  6. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production from biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohce, M.K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full Text': Biomass resources have the advantage of being renewable and can therefore contribute to renewable hydrogen production. In this study, an overview is presented of hydrogen production methods in general, and biomass-based hydrogen production in particular. For two methods in the latter category (direct gasification and pyrolysis), assessments are carried out, with the aim of investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass and better understanding the potential of biomass as a renewable energy source. A simplified model is presented here for biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium considerations, and the effects of temperature, pressure and the Gibbs free energy on the equilibrium hydrogen yield are studied. Palm oil (designated C 6 H 10 O 5 ), one of the most common biomass resources in the world, is considered in the analyses. The gasifier is observed to be one of the most critical components of a biomass gasification system, and is modeled using stoichiometric reactions. Various thermodynamic efficiencies are evaluated, and both methods are observed to have reasonably high efficiencies. (author)

  8. Gasification and co-gasification of biomass wastes: Effect of the biomass origin and the gasifier operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, Magin; Hernandez, Juan J.; Pazo, Amparo; Lopez, Julio [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Edificio Politecnico), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Air gasification of different biomass fuels, including forestry (pinus pinaster pruning) and agricultural (grapevine and olive tree pruning) wastes as well as industry wastes (sawdust and marc of grape), has been carried out in a circulating flow gasifier in order to evaluate the potential of using these types of biomass in the same equipment, thus providing higher operation flexibility and minimizing the effect of seasonal fuel supply variations. The potential of using biomass as an additional supporting fuel in coal fuelled power plants has also been evaluated through tests involving mixtures of biomass and coal-coke, the coke being a typical waste of oil companies. The effect of the main gasifier operating conditions, such as the relative biomass/air ratio and the reaction temperature, has been analysed to establish the conditions allowing higher gasification efficiency, carbon conversion and/or fuel constituents (CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) concentration and production. Results of the work encourage the combined use of the different biomass fuels without significant modifications in the installation, although agricultural wastes (grapevine and olive pruning) could to lead to more efficient gasification processes. These latter wastes appear as interesting fuels to generate a producer gas to be used in internal combustion engines or gas turbines (high gasification efficiency and gas yield), while sawdust could be a very adequate fuel to produce a H{sub 2}-rich gas (with interest for fuel cells) due to its highest reactivity. The influence of the reaction temperature on the gasification characteristics was not as significant as that of the biomass/air ratio, although the H{sub 2} concentration increased with increasing temperature. (author)

  9. Pretreatment and Feeding of Biomass for Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Hartman, Miloslav; Martinec, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2009), s. 629-635 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720701 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) CT/2007/00005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biomass * feeding * gasification Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2009

  10. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  11. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Char-recirculation biomass gasification system--a site-specific feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, K.R.; Kerr, C.P.; Hensley, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A site-specific feasibility study was conducted for a char-recirculation biomass gasification plant which would dispose of the chippable solid residues of the area sawmills. The plant would receive green hardwood chips and convert them into active charcoal while producing process steam and electrical power. An economic analysis was performed on the basis of not-for-profit operation, marketing crushed active charcoal to a broker at a discounted price, and displacing purchased electric power. Given a market for the active charcoal, the plant was judged to be economically viable

  13. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  14. Mathematical modelling and optimization of biomass-plastic fixed-bed downdraft co-gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskoy, Igor

    2017-10-01

    Co-gasification of woody biomass and polyethylene is studied using mathematical modeling. The gasification process is downdraft fixed-bed. Comparison of modeling results with some experimental data is made. Influence of biomass/plastic ratio and air equivalence ratio on gasification efficiency is investigated.

  15. Mathematical modelling and optimization of biomass-plastic fixed-bed downdraft co-gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskoy Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-gasification of woody biomass and polyethylene is studied using mathematical modeling. The gasification process is downdraft fixed-bed. Comparison of modeling results with some experimental data is made. Influence of biomass/plastic ratio and air equivalence ratio on gasification efficiency is investigated.

  16. Pilot-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom

    2011-01-01

    The gasification of pine and mixed-hardwood chips has been carried out in a pilot-scale system at a range of gas flow rates. Consuming ~17-30 kgh-1 of feedstock, the producer gas was composed of ~200 dm3 m-3 carbon monoxide, 12 dm3 m-3 carbon dioxide, 30 dm3 m-3 methane and 190 dm3 m-3 hydrogen, with an energy content of ~6 MJ m-3 for both feedstocks. It was found that...

  17. Pyrolysis and Gasification Kinetics of Large Biomass Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Jenny; Hagstroem, Magnus; Andersson, Patrik U.; Loenn, Benny; Pettersson, Jan B.C. [Goteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dep. of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science; Davidsson, Kent O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy Conversion

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the project is to provide experimental data on single biomass particle pyrolysis that have an applied as well as a fundamental bearing. Transport phenomena and kinetics on the single particle level are characterized, including heat and mass transport processes. New experimental techniques and methods are applied and developed within the project. A single-particle reactor has been developed for the investigations, and several detection techniques including fast thermogravimetric analysis, molecular beam mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy, video recording and pyrometry are applied. The experimental data are used to develop robust models for pyrolysis and gasification, which are essential components in the design of gasification and combustion reactors.

  18. Glas generator for the steam gasification of coal with nuclear generated heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heat from a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) for the steam gasification of coal saves coal, which otherwise is burnt to generate the necessary reaction heat. The gas generator for this process, a horizontal pressure vessel, contains a fluidized bed of coal and steam. An ''immersion-heater'' type of heat exchanger introduces the nuclear generated heat to the process. Some special design problems of this gasifier are presented. Reference is made to the present state of development of the steam gasification process with heat from high temperature reactors. (author)

  19. Experimental investigations of biomass gasification with carbon-dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Indraneel

    A sustainable energy cycle may include enhanced utilization of solar energy and atmospheric CO2 to produce biomass and enhanced utilization of exhaust CO2 from power plants for synthetic gas production. The reaction of carbon with CO2 is potentially one of the important processes in a future sustainable carbon cycle. Reactions involving carbon and CO2 are also relevant to the chemical process and metal industries. Biomass char has been recognized as a present and future alternative to fossil-fuels for energy production and fuel synthesis. Therefore, biomass char gasification with CO2 recycling is proposed as a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy technology. Biomass char is a complex porous solid and its gasification involves heat and mass transfer processes within pores of multiple sizes from nanometer to millimeter scales. These processes are coupled with heterogeneous chemistry at the internal and external surfaces. Rates for the heterogeneous carbon gasification reactions are affected by inorganic content of the char. Furthermore, pore structure of the char develops with conversion and influences apparent gasification rates. Effective modeling of the gasification reactions has relied on the best available understanding of diffusion processes and kinetic rate property constants from state of the art experiments. Improvement of the influences of inorganic composition, and process parameters, such as pressure and temperature on the gasification reaction rates has been a continuous process. Economic viability of gasification relies on use of optimum catalysts. These aspects of the current status of gasification technologies have motivated the work reported in this dissertation. The reactions between biomass chars and CO2 are investigated to determine the effects of temperature and pressure on the reaction rates for large char particles of relevance to practical gasification technologies. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor

  20. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  1. Sulfur Tolerant Magnesium Nickel Silicate Catalyst for Reforming of Biomass Gasification Products to Syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Swartz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium nickel silicate (MNS has been investigated as a catalyst to convert tars and light hydrocarbons to syngas (CO and H2 by steam reforming and CO2 reforming in the presence of H2S for biomass gasification process at NexTech Materials. It was observed that complete CH4 conversion could be achieved on MNS catalyst granules at 800–900 °C and a space velocity of 24,000 mL/g/h in a simulated biomass gasification stream. Addition of 10–20 ppm H2S to the feed had no apparent impact on CH4 conversion. The MNS-washcoated monolith also showed high activities in converting methane, light hydrocarbons and tar to syngas. A 1200 h test without deactivation was achieved on the MNS washcoated monolith in the presence of H2S and/or NH3, two common impurities in gasified biomass. The results indicate that the MNS material is a promising catalyst for removal of tar and light hydrocarbons from biomass gasified gases, enabling efficient use of biomass to produce power, liquid fuels and valuable chemicals.

  2. Co-combustion and gasification of various biomasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutanen, K. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Varkaus (Finland). Ahlstrom Pyropower

    1996-12-31

    During the last twenty years the development of fluidized bed combustion and gasification technology has made it possible to increase significantly utilisation of various biomasses in power and heat generation. The forerunner was the pulp and paper industry that has an adequate biomass fuel supply and energy demand on site. Later on municipalities and even utilities have seen biomass as a potential fuel. The range of available biomasses includes wood-based fuels and wastes like bark, wood chips, and saw dust, agricultural wastes like straw, olive waste and rice husk, sludges from paper mills and de-inking plants, other wastes like municipal sludges, waste paper and RDF. Recently new environmental regulations and taxation of fossil fuels have further increased interest in the use of biomasses in energy generation. However, in many cases available quantities and/or qualities of biomasses are not adequate for only biomass-based energy generation in an economic sense. On the other hand plant owners want to maintain a high level of fuel flexibility and fuel supply security. In some cases disposing by burning is the only feasible way to handle certain wastes. In many cases the only way to fulfil these targets and utilize the energy is to apply co-combustion or gasification of different fuels and wastes. Due to the fact that fluidized bed combustion technology offers a very high fuel flexibility and high combustion efficiency with low emissions it has become the dominating technology in co-combustion applications. This presentation will present Alhstrom`s experiences in co-combustion of biomasses in bubbling beds and Ahlstrom Pyroflow circulating fluidized beds based on about 200 operating references worldwide. CFB gasification will also be discussed 9 refs.

  3. Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J.; Phelps, M.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350{degrees}C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system high conversions of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.

  4. Syngas production by two-stage method of biomass catalytic pyrolysis and gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qinglong; Kong, Sifang; Liu, Yangsheng; Zeng, Hui

    2012-04-01

    A two-stage technology integrated with biomass catalytic pyrolysis and gasification processes was utilized to produce syngas (H(2)+CO). In the presence of different nickel based catalysts, effects of pyrolysis temperature and gasification temperature on gas production were investigated. Experimental results showed that more syngas and char of high quality could be obtained at a temperature of 750°C in the stage of pyrolysis, and in the stage of gasification, pyrolysis char (produced at 750°C) reacted with steam and the maximum yield of syngas was obtained at 850°C. Syngas yield in this study was greatly increased compared with previous studies, up to 3.29Nm(3)/kg biomass. The pyrolysis process could be well explained by Arrhenius kinetic first-order rate equation. XRD analyses suggested that formation of Mg(0.4)Ni(0.6)O and increase of Ni(0) crystallite size were two main reasons for the deactivation of nickel based catalysts at higher temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle for heat and power at ethanol plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kam, Matthew J.; Vance Morey, R. [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Tiffany, Douglas G. [Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, 1994 Buford Avenue St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) technology can be used to generate process heat and significant amounts of electricity at dry-grind ethanol facilities by utilizing the ethanol process co-products and other biomass sources. These systems can reduce fuel costs for ethanol plants, improve the renewable energy balance of dry-grind ethanol production, and provide reliable renewable electricity for process use and for sale to the local utility. An Aspen Plus model of the dry-grind ethanol process is used as the basis for a subsequent gasification system model. A twin fluidized bed steam gasification configuration based on the SilvaGas process is used to generate synthesis gas. The results show that a dry-grind ethanol facility with a capacity of 190 million liters per year could produce 30.4 MW{sub e} of power while supplying all its process heat needs using ethanol co-products and corn cobs. This configuration results in a three fold improvement in the amount of renewable energy produced per unit of fossil energy used compared to a conventional ethanol production process using natural gas. (author)

  6. Biogenic methane from hydrothermal gasification of biomass; Biogenes Methan durch hydrothermale Vergasung von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.; Vogel, F.

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done in the area of gasification of biomass. The use of dung, manure and sewage sludge as sources of energy is described and discussed. Hydrothermal gasification is proposed as an alternative to conventional gas-phase processes. The aim of the project in this respect is discussed. Here, a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously operating plant on a laboratory scale is being looked at. Difficulties encountered in preliminary tests are discussed. Long-term catalyst stability and the installations for the demonstration of the process are discussed, and gasification tests with ethanol are commented on.

  7. Study of the equilibrium of air-blown gasification of biomass to coal evolution fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model validated for coals, torrefied/green biomasses, in different gasifiers. • Maps of syngas composition, LHV and CGE for ER = 0–0.6, T = 500–2000 K, EBP = 0.004–0.158. • Effect of unconverted carbon, fuel moisture and overoxidation quantified. • Parameters for the maximum efficiency determined as functions of EBP. • EBP proven to be a good parameter for the quantitative comparison of different fuels. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy was used to study the isothermal and adiabatic air-blown gasification of solid fuels on a carbonization curve from fossil (hard/brown coals, peat) to renewable (green biomasses and cellulose) fuels, including torrefied biofuels. The maps of syngas composition, heating value and process efficiency were provided as functions of equivalent ratio (oxygen-to-fuel ratio) in the range 0–0.6, temperature in 500–2000 K, and a fuel parameter, which allowed different cases to be quantitatively compared. The effect of fuel moisture, unconverted carbon and conditions to limit the tar formation was also studied. Cold gas efficiency >0.75 can be achieved for coals at high temperature, using entrained beds (which give low unconverted carbon), and improved by moisture/added steam. The bigger efficiency of green biomasses is only potential, as the practical limits (high temperature required to limit tar formation, moisture content and unconverted carbon in small gasifiers) strongly reduce the gasification performance. Torrefied biomasses (and plastics having an intermediate fuel parameter between coals and green biomasses) can attain high efficiency also in real conditions. The results shown in this work can be useful to evaluate the most promising feedstock (depending on its composition and possible pre-treatment/upgrading), define the operating conditions for maximizing the syngas heating value or the global efficiency, assess the

  8. CFD simulations of influence of steam in gasification agent on parameters of UCG process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is considered to be a perspective and constantly developing technology. Nevertheless it is a very complex and technically difficult process, which results depend on many variables. Mathematical models enable detailed analysis of UCG process – for example – give possibility of prediction of syngas composition depending on applied gasification medium. In practice, mixtures of oxygen, air and steam are the most frequently used as converting agents. Steam is injected to the reactor in order to obtain combustible components. Nevertheless higher concentrations of steam create a problem of reduction of temperature in reactor. This issue of amount of steam in reacting system was analyzed in given paper. Computer simulations were used as test method applied in presented work. Calculations were carried by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF method and Ansys Fluent software. Changes in outlet concentrations of syngas components (CO, CO2, CH4, H2O, H2, in relation with time of process, were presented. Composition of product gas, its heating value and temperature of process were also examined (on outlet of rector in function of content of steam in gasification agent (which was mixture of O2 and H2O. Obtained results indicated a possibility of conduct of stable gasification process (with predictable characteristic of gas. The simulation also demonstrated a possibility of deterioration of conditions in real reactors as a results of applying of too high amounts of steam.

  9. Adiabatic Gasification and Pyrolysis of Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Rodriguez; Gerardo Gordillo

    2011-01-01

    Colombian coffee industry produces about 0.6 million tons of husk (CH) per year which could serve as feedstock for thermal gasification to produce gaseous and liquid fuels. The current paper deals with: (i) CH adiabatic gasification modeling using air-steam blends for partial oxidation and (ii) experimental thermogravimetric analysis to determine the CH activation energy (E). The Chemical Equilibrium with Applications Program (CEA), developed by NASA, was used to estimate the effect of equiva...

  10. Gasification of pelletized biomass in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Marco; Barontini, Federica; Nicolella, Cristiano; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2012-07-01

    This work presents a pilot-scale investigation aimed at assessing the feasibility and reliability of biomass pellet gasification. Wood sawdust and sunflower seeds pellets were tested in a 200 kW downdraft gasifier operating with air as gasifying agent. The gasification of pelletized biomass led to rather high and unstable pressure drops, reducing the gasifier productivity and stability. Furthermore the generation of fine residues compromised the operation of wet ash removal systems. On the other hand, good syngas compositions (H(2) 17.2%, N(2) 46.0%, CH(4) 2.5%, CO 21.2%, CO(2) 12.6%, and C(2)H(4) 0.4%), specific gas production (2.2-2.4 N m(3) kg(-1)) and cold gas efficiency (67.7-70.0%) were achieved. For these reasons pelletized biomass should be considered only as complementary fuel in co-gasification with other feedstock. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gasification of Nickel-Preloaded Oil Palm Biomass with Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shatir A. Syed-Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally investigates the gasification of nickel-preloaded oil palm biomass as an alternative catalytic approach to produce clean syngas. To eliminate the use of catalyst support, nickel was added directly to the oil palm mesocarp fiber via ion-exchange using an aqueous solution of nickel nitrate. Nickel species was found to disperse very well on the biomass at a nano-scale dispersion. The presence of the finely dispersed nickels on biomass enhanced syngas production and reduced tar content in the producer gas during the air gasification of biomass. It is believed that nickel particles attached on the biomass and its char promote the catalytic cracking of tar on their surface and supply free radicals to the gas phase to enhance the radical-driven gas-phase reactions for the reforming of high molecular weight hydrocarbons. The unconsumed nickel-containing char shows great potential to be re-utilised as a catalyst to further enhance the destruction of tar components in the secondary tar reduction process. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 12nd September 2015; Revised: 10th January 2016; Accepted:16th January 2016 How to Cite: Syed-Hassan, S.S.A., Nor-Azemi, S. (2016. Gasification of Nickel-Preloaded Oil Palm Biomass with Air. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 262-272 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.566.262-272 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.566.262-272

  12. Energy analysis of MHD-steam and MHD-gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaporowski, B.; Roszkiewicz, J.; Sroka, K. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents energy analysis of combined two media (MHD-steam) and three media (MHD-gas-steam) power plants of high efficiency of conversion of chemical energy of fuel into electric energy integrated with coal gasification. The goal of this paper is to show the possibility of obtaining the high efficiency (about 60%) of the conversion of chemical energy of coal into electric energy in combined power plants with the open cycle MHD generators. The base of performed energy analysis are the elaborated mathematical models: of gas generator, of combustion chamber of MHD generator, of MHD channel, of high-temperature heater of oxygen, nitrogen and air, of steam generator and the cycle of steam turbine and of the cycle of gas turbine, and also the computer programmes, elaborated on the base of these models for numerical simulation of the processes of energy conversion in these elements. The elaborated mathematical model of the process of coal gasification for MHD-steam power plants allows to calculate: composition, physical properties and energy parameters of gas produced in the process of coal gasification, the consumption and temperature of gasifying medium and both the chemical and energy efficiency of coal gasification. Gas produced in the process of coal gasification is directed to combustion chamber of MHD generator after desulphurization. The mathematical model of physical, chemical and energy processes in combustion chamber of MHD generator allows to determine the temperature of oxidizer and its enrichment in oxygen necessary to obtain the plasma parameters desired for optimum process of energy conversion in MHD channel. The mathematical model of energy conversion in open cycle MHD channel was presented in paper. This model allows to perform numerical simulation of energy conversion process and to determine optimum parameters of plasma at the inlet to the channel necessary to obtain maximum efficiency of energy conversion.

  13. Biomass gasification in atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed: effect of the type of gasifying agent on the product distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, J.; Aznar, M.P.; Caballero, M.A. [University of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Corella, J. [University ' ' Complutense' ' of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1999-07-01

    The effect of the type of gasifying agent used in biomass gasification on product distribution (gas, char and tar yields) and gas quality (Contents in H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4},..., tars) is analyzed. Gasifying agents taken into account are: air, pure steam, and steam-O{sub 2} mixtures. Process considered is biomass gasification in atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed. Previous results by Herguido et al. (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1992; 31(2): 1274-82), Gil et al. (Energy and Fuels 1997; 11(6): 1109-18) and Narvaez et al. (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996; 35(7): 2110-20) are compared. Such authors carried their research on biomass gasification under similar conditions but varying the gasifying agent. Three different gasifying agent-to-biomass ratios are needed and used to compare results. The relationships between the H{sub 2}, CO,..., tar contents in the flue gas and the type and amount of gasifying agent used are shown after a careful analysis. (author)

  14. Mathematical Modelling of the Fixed-Bed Biomass-Coal Co-Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskoy Igor G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers mathematical modelling of downdraft fixed-bed gasification process of the mixtures of woody biomass and coal. Biomass/coal ratio, biomass moisture content and air equivalence ratio are varying parameters. Boundaries of the efficient gasification regimes are estimated.

  15. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Horazak, D.A. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States); Ruel, R.H. [The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, a Westinghouse Electric led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C), and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), is conducting a 30 month research and development program. The program will provide validation of hot gas cleanup technology with a pressurized fluidized bed, air-blown, biomass gasifier for operation of a gas turbine. This paper discusses the gasification and hot gas cleanup processes, scope of work and approach, and the program`s status.

  16. Pre-treatment of oil palm fronds biomass for gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil Palm Fronds (OPF has been proven as one of the potential types of biomass feedstock for power generation. The low ash content and high calorific value are making OPF an attractive source for gasification. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pre-treatments of OPF residual on gasification. The pre-treatments included the briquetting process and extensive drying of OPF which are studied separately. In briquetting process, the OPF were mixed with some portions of paper as an additives, leaflets, and water, to form a soupy slurry. The extensive drying of OPF needs to cut down OPF in 4–6 cm particle size and left to dry in the oven at 150°C for 24 hours. Gasification process was carried out at the end of each of the pre-treated processes. It was found that the average gas composition obtained from briquetting process was 8.07%, 2.06%, 0.54%,and 11.02% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 respectively. A good composition of syngas was produced from extensive dried OPF, as 16.48%, 4.03%, 0.91%,and 11.15% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 contents respectively. It can be concluded that pre-treatments improved the physical characteristics of biomass. The bulk density of biomass can be increased by briquetting but the stability of the structure is depending on the composition of briquette formulation. Furthermore, the stability of gasification process also depended on briquette density, mechanical strength, and formulation.

  17. Analysis of tars produced in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Y.; Kinoshita, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Parametric tests on tar formation, varying temperature, equivalence ratio, and residence time, are performed on a bench-scale, indirectly-heated fluidized bed gasifier. Prepared tar samples are analyzed in a gas chromatograph (GC) with a flame ionization detector, using a capillary column. Standards containing dominant tar species have been prepared for GC calibration. The identified peaks include single-ring hydrocarbons, such as benzene, to five-ring hydrocarbons, such as perylene; depending on the gasification conditions, the identified species represent about 70 to 90% (mass basis) of the tar constituents. Under all conditions tested, benzene and naphthalene were the most dominant species. Temperature and equivalence ratio have significant effect on tar yield and tar composition. Tar yield decreases with increasing temperature or equivalence ratio. The test results suggest that lower temperature favors the formation of more aromatic tar species with diversified substituent groups, while higher temperature favors the formation of fewer aromatic tar species without substituent groups. Higher temperature or equivalence ratio favors the formation of polyaromatic compounds. Oxygen-containing compounds exist in significant quantities only at temperature below 800{degrees}C and decrease with increasing temperature, equivalence ratio, or residence time.

  18. H₂-rich syngas production by fluidized bed gasification of biomass and plastic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoppolo, G; Ammendola, P; Chirone, R; Miccio, F

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports the results of gasification tests using a catalytic fluidized bed gasifier to obtain a H(2)-rich stream by feeding different pellets made of wood, biomass/plastic and olive husks to the gasifier. The effects of both the steam supply and an in-bed catalyst on gasifier performance have been investigated. In general, pelletization was an effective pre-treatment for improving the homogeneity of the fuel and the reliability of the feeding devices. The use of biomass/plastic pellets in a catalyst bed yielded good results in terms of the hydrogen concentration (up to 32%vol.), even if an increase in tar production and in the fine/carbon elutriation rate was observed in comparison with wood pellets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanou, Pavlina

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and

  20. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Huixiao; Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance

    2013-01-01

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm 3 y −1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  1. Thermochemical Biomass Gasification: A Review of the Current Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted on the use of thermochemical biomass gasification for producing biofuels, biopower and chemicals. The upstream processes for gasification are similar to other biomass processing methods. However, challenges remain in the gasification and downstream processing for viable commercial applications. The challenges with gasification are to understand the effects of operating conditions on gasification reactions for reliably predicting and optimizing the product compositions, and for obtaining maximal efficiencies. Product gases can be converted to biofuels and chemicals such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels, green gasoline, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, ethanol, methanol, and higher alcohols. Processes and challenges for these conversions are also summarized.

  2. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  3. Tar removal from biomass gasification streams: processes and catalysts; Remocao do alcatrao de correntes de gaseificacao de biomassa: processos e catalisadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitete, Cristina P.B. [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Processos de Conversao de Biomassa; Souza, Mariana M.V.M., E-mail: mmattos@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Biomass gasification is a technology that has attracted great interest in synthesis of biofuels and oxo alcohols. However, this gas contains several contaminants, including tar, which need to be removed. Removal of tar is particularly critical because it can lead to operational problems. This review discusses the major pathways to remove tar, with a particular focus on the catalytic steam reforming of tar. Few catalysts have shown promising results; however, long-term studies in the context of real biomass gasification streams are required to realize their potential. (author)

  4. Experimental investigation on an entrained flow type biomass gasification system using coconut coir dust as powdery biomass feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, P K; Behera, S

    2012-08-01

    Based on an entrained flow concept, a prototype atmospheric gasification system has been designed and developed in the laboratory for gasification of powdery biomass feedstock such as rice husks, coconut coir dust, saw dust etc. The reactor was developed by adopting L/D (height to diameter) ratio of 10, residence time of about 2s and a turn down ratio (TDR) of 1.5. The experimental investigation was carried out using coconut coir dust as biomass feedstock with a mean operating feed rate of 40 kg/h The effects of equivalence ratio in the range of 0.21-0.3, steam feed at a fixed flow rate of 12 kg/h, preheat on reactor temperature, product gas yield and tar content were investigated. The gasifier could able to attain high temperatures in the range of 976-1100 °C with gas lower heating value (LHV) and peak cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 7.86 MJ/Nm3 and 87.6% respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergistic combination of biomass torrefaction and co-gasification: Reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Geng, Ping; Liu, Rui

    2017-12-01

    Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM). As a consequence of greater retention of catalytic elements in the solid products, the chars derived from torrefied biomass exhibited a faster conversion than those derived from raw biomass during CO 2 gasification. Furthermore, co-gasification of coal/torrefied biomass blends exhibited stronger synergy compared to the coal/raw biomass blends. The results and insights provided by this study filled a gap in understanding synergy during co-gasification of coal and torrefied biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Steam reforming of acetic acid - A major component in the volatiles formed during gasification of humin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Thi Minh Chau; Geerdink, Bert; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid and phenols are the major components of the condensable by-products in the low temperature de-volatilisation stage of humin during gasification. Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid using supported Ni on ceria-zirconia mixed oxide prepared via the hydrothermal route is discussed. The

  7. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  8. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a t echnoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass for Fuel Gas Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Hlína, Michal; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Kavka, Tetyana; Chumak, Oleksiy; Mašláni, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3-4 (2009), s. 299-313 ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * plasma gasification * syngas * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2009 http://www.begellhouse.com/journals/57d172397126f956,5cbc272245f24168,0ac09d02537962cf.html

  10. Vision of the U.S. biofuel future: a case for hydrogen-enriched biomass gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Mark Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Researchers at the Forest Product Laboratory (FPL) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) envision a future for biofuels based on biomass gasification with hydrogen enrichment. Synergisms between hydrogen production and biomass gasification technologies will be necessary to avoid being marginalized in the biofuel marketplace. Five feasible engineering solutions...

  11. System model for gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water – a thermodynamic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, Jan A.M.; Smeets, Jules R.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a system model for the process of gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water. Supercritical water gasification of wet biomass (water content of 70 wt% or more) has as the main advantage that conversion may take place without the costly drying step. The

  12. A comparative study of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle power systems: Performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Guiyan; Tejasvi, Sharma; Ratner, Albert; Lora, Electo Silva

    2018-05-01

    The Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) power system is believed to potentially be a highly efficient way to utilize biomass to generate power. However, there is no comparative study of BIGCC systems that examines all the latest improvements for gasification agents, gas turbine combustion methods, and CO 2 Capture and Storage options. This study examines the impact of recent advancements on BIGCC performance through exergy analysis using Aspen Plus. Results show that the exergy efficiency of these systems is ranged from 22.3% to 37.1%. Furthermore, exergy analysis indicates that the gas turbine with external combustion has relatively high exergy efficiency, and Selexol CO 2 removal method has low exergy destruction. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis shows that the system exergy efficiency is more sensitive to the initial temperature and pressure ratio of the gas turbine, whereas has a relatively weak dependence on the initial temperature and initial pressure of the steam turbine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-05-01

    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gasification under CO2–Steam Mixture: Kinetic Model Study Based on Shared Active Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, char gasification of two coals (i.e., Shenfu bituminous coal and Zunyi anthracite and a petroleum coke under a steam and CO2 mixture (steam/CO2 partial pressures, 0.025–0.075 MPa; total pressures, 0.100 MPa and CO2/steam chemisorption of char samples were conducted in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA. Two conventional kinetic models exhibited difficulties in exactly fitting the experimental data of char–steam–CO2 gasification. Hence, a modified model based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and assuming that char–CO2 and char–steam reactions partially shared active sites was proposed and had indicated high accuracy for estimating the interactions in char–steam–CO2 reaction. Moreover, it was found that two new model parameters (respectively characterized as the amount ratio of shared active sites to total active sites in char–CO2 and char–steam reactions in the modified model hardly varied with gasification conditions, and the results of chemisorption indicate that these two new model parameters mainly depended on the carbon active sites in char samples.

  15. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  16. Roadmap for the commercialisation of biomass gasification. A critical evaluation, tips, questions and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, G.H.

    2000-10-01

    Biomass has the potential to be a major replacement of fossil fuels. The world wide availability of biomass is considerable but it is not always in balance with the anticipated consumption. Biomass (wood) has the disadvantage that it has a low energy density and transport costs are, therefore, relatively high. Combustion, being a well-developed technology with many references, is the obvious choice for conversion technology. On the scale that biomass plants are usually constructed, however, the overall efficiency of the combustion system is low. Gasification has the advantage that solid fuel is converted into gaseous fuel which can be used in IC (internal combustion) engines or combined (gas and steam turbine) cycles with high efficiency. Even on a very small scale (several hundred kWe) a biomass-driven IC engine can have an efficiency of around 25%. Gasification has not yet advanced to the stage that it can serve as a reliable conversion technology for supplying electric power to industry or to the national grid. This may be possible on paper but in practice the market needs to be convinced by the success of plants in full operation. The first generation of plants, now under construction, or in operation, have to demonstrate the technology and provide confidence for future developments. Fixed bed gasification in combination with IC engines is more appropriate for small units. The development in micropower units is of particular interest. This development has been initiated for natural gas-fuelled units supplying power and heat to households, apartment blocks or offices. Once the fuel handling problems have been overcome and the units are more reliable and easier to operate, this could be a market with ample cost savings on the basis of mass production. Fluidised bed gasification, integrated with a combined cycle, is probably better suited to larger units, above 10 MWe. After experience has been obtained with units at an atmospheric pressure, the increase of the

  17. Co-gasification of different rank coals with biomass and petroleum coke in a high-pressure reactor for H(2)-rich gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermoso, J; Arias, B; Gil, M V; Plaza, M G; Pevida, C; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F

    2010-05-01

    Four coals of different rank were gasified, using a steam/oxygen mixture as gasifying agent, at atmospheric and elevated pressure in a fixed bed reactor fitted with a solids feeding system in continuous mode. Independently of coal rank, an increase in gasification pressure led to a decrease in H(2) + CO production and carbon conversion. Gasification of the different rank coals revealed that the higher the carbon content and reactivity, the greater the hydrogen production. Co-gasification experiments of binary (coal-biomass) and ternary blends (coal-petcoke-biomass) were conducted at high pressure to study possible synergetic effects. Interactions between the blend components were found to modify the gas production. An improvement in hydrogen production and cold gas efficiency was achieved when the coal was gasified with biomass. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermography of flame during diesel fuel combustion with steam gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriev, I. S.; Arsentyev, S. S.; Agafontsev, M. V.; Kopyev, E. P.; Loboda, E. L.; Shadrin, E. Yu; Sharypov, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper represents a study concerning the combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuel in a perspective burner device with the controlled forced supply of overheated steam into the combustion zone, using diesel fuel. The thermal imaging measurements are conducted for the outer flame of the burner device in the wide range of regime parameters (flow rate and temperature of steam). A thermal imaging camera (FLIR, JADE J530SB) is used in the experiments. The effective emissivity coefficient of flame is obtained versus the flow rate of steam supplied. The steam parameters are found to influence on the temperature in the outer flame of the burner device.

  19. Adiabatic Fixed-Bed Gasification of Colombian Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam Blends for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bonilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy consumption, mostly supplied by fossil fuels, has motivated the research and development of alternative fuel technologies to decrease the humanity’s dependence on fossil fuels, which leads to pollution of natural sources. Small-scale biomass gasification, using air-steam blends for partial oxidation, is a good alternative since biomass is a neutral carbon feedstock for sustainable energy generation. This research presents results obtained from an experimental study on coffee husk (CH gasification, using air-steam blends for partial oxidation in a 10 kW fixed-bed gasifier. Parametric studies on equivalence ratio (ER (1.53 < ER < 6.11 and steam-fuel (SF ratio (0.23 < SF < 0.89 were carried out. The results show that increasing both SF and ER results in a syngas rich in CH4 and H2 but poor in CO. Also, decreased SF and ER decrease the peak temperature (Tpeak at the gasifier combustion zone. The syngas high heating value (HHV ranged from 3112 kJ/SATPm3 to 5085 kJ/SATPm3 and its maximum value was obtained at SF = 0.87 and ER = 4.09. The dry basis molar concentrations of the species, produced under those operating conditions (1.53 < ER < 6.11 and 0.23 < SF < 0.89, were between 1.12 and 4.1% for CH4, between 7.77 and 13.49% for CO, and between 7.54 and 19.07% for H2. Other species were in trace amount.

  20. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  1. Biomass gasification in Europe - status and perspectives; Vergasung von Biomasse in Europa - Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelbach, L.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification of biomass is a promising option, especially in the fields of waste management and power generation, but there are considerable economic and technical problems that must be solved first. A critical analysis of biomass gasification in Europe today shows that this technology is not marketable today and cannot contribute to environmentally acceptable power supply on a short-term basis. (orig) [Deutsch] Von allen Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse stellt die Technik der Vergasung insbesondere in den Bereichen Abfallentsorgung und Stromerzeugung eine vielversprechende Option dar. Einer weiteren Verbreitung dieser Technik stehen allerdings erhebliche wirtschaftliche und technische Probleme entgegen. Die kritische Analyse der derzeitigen Gegebenheiten der Biomassevergasung in Europa fuehrt zu dem Schluss, dass diese Technik noch nicht unmittelbar vor der Mrkteinfuehrung steht und somit kurzfristig keinen merklichen Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Europa leisten kann. (orig)

  2. Wind Generator & Biomass No-draft Gasification Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthew R.

    The premise of this research is that underutilized but vast intermittent renewable energy resources, such as wind, can become more market competitive by coupling with storable renewable energy sources, like biomass; thereby creating a firm capacity resource. Specifically, the Midwest state of South Dakota has immense wind energy potential that is not used because of economic and logistic barriers of electrical transmission or storage. Coupling the state's intermittent wind resource with another of the state's energy resources, cellulosic non-food biomass, by using a wind generator and no-draft biomass gasification hybrid system will result in a energy source that is both firm and storable. The average energy content of common biomass feedstock was determined, 14.8 MJ/kg (7.153 Btu/lb), along with the assumed typical biomass conversion efficiency of the no-draft gasifier, 65%, so that an average electrical energy round trip efficiency (RTE) of 214% can be expected (i.e. One unit of wind electrical energy can produce 2.14 kWh of electrical energy stored as syngas.) from a wind generator and no-draft biomass gasification system. Wind characteristics are site specific so this analysis utilizes a synthetic wind resource to represent a statistically sound gross representation of South Dakota's wind regime based on data from the Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN) locations. A synthetic wind turbine generated from common wind turbine power curves and scaled to 1-MW rated capacity was utilized for this analysis in order to remove equipment bias from the results. A standard 8,760-hour BIN Analysis model was constructed within HOMER, powerful simulation software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to model the performance of renewable power systems. It was found that the optimum configuration on a per-megawatt-transmitted basis required a wind generator (wind farm) rated capacity of 3-MW with an anticipated annual biomass feedstock of 26,132 GJ

  3. Gasification behavior of coal and woody biomass: Validation and parametrical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyemi, Idowu; Janajreh, Isam; Arink, Thomas; Ghenai, Chaouki

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical modeling and experimental diagnostics of entrained flow gasification. • Obtain the effect of gasification of Kentucky coal and wood waste. • Obtain the effect of equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature. • Kentucky coal produced higher gasification efficiency as compared to wood. • The gasification efficiency most sensitive to equivalence ratio. - Abstract: The entrained flow gasification of two feedstocks (Kentucky coal and woody biomass) have been investigated in this study both numerically and experimentally. Previously, there had been no study that investigated the centerline parameters during the experimental gasification of Kentucky coal and biomass utilizing drop tube reactor (DTR). These high quality centerline experiments provide enough data for high fidelity model development and used for an innovative gasifier design. This work investigates the gasification behavior of Kentucky coal and wood waste under different gasification parameters including equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature. The experimental study was conducted in the air-blown atmospheric DTR experimental facility at the Waste-2-Energy Laboratory at Masdar Institute. The measured centerline temperature, exit gas composition, and SEM images was obtained for model validation and to gain better insight into the gasification of the two different feedstock particles. The Lagrangian–Eulerian based numerical model predicted the experimental results reasonably. The effect of the fuel type on the gas composition along the centerline of the gasifier indicated that Kentucky coal attained higher gasification efficiency when compared to that of wood waste. Moreover, the gasification efficiency was most sensitive to the equivalence ratio.

  4. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    ), fast growing energy crops (switchgrass), and popular forage crop (alfalfa), as well as biochar derived from those materials and their mixtures. It demonstrated that Py-MBMS coupled with MVA could be used as fast analytical tools for the study of not only biomass composition but also its thermal decomposition behaviors. It found that the impact of biomass composition heavily depends on the thermal decomposition temperature because at different temperature, the composition of biomass decomposed and the impact of minerals on the decomposition reaction varies. At low temperature (200-500°C), organic compounds attribute to the majority of variation in thermal decomposition products. At higher temperature, inorganics dramatically changed the pyrolysis pathway of carbohydrates and possibly lignin. In gasification, gasification tar formation is also observed to be impacted by ash content in vapor and char. In real reactor, biochar structure also has interactions with other fractions to make the final pyrolysis and gasification product. Based on the evaluation of process efficiencies during torrefaction, temperature ranging from 275°C to 300°C with short residence time (<10min) are proposed to be optimal torrefaction conditions. 500°C is preferred to 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature in two stage gasification because higher primary pyrolysis temperature resulted in more tar and less gasification char. Also, in terms of carbon yield, more carbon is lost in tar while less carbon is retained in gas product using 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature. In addition, pyrolysis char is found to produce less tar and more gas during steam gasification compared with gasification of pyrolysis vapor. Thus it is suggested that torrefaction might be an efficient pretreatment for biomass gasification because it can largely improve the yield of pyrolysis char during the primary pyrolysis step of gasification thus reduce the total tar of the overall gasification products. Future work

  5. Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

    With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass

  6. Modified Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model for Biomass Gasification: A Study of the Influence of Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Juan Carlos; Coronas, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for biomass gasification processes developed in the equation solver program Engineering Equation Solver (EES) with an implemented user-friendly interface. It is based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and includes some modifications to be adapted......, and oxygen enrichment] on producer gas. The model predicts the behavior of different kinds of biomass and becomes a useful tool to simulate the biomass gasification process by allowing its integration in complete energy supply systems, such as co-generation plants....

  7. OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS OF CATALYTIC CLEANING OF GAS FROM BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  8. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  9. Fresh tar (from biomass gasification) destruction with downstream catalysts: comparison of their intrinsic activity with a realistic kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A model for fresh tar destruction over catalysts placed downstream a biomass gasifier is presented. It includes the stoichio-metry and the calculation of the kinetic constants for the tar destruction. Catalysts studied include commercial Ni steam reforming catalysts and calcinated dolomites. Kinetic constants for tar destruction are calculated for several particle sizes, times- on-stream and temperatures of the catalyst and equivalence ratios in the gasifier. Such intrinsic kinetic constants allow a rigorous or scientific comparison of solids and conditions to be used in an advanced gasification process. (orig.) 4 refs.

  10. Parametric Optimization of Biomass Steam-and-Gas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a parametric analysis of the simplest scheme of a steam-and gas plant for the conditions required for biomass burning. It has been shown that application of gas-turbine and steam-and-gas plants can significantly exceed an efficiency of steam-power supply units which are used at the present moment. Optimum thermo-dynamical conditions for application of steam-and gas plants with the purpose to burn biomass require new technological solutions in the field of heat-exchange equipment designs.

  11. Adiabatic Gasification and Pyrolysis of Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombian coffee industry produces about 0.6 million tons of husk (CH per year which could serve as feedstock for thermal gasification to produce gaseous and liquid fuels. The current paper deals with: (i CH adiabatic gasification modeling using air-steam blends for partial oxidation and (ii experimental thermogravimetric analysis to determine the CH activation energy (E. The Chemical Equilibrium with Applications Program (CEA, developed by NASA, was used to estimate the effect of equivalence ratio (ER and steam to fuel ratio (S : F on equilibrium temperature and gas composition of ~150 species. Also, an atom balance model was developed for comparison purposes. The results showed that increased ER and (S : F ratios produce mixtures that are rich in H2 and CO2 but poor in CO. The value for the activation energy was estimated to be 221 kJ/kmol.

  12. Carbon exergy tax applied to biomass integrated gasification combined cycle in sugarcane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Filho, Valdi Freire da; Matelli, José Alexandre; Perrella Balestieri, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The development of technologies based on energy renewable sources is increasing worldwide in order to diversify the energy mix and satisfy the rigorous environmental legislation and international agreements to reduce pollutant emission. Considering specific characteristics of biofuels available in Brazil, studies regarding such technologies should be carried out aiming energy mix diversification. Several technologies for power generation from biomass have been presented in the technical literature, and plants with BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle) emerge as a major technological innovation. By obtaining a fuel rich in hydrogen from solid biomass gasification, BIGCC presents higher overall process efficiency than direct burning of the solid fuel in conventional boilers. The objective of this paper is to develop a thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium model of a BIGCC configuration for sugarcane bagasse. The model embodies exergetic cost and CO 2 emission analyses through the method of CET (carbon exergy tax). An exergetic penalty comparison between the BIGCC technology (with and without CO 2 capture and sequestration), a natural gas combined cycle and the traditional steam cycle of sugarcane sector is then presented. It is verified that the BIGCC configuration with CO 2 capture and sequestration presents technical and environmental advantages when compared to traditional technology. - Highlights: • We compared thermal cycles with the exergetic carbon exergy tax. • Thermal cycles with and without carbon capture and sequestration were considered. • Burned and gasified sugarcane bagasse was assumed as renewable fuel. • Exergetic carbon penalty tax was imposed to all studied configurations. • BIGCC with carbon sequestration revealed to be advantageous.

  13. Investigation of two-stage air-blown and air-steam-blown entrained-flow coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaimov, N. A.; Butakov, E. B.; Burdukov, A. P.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to compare effect of coal and steam supply to the second stage of the entrained-flow gasifiers on their main operating parameters. Two two-stage gasifiers of SB RAS Institute of Thermophysics were used as experimental units. The 5 MW unit has air-coal feeding to first and second stages (air-blown gasification). The 1 MW unit has air-coal feeding to first stage and steam feeding to second stage (air-steam-blown gasification). Experimental studies of air-blown and air-steam-blown gasification with various stoichiometric coefficients, flow rates, temperatures and supply points of secondary media (air-coal and steam) are carried out. Experimental and calculated (thermodynamic and CFD) methods have established that: in the air-blown gasification unit the increase of stoichiometric coefficients (secondary coal flow rate reduction) reduces the syngas heating value and increases the carbon conversion rate; in the air-steam-blown gasification unit the increase of the steam supply nozzle immersion to the gasifier leads to increase of the syngas heating value, the carbon conversion rate and decrease of the syngas H2/CO ratio.

  14. Gasification of biomass - principles and technical alternatives; Vergasung von Biomassen - Prinzipien und technische Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The technical principles of gasification are outlined, and a number of biomass gasification processes are presented and compared with the coal gasification process. On the basis of the knowledge gained in coal gasification, it will be easy to carry out the development work still required on small-scale biomass gasification systems in cooperation with the gas users. (orig) [Deutsch] Das technische Prinzip derVergasung und verschiedene Verfahrensweisen bei der Vergasung von Biomasse werden vorgestellt und mit der Kohlevergasung verglichen. Auf der Grundlage der technischen Erkenntnisse bei der Kohlevergasung einschliesslich der vor- und nachgeschalteten Prozessstufen sind die noch notwendigen verfahrens- und apparatetechnischen Entwicklungsarbeiten fuer vorwiegend kleine Anlagen in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gasnutzern durchfuehrbar. (orig)

  15. Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Maria

    2002-05-01

    A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2

  16. Release of chlorine from biomass at gasification conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerkman, E.; Stroemberg, B.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the project was to investigate the influence of different gasifying atmospheres on the release of chlorine from biomass during gasification conditions. Furthermore, the purpose was also to try and identify the formed chloro compounds. The results showed that O 2 , H 2 O and CO 2 had negligible effect on the chlorine release at temperatures under 700 deg C. At temperatures above 800 deg C the reactivity towards CO 2 increased and could be seen as higher chlorine release and less solid residue. No chloro organic compounds (aliphatic one to six carbons or aromatic one to two rings) could be detected in the tar or the fuel gas produced during pyrolysis/gasifying. On the other hand, comparable amounts of chlorinated benzenes were found in the cooling section during combustion of lucerne and of synthetic waste, indicating that oxygen is essential for chlorination reactions. 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Preliminary studies on the treatment of wastewater from biomass gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Roksana; Chrubasik, Maciej; Stelmach, Sławomir; Sajdak, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents completed research on the purification of undiluted raw water and organic condensates obtained in biomass thermal conversion processes such as gasification, which are rarely addressed in published studies. However, similar studies involving the characterization and purification of aqueous solutions obtained from process gas treatment after the gasification of biomass are available. Condensation of water-organic condensate from process gas helps to reduce the amount of water required by the purification process and the cost of the process technology and water consumption. Oil scrubbers can be used in this case instead of water scrubbers. In this case, the obtained condensate must be subjected to purification processes. This paper presents the results of our research, possible methods of treatment (chemical and biological methods), and the approximate cost of the reagents required for the purification of condensate for specific assumed degrees of purification. The best results from the chemical purification using the Fenton method were obtained with the ratio V(H2O2)/V(cond.) = 6.0 and the ratio V(H2O2)/Fe = 0.0375. To prevent precipitation of ferric hydroxide, this value can be reduced 20-fold, which reduces the total degree of purification to 90%. The cost of almost complete cleaning of tested condensates was calculated to be approximately 2000 USD per/m(3). This cost can be reduced by a factor of approximately four assuming 100% cleaning for 2-furaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and phenol; acetaldehyde, propane-2-one (acetone), methanol and acetic acid are oxidized by 50%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity of biomass-petroleum coke blended char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; Gong, Yan; Ding, Lu; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-06-01

    In this work, effects of gasification temperature (900°C-1100°C) and blended ratio (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) on reactivity of petroleum coke and biomass co-gasification were studied in TGA. Quantification analysis of active AAEM transformation and in situ investigation of morphological structure variations in gasification were conducted respectively using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and heating stage microscope to explore synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity. The results indicated that char gasification reactivity was enhanced with increasing biomass proportion and gasification temperature. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity was presented after complete generation of biomass ash, and gradually weakened with increasing temperature from 1000°C to 1100°C after reaching the most significant value at 1000°C. This phenomenon was well related with the appearance of molten biomass ash rich in glassy state potassium and the weakest inhibition effect on active potassium transformation during co-gasification at the temperature higher than 1000°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

  20. Hydrogen production from biomass. Optimization of gasification by experimental by experimental statistical design; Produccion de hidrogeno a partir de biomasa. Optimizacion de la gasificacion por aplicacion del diseno estadistico de experimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche Calvo, A.

    2008-07-01

    Biomass conversion into a gas with high content in hydrogen is considered as a future alternative to obtain energy and chemicals products for renewable sources. One of the current technologies for this purpose is the gasification using steam as gasification agent. The technical objective of this work is the study of the process of biomass gasification with steam and oxygen as thermochemical process of transformation of biomass to obtain the maximum amount of hydrogen with lowest tar content. Materials and Methods. An experimental statistical strategy with three variables and two levels of operation was planned to optimize the gasification process. the study was conducted without changing the type of biomass-fed, the type of catalyst used and the quantity of bed inside the gasifier. Two mathematical models have been obtained as results. Both of them correlated the experimental factors to the production of hydrogen and tars. The design of experiments methodology has been applied to assess the influence os several experimental factors, such as the introduced amount of steam, the use of catalyst and oxygen, both in the production of hydrogen, as in the minimization of the formation of tars. This statistical technique has enabled the modeling of the selected biomass gasification performing the minimum number of pilot plant tests to identify possible improvements and optimizations both in the yield of produced hydrogen as in the generation of tars. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. Performance of different dolomites on hot raw gas cleaning from biomass gasification with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orio, A.; Corella, J.; Narvaez, I. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Calcined dolomites (CaO-MgO) from four different quarries have been tested for the upgrading of the hot raw gas from a fluidized bed gasifier of biomass with air. These calcined dolomites have big macropores (900--4,000 {angstrom}) and low (3.8--12 m{sup 2}/g) BET surface areas. They have been tested in a fixed bed of 6 cm i.d. downstream from the air-blown biomass gasifier. The change in gas composition (contents in H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, {hor_ellipsis}), tar content, gas heating value, etc., has been studied in different temperatures (780--920 C) as well as space-times for the gas in the bed (0.03--0.10 kg{center_dot}h/m{sup 3}) and the type of dolomite. Increasing the equivalence ratio used in the gasifier and decreasing the H/C ratio of the gas increases the refractoriness of the tars to be eliminated by the calcined dolomite. Activation energies (100 {+-} 20 kJ/mol) and preexponential factors for the overall tar elimination reaction have been calculated for the different dolomites under realistic conditions. The activity of the dolomite for tar elimination can increase by 20% on increasing its pore diameter or its Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. Comparison of results with similar ones obtained in biomass gasification with steam is also presented.

  2. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW th ) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW th ) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  3. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  4. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gasification is a process that devoltalizes solid or liquid hydrocarbons, and converts them into a producer gas. There are more than 100 waste gasification facilities operating or under construction around the world. Some plants have been operating commercially for more than five years. Gasification has several advantages ...

  6. Policy Impact on Economic Viability of Biomass Gasification Systems in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranpreya Sriwannawit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is facing challenges on the lack of electricity access in rural areas and the management of agricultural waste. The utilization of waste-to-energy technology can help in mitigating these issues. The aim of this paper is to assess the economic viability of a biomass gasification system for rural electrification by investigating its competitiveness in relation to various government supports. Financial modelling is applied to calculate Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE. NPV and IRR results indicate that biomass gasification is an economically viable option when appropriate financial government supports exist. LCOE result indicates that biomass gasification system is already more economically competitive compared to diesel generator even without additional support but it is less competitive compared to the national electricity grid tariff. In conclusion, the biomass gasification system is an economically viable option for rural electrification in Indonesian context.

  7. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (rp) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio and GT-TIT.

  8. Hydrogen-rich syngas production and tar removal from biomass gasification using sacrificial tyre pyrolysis char

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rahbi, AS; Williams, PT

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials have been proven to have a high catalytic activity for tar removal from the syngas produced from biomass gasification. The simultaneous reforming and gasification of pyrolysis gases and char could have a significant role in increasing the gas yield and decreasing the tar in the product syngas. This study investigates the use of tyre char as a catalyst for H2-rich syngas production and tar reduction during the pyrolysis-reforming of biomass using a two stage fixed bed re...

  9. Biomass gasification: The understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly alternatives to conventional petrochemical fuels for the production of electricity, hydrogen, synthetic transportation biofuels and other chemicals. The product gas normally contains the major compon...

  10. Research into Biomass and Waste Gasification in Atmospheric Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, Zdenek; Ochrana, Ladislav; Lisy, Martin; Balas, Marek; Kohout, Premysl; Skoblja, Sergej

    2007-07-01

    Considerable attention is paid in the Czech Republic to renewable energy sources. The largest potential, out of them all, have biomass and waste. The aim therefore is to use them in CHP in smaller units (up to 5MWel). These are the subject of the research summarized in our article. The paper presents results of experimental research into gasification in a 100 kW AFB gasifier situated in Energy Institute, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, and fitted with gas cleaning equipment. Within the research, study was carried out into gas cleaning taking primary measures in the fluidized bed and using hot filter, metal-based catalytic filter, and wet scrubber. Descriptions and diagrams are given of the gasifier and new ways of cleaning. Results include: Impact of various fuels (farming and forest wastes and fast-growing woods and culm plants) on fuel gas quality. Individual kinds of biomass have very different thermal and physical properties; Efficiency of a variety of cleaning methods on content of dust and tars and comparison of these methods; and, Impact of gasifier process parameters on resultant gas quality. (auth)

  11. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using reverse osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S.E.; Eliason, S.D.; Laegreid, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated as a treatment technology for the removal of organics from biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) generated from an experimental biomass gasifier at Texas Tech University. Wastewaters were characteristically high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) with initial values ranging from 32,000 to 68,000 mg/1. Since RO is normally considered a complementary treatment technology, wastewaters were pretreated by biological or wet air oxidation (WAO) processes. One set of experiments were run using untreated wastewaters to compare membrane performance with those experiments using pretreated wastewaters. Experiments were run for 8 to 10 hrs using UOP's TFC-85 membrane operating at 700 psig and 18 to 20/sup 0/C. This membrane is similar to the NS-100, a membrane known for being effective in the separation of organics from solution. Separation of organics from solution was determined by COD removal. Removal percentages for biologically pretreated wastewaters averaged 98% except for one group of runs averaging 69% removal. This exception was probably due to the presence of milk solids in the feed. Use of RO on WAO pretreated wastewaters and unpretreated feeds resulted in 90% COD removal. Membrane degradation was observed when using full-strength and WAO pretreated feeds, but not when using feeds that had undergone biological pretreatment. Color removal was computed for the majority of experiments completed. Overall, 99 to 100% of the total color was removed from BGW feeds, values which coincide with those reported in the literature for other wastewaters.

  12. Biomass gasification in near- and super-critical water: Status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Minowa, Tomoaki [Biomass Technology Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-2 Hiro-Suehiro, Kure-shi, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan); Potic, Biljana; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, Wolter; van Swaaij, Willibrordus P.M. [TCCB Group, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); van de Beld, Bert [Biomass Technology Group B.V., Pantheon 12, 7521 PR, Enschede (Netherlands); Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, MSIN K2-12, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kruse, Andrea [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jerry Antal Jr., Michael [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The current status of biomass gasification in near- and supercritical water (SCWG) is reviewed. There are two approaches to biomass gasification in supercritical water. The first: low-temperature catalytic gasification, employs reaction temperature ranging from 350 to 600{sup o}C, and gasifies the feedstock with the aid of metal catalysts. The second: high-temperature supercritical water gasification, employs reaction temperatures ranging from 500 to 750{sup o}C, without catalyst or with non-metallic catalysts. Reviews are made on reaction mechanism, catalyst, and experimental results for these two approaches. Engineering technologies for SCWG gasification, and an example of process analysis are also introduced. Finally, the authors' prognostications on the future prospects of this technology are offered. (author)

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania

  14. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  15. System studies on Biofuel production via Integrated Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Malek, Laura; Hulteberg, Christian [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ. Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly. The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for fair techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project. Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found. In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and

  16. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvagno, S.; Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products

  17. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, S; Casciaro, G; Casu, S; Martino, M; Mingazzini, C; Russo, A; Portofino, S

    2009-02-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from "end of life" products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

  18. Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    The coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined cycle (GMS) refers to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems in which coal gasification is used to supply a clean fuel (free of mineral matter and sulfur) for combustion in an MHD electrical power plant. Advantages of a clean-fuel system include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants are shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal-burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

  19. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  20. Solid-gaseous phase transformation of elemental contaminants during the gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Ameh, Abiba; Lei, Mei; Duan, Lunbo; Longhurst, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Disposal of plant biomass removed from heavy metal contaminated land via gasification achieves significant volume reduction and can recover energy. However, these biomass often contain high concentrations of heavy metals leading to hot-corrosion of gasification facilities and toxic gaseous emissions. Therefore, it is of significant interest to gain a further understanding of the solid-gas phase transition of metal(loid)s during gasification. Detailed elemental analyses (C, H, O, N and key metal/metalloid elements) were performed on five plant species collected from a contaminated site. Using multi-phase equilibria modelling software (MTDATA), the analytical data allows modelling of the solid/gas transformation of metal(loid)s during gasification. Thermodynamic modelling based on chemical equilibrium calculations was carried out in this study to predict the fate of metal(loid) elements during typical gasification conditions and to show how these are influenced by metal(loid) composition in the biomass and operational conditions. As, Cd, Zn and Pb tend to transform to their gaseous forms at relatively low temperatures (gasification temperature range of 1000-1200°C. Whereas Cr, Al, Fe and Mg remain in solid phase at higher temperatures (>1200°C). Simulation of pressurised gasification conditions shows that higher pressures increase the temperature at which solid-to-gaseous phase transformations takes place. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gas, power and heat generation from biomass by allothermal gasification; Gas-, Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse durch allotherme Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqub Chughtai, M. [H und C Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Muehlen, H.J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The allothermal DMT gasification process for biomass is a newcomer. The process, its initial materials, the uses of the product gas, and advantages of the allothermal process are described here. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz des allothermen DMT-Vergasungsverfahrens fuer Biomasse ist neu. Verfahren, Einsatzstoffe und Produktgasnutzung, sowie Vorteile des allothermen Verfahrens werden hier beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  2. Oxygen transport membranes for biomass gasification and cement industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shiyang

    Oxygen transport membranes (OTMs) are of particular interest for their potential applications in high purity oxygen separation, biomass gasification and carbon capture and storage in cement production. Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-δ (GCO) is one of the interesting materials of OTMs because of its high ionic...... be an interstitial defect in GCO. Also dual phase membranes were studied. A 1-mm thick dual phase composite oxygen membrane (50vol.% Al0.02Ga0.02Zn0.96O1.02-50 vol.% Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-δ) with catalyst on both sides was observed to sustain an oxygen flux of 0.3 Nml cm-2 min-1 under air/N2 at 900 °C. The material....... In this study various routes for enhancing the electronic conductivity were investigated; either via elemental substitution or via mixing doped-ceria with another material when forming the membrane layers. The increase of electronic conductivity by substitution co-doped Gd and Pr in ceria was investigated...

  3. Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed; Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, M.; Hoelder, D.; Backhaus, C.; Althaus, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed, in combination with a gas engine or gas burner, is a promising option for energetic use of biomass. Economic efficiency analyses on the basis of the UMSICHT plant show that this technology for combined heat and power generation from biomass is promising also for the range below 10 MW. The economic situation of any plant must be considered for the specific boundary conditions imposed by the power supply industry. The feasibility of the process was tested in a demonstration plant at Oberhausen. The plant was optimized further in extensive test series, and a number of tar reduction processes were investigated and improved on. The authors now intend to prove that gasification in a circulating fluidized bed combined with a gas engine cogeneration plant is feasible in continuous operation. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht ist in Kombination mit einem Gasmotor oder einem Gasbrenner eine vielversprechende Option fuer die energetische Biomassenutzung. Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen auf Basis der UMSICHT-Anlage zeigen, dass diese Technologie fuer die gekoppelte Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse auch im Leistungsbereich unter 10 MW grosse Chancen verspricht. Dabei ist die oekonomische Situation einer Anlage im Einzelfall unter Beachtung der energiewirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen zu beurteilen. Durch den Betrieb einer Demonstrationsanlage in Oberhausen konnte die Funktion des Verfahrens nachgewiesen werden. In weiteren umfangreichen Versuchsreihen werden die Anlage weiter optimiert und verschiedene Konzepte zur Teerminderung untersucht und weiterentwickelt. Angestrebt ist der Nachweis des Dauerbetriebs von ZWS-Vergasung zusammen mit dem Gasmotoren-BHKW. (orig./SR)

  4. The production of synthetic material gas (SNG) from pit coal by a combined auto-allothermic steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, A.

    1975-01-01

    The steam gasification of pit coal requires temperatures which cannot yet be reached with the present state of HTGR technology for material technical reasons. The use of nuclear heat thus remains limited to some fields of application outside the gasifier, which are specified. The production costs of synthetic natural gas from autothermal gasification on the one hand, and from combined auto-allothermal gasification on the other hand are calculated considering the heat price of pit coal and of the selling price of electrical energy and are compared. (GG/LH) [de

  5. Co-gasification of coal and biomass: Synergy, characterization and reactivity of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhao; Shao, Jingai; Yang, Haiping; Lin, Guiying; Chen, Yingquan; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Wennan; Chen, Hanping

    2017-11-01

    The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification. The migration of inorganic elements between coal and biomass was found, the formation and competitive role of K 2 SiO 3 , KAlSiO 4 , and Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 is a mechanism behind the synergy. The graphization degree is enhanced but size of graphite crystallite in the residual char decreases with biomass blending ratio increasing. TGA results strongly suggest the big difference in the reactivity of chars derived from coal and biomass in spite of influence from co-gasification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical factors affecting the integration of biomass gasification and syngas fermentation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan D. Ramachandriya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gasification-fermentation is a thermochemical-biological platform for the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass is gasified at high temperatures to make syngas, a gas composed of CO, CO2, H2, N2 and other minor components. Syngas is then fed to anaerobic microorganisms that convert CO, CO2 and H2 to alcohols by fermentation. This platform offers numerous advantages such as flexibility of feedstock and syngas composition and lower operating temperature and pressure compared to other catalytic syngas conversion processes. In comparison to hydrolysis-fermentation, gasification-fermentation has a major advantage of utilizing all organic components of biomass, including lignin, to yield higher fuel production. Furthermore, syngas fermentation microorganisms do not require strict CO:H2:CO2 ratios, hence gas reforming is not required. However, several issues must be addressed for successful deployment of gasification-fermentation, particularly those that involve the integration of gasification and fermentation. Most previous reviews have focused only on either biomass gasification or syngas fermentation. In this review, the critical factors that affect the integration of biomass gasification with syngas fermentation, such as carbon conversion efficiency, effect of trace gaseous species, H2 to CO ratio requirements, and microbial preference of carbon substrate, are thoroughly discussed.

  7. Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Tony

    2011-12-15

    Technology for thermal gasification of biomass is one of the key elements to make the vision of an energy system without fossil fuels a reality. Gasification technology can enhance the flexibility needed to maintain a future energy system with a large share of wind power. Furthermore, gasification has advantages in terms of ash recycling and utilisation of vast but challenging biomass residues. Danish companies are globally well advanced with this technology and the market for gasification technology is great in both Denmark and abroad. There is a clear need for targeted technology RD and D in order to reach the last stretch to a commercial breakthrough. The project ''Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark'' is the Danish industrys contribution to the development of biomass gasification and goes into detail with the RD and D needs. The project has been conducted by FORCE Technology for DI Bioenergy with funding from EUDP, Energinet.dk, DI Bioenergy and FORCE Technology and five stakeholder companies. (LN)

  8. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  9. Feasibility study on combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to increase the production of biomethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hailong; Larsson, Eva; Thorin, Eva; Dahlquist, Erik; Yu, Xinhai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification are integrated. • The novel concept can produce much more biomethane. • The novel concept can improve the exergy efficiency. • The novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. - Abstract: There is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. A new concept is proposed to combine anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to produce biomethane. H 2 is separated from the syngas generated by biomass gasification in a membrane system, and then is used to upgrade raw biogas from anaerobic digestion. Simulations have been conducted based on the real operation data of one full scale biogas plant and one full scale biomass gasification plant in order to investigate the feasibility of the new concept. Results show that although less power and heat are generated compared to the gasification plant, which results in a lower overall efficiency, much more biomethane can be produced than the biogas plant; and the new concept can achieve a higher exergy efficiency. Due to the increasing price of biomethane, the novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. For example, at a biomethane price of 12.74SEK/kg, the annual income can be increased by 5.3% compared to the total income of the biogas and gasification plant

  10. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass : A Literature and Technology Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakaboylu, O.; Harinck, J.; Smit, K.G.; De Jong, W.

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification process is an alternative to both conventional gasification as well as anaerobic digestion as it does not require drying and the process takes place at much shorter residence times; a few minutes at most. The drastic changes in the thermo-physical properties of

  11. Solid–gaseous phase transformation of elemental contaminants during the gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ying; Ameh, Abiba [Centre for Bioenergy & Resource Management, School of Energy, Environment & Agrifood, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Lei, Mei [Centre for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Duan, Lunbo [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control, Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Longhurst, Philip, E-mail: P.J.Longhurst@cranfield.ac.uk [Centre for Bioenergy & Resource Management, School of Energy, Environment & Agrifood, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    Disposal of plant biomass removed from heavy metal contaminated land via gasification achieves significant volume reduction and can recover energy. However, these biomass often contain high concentrations of heavy metals leading to hot-corrosion of gasification facilities and toxic gaseous emissions. Therefore, it is of significant interest to gain a further understanding of the solid–gas phase transition of metal(loid)s during gasification. Detailed elemental analyses (C, H, O, N and key metal/metalloid elements) were performed on five plant species collected from a contaminated site. Using multi-phase equilibria modelling software (MTDATA), the analytical data allows modelling of the solid/gas transformation of metal(loid)s during gasification. Thermodynamic modelling based on chemical equilibrium calculations was carried out in this study to predict the fate of metal(loid) elements during typical gasification conditions and to show how these are influenced by metal(loid) composition in the biomass and operational conditions. As, Cd, Zn and Pb tend to transform to their gaseous forms at relatively low temperatures (< 1000 °C). Ni, Cu, Mn and Co converts to gaseous forms within the typical gasification temperature range of 1000–1200 °C. Whereas Cr, Al, Fe and Mg remain in solid phase at higher temperatures (> 1200 °C). Simulation of pressurised gasification conditions shows that higher pressures increase the temperature at which solid-to-gaseous phase transformations takes place. - Highlights: • Disposal of plants removed from metal contaminated land raises environmental concerns • Plant samples collected from a contaminated site are shown to contain heavy metals. • Gasification is suitable for plant disposal and its emission is modelled by MTDATA. • As, Cd, Zn and Pb are found in gaseous emissions at a low process temperature. • High pressure gasification can reduce heavy metal elements in process emission.

  12. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  13. Hydrogen and syngas production by catalytic gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) using alkali and alkaline-earth metals compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abdol Ghaffar; Hisoriev, Hikmat; Zarnegar, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Hamed

    2018-01-02

    The steam gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) in presence of alkali and alkaline-earth metal compounds catalysts was studied to enhance the yield of syngas and reduce its tar content through cracking and reforming of condensable fractions. The commercial catalysts used include NaOH, KHCO 3 , Na 3 PO 4 and MgO. The gasification runs carried out with a research scale, biomass gasification unit, show that the NaOH has a strong potential for production of hydrogen, along with the added advantages of char converting and tar destruction, allowing enhancement of produced syngas caloric value. When the temperature increased from 700°C to 900°C, the tar content in the gas sharply decreased, while the hydrogen yield increased. Increasing steam/biomass ratio significantly increased hydrogen yield and tar destruction; however, the particle size in the range of 0.5-2.5 mm played a minor role in the process.

  14. Possibilities of CO and H2 Contents Change in the Syngas Produced by Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan JANŠA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal gasification is an advanced technology to convert purposefully grown or waste ligno-cellulosic biomass into calorific gas. Increasing the content of CO and H2 in the product gas is important for the further use of the gas in technologies for power generation. This article describes the process of gasification and specifies parameters that determine the content of CO and H2 in the produced gas.

  15. Biomass-oxygen gasification in a high-temperature entrained-flow gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinsong; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Hui; Cao, Xiaowei; Mei, Qinfeng; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2009-01-01

    The technology associated with indirect biomass liquefaction is currently arousing increased attention, as it could ensure a supply of transportation fuels and reduce the use of petroleum. The characteristics of biomass-oxygen gasification in a bench-scale laminar entrained-flow gasifier were studied in the paper. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of some key factors, including reaction temperature, residence time and oxygen/biomass ratio, on the gasification. The results indicated that higher temperature favored H2 and CO production. Cold gas efficiency was improved by N10% when the temperature was increased from 1000 to 1400 degrees C. The carbon conversion increased and the syngas quality was improved with increasing residence time. A shorter residence resulted in incomplete gasification. An optimal residence time of 1.6 s was identified in this study. The introduction of oxygen to the gasifier strengthened the gasification and improved the carbon conversion, but lowered the lower heating value and the H2/CO ratio of the syngas. The optimal oxygen/biomass ratio in this study was 0.4. The results of this study will help to improve our understanding of syngas production by biomass high-temperature gasification.

  16. From coal to biomass gasification: Comparison of thermodynamic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Mark J.; Ptasinski, Krzysztof J.; Janssen, Frans J.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of fuel composition on the thermodynamic efficiency of gasifiers and gasification systems is studied. A chemical equilibrium model is used to describe the gasifier. It is shown that the equilibrium model presents the highest gasification efficiency that can be possibly attained for a given fuel. Gasification of fuels with varying composition of organic matter, in terms of O/C and H/C ratio as illustrated in a Van Krevelen diagram, is compared. It was found that exergy losses in gasifying wood (O/C ratio around 0.6) are larger than those for coal (O/C ratio around 0.2). At a gasification temperature of 927 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.4 is recommended, which corresponds to a lower heating value above 23 MJ/kg. For gasification at 1227 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.3 and lower heating value above 26 MJ/kg is preferred. It could thus be attractive to modify the properties of highly oxygenated biofuels prior to gasification, e.g. by separation of wood into its components and gasification of the lignin component, thermal pre-treatment, and/or mixing with coal in order to enhance the heating value of the gasifier fuel

  17. Equilibrium analysis of hydrogen production using the steam-plasma gasification process of the used car tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V A; Kumkova, I I; Lerner, A S; Popov, V E

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the treatment of used car tires. The method of used tires plasma gasification is proposed. The investigation of the syngas composition was carried out according to the temperature and plasma flow rate variation. The method of the steam catalytic conversion of CO, which is a part of the syngas, and CaO usage are suggested. The results of the calculation modeling at various temperatures, pressures, and steam flow rates are presented.

  18. Co-gasification of biomass and plastics: pyrolysis kinetics studies, experiments on 100 kW dual fluidized bed pilot plant and development of thermodynamic equilibrium model and balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narobe, M; Golob, J; Klinar, D; Francetič, V; Likozar, B

    2014-06-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of volatilization reaction kinetics for 50 wt.% mixtures of plastics (PE) and biomass (wood pellets) as well as for 100 wt.% plastics was conducted to predict decomposition times at 850°C and 900°C using iso-conversional model method. For mixtures, agreement with residence time of dual fluidized bed (DFB) reactor, treated as continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), was obtained at large conversions. Mono-gasification of plastics and its co-gasification with biomass were performed in DFB pilot plant, using olivine as heterogeneous catalyst and heat transfer agent. It was found that co-gasification led to successful thermochemical conversion of plastics as opposed to mono-gasification. Unknown flow rates were determined applying nonlinear regression to energy and mass balances acknowledging combustion fuel, air, steam, feedstock, but also exiting char, tar, steam and other components in DFB gasification unit. Water-gas shift equilibrium and methanol synthesis requirements were incorporated into gasification model, based on measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  20. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  1. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S., E-mail: suman.mech09@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Agarpara, Kolkata – 700109, West Bengal (India); Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (r{sub p}) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio

  2. Solid oxide fuel cells powered by biomass gasification for high efficiency power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadsbøll, Rasmus Østergaard; Thomsen, Jesper; Bang-Møller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    efficiencies, flexibility and possibly costs of current biomass power generating systems, a power plant concept combining solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gasification is investigated experimentally. The aim of the study is to examine the commercial operation system potential of these two technologies......Increased use of bioenergy is a very cost-effective and flexible measure to limit changes in the climate and the infrastructure. One of the key technologies toward a higher implementation of biomass is thermal gasification, which enables a wide span of downstream applications. In order to improve...

  3. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  4. Use of farm waste biomass in the process of gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechocki, J. [Warmia and Mazury Univ., Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The process of gasification of waste biomass from farm production was examined along with the energy balance of the process. A newly developed biomass gasification technology that uses manure from poultry farms as the input material was shown to meet all environmental requirements. The gas was purified in a membrane process to increase its calorific value. The gas was then used in an internal combustion engine powering a current generating system to produce electricity and heat in a combined heat and power system (CHP).

  5. Non-slag co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Yoshinori; Suami, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobusuke

    2018-02-01

    Gasification is a promising candidate of processes to upgrade biomass and to yield clean gaseous fuel for utilization of renewable energy resources. However, a sufficient amount of biomass is not always available to operate a large scale of the plant. Co-gasification of biomass with coal is proposed as a solution of the problem. Tar emission is another subject during operation in shaft or kiln type of gasifiers employed conventionally for biomass. The present authors proposed co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace, which is a representative process without tar emission under high temperature, but operated so to collect dust as flyash without molten slag formation. This paper presents the works performed on co-gasification performance of biomass and pulverized coal to apply to entrained-bed type of furnaces. At first, co-gasification of woody powder and pulverized coal examined using the lab-scale test furnace of the down-flow entrained bed showed that the maximum temperatures in the furnace was over 1500 K and the carbon conversion to gas achieved at higher efficiency than 80-90 percent although the residence time in the furnace was as short as a few seconds. Non-slag co-gasification was carried out successfully without slag formation in the furnace if coal containing ash with high fusion temperature was employed. The trend suggesting the effect of reaction rate enhancement of co-gasification was also observed. Secondary, an innovative sewage sludge upgrading system consisting of self-energy recovery processes was proposed to yield bio-dried sludge and to sequentially produce char without adding auxiliary fuel. Carbonization behavior of bio-dried sludge was evaluated through pyrolysis examination in a lab-scale quartz tube reactor. The thermal treatment of pyrolysis of sludge contributed to decomposition and removal of contaminant components such as nitrogen and sulfur. The gasification kinetics of sludge and coal was also determined by a

  6. EVALUATION OF BIOMASS AND COAL CO-GASIFICATION OF BRAZILIAN FEEDSTOCK USING A CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Coal and biomass are energy sources with great potential for use in Brazil. Coal-biomass co-gasification enables the combination of the positive characteristics of each fuel, besides leading to a cleaner use of coal. The present study evaluates the potential of co-gasification of binary coal-biomass blends using sources widely available in Brazil. This analysis employs computational simulations using a reliable thermodynamic equilibrium model. Favorable operational conditions at high temperatures are determined in order to obtain gaseous products suitable for energy cogeneration and chemical synthesis. This study shows that blends with biomass ratios of 5% and equivalence ratios ≤ 0.3 lead to high cold gas efficiencies. Suitable gaseous products for chemical synthesis were identified at biomass ratios ≤ 35% and moisture contents ≥ 40%. Formation of undesirable nitrogen and sulfur compounds was also analyzed.

  7. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow 2; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Haukka, P.; Raiko, R. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Thermal Engineering

    1995-11-01

    This project is an extension of the earlier Liekki-project 402, which was carried out in 1993-1994 in the Department of Thermal Engineering of Tampere University of Technology (TUT). In the previous project the feasibility of a two-stage entrained-flow gasification was studied by the means of process modeling and pyrolysis experiments. The present project carried out in cooperation with the Gasification Research Group of VTT and TUT. The aims of the project are: (a) to study the formation of blematic tar/soot compounds and nitrogen compounds in the conditions entrained flow gasification of biomass and peat, (b) to study the product yields and kinetics of pyrolysis and (c) to develop simulation methods for entrained flow pyrolysis and gasification. (author)

  8. Recovery of copper from PVC multiwire cable waste by steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika; Rutkowski, Piotr; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz

    2015-12-01

    Screened multiwire, PVC insulated tinned copper cable was gasified with steam at high temperature (HTSG) under atmospheric pressure for recovery of cooper. Gases from the process were additionally equilibrated at 850°C on the bed of calcined clay granules and more than 98% of C+H content in the cable was transformed to non-condensing species. Granules prepared from local clay were generally resistant for chlorination, there was also almost no deposition of metals, Cu and Sn, on the catalytic bed. It was found that 28% of chlorine reacted to form CaCl2, 71% was retained in aqueous condensate and only 0.6% was absorbed in alkaline scrubber. More than 99% of calcium existed in the process solid residue as a mixture of calcium chloride and calcium oxide/hydroxide. PVC and other hydrocarbon constituents were completely removed from the cable sample. Copper was preserved in original form and volatilization of copper species appeared insignificant. Tin was alloying with copper and its volatilization was less than 1%. Fractionation and speciation of metals, chlorine and calcium were discussed on the basis of equilibrium model calculated with HSC Chemistry software. High temperature steam gasification prevents direct use of the air and steam/water is in the process simultaneously gaseous carrier and reagent, which may be recycled together with hydrocarbon condensates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of pyrolysis conditions on the structure and gasification reactivity of biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; B. Moghtaderi; R. Gupta; T.F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    The physical and chemical structure as well as gasification reactivities of chars generated from several biomass species (i.e. pinus radiata, eucalyptus maculata and sugar cane bagasse) were studied to gain insight into the role of heating rate and pressure on the gasification characteristics of biomass chars. Char samples were generated in a suite of reactors including a wire mesh reactor, a tubular reactor, and a drop tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, digital cinematography and surface area analysis were employed to determine the impact of operating conditions on the char structure. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined for a range of pressures between 1 and 20 bar using pressurised thermogravimetric analysis technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. It was found that under high heating rates the char particles underwent plastic deformation (i.e. melted) developing a structure different to that of the virgin biomass. Pressure was also found to influence the physical and chemical structures of char particles. The difference in the gasification reactivities of biomass chars at pressure was found to correlate well with the effect of pyrolysis pressure on the graphitisation process in the biomass char structure. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  11. Comparative evaluation of kinetic, equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models for biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Chakma, Sankar; Kumar, Peeush [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Mahanta, Pinakeswar [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of biomass gasification has been an active area of research for past two decades. In the published literature, three approaches have been adopted for the modeling of this process, viz. thermodynamic equilibrium, semi-equilibrium and kinetic. In this paper, we have attempted to present a comparative assessment of these three types of models for predicting outcome of the gasification process in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier. Two model biomass, viz. rice husk and wood particles, have been chosen for analysis, with gasification medium being air. Although the trends in molar composition, net yield and LHV of the producer gas predicted by three models are in concurrence, significant quantitative difference is seen in the results. Due to rather slow kinetics of char gasification and tar oxidation, carbon conversion achieved in single pass of biomass through the gasifier, calculated using kinetic model, is quite low, which adversely affects the yield and LHV of the producer gas. Although equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models reveal relative insensitivity of producer gas characteristics towards temperature, the kinetic model shows significant effect of temperature on LHV of the gas at low air ratios. Kinetic models also reveal volume of the gasifier to be an insignificant parameter, as the net yield and LHV of the gas resulting from 6 m and 10 m riser is same. On a whole, the analysis presented in this paper indicates that thermodynamic models are useful tools for quantitative assessment of the gasification process, while kinetic models provide physically more realistic picture.

  12. Characterization of Residual Particulates from Biomass Entrained Flow Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Fæster, Søren

    2013-01-01

    below 100 nm to above 100 nm. During gasification of dried lignin, the filter sample mainly consists of soot and nonvolatilizable inorganic matter. SEM images of the parent wood particles and the derived char samples show that they have similar structure, size, and shape but the derived char particle...... surface looks smoother indicating some degree of melting. The reactivity of the organic fraction of the samples was determined by thermogravimetry, and it was found that char was more reactive than soot with respect to both oxidation and CO2 gasification. The activation energy for the soot conversion...

  13. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  14. Performance of HT-WGS Catalysts for Upgrading of Syngas Obtained from Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano Bujan, M.; Sanchez Hervas, J. M.

    2009-05-21

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology is being investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which has started in September 2004 and has a duration of five years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participates in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the period 2005-2007 regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification. (Author) 28 refs.

  15. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  16. Implementation of the biomass gasification project for community empowerment at Melani village, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamphweli, Ntshengedzeni S.; Meyer, Edson L. [University of Fort Hare, Institute of Technology, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    Eskom and the University of Fort Hare are engaged in a biomass gasification project using the System Johansson Biomass gasifier (SJBG). The SJBG installed at Melani village in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa is used to assess the viability and affordability of biomass gasification in South Africa. A community needs assessment study was undertaken at the village before the installation of the plant. The study revealed the need for low-cost electricity for small businesses including growing of crops, chicken broilers, manufacturing of windows and door frames, sewing of clothing, bakery etc. It was also found that the community had a problem with the socio-environmental aspects of burning biomass waste from the sawmill furnace as a means of waste management. The SJBG uses the excess biomass materials (waste) to generate low-cost electricity to drive community economic development initiatives. A study on the properties and suitability of the biomass materials resulting from sawmill operation and their suitability for gasification using the SJBG was undertaken. The study established that the biomass materials meet the requirements for the SJBG. A 300 Nm{sup 3}/h SJBG was then manufactured and installed at the village. (author)

  17. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature

  18. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portofino, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.portofino@enea.it [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto [UTTTRI RIF – C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS Jonica 106, km 419.5, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Galvagno, Sergio [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature.

  19. Investigations in gasification of biomass mixtures using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781 039, Assam (India)

    2011-07-01

    Biomass gasifiers with power generation capacities exceeding 1 MW have large biomass consumption. Availability of a single biomass in such large quantities is rather difficult, and hence, mixtures of biomasses need to be used as feed-stock for these gasifiers. This study has assessed feasibility of biomass mixtures as fuel in biomass gasifiers for decentralized power generation using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium (with limited carbon conversion) model employing Gibbs energy minimization. Binary mixtures of common biomasses found in northeastern states of India such as rice husk, bamboo dust and saw dust have been taken for analysis. The potential for power generation from gasifier has been evaluated on the basis of net yield (in Nm3) and LHV (in MJ/Nm3) of the producer gas obtained from gasification of 100 g of biomass mixture. The results of simulations have revealed interesting trends in performance of gasifiers with operating parameters such as air ratio, temperature of gasification and composition of the biomass mixture. For all biomass mixtures, the optimum air ratio is {approx} 0.3 with gasification temperature of 800oC. Under total equilibrium conditions, and for engine-generator efficiency of 30%, the least possible fuel consumption is found to be 0.8 kg/kW-h. As revealed in the simulations with semi-equilibrium model, this parameter shows an inverse variation with the extent of carbon conversion. For low carbon conversions ({approx} 60% or so), the specific fuel consumption could be as high as 1.5 kg/kW-h. The results of this study have also been compared with previous literature (theoretical as well as experimental) and good agreement has been found. This study, thus, has demonstrated potential of replacement of a single biomass fuel in the gasifier with mixtures of different biomasses.

  20. Application of a Cloud Model-Set Pair Analysis in Hazard Assessment for Biomass Gasification Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili

    2017-01-01

    Because a biomass gasification station includes various hazard factors, hazard assessment is needed and significant. In this article, the cloud model (CM) is employed to improve set pair analysis (SPA), and a novel hazard assessment method for a biomass gasification station is proposed based on the cloud model-set pair analysis (CM-SPA). In this method, cloud weight is proposed to be the weight of index. In contrast to the index weight of other methods, cloud weight is shown by cloud descriptors; hence, the randomness and fuzziness of cloud weight will make it effective to reflect the linguistic variables of experts. Then, the cloud connection degree (CCD) is proposed to replace the connection degree (CD); the calculation algorithm of CCD is also worked out. By utilizing the CCD, the hazard assessment results are shown by some normal clouds, and the normal clouds are reflected by cloud descriptors; meanwhile, the hazard grade is confirmed by analyzing the cloud descriptors. After that, two biomass gasification stations undergo hazard assessment via CM-SPA and AHP based SPA, respectively. The comparison of assessment results illustrates that the CM-SPA is suitable and effective for the hazard assessment of a biomass gasification station and that CM-SPA will make the assessment results more reasonable and scientific.

  1. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  2. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  3. Electric power generation from biomass gasification; Geracao de eletricidade a partir da gaseificacao de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Cristina Aparecida Vilas Boas de; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/IEM/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Estudos em Sistemas Termicos], e-mails: cristinasales@unifei.edu.br, ruben@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a techno-economical evaluation of the biomass gasification utilization with different technologies such as: reciprocating engine, gas micro turbine, Stirling engine and fuel cells for small scale electricity generation. The comparative evaluation about the technologies is limited to the utilization in isolated areas. This paper shows the principal characteristics of these technologies. (author)

  4. Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Michal; Hrabovský, Milan; Kavka, Tetyana; Konrád, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2014), s. 63-66 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070; GA MŠk MEB020814 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Biomass * Gasification * Plasma * Tar Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.220, year: 2014

  5. Single char particle model for naphthalene reduction in a biomass gasification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu El-Rub, Ziad; Brem, Gerrit; Bramer, Eduard A.

    2015-01-01

    Tar removal in biomass gasification systems is one of the key challenges to overcome for the successful commercialization of this technology. This study focused on tar conversion over the active char particle besides the simultaneous carbon conversion of the char particle. In the presented model,

  6. Transient Catalytic Activity of Calcined Dolomitic Limestone in a Fluidized Bed during Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Skoblia, S.; Beňo, Z.; Šyc, Michal; Svoboda, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2016), s. 4065-4071 ISSN 0887-0624 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fluidized- bed gasification * woody biomass * limestone Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.091, year: 2016

  7. Artificial neural network models for biomass gasification in fluidized bed gasifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Hernández, J. Alfredo; Bruno, Joan Carles

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied for modeling biomass gasification process in fluidized bed reactors. Two architectures of ANNs models are presented; one for circulating fluidized bed gasifiers (CFB) and the other for bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers (BFB). Both models determin...

  8. Hydrogen from biomass gas steam reforming for low temperature fuel cell: energy and exergy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sordi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to analyze hydrogen production by biomass gasification, as well as electric power generation in small scale fuel cells. The proposed methodology is the thermodynamic modeling of a reaction system for the conversion of methane and carbon monoxide (steam reforming, as well as the energy balance of gaseous flow purification in PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption is used with eight types of gasification gases in this study. The electric power is generated by electrochemical hydrogen conversion in fuel cell type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. Energy and exergy analyses are applied to evaluate the performance of the system model. The simulation demonstrates that hydrogen production varies with the operation temperature of the reforming reactor and with the composition of the gas mixture. The maximum H2 mole fraction (0.6-0.64 mol.mol-1 and exergetic efficiency of 91- 92.5% for the reforming reactor are achieved when gas mixtures of higher quality such as: GGAS2, GGAS4 and GGAS5 are used. The use of those gas mixtures for electric power generation results in lower irreversibility and higher exergetic efficiency of 30-30.5%.

  9. Power generation from biomass: Status report on catalytic-allothermal wood gasification. Papers; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse: Stand der Realisierung der katalytisch-allothermen Holzvergasung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, H.; Bauermeister, U.; Kliche, H.; Seiffarth, K. (comps.)

    2001-12-01

    The topic of this event is bound up with the activities of FOeST in the field of gasification of biomass in decentralized small plants (< 2 MW{sub el}). The start project was a research work in 1993 to select a gasification process for using wood, sludge or plastic waste, continued 1995 by a research project with gasification tests of tar oil contaminated wood in a small gasification reactor with good results in environmental compatibility. But the following planning process of a demonstration plant for 500 kW{sub el} has shown, that the biomass gasification couldn't reach economic efficiency. Due to the development of an catalytic-partial allothermal gasification process of GNS ltd. it was clear, that the technical efficiency could be increased considerably. So, in 2000, a project started to test this catalytic-partial allothermal gasification in a pilot plant. Today the results of research, development and testing of biomass gasification with catalytic-partial allothermal processing as well as practically experience with a gasification plant, general conditions and further activities for energetically utilisation of biomass in Saxonia-Anhalt will be presented. (orig.)

  10. Experimental study of cyclone pyrolysis - Suspended combustion air gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijun; Feng, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhibo; Sun, Shaozeng; Zhou, Xinwei; Luan, Jiyi; Wu, Jiangquan

    2017-11-01

    Based on the original biomass cyclone gasifier, the cyclone pyrolysis-suspension combustion gasification technology was constituted with a bottom wind ring to build the biochar suspension combustion zone. This technology decouples the biomass pyrolysis, gasification (reduction reaction) and combustion (oxidation reaction) within the same device. With the feed amount and total air fixed, the effect of air rate arrangement on temperature distribution of the gasifier, syngas components and gasification parameters was studied. With the secondary air rate (0.20) and bottom air rate (0.50), the gasification efficiency was best, with gas heating value of 5.15MJ/Nm 3 , carbon conversion rate of 71.50%, gasification efficiency of 50.80% and syngas yield of 1.29Nm 3 /kg. The device with biochar for the tar catalytic cracking was installed at the gasifier outlet, effectively reducing the tar content in syngas, with a minimum value of 1.02g/Nm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental study of biomass gasification with oxygen-enriched air in fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingqin; Huang, Yaji; Cao, Jianhua; Liu, Changqi; Dong, Lu; Xu, Ligang; Zha, Jianrui

    2018-06-01

    Considering the universality, renewability and cleanness of biomass, an experimental research is carried out using rice straw in a two-stage fluidized bed. The experimental analysis identified the relevant parameters in the operation of the two-stage fluidized bed to investigate the properties of biomass enriched air gasification. Results show that higher gasification temperature is conducive to enhance the gasification performance. An increasing ER is shown to go against adding gas heat value. When oxygen concentration increases from 21% to 45%, the gas heating value increases from 4.00MJ/kg to 5.24MJ/kg and the gasification efficiency increases from 29.60% to 33.59%, which shows higher oxygen concentration is conducive to higher quality gas and higher gasification efficiency. A secondary oxygen injection leads to reduction of tar concentration from 15.78g/Nm 3 to 10.24g/Nm 3 . The optimal secondary oxygen ratio is about 33.00%. When the secondary oxygen ratio increased to 46.86%, monocyclic aromatics reduced from 28.17% to 19.65% and PAHs increased from 34.97% to 44.05%, leading to the increase aromatization of tar. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Hydrogen production from biomass tar by catalytic steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Jun; Choi, Young-Chan; Lee, Jae-Goo

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic steam reforming of model biomass tar, toluene being a major component, was performed at various conditions of temperature, steam injection rate, catalyst size, and space time. Two kinds of nickel-based commercial catalyst, the Katalco 46-3Q and the Katalco 46-6Q, were evaluated and compared with dolomite catalyst. Production of hydrogen generally increased with reaction temperature, steam injection rate and space time and decreased with catalyst size. In particular, zirconia-promoted nickel-based catalyst, Katalco 46-6Q, showed a higher tar conversion efficiency and shows 100% conversion even relatively lower temperature conditions of 600 deg. C. Apparent activation energy was estimated to 94 and 57 kJ/mol for dolomite and nickel-based catalyst respectively.

  14. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier

    2008-09-15

    Gasification is considered one of the most promising technologies in biomass applications. The higher efficiency compared to boiler power systems, the perspectives in fuel synthesis and its environmental friendly features are some examples of its potential. Biomass gasification has evolved since its first applications, but it has not been possible to reach a solid commercial stage, except during periods of crises and only for some specific applications. Meanwhile, other gasification technologies, fed by fossil fuels, are currently widely used on industrial scales. This thesis aims to analyze the knowledge development and diffusion patterns of the biomass gasification technology since 1970s in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden. Additionally, it seeks to identify the factors that strengthen and weaken the learning process. Finally, the concept of learning curve will be used to numerically assess the rate of learning in small scale biomass gasification for electricity generation. The feasibility of various future scenarios will be evaluated in order to know what is the likelihood for the technology to become competitive in the short term. To do so, the historical evolution of biomass gasification in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden has been analyzed. These countries have been selected due to the increasing number of ongoing projects and initiatives since 1970. Subsequently, the development of this technology has been encouraged by two historical facts. Initially, the price of fossil fuels grew in 1973 and 1979 enhancing the interest for biomass gasification as a future alternative. Afterwards, the willingness, shown by the mentioned countries, to reduce greenhouse gases emissions following the Kyoto protocol has revived the interest in biomass gasification. However, none of these two events has driven this technology sufficiently to achieve a sustainable commercial status. In addition, small and large scale projects have followed different development processes

  15. Recycling of automobile shredder residue with a microwave pyrolysis combined with high temperature steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaj, Pawel; Yang, Weihong; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; Forsgren, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Presently, there is a growing need for handling automobile shredder residues - ASR or 'car fluff'. One of the most promising methods of treatment ASR is pyrolysis. Apart of obvious benefits of pyrolysis: energy and metals recovery, there is serious concern about the residues generated from that process needing to be recycled. Unfortunately, not much work has been reported providing a solution for treatment the wastes after pyrolysis. This work proposes a new system based on a two-staged process. The ASR was primarily treated by microwave pyrolysis and later the liquid and solid products become the feedstock for the high temperature gasification process. The system development is supported within experimental results conducted in a lab-scale, batch-type reactor at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The heating rate, mass loss, gas composition, LHV and gas yield of producer gas vs. residence time are reported for the steam temperature of 1173 K. The sample input was 10 g and the steam flow rate was 0.65 kg/h. The conversion reached 99% for liquids and 45-55% for solids, dependently from the fraction. The H 2 :CO mol/mol ratio varied from 1.72 solids and 1.4 for liquid, respectively. The average LHV of generated gas was 15.8 MJ/N m 3 for liquids and 15 MJ/N m 3 for solids fuels.

  16. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  17. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Subramanian, Ramanathan [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rizeq, George [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Eiteneer, Boris [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ladd, David [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Vazquez, Arturo [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Anderson, Denise [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bates, Noel [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation

  18. High temperature air-blown woody biomass gasification model for the estimation of an entrained down-flow gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobusuke; Tanaka, Miku; Piao, Guilin; Kobayashi, Jun; Hatano, Shigenobu; Itaya, Yoshinori; Mori, Shigekatsu

    2009-01-01

    A high temperature air-blown gasification model for woody biomass is developed based on an air-blown gasification experiment. A high temperature air-blown gasification experiment on woody biomass in an entrained down-flow gasifier is carried out, and then the simple gasification model is developed based on the experimental results. In the experiment, air-blown gasification is conducted to demonstrate the behavior of this process. Pulverized wood is used as the gasification fuel, which is injected directly into the entrained down-flow gasifier by the pulverized wood banner. The pulverized wood is sieved through 60 mesh and supplied at rates of 19 and 27kg/h. The oxygen-carbon molar ratio (O/C) is employed as the operational condition instead of the air ratio. The maximum temperature achievable is over 1400K when the O/C is from 1.26 to 1.84. The results show that the gas composition is followed by the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. Therefore, the air-blown gasification model is developed based on the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. The simple gasification model agrees well with the experimental results. From calculations in large-scale units, the cold gas is able to achieve 80% efficiency in the air-blown gasification, when the woody biomass feedrate is over 1000kg/h and input air temperature is 700K.

  19. Effect of Heating Method on Hydrogen Production by Biomass Gasification in Supercritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The glucose as a test sample of biomass is gasified in supercritical water with different heating methods driven by renewable solar energy. The performance comparisons of hydrogen production of glucose gasification are investigated. The relations between temperature raising speed of reactant fluid, variation of volume fraction, combustion enthalpy, and chemical exergy of H2 of the product gases with reactant solution concentration are presented, respectively. The results show that the energy quality of product gases with preheating process is higher than that with no preheating unit for hydrogen production. Hydrogen production quantity and gasification rate of glucose decrease obviously with the increase of concentration of material in no preheating system.

  20. Gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J.; Jong, W. de; Hein, K.R.G. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    During a 3 year (1996-1998) multinational JOULE project, partly funded by the EU, experimental and theoretical research is being done on co-gasification of biomass (pelletised straw and Miscanthus) and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed reactor. The influence of feedstock and operating conditions on gasification characteristics has been studied using a 1.5 MW{sub th} gasifier, which has been operated at a pressure of 5 bar and temperatures up to 900 C. The project and the test rig are described and results obtained in the first part of the project are presented and analysed. (orig.)

  1. Study on CO₂ gasification properties and kinetics of biomass chars and anthracite char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Jianliang; Hou, Xinmei; Shao, Jiugang; Geng, Weiwei

    2015-02-01

    The CO2 gasification properties and kinetics of three biomass chars (WS-char, RL-char and PS-char) and anthracite char (AC-char) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis method. Three nth-order representative gas-solid reaction models, random pore model (RPM), volume reaction model (VM) and unreacted core model (URCM) were employed to describe the reactive behavior of chars. Results show that gasification reactivity order of different chars from high to low was WS-char, PS-char, RL-char and AC-char. In addition, the chemical components as well as physical structures of four chars were systematically tested. It was found that gasification properties of char were determined by carbonaceous structure. It was concluded from kinetics analysis that RPM model was the best model for describing the reactivities of biomass chars and VM was the model that best fitted the gasification process of anthracite char. The activation energies obtained for the biomass and anthracite char samples lie in the range of 236.4-284.9 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  3. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass in a Ceramic Reactor: Long-Time Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castello, Daniele; Rolli, Birgit; Kruse, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet) biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 ◦C, p > 22 MPa) are definitely a challenge for the manufact......Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet) biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 ◦C, p > 22 MPa) are definitely a challenge...... effect of the material can influence the gas yield and composition. In this work, a research reactor featuring an internal alumina inlay was utilized to conduct long-time (16 h) batch tests with real biomasses and model compounds. The same experiments were also conducted in batch reactors made...

  4. Effects of Biomass Feedstocks and Gasification Conditions on the Physiochemical Properties of Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Huhnke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon and carbon-based catalysts. Considering these high-value applications, char could provide economic benefits to a biorefinery utilizing gasification or pyrolysis technologies. However, the properties of char depend heavily on biomass feedstock, gasifier design and operating conditions. This paper reports the effects of biomass type (switchgrass, sorghum straw and red cedar and equivalence ratio (0.20, 0.25 and 0.28, i.e., the ratio of air supply relative to the air that is required for stoichiometric combustion of biomass, on the physiochemical properties of char derived from gasification. Results show that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface areas of most of the char were 1–10 m2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The corresponding Fourier Transform Infrared spectra showed that the surface functional groups of char differed between biomass types but remained similar with change in equivalence ratio.

  5. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  6. Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta

    2012-03-01

    This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-12-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of torrefaction on the process performance of oxygen-steam blown CFB gasification of hardwood and softwood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsalidis, George; di Marcello, Manuela; Spinelli, Giacomo; de Jong, Wiebren; Kiel, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising biomass upgrading method, offering advantages in logistics and handling. Gasification is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology due to its flexibility in the product gas end-use. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of torrefaction on the

  9. An ecological and economic assessment of absorption-enhanced-reforming (AER) biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffels, Tobias; McKenna, Russell; Fichtner, Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of biomass gasification with new absorption enhanced reforming technology. • Energy- and mass balances for three different process configurations to produce heat, SNG and/or hydrogen. • Ecological (based on LCA) and economic (based on production costs) assessment of the technology. • Comparison of results with existing operational plants producing similar products. - Abstract: Biomass gasification with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) is a promising technology to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas that can be used to generate electricity, heat, substitute natural gas (SNG) and hydrogen (5.0 quality). To evaluate the production of the four products from an ecological and economic point of view, three different process configurations are considered. The plant setup involves two coupled fluidized beds: the steam gasifier and the regenerator. Subsequently the product gas can be used to operate a CHP plant (configuration one), be methanised (configuration two) or used to produce high-quality hydrogen (configuration three). Regarding ecological criteria, the global warming potential, the acidification potential and the cumulative energy demand of the processes are calculated, based on a life-cycle assessment approach. The economic analysis is based on the levelized costs of energy generation (LCOE). The AER-based processes are compared to conventional and renewable reference processes, which they might stand to substitute. The results show that the AER processes are beneficial from an ecological point of view as they are less carbon intensive (mitigating up to 800gCO 2 -eq.kW -1 h el -1 ), require less fossil energy input (only about 0.5kWh fossil kW -1 h el -1 ) and have a comparable acidification potential (300–900mgSO 2 -eq.kW -1 h el -1 ) to most reference processes. But the results depend heavily on the extent to which excess heat can be used to replace conventional heating processes, and hence on the exact location of the plant

  10. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the

  11. Operational characteristics of a 1.2-MW biomass gasification and power generation plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuang-zhi; Yin, Xiu-li; Ma, Long-long; Zhou, Zhao-qiu; Chen, Han-ping

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the operational characteristics of a 1.2-MW rice husk gasification and power generation plant located in Changxing, Zhejiang province, China. The influences of gasification temperature, equivalence ratio (ER), feeding rate and rice husk water content on the gasification characteristics in a fluidized bed gasifier were investigated. The axial temperature profile in the dense phase of the gasifier showed that inadequate fluidization occurred inside the bed, and that the temperature was closely related to changes in ER and feeding rate. The bed temperature increased linearly with increasing ER when the feeding rate was kept constant, while a higher feeding rate corresponded to a lower bed temperature at fixed ER. The gas heating value decreased with increasing temperature, while the feeding rate had little effect. When the gasification temperature was 700-800 degrees C, the gas heating value ranged from 5450-6400 kJ/Nm(3). The water content of the rice husk had an obvious influence on the operation of the gasifier: increases in water content up to 15% resulted in increasing ER and gas yield, while water contents above 15% caused aberrant temperature fluctuations. The problems in this plant are discussed in the light of operational experience of MW-scale biomass gasification and power generation plants.

  12. Design and Optimization of an Integrated Biomass Gasification and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian

    based on biomass will improve the competitiveness of decentralized CHP production from biomass as well as move the development towards a more sustainable CHP production. The aim of this research is to contribute to enhanced electrical efficiencies and sustainability in future decentralized CHP plants......-level modelling study of three conceptual plant designs based on two-stage gasification of wood chips with a thermal biomass input of ~0.5 MWth (LHV) is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first plant design, in SOFCs in the second, and in a combined SOFC-MGT arrangement......Development of sustainable power plants has gained focus in the recent years and utilization of biomass resources are seen as a pathway towards a sustainable combined heat and power (CHP) production. Biomass resources are distributed, thus decentralized biomass conversion would avoid extensive cost...

  13. Experimental and Simulation Studies on Biomass Torrefaction and Gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Tapasvi, Dhruv

    2015-01-01

    The potential for bioenergy in Norway is significant. This potential can be realized by improving the properties of biomass and making it a convenient and competitive alternative to other fuels. Torrefaction is the most promising biomass pretreatment technique to date, improving its effectiveness as a fuel in various thermochemical processes. Torrefaction considerably reduces moisture content but increases the heating value, hydrophobicity and grindability of biomass. Torrefact...

  14. A Life Cycle Assessment on a Fuel Production Through Distributed Biomass Gasification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowaki, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Tsutomu; Ohkubo, Rui; Genchi, Yutaka

    In this paper, we estimated life cycle inventories (energy intensities and CO2 emissions) on the biomass gasification CGS, Bio-H2, Bio-MeOH (methanol) and Bio-DME (di-methyl ether), using the bottom-up methodology. CO2 emissions and energy intensities on material's chipping, transportation and dryer operation were estimated. Also, the uncertainties on the moisture content of biomass materials and the transportation distance to the plant were considered by the Monte Carlo simulation. The energy conversion system was built up by gasification through the BLUE Tower process, with either CGS, PSA (Pressure Swing Absorption) system or the liquefaction process. In our estimation, the biomass materials were the waste products from Japanese Cedar. The uncertainties of moisture content and transportation distance were assumed to be 20 to 50 wt.% and 5 to 50 km, respectively. The capability of the biomass gasification plant was 10 t-dry/d, that is, an annual throughput of 3,000 t-dry/yr. The production energy in each case was used as a functional unit. Finally, the energy intensities of 1.12 to 3.09 MJ/MJ and CO2 emissions of 4.79 to 88.0 g-CO2/MJ were obtained. CGS case contributes to the environmental mitigation, and Bio-H2 and/or Bio-DME cases have a potential to reduce CO2 emissions, compared to the conventional ones.

  15. Activated carbon derived from carbon residue from biomass gasification and its application for dye adsorption: Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneerung, Thawatchai; Liew, Johan; Dai, Yanjun; Kawi, Sibudjing; Chong, Clive; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In this work, activated carbon (AC) as an effective and low-cost adsorbent was successfully prepared from carbon residue (or char, one of the by-products from woody biomass gasification) via physical activation. The surface area of char was significantly increased from 172.24 to 776.46m(2)/g after steam activation at 900°C. The obtained activated carbons were then employed for the adsorption of dye (Rhodamine B) and it was found that activated carbon obtained from steam activation exhibited the highest adsorption capability, which is mainly attributed to the higher surface area and the abundance of hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups on the activated carbon surface. Moreover, it was also found that the adsorption capability significantly increased under the basic condition, which can be attributed to the increased electrostatic interaction between the deprotonated (negatively charged) activated carbon and dye molecules. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted into different adsorption isotherms and found to fit well with Langmuir model (indicating that dye molecules form monolayer coverage on activated carbon) with a maximum monolayer adsorption capability of 189.83mg/g, whereas the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension. Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukka, P.; Raiko, R.

    1993-01-01

    Gasification of peat and biomass in dilute particle-gas suspension has not been studied significantly in Finland, even though these fuels require drying, which often produces dry pulverized fuel. This report has concentrated on studying suitability of so-called two-stage entrained-bed gasification for peat and biomass. The gasification system consists of a pyrolysis reactor (entrained flow) and an adiabatic char combustor. Dry or almost dry fuel is fed into the hot flue gas stream coming from the char combustor. Gasification is based on flash pyrolysis in the dilute suspension flow. Residual char is separated from pyrolyzer gases in a gas cleaning device and fed back to the adiabatic combustor. In the combustor char is burned at high temperature to supply the heat required to support endothermic reactions occurring in the pyrolyzer. To study entrained-bed gasification two types of computer models were developed: steady state simulation model and kinetic pyrolyzer model. With the help of these computer models mass and energy balances of the gasifier can be solved and the main dimensions of the gasifier can be determined. Lack of proper kinetic parameters for fast pyrolysis of peat and biomass makes it more difficult to apply the kinetic model in practice. Quantitative data concerning fast pyrolysis in dilute gas-particle suspension are needed to be able to evaluate the performance of the suspension gasifier in more detail. Gasifier operation has been studied using three different levels for amounts of pyrolysis pro- ducts, nine pressure levels between 15-23 bars and five temperature levels between 800-1200 deg C. Furthermore, normal pressure performance was simulated. In addition to simulation studies product gas heating value was optimized

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production from biomass gasification in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qiuhui; Guo Liejin; Lu Youjun

    2006-01-01

    A non-stoichiometric thermodynamic model based on minimum free energy is developed to predict the performance of hydrogen production from biomass gasification in SCW (supercritical water). Specially, we take glucose as a test sample of biomass and apply this model to analyze the processes of hydrogen production from glucose gasification in SCW. It is found that there is a 'fast water-gas-shift-type pathway ', and the product gases consist primarily of hydrogen and carbon dioxide with small amounts of methane and carbon monoxide. When the reaction temperature reaches a higher value, the equilibrium gases consist only of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The gas yields, higher heating value, gasification efficiency and cold gasification efficiency are strongly affected by the reaction temperature and feedstock concentration and less affected by the pressure under the following range of conditions: a temperature of 650-1050 K, a pressure of 20-35 MPa and a concentration of 0.1-1.0 M. The higher the molar ratio of C/O, the higher are the maximum theoretical yields of hydrogen. The trend of the prediction results is in good agreement with the experimental data, especially as we take into consideration the carbon conversion efficiency

  18. Energetic use of wood and biomass by circulating fluidized bed gasification. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ising, M.; Balke, U.; Unger, C.

    1999-06-01

    The project's objective was the development and utilization of a biomass gasification process based on CFB-gasification with dry hot gas upgrading for IC-engine operation. Construction and operation of a test plant at pilot scale with 400 kW fuel input capacity. Development of a mathematical model for CFB-gasification. Reliable operation of CFB-gasifier, good results at partial load and good behaviour at changing the load. Air blown gasification of wood chips yielded lower heating values (LHV) up to 5500 kJ/m 3 (s.T.p., dry) for the gas. Main attention to measures for tar removal. Target value was 3 (s.T.p.) for napthalene + PAH. Average amount of tar after CBF-gasifier at 3000-5000 mg/m 3 (s.T.p.). Primary measures aiming at a decreased tar production were not suitable for achieving the target value. Several secondary measures were tested. Tars could almost completely be cracked or reformed by special catalysts. In continuous test runs of more than 100 h duration tar contents less than 50 mg/m 3 were achieved. A scale up for a catalytic gas cleaning system based on the results is planned. Estimations of economics show the process concept to be advantegous for plants up to 30 MW fuel input capacity. Profitable costs for combined heat and power production from biomass can be expected. (orig.) [de

  19. Issues Impacting Refractory Service Life in Biomass/Waste Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.

    2007-03-01

    Different carbon sources are used, or are being considered, as feedstock for gasifiers; including natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass. Biomass has been used with limited success because of issues such as ash impurity interactions with the refractory liner, which will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Supercritical Water Gasification of Wet Biomass : Modeling and Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakaboylu, O.

    2016-01-01

    In the following decades, biomass will play an important role among the other renewable energy sources globally as it is already the fourth largest energy resource after coal, oil and natural gas. It is possible to obtain gaseous, liquid or solid biofuels from biomass via thermochemical or

  1. Interaction and its induced inhibiting or synergistic effects during co-gasification of coal char and biomass char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Zhang, Yongqi; Wang, Zhiqing; Huang, Jiejie; Fang, Yitian

    2014-12-01

    Co-gasification of coal char and biomass char was conducted to investigate the interactions between them. And random pore model (RPM) and modified random pore model (MRPM) were applied to describe the gasification behaviors of the samples. The results show that inhibiting effect was observed during co-gasification of corn stalk char with Hulunbeier lignite coal char, while synergistic effects were observed during co-gasification of corn stalk char with Shenmu bituminous coal char and Jincheng anthracite coal char. The inhibiting effect was attributed to the intimate contact and comparable gasification rate between biomass char and coal char, and the loss of the active form of potassium caused by the formation of KAlSiO4, which was proved to be inactive during gasification. While the synergistic effect was caused by the high potassium content of biomass char and the significant difference of reaction rate between coal char and biomass char during gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  3. Anaerobic digestion and gasification hybrid system for potential energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zhiyi; Li, Wangliang; Kan, Xiang; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid growing interest in using biomass as an alternative source for clean and sustainable energy production. In this work, a hybrid system was developed to combine anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification for energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass. The feasibility of the proposed hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically and the energy efficiency was maximized by varying energy input in the drying process. The experiments were performed in two stages. At the first stage, AD of yard waste was conducted by mixing with anaerobic sludge. At the second stage, co-gasification was added as post-treatment for the AD residue for syngas production. The co-gasification experiments of AD residue and woody biomass were conducted at varying mixing ratios and varying moisture contents of AD residue. Optimal energy efficiency was found to be 70.8% at mixing ratio of 20 wt% AD residue with 30 wt% moisture content. Two kinetic models were then adapted for prediction of biogas produced in AD process and syngas produced in gasification process, respectively. Both experimental and numerical results showed that full utilization of biomass could be realized to produce energy through the combination of these two technologies. - Highlights: • The feasibility of the proposed two-stage hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically. • The proposed hybrid system could effectively improve the quality of produced gas. • The operating parameters were optimized to improve the overall energy efficiency of the system. • Drying process was found to play an important role in determining overall energy efficiency. • Optimal moisture content of AD residue was investigated for maximizing energy efficiency.

  4. Combined hydrothermal liquefaction and catalytic hydrothermal gasification system and process for conversion of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2017-09-12

    A combined hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system and process are described that convert various biomass-containing sources into separable bio-oils and aqueous effluents that contain residual organics. Bio-oils may be converted to useful bio-based fuels and other chemical feedstocks. Residual organics in HTL aqueous effluents may be gasified and converted into medium-BTU product gases and directly used for process heating or to provide energy.

  5. Combined heat and power production through biomass gasification with 'Heatpipe-Reformer'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, I.; Kamburova, V.; Terziev, A.

    2013-01-01

    The current report aims is to analyze the system for combined heat and power production through biomass gasification with “heatpipe-reformer” system. Special attention is paid on the process of synthetic gas production in the Reformer, its cleaning and further burning in the co-generation unit. A financial analysis is made regarding the investments and profits generated by the combined heat and power production. (authors)

  6. Investigating Efficient Tar Management from Biomass and Waste to Energy Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    tars or allow them to react excessively. A collet creates a minimal air leak path while the ball valve is opened and the probe is slid into...Heated Gravimetric Tar Sampling Probe. Figure 20 shows the actual heated probe along with the airlock system of the 2” ball valve and collet...FINAL REPORT Investigating Efficient Tar Management from Biomass and Waste to Energy Gasification Processes SERDP Project WP-2236 APRIL

  7. Char and coke formation as unwanted side reaction of the hydrothermal biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayildirim, T. [Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Ege University, Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Sinag, A. [Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Ankara University, Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Kruse, A. [Institut fuer Technische Chemie CPV, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The hydrothermal biomass gasification is a promising technology to produce hydrogen and/or methane from wet biomass with a water content of {>=}80 % (g/g). In the process, the coke formation usually is very low, but already low amounts may cause problems like, e.g., fouling in the heat exchanger. To learn more about the product formation, the results of the hydrothermal treatment (at 400,500,600 C and 1 h) of different biomass feedstocks (artichoke stalk, pinecone, sawdust, and cellulose as model biomass) in a microreactor are compared. The gas composition and the total organic carbon content of the aqueous phase were determined after reaction. The gas formation rises with increasing temperature. The formation of carbon deposits and their characterization has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The variation of the solid morphology during the hydrothermal conversion is discussed based on chemical pathways occurring during hydrothermal biomass degradation. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Steam gasification of waste tyre: influence of process temperature on yield and product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850-1000°C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid-gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000°C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel hazard assessment method for biomass gasification stations based on extended set pair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Li, Deshun; Cui, Zhikai

    2017-01-01

    Biomass gasification stations are facing many hazard factors, therefore, it is necessary to make hazard assessment for them. In this study, a novel hazard assessment method called extended set pair analysis (ESPA) is proposed based on set pair analysis (SPA). However, the calculation of the connection degree (CD) requires the classification of hazard grades and their corresponding thresholds using SPA for the hazard assessment. In regard to the hazard assessment using ESPA, a novel calculation algorithm of the CD is worked out when hazard grades and their corresponding thresholds are unknown. Then the CD can be converted into Euclidean distance (ED) by a simple and concise calculation, and the hazard of each sample will be ranked based on the value of ED. In this paper, six biomass gasification stations are introduced to make hazard assessment using ESPA and general set pair analysis (GSPA), respectively. By the comparison of hazard assessment results obtained from ESPA and GSPA, the availability and validity of ESPA can be proved in the hazard assessment for biomass gasification stations. Meanwhile, the reasonability of ESPA is also justified by the sensitivity analysis of hazard assessment results obtained by ESPA and GSPA.

  10. Biomass gasification chars for mercury capture from a simulated flue gas of coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente-Cuesta, A; Diaz-Somoano, M; Lopez-Anton, M A; Cieplik, M; Fierro, J L G; Martínez-Tarazona, M R

    2012-05-15

    The combustion of coal can result in trace elements, such as mercury, being released from power stations with potentially harmful effects for both human health and the environment. Research is ongoing to develop cost-effective and efficient control technologies for mercury removal from coal-fired power plants, the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. A number of activated carbon sorbents have been demonstrated to be effective for mercury retention in coal combustion power plants. However, more economic alternatives need to be developed. Raw biomass gasification chars could serve as low-cost sorbents for capturing mercury since they are sub-products generated during a thermal conversion process. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomass gasification chars as mercury sorbents in a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercial activated carbon. Chars from a mixture of paper and plastic waste showed the highest retention capacity. It was found that not only a high carbon content and a well developed microporosity but also a high chlorine content and a high aluminium content improved the mercury retention capacity of biomass gasification chars. No relationship could be inferred between the surface oxygen functional groups and mercury retention in the char samples evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  12. Effect of fuel origin on synergy during co-gasification of biomass and coal in CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yan; Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fuel origin on synergy in coal/biomass blends during co-gasification has been assessed using a congruent-mass thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. Results revealed that synergy occurs when ash residuals are formed, followed by an almost complete gasification of biomass. Potassium species in biomass ash play a catalytic role in promoting gasification reactivity of coal char, which is a direct consequence of synergy during co-gasification. The SEM-EDS spectra provided conclusive evidence that the transfer of potassium from biomass to the surface of coal char occurs during co-pyrolysis/gasification. Biomass ash rich in silica eliminated synergy in coal/biomass blends but not to the extent of inhibiting the reaction rate of the blended chars to make it slower than that of separated ones. The best result in terms of synergy was concluded to be the combination of low-ash coal and K-rich biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of partial oxidation mechanisms on tar destruction in TwoStage biomass gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Egsgaard, Helge; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    and conversion. The study identifies the following major impact factors regarding tar content in the producer gas: oxidation temperature, excess air ratio and biomass moisture content. In a experimental setup, wood pellets were pyrolyzed and the resulting pyrolysis gas was transferred in a heated partial...... tar destruction and a high moisture content of the biomass enhances the decomposition of phenol and inhibits the formation of naphthalene. This enhances tar conversion and gasification in the char-bed, and thus contributes in-directly to the tar destruction....

  14. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Co-gasification/co-firing of Biomass and Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Howard, Bret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Morreale, Bryan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Van Essendelft, Dirk [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Berry, David [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/co-firing of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550⁰C for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300⁰C and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300⁰C lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300⁰C is probably sufficient to

  15. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Haukka, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Thermal Engineering

    1995-11-01

    This is the second phase of a project that started with examination of a gasification process for fuels containing high amounts of volatiles such as biomass. In the earlier phase of the project the gasification process was studied with the aid of computer models. Gas production with this gasification method is based mainly on rapid pyrolysis in dilute suspension flow enabling high solid to gas conversion. The two-stage approach eliminates char gasification as a limiting process step, and consequently, allows product temperature to be controlled by the kinetics of volatile reactions. A greater amount of enthalpy is made available for rapid pyrolysis through the total combustion of the residual char than is possible by partial oxidation. The main goal in the second year (1994) was to get experimental information on peat reactivity, main pyrolysis products and formation of nitrogen compounds in the early stages of peat pyrolysis in dilute pressurized flow conditions. These experiments were conducted using pressurized entrained flow reactor at VTT Energy (Jyvaeskylae). Preliminary experiments gave the result that pressure increase accelerates pyrolysis of peat at first (residence time < 100 ms), but this difference disappears gradually. The total amount of volatile matter does not seem to depend on pressure level. (author)

  16. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Rich

    2001-03-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

  17. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  18. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  19. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow 2; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Haukka, P.; Vehmaan-Kreula, M.; Raiko, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This project was an extension of the earlier Liekki-project 402 carried out in 1993-1994. The aims of the 1995 project were: (1) to study the formation of problematic tar/soot compounds and nitrogen pounds in the conditions of entrained flow gasification of biomass and peat, (2) study the product yields and kinetics of pyrolysis, and (3) to develop simulation methods for entrained flow pyrolysis and gasification. Pyrolysis and gasification tests were carried out at a new entrained flow reactor of the Gasification Research Group of VTT using mainly peat as the feedstock. The pyrolysis kinetics was studies using three particle size distributions of fuel peat (0.075-0.125 mm, 0.16-0.25 mm and 0.315-0.5 mm). The char yields were determined at two temperatures (900 and 1000 deg C) and the effects fuel to gas ratio (suspension density) as well as the effects of gas atmosphere were determined. Limited amount of tests were also carried out with pine wood and dried de-inking sludge. The formation of tars and nitrogen compounds was studied with peat as the feedstock. Based on the test results of this project and the on earlier fluidized-bed gasification data of VTT, the following conclusions can be made: (1) the char yields in rapid entrained flow pyrolysis of small particles of peat and biomass are considerably lower than derived in fluid-bed pyrolysis of more coarse feedstocks. Consequently, simple entrained flow reactors without any recycling of char could already give rather high carbon conversions. However, high carbon conversions can also be easily achieved in fluidized-bed gasifiers with biomass fuels due to the high gasification reactivity of the char, (2) more tars were formed in entrained flow pyrolysis of peat than in fluidized-bed experiments carried out at the same temperature, (3) the total conversion of peat nitrogen to NH{sub 3}+HCN was as high in the entrained flow pyrolysis as in the fluid-bed pyrolysis experiments. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. Biomass gasification to heat, electricity and biofuels. HighBio project publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassi, U.; Wikman, B. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Renewable energy and the use of biomass in energy production promotes sustainable development and decreases the use of fossil fuels. Biomass, e.g. wood chips can be used in the production of heat and electricity, as well as being used as a biofuel component and novel product for the chemical industry. Efficient utilisation of biomass requires a high level of knowledge and the development of new processes to create a new way of thinking. In this process, international co-operation plays a significant role. The aim of the HighBio project was to produce new information on biomass gasification and the utilisation opportunities of product gas in biofuel and biochemicals production. The project was also aimed at studying utilisation properties of biogasification ashes in distributed energy production. Small-scaled CHP plants can be used for simultaneous heat and power production by gasifying wood chips and by burning energy intensive product gas. Compared with thermal combustion, particulate emissions from gasification are lower, which also contributes to the EU's ever tightening emission legislation. Several small and middle scale companies in the Northern part of Finland and Sweden have worked with biomass gasification, and during the project, the birth of new ones has been seen. In this development stage, researchers of the HighBio project have also been strongly involved. Increased use of renewable energy opens up new possibilities for entrepreneurship and the birth of new companies, especially in rural areas. In order to enable these opportunities, we need research data from the universities, novel innovations, and especially their successful commercialisation. The HighBio project has also contributed to tackling those challenges by arranging research seminars and meetings to companies and other interest groups, as well as by establishing research activities and collaborations. Regional collaboration combined with national and international research networks

  1. Gasification technologies for heat and power from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, AACM; Maniatis, K; Kaltschmitt, M; Bridgwater, AV

    1997-01-01

    A critical review is presented of biomass gasifier systems presently commercially available or under development. Advantages and possible problem areas are discussed in relation to particular applications. Both large and small scale technologies are reviewed. Catalysed by the EC JOULE and AIR

  2. Kinetic model for hydrothermal biomass gasification; Kinetisches Modell der hydrothermalen Biomassevergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, A.; Keskin, M.; Faquir, M.; Dahmen, N. [Inst. fuer Technische Chemie, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Hydrothermal biomass gasification is a promising technology to produce hydrogen from wet biomass, i.e. a water content of at least 50 %. This process allows the utilization of agricultural wastes or residuals from biochemical conversions. Since the reaction is highly kinetically controlled, it should be possible to optimimize gas yield and composition with respect to a maximum hydrogen yield. The paper describes the simulation of the process using a kinetic reaction model and experimental data from appropriate test facilities. Experiments were performed for several reactor types and a variety of model systems, like glucose, methane and hydroxy methyl furfural, that were identified as intermediate product for the hydrothermal hydrogen production. The influence of different additive 'catalysts' was tested. It was shown that the biomass composition has an important influence on the gas yield. Alkaline salts can be added to increase the yield. A fast heating and agitation of the biomass are also increasing the gas yield.

  3. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Syngas Fuels Derived from Palm Kernel Shell and Polyethylene (PE) Waste via Catalytic Steam Gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouki Ghenai

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the burning of syngas fuels derived from biomass and plastic solid waste mixture through gasification process is presented in this paper. The syngas fuel is burned in gas turbine can combustor. Gas turbine can combustor with swirl is designed to burn the fuel efficiently and reduce the emissions. The main objective is to test the impact of the alternative syngas fuel compositions and lower heating value on the combustion performanc...

  4. Investigation on the fates of vanadium and nickel during co-gasification of petroleum coke with biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiazhou; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Bing; Zhao, Jiantao; Fang, Yitian

    2018-02-16

    This study investigates the volatilization behaviors and mineral transformation of vanadium and nickel during co-gasification of petroleum coke with biomass. Moreover, the evolution of occurrence modes of vanadium and nickel was also determined by the method of sequential chemical extraction. The results show that the volatilities of vanadium and nickel in petroleum coke have a certain level of growth with an increase in the temperature. With the addition of biomass, their volatilities both show an obvious decrease. Organic matter and stable forms are the dominant chemical forms of vanadium and nickel. After gasification, organic-bound vanadium and nickel decompose completely and convert into other chemical forms. The crystalline phases of vanadium trioxide, coulsonite, nickel sulfide, and elemental nickel are clearly present in petroleum coke and biomass gasification ashes. When the addition of biomass reaches 60 wt%, the diffraction peaks of orthovanadate are found while that of vanadium trioxide disappear. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia Faure, Luis; Recio Recio, Angel; Oliva Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla Suarez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  6. Large-scale production of Fischer-Tropsch diesel from biomass. Optimal gasification and gas cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerrigter, H.; Van der Drift, A.

    2004-12-01

    The paper is presented in the form of copies of overhead sheets. The contents concern definitions, an overview of Integrated biomass gasification and Fischer Tropsch (FT) systems (state-of-the-art, gas cleaning and biosyngas production, experimental demonstration and conclusions), some aspects of large-scale systems (motivation, biomass import) and an outlook

  7. Economic viability of the construction and operation of a biomass gasificator for poultry houses heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima Ferreira; Martin, Samuel; Melo, Lucas D.; Bueno, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: fzanatta@vicosa.ufv.br

    2008-07-01

    In all poultry farms, at least in the first days of life of the chicken, it is necessary to heat the environment to obtain a good development of the chicken and good economics results. However, this additional heat generation is sometimes neglected or not well executed, because of the costs that this practice could bring. This research has the objective of analyze the costs of construction and operation of a Biomass Gasificator for Poultry Houses Heating in comparison with a direct furnace system. The fuel used in both systems was firewood of eucalyptus. For so much, economic analyzes was make considering the costs of the gasification systems implementation in substitution of the traditional system used in the company (direct furnace system). For the viability the adopted method was the partial budget and the complementary investments were analyzed through the cash flow elaboration and of determination of indicator of economic feasibility. (author)

  8. Oxygen transfer materials with catalytic properties for biomass gasification[Dissertation 17302

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecho, J.

    2007-06-15

    By application of olivine as bed material in a biomass gasifier such as the FICFB type (Fast Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed) in Guessing, Austria, an improvement of the gasification process was observed. Reduction of tars was measured and oxygen increase in the process was calculated. However, it took a while before these properties became clear. Aim of the project was to elucidate the mechanism with which olivine influences the system and to find a new material with improved properties for the gasification process. There were some factors which had be taken into account, e.g., amount of free lattice oxygen, reaction enthalpy, selectivity, mechanical and chemical stability, costs, desulphurization and decarbonisation. Several studies have shown that natural olivine ((Fe{sub x}Mg{sub 1-x}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) lowers tar formation in fluidized bed gasification of biomass. According to most authors, the phenomenon is related to the presence of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) which is, e.g., formed during the calcination of olivine in air. To elucidate the role of the iron oxide, synthetic olivine with a molar ratio of Fe:Mg equal to unity has been exposed to gases that contained either wet methane or wet toluene as the only carbon source in a thermobalance interfaced to on-line gas analysis. The results provide strong evidence that the conversion of the carbon species is dominated by the stoichiometric reaction of binary iron oxide with hydrocarbons in the beginning of the reaction while catalytic reactions such as steam reforming contribute little to the observed tar reduction. This reaction path straightforwardly explains the influence of the olivine's origin or the pre-treatment on its chemical reactivity as it was reported by the various authors. To improve the catalytic properties and oxygen capacity of bed materials, we put our focus on perovskite type oxides La{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Cr{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O

  9. The influence of biomass supply chains and by-products on the greenhouse gas emissions from gasification-based bio-SNG production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina M.; Berntsson, Thore S.; Andersson, Eva; Rydberg, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the impact on the GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of the raw material supply chain, the utilisation of excess heat and CO 2 storage for a bio-SNG (biomass gasification-based synthetic natural gas) system by applying a consequential life cycle assessment approach. The impact of the biomass supply chain is analysed by assessing GHG emissions of locally produced woodchips and pellets with regional or transatlantic origin. Results show that the supply area for the gasification plant can be substantially increased with only modest increases in overall GHG emissions (3–5%) by using regionally produced pellets. The transatlantic pellet chains contribute to significantly higher GHG emissions. Utilising excess heat for power generation or steam delivery for industrial use contributes to lower emissions from the system, whereas delivery of district heating can contribute to either increased or decreased emissions. The production technology of the replaced heat and the carbon intensity of the reference power production were decisive for the benefits of the heat deliveries. Finally, the storage of CO 2 separated from the syngas upgrading and from the flue gases of the gasifier can nearly double the GHG emission reduction potential of the bio-SNG system. - Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission evaluation of gasification-based bio-SNG system is made. • The impact of biomass supply chains and utilisation of excess heat is in focus. • Locally produced woodchips result in lowest overall greenhouse gas emissions. • Regionally produced pellets have small impact on overall greenhouse gas emissions. • Storing separated CO 2 from the bio-SNG process reduces the GHG impact significantly.

  10. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases and aqueous phases. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay and mouse skin tumorigenicity tests). These results are the first step of a longer term program to determine the properties, handling requirements, and utility of the condensates recovered from biomass gasification and pyrolysis. The analytical data demonstrates the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures. 56 refs., 25 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Macro-Mesoporous Aluminosilicates for Catalytic Steam Gasification of Heavy Oil Fractions for On-Site Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic steam gasification of extra-heavy oil (EHO fractions was studied using functionalized aluminosilicates, with NiO, MoO3, and/or CoO nanoparticles with the aim of evaluating the synergistic effect between active phase and the support in heavy oil on-site upgrading. Catalysts were characterized by chemical composition through X-ray Fluorescence, surface area, and pore size distribution through N2 adsorption/desorption, catalyst acidity by temperature programmed desorption (TPD, and metal dispersion by pulse H2 chemisorption. Batch adsorption experiments and catalytic steam gasification of adsorbed heavy fractions was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis and were performed with heavy oil model solutions of asphaltenes and resins (R–A in toluene. Effective activation energy estimation was used to determine the catalytic effect of the catalyst in steam gasification of Colombian EHO. Additionally, R–A decomposition under inert atmosphere was conducted for the evaluation of oil components reactions with active phases and steam atmosphere. The presence of a bimetallic active phase Inc.reases the decomposition of the heavy compounds at low temperature by an increase in the aliphatic chains decomposition and the dissociation of heteroatoms bonds. Also, coke formation after steam gasification process is reduced by the application of the bimetallic catalyst yielding a conversion greater than 93%.

  12. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2011-01-01

    A way to reduce the CO2 emissions from the transportation sector is by increasing the use of biofuels in the sector. DME and methanol are two such biofuels, which can be synthesized from biomass, by use of gasification followed by chemical synthesis. This method of producing biofuels is shown to be more cost-effective, less energy consuming and less CO2 emitting, when considering the total well-to-wheel processes, than first generation biofuels and second generation ethanol produced by biolog...

  13. Calcined dolomite, magnesite, and calcite for cleaning hot gas from a fluidized bed biomass gasifier with steam: Life and usefulness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.; Aznar, M.P. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Corella, J. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Calcined dolomites, limestones, and magnesites are active and inexpensive solids for cleaning raw hot gas from biomass gasifiers with steam. The variations of their activities with time-on-stream are studied here. Simultaneous coke formation and coke elimination by steam gasification increases the life of these naturally occurring catalysts under some circumstances. The lives of these solids are studied at different temperatures (800--880 C), space times (0.08--0.32 kg of dolomite{center_dot}h/nm{sup 3}), particle diameters (1--4 mm), and types of solid. Not much deactivation was observed for tar concentration in the raw gas below 48 g/nm{sup 3}, particle diameters of less than 1.9 mm, temperatures above 800 C, and space times above 0.13 kg{center_dot}h/nm{sup 3}. The effectiveness of these calcined minerals is compared with that of an inert material (silica sand) and with a commercial steam reforming catalyst (R-67 from Haldor Topsoee).

  14. Biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed. Hot gas cleanup with selected commercial and full-size nickel-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, M.A.; Corella, J.; Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.

    2000-05-01

    Three selected commercial, full-size steam-reforming catalysts for naphthas, BASF G1-50, ICI 46-1, and Topsoee R-67, are tested at pilot-scale level for hot gas cleanup in biomass gasification in a fluidized bed. Gas composition and tar content in the flue gas are measured before and after the catalytic bed. Variations of the catalytic bed in H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O contents are reported for different operating conditions. Tar conversions and an apparent first-order kinetics constant for the overall tar removal reaction are calculated. Tar contents at the exit of the catalytic reactor as low as 10 mg/m{sub n}{sup 3} are obtained in a test of 50 h-on-stream without noticeable catalyst deactivation. Important variations in tar conversion with space time in the catalytic bed, with H{sub 2}O/C* in the flue gas, and with the equivalence ratio in the upstream gasifier are observed. These results obtained at the pilot-scale level and with the use of full-sized commercial catalysts are an important forward step in demonstrating the technical feasibility of the overall biomass gasification process.

  15. Formation and removal of biomass-derived contaminants in fluidized-bed gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of this thesis were to examine the effects of the feedstock and the operating conditions of a fluidized-bed gasifier on the formation of tars and nitrogen-containing compounds and to study the effectiveness of the hot gas cleaning methods developed for the removal of particulates, alkali metals, tars and nitrogen-containing compounds. The most essential part of the work was carried out in the pressurized fluidized-bed gasification test facilities composed of an air-blown bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent hot gas filter unit. The operation pressure of the test rig could be varied in the range 0.3 - 1.0 MPa and the maximum allowable gasification temperature was 1 050 deg C. The maximum capacity with biomass fuels was 80 kg/h. A wide range of feedstocks from hard coals, lignite and peat to different wood derived fuels and straw were used in the gasification tests. Two different types of ceramic filters were tested in the filter unit connected to the pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier. The filter unit was operated in a temperature range of 400 - 740 deg C. The particulate removal requirements set by the gas turbines were met by both types of filters and with product gases derived from all the feedstocks tested. In addition to the gasification and gas filtration tests, catalytic tar and ammonia decomposition was studied using both laboratory and bench-scale test facilities. Inexpensive calcium-based bulk materials, dolomites and limestones, were efficient tar decomposition catalysts in atmospheric-pressure tests

  16. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance-of-plant is designed and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on the lower heating value (LHV) can be achieved if all input parameters are selected conservatively. Different parameter studies are performed to analyze the system behavior under different conditions. The analysis shows that the decreasing number of stacks from a design viewpoint, indicating that plant efficiency decreases but power production remains nearly unchanged. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is an optimum value for the utilization factor of the SOFC for the suggested plant design with the suggested input parameters. This optimum value is approximately 65%, which is a rather modest value for SOFC. In addition, introducing a methanator increases plant efficiency slightly. If SOFC operating temperature decreases due to new technology then plant efficiency will slightly be increased. Decreasing gasifier temperature, which cannot be controlled, causes the plant efficiency to increase also. - Highlights: • Design of integrated gasification with solid oxide fuel and Stirling engine. • Important plant parameters study. • Plant running on biomass with and without methanator. • Thermodynamics of integrated gasification SOFC-Stirling engine plants

  17. Steam gasification of rapeseed, wood, sewage sludge and miscanthus biochars for the production of a hydrogen-rich syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, Anwar; Leeke, Gary A.; Hornung, Andreas; Wood, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Steam gasification of biochars has emerged as a promising method for generating syngas that is rich in hydrogen. In this study four biochars formed via intermediate pyrolysis (wood pellet, sewage sludge, rapeseed and miscanthus) were gasified in a quartz tubular reactor using steam. The dynamic behaviour of the process and effects of temperature, steam flow and particle size were studied. The results show that increases in both steam flow and temperature significantly increase the dry gas yield and carbon conversion, but hydrogen volume fraction decreases at higher temperatures whilst particle size has little effect on gaseous composition. The highest volume fraction of hydrogen, 58.7%, was obtained at 750 °C from the rapeseed biochar. - Highlights: • Four biochars from intermediate pyrolysis were gasified. • High hydrogen concentration was achieved in all cases. • Peak hydrogen was 165 mg min −1  g −1 biochar at 700–750 °C. • High mineral content biochars had the highest reactivities. • Varying particle size had very little effect on gaseous composition

  18. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass for the production of synthetic natural gas[Dissertation 17100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, M. H.

    2007-07-01

    Energy from biomass is a CO{sub 2} neutral, sustainable form of energy. Anaerobic digestion is an established technology for converting biomass to biogas, which contains around 60% methane, besides CO{sub 2} and various contaminants. Most types of biomass contain material that cannot be digested; in woody biomass, this portion is particularly high. Therefore, conventional anaerobic digestion is not suited for the production of biogas from woody biomass. While wood is already being converted to energy by conventional thermal methods (gasification with subsequent methanation), dung, manure, and sewage sludge represent types of biomass whose energy potential remains largely untapped (present energetic use of manure in Switzerland: 0.4%). Conventional gas phase processes suffer from a low efficiency due to the high water content of the feed (enthalpy of vaporization). An alternative technology is the hydrothermal gasification: the water contained within the biomass serves as reaction medium, which at high pressures of around 30 MPa turns into a supercritical fluid that exhibits apolar properties. Under these conditions, tar precursors, which cause significant problems in conventional gasification, can be solubilized and gasified. The need to dry the biomass prior to gasification is obsolete, and as a consequence high thermal process efficiencies (65 - 70%) are possible. Due to their low solubility in supercritical water, the inorganics that are present in the biomass (up to 20 wt % of the dry matter of manure) can be separated and further used as fertilizer. The biomass is thus not only converted into an energy carrier, but it allows valuable substances contained in the biomass to be extracted and re-used. Furthermore, the process can be used for aqueous waste stream destruction. The aim of this project at the Paul Scherrer Institute was to develop a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously

  19. Biomass low-temperature gasification in a rotary reactor prior to cofiring of syngas in power boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Piotr; Maj, Izabella; Kalisz, Sylwester; Polok, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative method of gasification with use of flue gas was investigated. • Gasification temperature ranging from 350 °C was considered. • Discussed gasification unit is connected to a power boiler. • Syngas with combustible components is recirculated to the boiler. • Wide range of biomass and waste fuels can be used as a feedstock. - Abstract: The paper presents results of the investigation of an innovative biomass and alternative fuel low-temperature gasification method before co-firing in industrial or power plant boilers. Before running industrial-size installation, laboratory tests were carried out to determine usability of alternative fuels to low-temperature gasification process. Tests were conducted in a laboratory reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. The experimental stand enables recording of the weight loss of a sample and syngas composition. The process occurs for a fuel sample of a constant weight and known granulation and with a flue gas of known composition used as a gasifying agent. The aim of the laboratory research was to determine the usability of selected biomass fuel for indirect co-firing in power boilers and to build a knowledge base for industrial-size process by defining the process kinetics (time for fuel to remain in the reactor), recommended fuel granulation and process temperature. Presented industrial-size gasification unit has been successfully built in Marcel power plant in Radlin town, Poland. It consist an innovative rotary gasification reactor. Gasification process takes place with use of flue gas from coal and coke-oven fired boiler as a gasifying agent with recirculation of resulting gas (syngas) with combustible components: CO, H 2 , CH 4 . C n H m to the boiler’s combustion chamber. The construction of the reactor allows the use of a wide range of fuels (biomass, industrial waste and municipal waste). This paper presents the results of the reactor tests using coniferous

  20. Development of a bi-equilibrium model for biomass gasification in a downdraft bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes a simple and accurate tool for predicting the main parameters of biomass gasification (syngas composition, heating value, flow rate), suitable for process study and system analysis. A multizonal model based on non-stoichiometric equilibrium models and a repartition factor, simulating the bypass of pyrolysis products through the oxidant zone, was developed. The results of tests with different feedstocks (corn cobs, wood pellets, rice husks and vine pruning) in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350kW) were used for validation. The average discrepancy between model and experimental results was up to 8 times less than the one with the simple equilibrium model. The repartition factor was successfully related to the operating conditions and characteristics of the biomass to simulate different conditions of the gasifier (variation in potentiality, densification and mixing of feedstock) and analyze the model sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume...... that the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel references for electricity production takes place in a combined heat and power plant, but as a sensitivity analysis, we also consider combustion in a condensing mode power plant where only electricity is produced. Our results show that the production of 1 k......Wh of electricity from straw through gasification would lead to a global warming potential of 0.08 kg CO2e, non-renewable energy use of 0.2 MJ primary, acidification of 1.3 g SO2e, respiratory inorganics of 0.08 g PM2.5e and eutrophication potential of -1.9 g NO3e. The production of electricity from straw based...

  2. Modeling and Assessment of a Biomass Gasification Integrated System for Multigeneration Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Khanmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass due to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts has attracted many researchers’ attention in the recent years. Access to an energy conversion system which is able to have the optimum performance for applying valuable low heating value fuels has been considered by many practitioners and scholars. This paper focuses on the accurate modeling of biomass gasification process and the optimal design of a multigeneration system (heating, cooling, electrical power, and hydrogen as energy carrier to take the advantage of this clean energy. In the process of gasification modeling, a thermodynamic equilibrium model based on Gibbs energy minimization is used. Also, in the present study, a detailed parametric analysis of multigeneration system for undersigning the behavior of objective functions with changing design parameters and obtaining the optimal design parameters of the system is done as well. The results show that with exergy efficiency as an objective function this parameter can increase from 19.6% in base case to 21.89% in the optimized case. Also, for the total cost rate of system as an objective function it can decrease from 154.4 $/h to 145.1 $/h.

  3. Tar analysis from biomass gasification by means of online fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhakl, Christoph; Karellas, Sotirios

    2011-07-01

    Optical methods in gas analysis are very valuable mainly due to their non-intrusive character. That gives the possibility to use them for in-situ or online measurements with only optical intervention in the measurement volume. In processes like the gasification of biomass, it is of high importance to monitor the gas quality in order to use the product gas in proper machines for energy production following the restrictions in the gas composition but also improving its quality, which leads to high efficient systems. One of the main problems in the biomass gasification process is the formation of tars. These higher hydrocarbons can lead to problems in the operation of the energy system. Up to date, the state of the art method used widely for the determination of tars is a standardized offline measurement system, the so-called "Tar Protocol". The aim of this work is to describe an innovative, online, optical method for determining the tar content of the product gas by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. This method uses optical sources and detectors that can be found in the market at low cost and therefore it is very attractive, especially for industrial applications where cost efficiency followed by medium to high precision are of high importance.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Malaysian Dolomites as a Tar Cracking Catalyst in Biomass Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of local Malaysian dolomites were characterized to investigate their suitability for use as tar-cracking catalysts in the biomass gasification process. The dolomites were calcined to examine the effect of the calcination process on dolomite’s catalytic activity and properties. The modifications undergone by dolomites consequent to thermal treatment were investigated using various analytical methods. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses indicated that the dolomites underwent two stages of decomposition during the calcination process. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectra analyses showed that thermal treatment of dolomite played a significant role in the disappearance of the CaMg(CO32 phase, producing the MgO-CaO form of dolomite. The scanning electron microscopy microphotographs of dolomite indicated that the morphological properties were profoundly affected by the calcination process, which led to the formation of a highly porous surface with small spherical particles. In addition, the calcination of dolomite led to the elimination of carbon dioxide and increases in the values of the specific surface area and average pore diameter, as indicated by surface area analysis. The results showed that calcined Malaysian dolomites have great potential to be applied as tar-cracking catalysts in the biomass gasification process based on their favorable physical properties.

  5. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  6. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Lasse R.; Houbak, Niels; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO 2 from post-combustion capture and autothermal reforming of natural gas or biogas. Underground gas storage of hydrogen and oxygen was used in connection with the electrolysis to enable the electrolyser to follow the variations in the power produced by renewables. Six plant configurations, each with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated, and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (∼90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 Euro /GJ exergy . The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis of water, gasification of biomass and autothermal reforming of natural gas for syngas production.

  7. Analysis and co-ordination of the activities concerning gasification of biomass. Summary country report, Denmark and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoholm, P.; Olsen, A.

    1996-11-01

    The analysis summarises the coordination of activities concerning the gasification of biomass in Denmark and Norway. The total quantity of available biomass for energy production in Denmark corresponds to ca. 115 PJ of which ca. 40% is utilized - and this constitutes ca. 6% of the country's total energy consumption. The resulting energy from biomass is currently mostly used for heating purposes utilizing small wood/straw household or farm stoves in addition to ca. 100 district heating systems. There is a tendency to use biomass fuels for electric power production as in the case of all major waste incineration plants and about 10 fully or partly wood/straw-fired cogeneration plants which are found within the range of 2 -20 MWe. A table shows details of all Danish biomass gasification plants and information is given on the types of biomass, under the titles of residue products and energy crops, most relevant to energy production in Denmark. Data is presented on the consumption of renewable energy in Denmark, recalculated in fuel equivalents, and Danish national energy policy and related legislation are described. Information on Norway's use of biomass as fuel is given under the headings of primary consumption, biomass sources and use, legislation, and brief evaluations of commercial gasification plants, pilot and demonstration plants, and laboratory plants and studies. It has recently been decided to speed up the development of small-scale gasification plants for combined heat and electricity production using biomass as fuel in Denmark. Total Norwegian energy consumption is 25% higher than Denmark's, and biomass fuels cover only 3.6% of this. (ARW) 32 refs

  8. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Economics of biomass energy utilization in combustion and gasification plants: effects of logistic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Palumbo, Mario; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.; Scacchia, Federica

    2005-01-01

    The substitution of conventional fossil fuels with biomass for energy production results both in a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and in the replacement of non-renewable energy sources. However, at present, generating energy from biomass is rather expensive due to both technological limits related to lower conversion efficiencies, and logistic constraints. In particular, the logistics of biomass fuel supply is likely to be complex owing to the intrinsic feedstock characteristics, such as the limited period of availability and the scattered geographical distribution over the territory. In this paper, the economical feasibility of biomass utilization for direct production of electric energy by means of combustion and gasification-conversion processes, has been investigated and evaluated over a capacity range from 5 to 50 MW, taking into account total capital investments, revenues from energy sale and total operating costs, also including a detailed evaluation of logistic costs. Moreover, in order to evaluate the impact of logistics on the bio-energy plants profitability, the effects of main logistic variables such as specific vehicle transport costs, vehicles capacity, specific purchased biomass costs and distribution density, have been examined. Finally, a mapping of logistic constraints on plant profitability in the specified capacity range has been carried out

  10. Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.; Andries, J.; Luo, Z.; Spliethoff, H.

    2003-01-01

    The conventional biomass pyrolysis/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the operating parameters on biomass pyrolysis are investigated in a laboratory setup based on the principle of keeping the heating value of the gas almost unchanged. The studied parameters include reaction temperature, residence time of volatile phase in the reactor, physico-chemical pretreatment of biomass particles, heating rate of the external heating furnace and improvement of the heat and mass transfer ability of the pyrolysis reactor. The running temperature of a separate cracking reactor and the geometrical configuration of the pyrolysis reactor are also studied. However, due to time limits, different types of catalysts are not used in this work to determine their positive influences on biomass pyrolysis behaviour. The results indicate that product gas production from biomass pyrolysis is sensitive to the operating parameters mentioned above, and the product gas heating value is high, up to 13-15 MJ/N m 3

  11. Criteria for selection of dolomites and catalysts for tar elimination from biomass gasification gas. Kinetic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chem. Eng.

    1996-12-31

    Calcined dolomites and commercial steam reforming catalysts are used downstream biomass gasifiers for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. To further compare these solids under a rigorous basis, a reaction network and a kinetic model are presented. The apparent kinetic constant for the tar reduction is here proposed as a basis of comparison. Tar sampling and analysis, and the units used for the space-time in the catalytic reactor affect the kinetic constants observed. (author) (2 refs.)

  12. On a clean power generation system with the co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; He, Boshu

    2017-07-01

    A clean power generation system was built based on the steam co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier. The chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling technology was used to supply oxygen for the calciner. The solid oxide fuel cell and the steam turbine were combined to generate power. The calcium looping and mineral carbonation were used for CO 2 capture and sequestration. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of this system. The effects of key operation parameters on the system total energy efficiency (ŋ ten ), total exergy efficiency (ŋ tex ) and carbon sequestration rate (R cs ) were detected. The energy and exergy balance calculations were implemented and the corresponding Sankey and Grassmann diagrams were drawn. It was found that the maximum energy and exergy losses occurred in the steam turbine. The system ŋ ten and ŋ tex could be ∼50% and ∼47%, and R cs could be over unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ab initio calculations and kinetic modeling of thermal conversion of methyl chloride: implications for gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Mallika; Rasmussen, Morten Lund; Hashemi, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    . In the present work, the thermal conversion of CH3Cl under gasification conditions was investigated. A detailed chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl chloride was developed and validated against selected experimental data from the literature. Key reactions of CH2Cl with O2 and C2H4......Limitations in current hot gas cleaning methods for chlorine species from biomass gasification may be a challenge for end use such as gas turbines, engines, and fuel cells, all requiring very low levels of chlorine. During devolatilization of biomass, chlorine is released partly as methyl chloride...... in low-temperature gasification. The present work illustrates how ab initio theory and chemical kinetic modeling can help to resolve emission issues for thermal processes in industrial scale....

  14. Pilot scale testing of biomass feedstocks for use in gasification/gas turbine based power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najewicz, D.J.; Furman, A.H. [General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A biomass gasification pilot program was performed at the GE Corporate Research and Development Center using two types of biomass feedstock. The object of the testing was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its` suitability as a fuel for gas turbine based power generation cycles. The test program was sponsored by the State of Vermont, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy and Winrock International/US Agency for International Development. Gasification of bagasse and wood chip feedstock was performed at a feed rate of approximately one ton per hour, using the Ge pressurized fixed bed gasifier and a single stage of cyclone particulate removal, operating at a temperature of 1,000 F. Both biomass feedstocks were found to gasify easily, and gasification capacity was limited by volumetric capacity of the fuel feed equipment. The biomass product gas was analyzed for chemical composition, particulate loading, fuel bound nitrogen levels, sulfur and alkali metal content. The results of the testing indicated the combustion characteristics of the biomass product gas are compatible with gas turbine combustor requirements. However, the particulate removal performance of the pilot facility single stage cyclone was found to be inadequate to meet turbine particulate contamination specifications. In addition, alkali metals found in biomass based fuels, which are known to cause corrosion of high temperature gas turbine components, were found to exceed allowable levels in the fuel gas. These alkali metal compounds are found in the particulate matter (at 1000 F) carried over from the gasifier, thus improved particulate removal technology, designed specifically for biomass particulate characteristics could meet the turbine requirements for both particulate and alkali loading. The paper will present the results of the biomass gasification testing and discuss the development needs in the area of gas clean-up and turbine combustion.

  15. Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.P. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bain, R.L.; Craig, K.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In the U.S.A., the widely recognized importance of biomass utilization in controlling carbon build-up in the biosphere and the potential benefit of creating new industries associated with new job opportunities, particularly in the rural areas, have added impetus to the development and commercialization of advanced biomass energy conversion methods. Recent analyses and evaluations have shown that many short rotation energy crops (SREC) produce significant net-energy (i.e., energy yield greater than the energy input for plant growth). SREC such as willow, poplar, and miscanthus may yield up to 20 dry tonnes/yr/ha/year of biomass feedstocks, some with about 20 % moisture, after the third year of plantation. Implementation by U.S. EPA of the recent Clean Water Act Federal Biosolids Rules specified as Code 40 of Federal Register 503, should make available large quantities of high nitrogen content, pathogen-free municipal sludges ideally suited as an inexpensive source of organic fertiliser, thus improving the economics of SREC. The concept of herbaceous SREC can be further augmented when value-added byproducts, such as cattle feed, could be produced along with biomass energy feedstocks. Since 1990, there has been renewed interest in the United States in developing advanced power-generating cycles utilizing biomass gasification. The advanced systems have the potential for higher generation efficiencies, 35 % to 40 %, and lower costs of electricity, $0.045 to $0.055/kWh, compared to conventional direct-combustion systems. The efficiency of power production can be even higher (about 55 %) when the fuel gas is converted to hydrogen followed by electrochemical conversion to electricity in a fuel cell. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes a number of provisions to promote the commercialisation of biomass power production. The recent Global Climate Change Action Plan also includes several programs and incentives for biomass power production. A summary of U.S. demonstration

  16. Experimental fact-finding in CFB biomass gasification for ECN's 500 kWth pilot-plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, W.; van der Drift, A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors

  17. Biomass Waste Gasification – Can Be the Two Stage Process Suitable for Tar Reduction and Power Generation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, J.; Štojdl, J.; Richter, M.; Popelka, J.; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, J.; Vacek, J.; Skoblia, S.; Buryan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 692-700 ISSN 0956-053X Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : waste biomass * gasification * tar Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.485, year: 2012

  18. Pyrolysis/gasification of biomass for synthetic fuel production using a hybrid gas- water stabilized plasma torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van Oost, G.; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Konrád, Miloš; Hlína, Michal; Kavka, Tetyana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2008), s. 209-212 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * pyrolysis * biomass gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2008

  19. Pyrolysis/gasification of biomass for synthetic fuel production using a hybrid gas- water stabilized plasma torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van Oost, G.; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Konrád, Miloš; Hlína, Michal; Kavka, Tetyana; Beeckman, E.; Verstraeten, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2007), s. 9-12. ISBN 978-4-9900642-5-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * pyrolysis * biomass gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. Assessment of the Potential of Biomass Gasification for Electricity Generation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is an agriculture based country where more than 65 percent of the people live in rural areas and over 70% of total primary energy consumption is covered by biomass, mainly agricultural waste and wood. Only about 6% of the entire population has access to natural gas, primarily in urban areas. Electricity production in Bangladesh largely depends on fossil fuel whose reserve is now under threat and the government is now focusing on the alternating sources to harness electricity to meet the continuous increasing demand. To reduce the dependency on fossil fuels, biomass to electricity could play a vital role in this regard. This paper explores the biomass based power generation potential of Bangladesh through gasification technology—an efficient thermochemical process for distributed power generation. It has been estimated that the total power generation from the agricultural residue is about 1178 MWe. Among them, the generation potential from rice husk, and bagasses is 1010 MWe, and 50 MWe, respectively. On the other hand, wheat straw, jute stalks, maize residues, lentil straw, and coconut shell are also the promising biomass resources for power generation which counted around 118 MWe. The forest residue and municipal solid waste could also contribute to the total power generation 250 MWe and 100 MWe, respectively.

  1. Study on biomass circulation and gasification performance in a clapboard-type internal circulating fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhao-qiu; Ma, Long-long; Yin, Xiu-li; Wu, Chuang-zhi; Huang, Li-cheng; Wang, Chu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the solid particle flow characteristics and biomass gasification in a clapboard-type internal circulating fluidized bed reactor. The effect of fluidization velocity on particle circulation rate and pressure distribution in the bed showed that fluidization velocities in the high and low velocity zones were the main operational parameters controlling particle circulation. The maximum internal circulation rates in the low velocity zone came almost within the range of velocities in the high velocity zone, when u(H)/u(mf)=2.2-2.4 for rice husk and u(H)/u(mf)=3.5-4.5 for quartz sand. In the gasification experiment, the air equivalence ratio (ER) was the main controlling parameter. Rice husk gasification gas had a maximum heating value of around 5000 kJ/m(3) when ER=0.22-0.26, and sawdust gasification gas reached around 6000-6500 kJ/m(3) when ER=0.175-0.24. The gasification efficiency of rice husk reached a maximum of 77% at ER=0.28, while the gasification efficiency of sawdust reached a maximum of 81% at ER=0.25.

  2. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ab initio calculations and kinetic modeling of thermal conversion of methyl chloride: implications for gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Mallika; Rasmussen, Morten Lund; Hashemi, Hamid; Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Pelucchi, Matteo; Faravelli, Tiziano; Marshall, Paul

    2018-01-24

    Limitations in current hot gas cleaning methods for chlorine species from biomass gasification may be a challenge for end use such as gas turbines, engines, and fuel cells, all requiring very low levels of chlorine. During devolatilization of biomass, chlorine is released partly as methyl chloride. In the present work, the thermal conversion of CH 3 Cl under gasification conditions was investigated. A detailed chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl chloride was developed and validated against selected experimental data from the literature. Key reactions of CH 2 Cl with O 2 and C 2 H 4 for which data are scarce were studied by ab initio methods. The model was used to analyze the fate of methyl chloride in gasification processes. The results indicate that CH 3 Cl emissions will be negligible for most gasification technologies, but could be a concern for fluidized bed gasifiers, in particular in low-temperature gasification. The present work illustrates how ab initio theory and chemical kinetic modeling can help to resolve emission issues for thermal processes in industrial scale.

  4. Hot Gas Conditioning: Recent Progress with Larger-Scale Biomass Gasification Systems; Update and Summary of Recent Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D. J.

    2001-09-01

    As a result of environmental and policy considerations, there is increasing interest in using renewable biomass resources as feedstock for power, fuels, and chemicals and hydrogen. Biomass gasification is seen as an important technology component for expanding the use of biomass. Advanced biomass gasification systems provide clean products that can be used as fuel or synthesis gases in a variety of environmentally friendly processes. Advanced end-use technologies such as gas turbines or synthesis gas systems require high quality gases with narrowly defined specifications. Other systems such as boilers may also have fuel quality requirements, but they will be substantially less demanding. The gas product from biomass gasifiers contains quantities of particulates, tars, and other constituents that may exceed these specified limits. As a result, gas cleaning and conditioning will be required in most systems. Over the past decade, significant research and development activities have been conducted on the topic of gas cleanup and conditioning. This report provides an update of efforts related to large-scale biomass gasification systems and summarizes recent progress. Remaining research and development issues are also summarized.

  5. Enhanced biomass delignification and enzymatic saccharification of canola straw by steam-explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmakhany, Amir Daraei; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Aalami, Mehran; Maghsoudlou, Yahya; Khomieri, Mortza; Tabil, Lope G

    2014-06-01

    In recent decades, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) has been extensively investigated. The three main chemical constituents of biomass are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose are polysaccharides of primarily fermentable sugars, glucose and xylose respectively. Hemicellulose also includes small fermentable fractions of arabinose, galactose and mannose. The main issue in converting lignocellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol is the accessibility of the polysaccharides for enzymatic breakdown into monosaccharides. This study focused on the use of steam explosion as the pretreatment method for canola straw as lignocellulosic biomass. Result showed that steam explosion treatment of biomass increased cellulose accessibility and it hydrolysis by enzyme hydrolysis. Following 72 h of enzyme hydrolysis, a maximum cellulose conversion to glucose yield of 29.40% was obtained for the steam-exploded sample while the control showed 11.60% glucose yields. Steam explosion pretreatment increased glucose production and glucose yield by 200% and 153.22%, respectively, compared to the control sample. The crystalline index increased from 57.48% in untreated canola straw to 64.72% in steam-exploded samples. Steam explosion pretreatment of biomass increased cellulose accessibility, and enzymatic hydrolysis increased glucose production and glucose yield of canola straw. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Thermo-economic analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell and steam injected gas turbine plant integrated with woodchips gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    cost on the generation cost is also presented. In order to discuss the investment cost, an economic analysis has been carried out and main parameters such as Net Present Value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and Time of Return of Investment (TIR) are calculated and discussed.......This paper presents a thermo-economic analysis of an integrated biogas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for electric power generation. Basic plant layout consists of a gasification plant (GP), an SOFC and a retrofitted steam-injected gas turbine (STIG). Different system configurations...... and simulations are presented and investigated. A parallel analysis for simpler power plants, combining GP, SOFC, and hybrid gas turbine (GT) is carried out to obtain a reference point for thermodynamic results. Thermodynamic analysis shows energetic and exergetic efficiencies for optimized plant above 53% and 43...

  7. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass and U.S. northeast forest residuals gasification for electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Gardner, Kevin H; Jambeck, Jenna R

    2013-04-02

    With the goal to move society toward less reliance on fossil fuels and the mitigation of climate change, there is increasing interest and investment in the bioenergy sector. However, current bioenergy growth patterns may, in the long term, only be met through an expansion of global arable land at the expense of natural ecosystems and in competition with the food sector. Increasing thermal energy recovery from solid waste reduces dependence on fossil- and biobased energy production while enhancing landfill diversion. Using inventory data from pilot processes, this work assesses the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of plasma gasification as a route capable of transforming construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass (CDDB) and forest residues into electricity. Results indicate that the environmental burdens associated with CDDB and forest residue gasification may be similar to conventional electricity generation. Land occupation is lowest when CDDB is used. Environmental impacts are to a large extent due to coal cogasified, coke used as gasifier bed material, and fuel oil cocombusted in the steam boiler. However, uncertainties associated with preliminary system designs may be large, particularly the heat loss associated with pilot scale data resulting in overall low efficiencies of energy conversion to electricity; a sensitivity analysis assesses these uncertainties in further detail.

  8. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Experimental Gasification of Biomass in an Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Surjosatyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The updraft gasifier is a simple type of reactor for the gasification of biomass that is easy to operate and has high conversion efficiency, although it produces high levels of tar. This study attempts to observe the performance of a modified updraft gasifier. A modified updraft gasifier that recirculates the pyrolysis gases from drying zone back to the combustion zone and gas outlet at reduction zone was used. In this study, the level of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone was varied, and as well as measurements of gas composition, lower heating value and tar content. The results showed that an increase in the amount of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone resulted in a decrease in the amount of tar produced. An increase in the amount of recirculated gases tended to increase the concentrations of H2 and CH4 and reduce the concentration of CO with the primary (gasification air flow held constant. Increasing the primary air flow tended to increase the amount of CO and decrease the amount of H2. The maximum of lower heating value was 4.9 MJ/m3.

  10. Refining of new products and raw materials by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassi, U.; Tynjaelae, P. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland); Kokkola Univ. Consortium Chydenius (Finland)). email: ulla.lassi@oulu.fi; Granoe, U.-P. (Kokkola Univ. Consortium Chydenius (Finland)); Kuokkanen, T. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)); Muilu, Y. (Central Ostrobothnia Univ. of Applied Sciences/Centria, Ylivieska (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Research project 'Refining of new products and raw materials by gasifying of biomass (High- Bio)' is carried out as a joint project between Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius (coordinator), University of Oulu, Department of Chemistry, Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences (Centria, Ylivieska), Luleaa University of Technology and ETC Piteaa. Project is financied by EU Interreg 4 A Pohjoinen programme in years 2008-2011. Information on the project is available at: http://www.chydenius.fi/yksikot/luonnontieteet/tutkimus/highbiointerreg-nord, where the info sheets can also be downloaded. Bioenergy and environment are the focus areas of HighBio research project. HighBio project consists of five work packages (WP), which are (1) development of the gasification process, (2) effect of raw materials on the gasification process, (3) utilisation of end-products, (4) evaluation and techno-economical analysis of process, and (5) delivery of information. The information produced and know-how developed will be integrated by the research groups

  11. Experimental and modeling study of high performance direct carbon solid oxide fuel cell with in situ catalytic steam-carbon gasification reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoran; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Houcheng; Tan, Peng; Yang, Guangming; Irvine, John T. S.; Ni, Meng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, 2D models for direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (DC-SOFCs) with in situ catalytic steam-carbon gasification reaction are developed. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The performance of DC-SOFCs with and without catalyst are compared at different operating potential, anode inlet gas flow rate and operating temperature. It is found that adding suitable catalyst can significantly speed up the in situ steam-carbon gasification reaction and improve the performance of DC-SOFC with H2O as gasification agent. The potential of syngas and electricity co-generation from the fuel cell is also evaluated, where the composition of H2 and CO in syngas can be adjusted by controlling the anode inlet gas flow rate. In addition, the performance DC-SOFCs and the percentage of fuel in the outlet gas are both increased with increasing operating temperature. At a reduced temperature (below 800 °C), good performance of DC-SOFC can still be obtained with in-situ catalytic carbon gasification by steam. The results of this study form a solid foundation to understand the important effect of catalyst and related operating conditions on H2O-assisted DC-SOFCs.

  12. Experimental investigation of solid oxide fuel cells using biomass gasification producer gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norheim, Arnstein

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations related to utilisation of biomass gasification producer gases as fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Initial fundamental steps towards a future system of combined heat and power production based on biomass gasification and SOFC are performed and include: 1) Theoretical modeling of the composition of biomass gasification producer gases. 2) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas as fuel. 3) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas containing high sulphur concentration. The modeling of the composition of gasifier producer gas was performed using the program FactSage. The main objective was to investigate the amount and speciation of trace species in the producer gases as several parameters were varied. Thus, the composition at thermodynamic equilibrium of sulphur, chlorine, potassium, sodium and compounds of these were established. This was done for varying content of the trace species in the biomass material at different temperatures and fuel utilisation i.e. varying oxygen content in the producer gas. The temperature interval investigated was in the range of normal SOFC operation. It was found that sulphur is expected to be found as H2S irrespective of temperature and amount of sulphur. Only at very high fuel utilisation some S02 is formed. Important potassium containing compounds in the gas are gaseous KOH and K. When chlorine is present, the amount of KOH and K will decrease due to the formation of KCI. The level of sodium investigated here was low, but some Na, NaOH and NaCl is expected to be formed. Below a certain temperature, condensation of alkali rich carbonates may occur. The temperature at which condensation begins is mainly depending on the amount of potassium present; the condensation temperature increases with increasing potassium content. In the first experimental work

  13. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    ) technical impact to select different technologies and types of equipment from available options; and c) economic concern to validate new technology with existing one. To achieve the above issues a life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis and techno-economic analysis of quad-generation system have also included...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification...

  14. Design and simulation of a circulating fluidized bed to clean the products of biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchoa Neto, Moises; Carvalho, Yuri de Araujo [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Faculdade de Tecnologia. Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Oliveira, Taygoara Felamingo de; Barcelos, Manuel [Faculdade do Gama. Universidade de Brasilia, Gama, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: taygoara@unb.br

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this work is to design a workbench circulating fluidized bed to study the cracking of tar in gases from the processes of biomass gasification. For this, a design methodology based on analytical results and empirical correlations for fluidized beds was employed. In parallel, a numerical code of open source technology (MFIX) for the solution of the transport equations of the multiphase flow in the column of a fluidized bed was used to give support to the choice of the design elements. The whole project of the workbench fluidized bed was completely developed, whose operation parameters such as bed geometry, gas velocity, circulating ratio and void fraction characterize a fast fluidization process. A preliminary mesh convergence study was executed with the numerical tool, that was validated comparing with analytical results. Among the most important results, the code computed the predicted value for the minimum fluidization. (author)

  15. Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlina, M; Hrabovsky, M; Kavka, T; Konrad, M

    2014-01-01

    Extremely hot thermal plasma was used for the gasification of biomass (spruce sawdust, wood pellets) and waste (waste plastics, pyrolysis oil). The plasma was produced by a plasma torch with DC electric arc using unique hybrid stabilization. The torch input power of 100-110 kW and the mass flow rate of the gasified materials of tens kg/h was set up during experiments. Produced synthetic gas featured very high content of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (together approximately 90%) that is in a good agreement with theory. High quality of the produced gas is given by extreme parameters of used plasma--composition, very high temperature and low mass flow rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gasification kinetic analysis of the three pseudocomponents of biomass-cellulose, semicellulose and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianju; Wu, Jingli; Zhang, Jinzhi; Wu, Jinhu; Sun, Li

    2014-02-01

    The gasification kinetic analysis of the three pseudocomponents (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) of biomass decomposition in the agent of CO2 were investigated. The Multi-peaks method was used to fit the Gaussian distribution model of DTG curves. The Friedman method was used to estimate the effective Eα, and the master plot method was used for the determination of the kinetic model. The results showed that there were two reaction stages for semi-cellulose and lignin. The DTG curves of semicellulose and lignin cannot be fitted by Gaussian distribution model. The Eα were ranged from 80 to 220kJmol(-1) for the three pseudocomponents. The Fn model could describe the kinetic process of stage I of semi-cellulose decomposition. Both cellulose and stage II of semicellulose decomposition could be described by An model and the two reaction stages of the lignin were fitted the Rn model very well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... from post-combustion capture and autothermal reforming of natural gas or biogas. Underground gas storage of hydrogen and oxygen was used in connection with the electrolysis to enable the electrolyser to follow the variations in the power produced by renewables. Six plant configurations, each...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  18. Supercritical water gasification of biomass for H2 production: process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Luca; Valbusa, Michele; Castello, Daniele

    2012-10-01

    The supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass for H(2) production is analyzed in terms of process development and energetic self-sustainability. The conceptual design of a plant is proposed and the SCWG process involving several substrates (glycerol, microalgae, sewage sludge, grape marc, phenol) is simulated by means of AspenPlus™. The influence of various parameters - biomass concentration and typology, reaction pressure and temperature - is analyzed. The process accounts for the possibility of exploiting the mechanical energy of compressed syngas (later burned to sustain the SCWG reaction) through expansion in turbines, while purified H(2) is fed to fuel cells. Results show that the SCWG reaction can be energetically self-sustained if minimum feed biomass concentrations of 15-25% are adopted. Interestingly, the H(2) yields are found to be maximal at similar feed concentrations. Finally, an energy balance is performed showing that the whole process could provide a net power of about 150 kW(e)/(1000 kg(feed)/h). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Computational simulation of the biomass gasification process in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Mazaira, Leorlen Y.; Gamez Rodriguez, Abel; Andrade Gregori, Maria Dolores; Armas Cardona, Raul

    2009-01-01

    In an agro-industrial country as Cuba many residues of cultivation like the rice and the cane of sugar take place, besides the forest residues in wooded extensions. Is an interesting application for all this biomass, the gasification technology, by its high efficiency and its positive environmental impact. The computer simulation appears like a useful tool in the researches of parameters of operation of a gas- emitting, because it reduces the number of experiments to realise and the cost of the researches. In the work the importance of the application of the computer simulation is emphasized to anticipate the hydrodynamic behavior of fluidized bed and of the process of combustion of the biomass for different residues and different conditions of operation. A model using CFD for the simulation of the process of combustion in a gas- emitting of biomass sets out of fluidized bed, the hydrodynamic parameters of the multiphasic flow from the elaboration of a computer simulator that allows to form and to vary the geometry of the reactor, as well as the influence of the variation of magnitudes are characterized such as: speed, diameter of the sand and equivalent reason. Experimental results in cylindrical channels appear, to complete the study of the computer simulation realised in 2D. (author)

  20. Electric energy generation using biomass gasification; Generacion de energia electrica a partir de la gasificacion de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J.; Arauzo, J.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Sanchez, Jose Luis [Universidad de Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion. Grupo de Procesos Termoquimicos; Rocha, J.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Mesa Perez, J.M. [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Gasification experiments have been carried out with a atmospheric pressure down draft gasifier of a capacity of 250 kg/h of biomass. Biomass used have been almond shells and olive cut. Results obtained show a similar behaviour in gas composition with two biomass. A small fraction of the generated gas from the gasifier has been fed to a small generator of 4 kV A. The gas has been previously cleaned and dried by means of a scrubber and a condenser, to remove tar products. The generator has been operated with a great stability without any modification, and energy generated with gas from gasification are relatively close to the values obtained with conventional fuels such as gasoline or commercial butane. (author)

  1. Molecular level insights to the interaction of toluene with ZrO2-based biomass gasification gas clean-up catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viinikainen, T.; Kauppi, I.; Korhonen, S.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Kanervo, J.; Lehtonen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gasification of biomass, followed by ZrO2-catalyzed hot gas clean-up at 600–900 °C for the oxidation of impurities (such as tar), is an environmentally attractive way to produce heat and power or synthesis gas. The interaction of toluene (as a model compound for tar) with ZrO2-based gasification gas

  2. Biomass and fossil fuel conversion by pressurised fluidised bed gasification using hot gas ceramic filters as gas cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Wiebren de; Uenal, Oemer; Andries, Jans; Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2003-01-01

    Gasification of biomass and fossil fuels, hot gas cleanup using a ceramic filter and combustion of LCV product gas in a combustor were performed using a 1.5 MWth test rig (pressurised bubbling fluidised bed gasifier) at Delft University and a 10-50 kWth system at Stuttgart University (DWSA) in the framework of experimental research on efficient, environmentally acceptable large-scale power generators based on fluidised bed gasification. The influence of operating conditions (pressure, temperature, stoichiometric ratio) on gasification (gas composition, conversion grades) was studied. The gasifiers were operated in a pressure range of 0.15-0.7 MPa and maximum temperatures of ca. 900 deg. C. The Delft gasifier has a 2 m high bed zone (diameter: 0.4 m) followed by a freeboard approximately 4 m high (diameter: 0.5 m). The IVD gasifier has a diameter of 0.1 m and a reactor length of 4 m. Carbon conversions during wood, miscanthus and brown coal gasification experiments were well above 80%. Fuel-nitrogen conversion to ammonia was above ca. 50% and the highest values were observed for biomass. The results are in line with other investigations with biomass bottom feeding. Deviation occurs compared with top feeding. Measurements are compared with simulation results of a reaction-kinetics-based model, using ASPEN PLUS, related to emission of components like fuel-nitrogen-derived species. Data from literature regarding initial biomass flash pyrolysis in the gasification process are used in the gasifier model and will be compared with simulation results from the FG-DVC model. Measurements and model predictions were in reasonably good agreement with each other

  3. Prevention of the ash deposits by means of process conditions in biomass gasification; Biomassapolttoaineiden tuhkan kuonaantumiskaeyttaeytymisen estaeminen prosessiolosuhteiden avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Nieminen, M.; Kurkela, E.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In fluidised-bed gasification, various types of deposits and agglomerates may be formed by biomass ash in the bed, in upper zones of the reactor, for instance in cyclones. These may decisively hamper the operation of the process. The aim of the project was to obtain data on the detrimental fouling behaviour of the ash of different types of biomass in fluidised-bed gasification, and on the basis of these data to determine the process conditions and ways of preventing this kind of behaviour. Different types of biomass fuel relevant to energy production such as straw, wood residue were be used as samples. The project consisted of laboratory studies and fluidised-bed reactor tests including ash behaviour studied both in the bed and freeboard. In laboratory tests, the sample material was characterised as a function of different process parameters. In fluid-bed reactors, the most harmful biomasses were tested using process variables such as temperature, bed material and the gasification agents. Bubbling fluidised-bed gasification tests with wheat straw showed that agglomerates with different sizes and structures formed in the bed depending on the temperature, the feed gas composition and bed material. Agglomerates consisted of molten ash which sintered with bed material and other solids. In all BFB tests, freeboard walls were slicked by ash agglomerates (different amounts) which, however, were easily removable. The results of this project and the earlier pilot-scale gasification experience obtained with the same feedstocks showed that useful characteristic data about ash behaviour can be obtained using laboratory tests and small scale reactors. (orig.)

  4. Integrated biomass gasification using the waste heat from hot slags: Control of syngas and polluting gas releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Liu, Qianyi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the thermodynamics of a novel strategy, i.e., biomass/CO 2 gasification integrated with heat recovery from hot slags in the steel industry, were systemically investigated. Both the target syngas yield and the polluting gas release were considered where the effect of gasifying conditions including temperature, pressure and CO 2 reacted was analyzed and then the roles of hot slags were further clarified. The results indicated that there existed an optimum temperature for the maximization of H 2 production. Compared to blast furnace slags, steel slags remarkably increased the CO yield at 600–1400 °C due to the existence of iron oxides and decreased the S-containing gas releases at 400–700 °C, indicating potential desulfurizing ability. The identification of biomass/CO 2 gasification thermodynamics in presence of slags could thus provide important clues not only for the deep understanding of biomass gasification but also for the industrial application of this emerging strategy from the viewpoint of syngas optimization and pollution control. - Highlights: • Biomass/CO 2 gasification was integrated with the heat recovery from hot slags. • Both syngas yield and polluting gas release during gasification were determined. • There existed an optimum temperature for the maximization of H 2 production. • Steel slags increased CO yield at 600–1400 °C due to the existence of iron oxides. • Steel slags remarkably decreased the releases of S-containing gas at 400–700 °C.

  5. Simulation of Synthesis Gas Production from Steam Oxygen Gasification of Colombian Coal Using Aspen Plus®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Preciado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A steady state simulation of syngas production from a Steam Oxygen Gasification process using commercial technologies was performed using Aspen Plus®. For the simulation, the average proximate and ultimate compositions of bituminous coal obtained from the Colombian Andean region were employed. The simulation was applied to conduct sensitivity analyses in the O2 to coal mass ratio, coal slurry concentration, WGS operating temperature and WGS steam to dry gas molar ratio (SDG over the key parameters: syngas molar composition, overall CO conversion in the WGS reactors, H2 rich-syngas lower heating value (LHV and thermal efficiency. The achieved information allows the selection of critical operating conditions leading to improve system efficiency and environmental performance. The results indicate that the oxygen to carbon ratio is a key variable as it affects significantly both the LHV and thermal efficiency. Nevertheless, the process becomes almost insensitive to SDG values higher than 2. Finally, a thermal efficiency of 62.6% can be reached. This result corresponds to a slurry solid concentration of 0.65, a WGS process SDG of 0.59, and a LTS reactor operating temperature of 473 K. With these fixed variables, a syngas with H2 molar composition of 92.2% and LHV of 12 MJ Nm−3 was attained.

  6. Modelling of gasification using deferent kinds of biomass in a downdraft reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabell Ferran, Santiago J.; Brito Sauvanell, Angel L

    2011-01-01

    In this work is exposed the methodology of realization of a equilibrium model, capable to predict the composition of the generated gas, its caloric value, the cold and hot efficiency and the quantity of air per quantity of biomass in a downdraft reactor. For this model's realization it was considered that all the chemical reactions that happen in the gasification area are in thermodynamic equilibrium, doesn't considered tar formation, and alone it is considered the methane formation(CH4), it is not considered formation of CxHy. To make more practical and more accessible the model was carried out a software in Excel. The work use as fuel, wood, paddy husk, paper and solid waste. The behavior of generated gases was studied with the variation of the content of humidity. Were determined the calorific value of generated gas, and the value of the cold and hot efficiency for each biomass varying the content of humidity of the same one, where it shows for 20% of humidity, for the wood a value of 5,65MJ/Nm3, for the paddy husk is of 3,88 MJ/Nm3, for the paper it is of 5,83 MJ/Nm3, and for the waste it is of 4,36 MJ/Nm3; and the cold and hot efficiency for wood 30,16%, and 60,37%; for paddy husk 25,43% and 40,83%, paper 33,40% and 63,28%; and waste 22,18% and 41,35% respectively. It was also determined the gravimetric relationship of necessary air/ biomass for each biomass. (author)

  7. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  8. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  9. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-07-01

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass in a Ceramic Reactor: Long-Time Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Castello

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical water gasification (SCWG is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 °C, p > 22 MPa are definitely a challenge for the manufacturing of the reactors. Metal surfaces are indeed subject to corrosion under hydrothermal conditions, and expensive special alloys are needed to overcome such drawbacks. A ceramic reactor could be a potential solution to this issue. Finding a suitable material is, however, complex because the catalytic effect of the material can influence the gas yield and composition. In this work, a research reactor featuring an internal alumina inlay was utilized to conduct long-time (16 h batch tests with real biomasses and model compounds. The same experiments were also conducted in batch reactors made of stainless steel and Inconel 625. The results show that the three devices have similar performance patterns in terms of gas production, although in the ceramic reactor higher yields of C2+ hydrocarbons were obtained. The SEM observation of the reacted alumina surface revealed a good resistance of such material to supercritical conditions, even though some intergranular corrosion was observed.

  11. The fate of heavy metals during combustion and gasification of contaminated biomass-a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzihou, Ange; Stanmore, Brian

    2013-07-15

    The literature on the presence of heavy metals in contaminated wastes is reviewed. Various categories of materials produced from domestic and industrial activities are included, but municipal solid waste, which is a more complex material, is excluded. This review considers among the most abundant the following materials - wood waste including demolition wood, phytoremediation scavengers and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) timber, sludges including de-inking sludge and sewage sludge, chicken litter and spent pot liner. The partitioning of the metals in the ashes after combustion or gasification follows conventional behaviour, with most metals retained, and higher concentrations in the finer sizes due to vaporisation and recondensation. The alkali metals have been shown to catalyse the biomass conversion, particularly lithium and potassium, although other metals are active to a lesser extent. The most prevalent in biomass is potassium, which is not only inherently active, but volatilises to become finely distributed throughout the char mass. Because the metals are predominantly found in the ash, the effectiveness of their removal depends on the efficiency of the collection of particulates. The potential for disposal into soil depends on the initial concentration in the feed material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The analyses were performed in order to provide more detailed data concerning these condensates for the different process research groups and to allow a determination of the differences in properties of the condensates as a function of reactor environment. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases, aqueous phases and, in some cases, both phases depending on the output of the particular reactor system. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay). The analytical data demonstrate the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures as a result of formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high concentrations. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Effect of reactions in small eddies on biomass gasification with eddy dissipation concept - Sub-grid scale reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juhui; Yin, Weijie; Wang, Shuai; Meng, Cheng; Li, Jiuru; Qin, Bai; Yu, Guangbin

    2016-07-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) approach is used for gas turbulence, and eddy dissipation concept (EDC)-sub-grid scale (SGS) reaction model is employed for reactions in small eddies. The simulated gas molar fractions are in better agreement with experimental data with EDC-SGS reaction model. The effect of reactions in small eddies on biomass gasification is emphatically analyzed with EDC-SGS reaction model. The distributions of the SGS reaction rates which represent the reactions in small eddies with particles concentration and temperature are analyzed. The distributions of SGS reaction rates have the similar trend with those of total reactions rates and the values account for about 15% of the total reactions rates. The heterogeneous reaction rates with EDC-SGS reaction model are also improved during the biomass gasification process in bubbling fluidized bed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PFB air gasification of biomass. Investigation of product formation and problematic issues related to ammonia, tar and alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padban, Nader

    2000-09-01

    Fluidised bed thermal gasification of biomass is an effective route that results in 100 % conversion of the fuel. In contrast to chemical, enzymatic or anaerobic methods of biomass treatment, the thermal conversion leaves no contaminated residue after the process. The product gas evolved within thermal conversion can be used in several applications such as: fuel for gas turbines, combustion engines and fuel cells, and raw material for production of chemicals and synthetic liquid fuels. This thesis treats a part of the experimental data from two different gasifiers: a 90 kW{sub th} pressurised fluidised bubbling bed gasifier at Lund University and a 18 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed gasifier integrated with gas turbine (IGCC) in Vaernamo. A series of parallel and consecutive chemical reactions is involved in thermal gasification, giving origin to formation of a variety of products. These products can be classified within three major groups: gases, tars and oils, and char. The proportion of these categories of species in the final product is a matter of the gasifier design and the process parameters. The thesis addresses the technical and theoretical aspects of the biomass thermochemical conversion and presents a new approach in describing the gasification reactions. There is an evidence of fuel effect on the characteristics of the final products: a mixture of plastic waste (polyethylene) and biomass results in higher concentration of linear hydrocarbons in the gas than gasification of pure biomass. Mixing the biomass with textile waste (containing aromatic structure) results in a high degree of formation of aromatic compounds and light tars. Three topic questions within biomass gasification, namely: tar, NO{sub x} and alkali are discussed in the thesis. The experimental results show that gasification at high ER or high temperature decreases the total amount of the tars and simultaneously reduces the contents of the oxygenated and alkyl-substituted poly

  15. Effects of blend ratio between high density polyethylene and biomass on co-gasification behavior in a two-stage gasification system

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2016-08-12

    The co-gasification of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with a biomass has been carried out in a two-stage gasification system which comprises an oxidative pyrolysis reactor and a thermal plasma reactor. The equivalence ratio was changed from 0.38 to 0.85 according to the variation of blend ratio between HDPE and biomass. The highest production yield was achieved to be 71.4 mol/h, when the equivalence ratio was 0.47. A large amount of hydrocarbons was produced from the oxidative pyrolysis reactor as decreasing equivalence ratio below 0.41, while the CO2 concentration significantly increased with a high equivalence ratio over 0.65. The production yield was improved by the thermal plasma reactor due to the conversion of hydrocarbons into syngas in a high temperature region of thermal plasma. At the equivalence ratio of 0.47, conversion selectivities of CO and H2 from hydrocarbons were calculated to be 74% and 44%, respectively. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC.

  16. Mathematical modelling of the gasification of cellulose-containing biomass using a zoning model; Mathematische Modellierung der Vergasung zellulosehaltiger Biomasse mit Hilfe eines Zonenmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K.; Saller, G.; Funk, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1998-09-01

    The composition of the product gas is decisive for the further process stages. In contrast to coal gasification, which has been investigated for more than a century, there is still a lack of theoretical and experimental knowledge on biomass gasification. The contribution presents a mathematical model that is to provide deeper knowledge of the constant-flow fixed-bed gasifier, which is still widely regarded as a `black box`. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Einen wesentlichen Prozessschritt der thermochemischen Konversion stellt der Vergasungsprozess dar, da die Zusammensetzung des erhaltenen Gases fuer die weiteren Prozessschritte von entscheidender Bedeutung ist. Im Gegensatz zur Vergasung von Kohle, die bereits seit fast 100 Jahren untersucht wird, besteht bei der Vergasung von Biomasse ein starker Nachholbedarf in Bezug auf das theoretische und experimentelle Detailwissen. In diesem Beitrag wird im Rahmen eines mathematischen Modells ein Ansatz vorgestellt, in dem der Gleichstrom-Festbettvergaser, der bisher meist als `blackbox` betrachtet wurde, weiter aufgeschluesselt wird. (orig./SR)

  17. Monitoring `Renewable fuels`. Gasification and pyrolysis of biomass. Second situation report; Monitoring ``Nachwachsende Rohstoffe``. Vergasung und Pyrolyse von Biomasse. Zweiter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.; Wintzer, D.

    1997-04-01

    The second situation report deals with gasification and pyrolysis as means of improving the energetic utilisation of wood and strawlike biomass and with various possibilities of utilising the gas produced in these processes. It also presents different gasification techniques, measures for gas purification, and ways of utilising gas for electricity generation. Out of the wide range of possible process combinations for producing energy from biomass the report only deals more closely with a few concepts that appear very promising from today`s viewpoint. Working from the current state and perspectives of technical development and from prospective operating conditions and potential market chances of pyrolysis and gasification the report deliberates on the future orientation of research, development, and demonstration activities. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im zweiten Sachstandsbericht werden die Vergasung und Pyrolyse zur besseren energetischen Nutzung von Holz und halmartiger Biomasse und verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zur Verwertung des dabei erzeugten Gases betrachtet. Es werden unterschiedliche Vergasungstechniken, Massnahmen zur Gasreinigung und Arten der Gasnutzung zur Stromgewinnung dargestellt. Aus der Vielzahl an moeglichen Kombinationen werden einige, aus gegenwaertiger Sichtweise besonders vielversprechende Konzepte zur Energieerzeugung ueber die Biomassevergasung naeher ausgefuehrt. Ausgehend vom Stand und von den Perspektiven der technischen Entwicklungen sowie den Einsatzbedingungen und potentiellen Marktchancen werden Schlussfolgerungen fuer die zukuenftige Ausrichtung im Bereich Forschung, Entwicklung und Demonstration Anstrengungen gezogen. (orig./SR)

  18. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    This thesis presents the development of energy system for simulation, techno-economic optimization and design of a quad-generation energy system based on biomass gasification. An efficient way of reducing CO2 emission from the environment is by increasing the use of biomass in the energy sector...... alternative by upgrading existing district heating plant. It provides a generic modeling framework to design flexible energy system in near future. These frameworks address the three main issues arising in the planning and designing of energy system: a) socio impact at both planning and proses design level; b...

  19. Decentralized combined heat and power production by two-stage biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate options for increasing the electrical efficiency of decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) plants fuelled with biomass compared to conventional technology, this research explored the performance of an alternative plant design based on thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide......, carbon conversion factor in the gasifier and the efficiency of the DC/AC inverter were the most influential parameters in the model. Thus, a detailed study of the practical values of these parameters was conducted to determine the performance of the plant with the lowest possible uncertainty. The SOFC...

  20. Operation of a semi-technical pilot plant for nuclear aided steam gasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, R.; Heek, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.; Peters, W.

    1984-01-01

    After intensive investigations on a small scale, the principle of the process has been tested in a semi-technical pilot plant. In its gasifier a fluidized bed of approx. 1 m 2 cross-section and of up to 4 m height is operated at 40 bar. Heat is supplied to the bed from an immersed heat exchanger with helium flowing through it, which is heated electrically. The plant was commissioned in 1976 and has been in hot operation for approx. 23000 h, over 13000 h whereof account for coal gasification. Roughly 1600 t of coal have been put through. During recent years the processing of German caking long-flame gas coal and the marked improvement of the process by the use of catalysts have been demonstrated successfully. (orig.)

  1. Biomass gasification: Produced gas upgrading by in-bed use of dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, A.; Aznar, M.P.; Caballero, M.A.; Gil, J.; Frances, E. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Corella, J. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-01

    When some calcined dolomite (OCa{center_dot}OMg) is used in the bed of a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type the raw gas produced is cleaner than when only silica sand is used in it as fluidizing medium. In-bed dolomite changes the product distribution at the gasifier exit because of in-situ catalytic reactions promoted by the calcined dolomite. Gasifying with steam-O{sub 2} mixtures causes the tar content in the exit gas to decrease from 12 to 2--3 g tar/m{sup 3}{sub n}, the H{sub 2} content to increase from 25--28 to 43 vol%, and the CO content to decrease from 45 to 27 vol% when the gas and char yields, heating value of the gas, and other main variables also undergo important changes because of the in-bed dolomite. The experimental work here reported is carried out at small pilot plant scale in a 15 cm i.d. atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed gasifier fed by 10 kg biomass/h. Dolomite is continuously fed to the gasifier, mixed with the biomass in percentages of 2--3 wt% of the total mass flow fed. A 10 wt% of calcined dolomite in the gasifier bed is enough to significantly improve the product distribution and gas quality.

  2. The role of char and tar in determining the gas-phase partitioning of nitrogen during biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broer, Karl M.; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Switchgrass was gasified at an equivalence ratio of zero and 650–850 °C. • Short residence times were employed to minimize secondary reactions. • Char- and tar-bound nitrogen, NH 3 , HCN, and N 2 were all significant products. • Increasing temperature leads to increased release of gaseous nitrogen compounds. • Kinetic models of gasification should include nitrogen release from char and tar. - Abstract: Gasification is an attractive option for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. Most biomass contains significant amounts of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN), which partially converts into ammonia (NH 3 ) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during gasification. These nitrogen compounds are problematic as they can lead to NO X emissions or catalyst poisoning in downstream applications of syngas. FBN can convert to other products as well, including diatomic nitrogen (N 2 ), char-bound nitrogen (char-N), and tar-bound nitrogen (tar-N). Efforts to predict concentrations of NH 3 and HCN have been hindered by a lack of accurate, comprehensive measurements of nitrogen partitioning among gasification products. The present study gasified switchgrass under allothermal, short residence time conditions and measured NH 3 , HCN, char-N, and tar-N as a function of temperature in the range of 650–850 °C with diatomic nitrogen determined by difference. It was found that a major portion of FBN was retained in the char and tar products. As temperature was increased, char and tar were consumed, releasing nitrogen as gaseous NH 3 and HCN. This increase in undesirable nitrogen compounds is contrary to the predictions of most gasification models, which overlook the presence of significant nitrogen in char and tar even if they include tar cracking and char gasification reactions. The results of this study demonstrate that gas-phase reactions alone are not sufficient to predict the fate of nitrogen during gasification. In order for modeling efforts to obtain more accurate

  3. Design, fabrication, operation and Aspen simulation of oil shale pyrolysis and biomass gasification process using a moving bed downdraft reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Hassan

    Energy is the major facilitator of the modern life. Every developed and developing economy requires access to advanced sources of energy to support its growth and prosperity. Declining worldwide crude oil reserves and increasing energy needs has focused attention on developing existing unconventional fossil fuels like oil shale and renewable resources such as biomass. Sustainable, renewable and reliable resources of domestically produced biomass comparing to wind and solar energy is a sensible motivation to establish a small-scale power plant using biomass as feed to supply electricity demand and heat for rural development. The work in Paper I focuses on the possibility of water pollution from spent oil shale which should be studied before any significant commercial production is attempted. In Paper II, the proposed Aspen models for oil shale pyrolysis is to identify the key process parameters for the reactor and optimize the rate of production of syncrude from oil shale. The work in Paper III focuses on (1) Design and operation of a vertical downdraft reactor, (2) Establishing an optimum operating methodology and parameters to maximize syngas production through process testing. Finally in Paper IV, a proposed Aspen model for biomass gasification simulates a real biomass gasification system discussed in Paper III.

  4. Synergetic and inhibition effects in carbon dioxide gasification of blends of coals and biomass fuels of Indian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyam Naidu, V; Aghalayam, P; Jayanti, S

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the enhancement of CO2 gasification reactivity of coals due to the presence of catalytic elements in biomass such as K2O, CaO, Na2O and MgO. Co-gasification of three Indian coal chars with two biomass chars has been studied using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in CO2 environment at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. The conversion profiles have been used to establish synergetic or inhibitory effect on coal char reactivity by the presence of catalytic elements in biomass char by comparing the 90% conversion time with and without biomass. It is concluded that both biomasses exhibit synergistic behavior when blended with the three coals with casuarina being more synergetic than empty fruit bunch. Some inhibitory effect has been noted for the high ash coal at the highest temperature with higher 90% conversion time for the blend over pure coal, presumably due to diffusional control of the conversion rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The direct observation of alkali vapor species in biomass combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, R J; Dayton, D C; Milne, T A

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes new data from screening various feedstocks for alkali vapor release under combustion conditions. The successful development of a laboratory flow reactor and molecular beam, mass spectrometer interface is detailed. Its application to several herbaceous and woody feedstocks, as well as a fast-pyrolysis oil, under 800 and 1,100{degrees}C batch combustion, is documented. Chlorine seems to play a large role in the facile mobilization of potassium. Included in the report is a discussion of relevant literature on the alkali problem in combustors and turbines. Highlighted are the phenomena identified in studies on coal and methods that have been applied to alkali speciation. The nature of binding of alkali in coal versus biomass is discussed, together with the implications for the ease of release. Herbaceous species and many agricultural residues appear to pose significant problems in release of alkali species to the vapor at typical combustor temperatures. These problems could be especially acute in direct combustion fired turbines, but may be ameliorated in integrated gasification combined cycles.

  6. Analysis of ecotoxic influence of waste from the biomass gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrot-Paw, Małgorzata; Koniuszy, Adam; Mikiciuk, Małgorzata; Izwikow, Monika; Stawicki, Tomasz; Sędłak, Paweł

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this research was evaluation of the effect of soil contamination with waste coming from biomass gasification on chosen indicators of its biological activity, growth and development of spring barley, and change of physiological parameters of the plant. Chromatographic content and basic rheological parameters of the substances under research were also analyzed. Liquid wastes, tar, and mixture of tar and engine oil were introduced to the soil in the amount of 100 mg kg -1 DM soil. Based on the conducted research, it was ascertained that the changes in the number and activity of soil microorganisms were determined by the type of waste and its dose. Individual groups of microorganisms showed different sensitivity to the presence of pollution; however, the impact of tar and engine oil mixture was generally more disadvantageous. Presence of contaminants in the soil limited the growth of roots and aboveground parts of spring barley, especially when the dose was 10,000 mg kg -1 DM soil. The unfavorable impact of waste on photosynthesis efficiency on assimilation pigment synthesis and water content in the plant was recorded.

  7. Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    University of Denmark. The SOFC converts the syngas more efficiently than the MGT, which is reflected by the energetic electrical efficiency of the gasifier and MGT system in opposition to the gasifier and SOFC configuration – η_el = 28.1% versus η_el = 36.4%. By combining the SOFC and MGT, the unconverted......A system level modelling study of three combined heat and power systems based on biomass gasification is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first system, in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the second system and in a combined SOFC–MGT arrangement in the third...... system. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has been developed and calibrated against published data from Topsoe Fuel Cells A/S and the Risø National Laboratory. The modelled gasifier is based on an up scaled version (~500 kW_th) of the demonstrated low tar gasifier, Viking, situated at the Technical...

  8. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  9. Improving the modelling of the kinetics of the catalytic tar elimination in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Toledo, J.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University ' Complutense' of Madrid (Spain); Aznar, M.P. [Dept. of Chem. and Environm. Engineering, University of Saragossa (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    A single one-lump first order reaction for the catalytic elimination of tar present in the flue gas from biomass fluidised-bed gasifiers is not good enough for some applications. A new and more advanced reacting network and microkinetic model has been generated and is here presented. It is based on two lumps, the more and the less reactive tar species, and has four kinetic constants. Each lump reacts (disappears) by both catalytic and thermal reactions. The microkinetic model is applied to results obtained, at around 840 deg C and at small pilot plant level, with two very different solids: silica sand and a commercial (ICI 46-1) nickel-based steam-reforming catalyst. The values found for the four kinetic constants are self-consistent, fit well the results and mean a clear step forward in the modelling of the catalytic tar abatement. (orig.)

  10. Hydrogen Through Water Electrolysis and Biomass Gasification for Application in Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kirosa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is considered to be one of the most promising green energy carrier in the energy storage and conversion scenario. Although it is abundant on Earth in the form of compounds, its occurrence in free form is extremely low. Thus, it has to be produced by reforming processes, steam reforming (SR, partial oxidation (POX and auto-thermal reforming (ATR mainly from fossil fuels for high throughput with high energy requirements, pyrolysis of biomass and electrolysis. Electrolysis is brought about by passing electric current though two electrodes to evolve water into its constituent parts, viz. hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. Hydrogen produced by non-noble metal catalysts for both anode and cathode is therefore cost-effective and can be integrated into fuel cells for direct chemical energy conversion into electrical energy electricity, thus meeting the sustainable and renewable use with low carbon footprint.

  11. The use of biomass energy in the pulp and paper industry and the prospects for black liquor gasification combined cycle generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    The world production of paper and paperboard products, which increased 3.3% per year since 1980, reached 243 million tonnes in 1991 and is expected to continue to grow by about 2.5% per year over the next decade. Consumption levels in 1990 ranged from 2.8 kg per capita in India to 313 kg per capita in the United States. The biggest producers of pulp are the United States, Canada and the Scandinavian countries, but much of the expansion of pulp production capacity is taking place in countries such as Brazil, Chile and Indonesia. The pulp and paper industry has always relied on biomass as a fuel source to meet process energy demands. Kraft pulping is the most common process accounting for about two thirds of world wood pulp production. Energy recovered from burning black liquor, a lignin-rich by-product, in a chemicals recovery boiler typically provides most of the on-site demand for heat and electricity in a modem kraft pulp mill. Another important fuel source is bark and wood waste generated at the mill. Aging recovery boilers in industrialized countries and increasing electricity/heat demand ratios are stimulating interest in alternative co-generation technologies. Most of the interest in new biomass and black liquor co-generation technologies focuses on those that would utilize gas turbines rather than steam turbines. Gas turbines are generally characterized by higher electricity/heat ratios than steam turbines, as well as lower unit capital costs. With the black liquor and biomass gasification technologies that are now being developed and demonstrated, the energy needs of an energy-efficient kraft pulp mill could be met and 40-50 MW of baseload power would be available for export. Using, in addition, currently unused logging residues for fuel would increase that potential. The pulp and paper industry is likely to be an important early market for advanced biomass-based cogeneration technology owing to its access to biomass fuels and the potential for co

  12. Effect of steam during Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis using biomass-derived syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi Wang; Khiet Mai; Nitin Kumar; Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom; James J. Spivey

    2017-01-01

    Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) with biomass- derived syngas was performed using both iron-based 100Fe/6Cu/4K/25Al catalyst and ruthenium-based 5 % Ru/SiO2 catalyst. During FTS, different concentrations of steam were co-fed with the biomass-derived syngas to promote the water gas shift reaction and increase the H2/ CO ratio...

  13. Biomass gasification using nickel loaded brown coal char in fluidized bed gasifier at relatively low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, D.D.; Xiao, X.B.; Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gumma (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Our work focuses on developing nickel loaded brown coal char as a new catalyst to decompose tar and to enhance quality of product gas delivered from woody biomass pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures of 823 K and 923 K. It is carried out in two-stage fixed-bed reactor and a lab scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) under various conditions. Inside of gasifier is constructed by two beds, the primary one is a fluidized bed with sand. and the second one is a catalyst bed. The catalyst bed is used to evaluate and to compare catalytic activity between the new catalyst and a conventional Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The new catalyst is prepared by ion exchange method, dried at 380 K in nitrogen for 24 h, and is then calcined at 923 K in nitrogen for 90 min. The temperature as a function of gas yield and the effect of catalysts on gas yield in presence and absence of steam are investigated in this study. The new catalyst has shown high catalytic activity and stable activity and given the high quality of product gas in presence of steam.

  14. Role of steel slags on biomass/carbon dioxide gasification integrated with recovery of high temperature heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Liu, Qianyi; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Zuotai; Wang, Xidong

    2017-01-01

    Disposal of biomass in the agriculture and steel slags in the steel industry provides a significant solution toward sustainability in China. Herein these two sectors were creatively combined as a novel method, i.e., biomass/CO 2 gasification using waste heat from hot slags where the influence of chemical compositions of steel slags, characterized as iron oxide content and basicity, on gasification thermodynamics, was systemically reported for the first time. Both the target gases of CO, H 2 and CH 4 and the polluted gases of NH 3 , NO and NO 2 were considered. It was first found that an increasing iron content and slag basicity continuously improved the CO yield at 600-1000°C and 800-1000°C, respectively; while the effect on polluted gas releases was limited. Moreover, the solid wastes after gasification could be utilized to provide nutrients and improve the soil in the agriculture, starting from which an integrated modern system was proposed herein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomass gasification bottom ash as a source of CaO catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneerung, Thawatchai; Kawi, Sibudjing; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CaO catalyst was successfully developed from wood gasification bottom ash. • CaCO 3 in bottom ash can be converted to CaO catalyst by calcination. • CaO catalysts derived from bottom ash exhibited high activity towards transesterification. • CaO catalysts derived from bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times. - Abstract: The main aim of this research is to develop environmentally and economically benign heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil. For this propose, calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst has been developed from bottom ash waste arising from woody biomass gasification. Calcium carbonate was found to be the main component in bottom ash and can be transformed into the active CaO catalyst by simple calcination at 800 °C without any chemical treatment. The obtained CaO catalysts exhibit high biodiesel production activity, over 90% yield of methyl ester can be achieved at the optimized reaction condition. Experimental kinetic data fit well the pseudo-first order kinetic model. The activation energy (E a ) of the transesterification reaction was calculated to be 83.9 kJ mol −1 . Moreover, the CaO catalysts derived from woody biomass gasification bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times, offering the efficient and low-cost CaO catalysts which could make biodiesel production process more economic and environmental friendly

  16. Microwave-driven plasma gasification for biomass waste treatment at miniature scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, G.S.J.; Navarrete Muñoz, A.; Purushothaman Vellayani, A.; Stefanidis, G.

    2016-01-01

    Gasification technology may combine waste treatment with energy generation. Conventional gasification processes are bulky and inflexible. By using an external energy source, in the form of microwave-generated plasma, equipment size may be reduced and flexibility as regards to the feed composition

  17. Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lara; Furusjö, Erik; Kirtania, Kawnish; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Anheden, Marie; Wolf, Jens

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130€/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25€/MWh to be economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Catalytic steam reforming of tar derived from steam gasification of sunflower stalk over ethylene glycol assisting prepared Ni/MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnjanakom, Surachai; Guan, Guoqing; Asep, Bayu; Du, Xiao; Hao, Xiaogang; Samart, Chanatip; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni/MCM-41 was prepared by EG-assisted co-impregnation method. • EG-assisted co-impregnation method resulted in Ni particles well dispersed on MCM-41. • Ni/MCM-41-EG catalyst had high catalytic activity for tar reforming. • The highest H 2 gas yield was obtained when using 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41-EG. • The catalysts were reused up to 5 cycles without any serious deactivation. - Abstract: Ethylene glycol (EG) assisted impregnation of nickel catalyst on MCM-41 (Ni/MCM-41-EG) was performed and applied for steam reforming of tar derived from biomass. The catalyst was characterized by SEM–EDX, BET, XRD, and TPR. It is found that smaller nickel particles were well dispersed on MCM-41 and better catalytic activity was shown for the Ni/MCM-41-EG when compared with the catalyst of Ni/MCM-41 prepared by using the conventional impregnation method. H 2 yield increased approximately 8% when using 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41-EG instead of 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41 for the steam reforming of tar derived from sunflower stalk. The catalyst reusability was also tested up to five cycles, and no obvious activity reduction was observed. It indicates that EG assisted impregnation method is a good way to prepare metal loaded porous catalyst with high catalytic activity, high loading amount and long-term stability for the tar reforming

  19. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the secondary fuel is combusted with the main fuel to adhere to main fuel shortage. Gasification of two fuels together, known as co-gasification, is practiced worldwide, some in industrial scale. However, current practice utilizes biomass fuel as the secondary fuel to coal in co-gasification. This investigation explores into the feasibility of co-gasifying two biomass fuels together to produce syngas. OPF was chosen as the primary fuel and a selection of Malaysian biomasses were studied to discover their compatibility with OPF in co-gasification. Biomass selection was made using score-and-rank method and their selection criteria are concisely discussed.

  20. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  1. Hot gas cleaning and upgrading with a calcined dolomite located downstream a biomass fluidized bed gasifier operating with steam-oxygen mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.; Aznar, M.P.; Caballero, M.A.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Corella, J. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1997-11-01

    Cleaning and upgrading of the hot raw gas from a biomass gasifier, bubbling fluidized bed type, is studied at small pilot plant scale (10 kg biomass fed/h) using a calcined dolomite located downstream from the gasifier. Gasification is made with steam-oxygen mixtures at 800-850{degree}C and atmospheric pressure. Main variables studied are the gas residence time in the bed of dolomite and the gas atmosphere composition, which depends on the gasifying agent (H{sub 2}O + O{sub 2})-to-biomass and H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2} ratios. H{sub 2} and CO content in the flue gas increases by 16-23 vol% and decrease by 15-22 vol % (dry basis), respectively. Although CH{sub 4} conversion (elimination) higher than 30 vol % has never been reached, tar conversion (elimination) of 90-95 vol% are obtained with space times of 0.06 - 0.15 kg calcined dolomite h{sup -1} m{sup -3}. A detailed study is here presented on how the calcined dolomite significantly cleans and upgrades the flue gas, increasing also the gas yield by 0.15-0.40 m{sup 3} (STP)/kg daf biomass fed. 14 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Power generation based on biomass by combined fermentation and gasification--a new concept derived from experiments and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methling, Torsten; Armbrust, Nina; Haitz, Thilo; Speidel, Michael; Poboss, Norman; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Dieter, Heiko; Kempter-Regel, Brigitte; Kraaij, Gerard; Schliessmann, Ursula; Sterr, Yasemin; Wörner, Antje; Hirth, Thomas; Riedel, Uwe; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2014-10-01

    A new concept is proposed for combined fermentation (two-stage high-load fermenter) and gasification (two-stage fluidised bed gasifier with CO2 separation) of sewage sludge and wood, and the subsequent utilisation of the biogenic gases in a hybrid power plant, consisting of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. The development and optimisation of the important processes of the new concept (fermentation, gasification, utilisation) are reported in detail. For the gas production, process parameters were experimentally and numerically investigated to achieve high conversion rates of biomass. For the product gas utilisation, important combustion properties (laminar flame speed, ignition delay time) were analysed numerically to evaluate machinery operation (reliability, emissions). Furthermore, the coupling of the processes was numerically analysed and optimised by means of integration of heat and mass flows. The high, simulated electrical efficiency of 42% including the conversion of raw biomass is promising for future power generation by biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electric......An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks......-of-plant is designed and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on the lower heating value (LHV) can be achieved if all input parameters are selected conservatively. Different parameter studies are performed to analyze the system behavior under different conditions...

  4. Modelling of a Biomass Gasification Plant Feeding a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    A system level modelling study on two combined heat and power (CHP) systems both based on biomass gasification. One system converts the product gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the other in a combined SOFC and micro gas turbine (MGT) arrangement. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has...... been developed and calibrated against published data from Topsoe Fuel Cells A/S (TOFC) and Risø National Laboratory. The modelled gasifier is based on an up scaled version of the demonstrated low tar gasifier, Viking, situated at the Technical University of Denmark. The MGT utilizes the unconverted...

  5. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of a two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and a micro gas turbine was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant represents a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...... and exergy analyses were applied. Focus in this optimization study was heat management, and the optimization efforts resulted in a substantial gain of approximately 6% in the electrical efficiency of the plant. The optimized hybrid plant produced approximately 290 kWe at an electrical efficiency of 58...

  6. Biomass gasification in fixed bed type down draft: theoretical and experimental aspects; Gasificacao de biomassa em leito fixo tipo concorrente: aspectos teoricos e experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Juan Daniel; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida

    2008-07-01

    Actually are recognizing the advantages of biomass in reducing dependence on fossil fuels and significant reduction in emissions of greenhouse effect gases such as Co2. Also are known the different conversion of biomass routes for their use or exploitation, such as thermochemical process (gasification, pyrolysis and combustion), the biological process (fermentation and transesterification) and the physical process (densification, reducing grain and mechanical pressing). In this sense, the gasification is regarded as the most promising mechanism to obtain a homogeneous gaseous fuel with sufficient quality in the small scale distributed generation. This work presents some aspects of biomass gasification in fixed bed, as well as some preliminary results in the evaluation and operation of fixed bed down draft gasifier with double stage air supply of the NEST, identifying the adequate air supply quantity (equivalence ratio in the range of 0,35 to 0,45) for obtaining a fuel gas with lower heating value around 4 MJ/N m3. (author)

  7. Sustainable valorization of plastic wastes for energy with environmental safety via High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) and High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarelis, E; Donaj, P; Yang, W; Zabaniotou, A

    2009-08-15

    In the present study the energetic valorization of electric cable shredder residues (mixed plastics) has been investigated. Thermochemical conversion by means of High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG) and High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) was studied. The effects of temperature and reaction time--process parameters--were investigated. Comparison of the results showed that HTSG seems a more suitable process in terms of produced syngas quality (64%, v/v and 13MJ/Nm(3)) than HTP because of higher H(2) yield and lower tar content.

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a cooperative agreement with the USDOE to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US that produces ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP will emphasize on reclaiming and gasifying low-cost coal waste and/or its mixture as the primary feedstocks. The project consists of three phases. Phase I objectives include conceptual development, technical assessment, feasibility design and economic evaluation of a Greenfield commercial co-production plant and a site specific demonstration EECP to be located adjacent to the existing WMPI Gilberton Power Station. There is very little foreseen design differences between the Greenfield commercial coproduction plant versus the EECP plant other than: The greenfield commercial plant will be a stand alone FT/power co-production plant, potentially larger in capacity to take full advantage of economy of scale, and to be located in either western Pennsylvania, West Virginia or Ohio, using bituminous coal waste (gob) and Pennsylvania No.8 coal or other comparable coal as the feedstock; The EECP plant, on the other hand, will be a nominal 5000 bpd plant, fully integrated into the Gilbertson Power Company's Cogeneration Plant to take advantage of the existing infrastructure to reduce cost and minimize project risk. The Gilberton EECP plant will be designed to use eastern Pennsylvania anthracite coal waste and/or its mixture as feedstock

  9. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Randy D [Madison, WI; Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  10. Steam gasification of a thermally pretreated high lignin corn stover simultaneous saccharification and fermentation digester residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; McDonald, Armando G.; Li, Guosheng; Wolcott, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Efficient conversion of all components in lignocellulosic biomass is essential to realizing economic feasibility of biorefineries. However, when utilizing biochemical pathways, lignin cannot be fermented. Furthermore, the high lignin and high ash residue resulting from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactors is difficult to thermochemically process due to feed line plugging and bed agglomeration. In this study a corn stover SSF digester residue was thermally pretreated at 300°C for 22.5 minutes (min) and then gasified in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier to study the effect of thermal pretreatment on its processing behavior. Untreated, pelletized SSF residue was gasified at the same conditions to establish the baseline processing behavior. Results indicate that the thermal pretreatment process removes a substantial portion of the polar and non-polar extractives, with a resultant increase in the concentration of lignin, cellulose, and ash. Feed line plugging was not observed, although bed agglomeration was occurring at similar rates for both feedstocks, suggesting that overall ash content is the most important factor affecting bed agglomeration. Benzene, phenol, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the tar were present at higher concentrations in the treated material, with higher tar loading in the product gas. Total product gas generation is lower for the treated material, although the overall gas composition does not change.

  11. Modeling and performance analysis of CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system based on co-firing of natural gas and biomass gasification gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangjiang; Mao, Tianzhi; Sui, Jun; Jin, Hongguang

    2015-01-01

    Co-firing biomass and fossil energy is a cost-effective and reliable way to use renewable energy and offer advantages in flexibility, conversion efficiency and commercial possibility. This study proposes a co-fired CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system based on natural gas and biomass gasification gas that contains a down-draft gasifier, ICE (internal combustion engine), absorption chiller and heat exchangers. Thermodynamic models are constructed based on a modifying gasification thermochemical equilibrium model and co-fired ICE model for electricity and heat recovery. The performance analysis for the volumetric mixture ratio of natural gas and product gas indicates that the energy and exergy efficiencies are improved by 9.5% and 13.7%, respectively, for an increasing mixture ratio of 0–1.0. Furthermore, the costs of multi-products, including electricity, chilled water and hot water, based on exergoeconomic analysis are analyzed and discussed based on the influences of the mixture ratio of the two gas fuels, investment cost and biomass cost. - Highlights: • Propose a co-fired CCHP system by natural gas and biomass gasification gas. • Modify biomass gasification and co-fired ICE models. • Present the thermodynamic analysis of the volumetric mixture ratios of two gas fuels. • Energy and exergy efficiencies are improved 9.5% and 13.7%. • Discuss multi-products’ costs influenced by investment and fuel costs.

  12. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  13. Energy Characterization and Gasification of Biomass Derived by Hazelnut Cultivation: Analysis of Produced Syngas by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Monarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is an extremely energy intensive process. However, high agricultural productivities and the growth of green revolution has been possible only by large amount of energy inputs, especially those coming from fossil fuels. These energy resources have not been able to provide an economically viable solution for agricultural applications. Biomass energy-based systems had been extensively used for transportation and on farm systems during World War II: the most common and reliable solution was wood or biomass gasification. The latter means incomplete combustion of biomass resulting in production of combustible gases which mostly consist of carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen (H2 and traces of methane (CH4. This mixture is called syngas, which can be successfully used to run internal combustion engines (both compression and spark ignition or as substitute for furnace oil in direct heat applications. The aim of the present paper is to help the experimentation of innovative plants for electric power production using agro-forest biomass derived by hazelnut cultivations. An additional purpose is to point out a connection among the chemical and physical properties of the outgoing syngas by biomass characterization and gas-chromatography analysis.

  14. Analysis of Operation Parameters in a Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasifier Integrated with a Biomass Rotary Dryer: Development and Application of a System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Puadian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An integrated system model was developed in UniSim Design for a dual fluidized bed (DFB biomass gasifier and a rotary biomass dryer using a combination of user-defined and built-in unit operations. A quasi-equilibrium model was used for modelling biomass steam gasification in the DFB gasifier. The biomass drying was simulated with consideration of mass and energy balances, heat transfer, and dryer’s configuration. After validation using experimental data, the developed system model was applied to investigate: (1 the effects of gasification temperature and steam to biomass (S/B ratio on the gasification performance; (2 the effect of air supplied to the fast fluidized bed (FFB reactor and feed biomass moisture content on the integrated system performance, energy and exergy efficiencies. It was found that gasification temperature and S/B ratio have positive effects on the gasification yields; a H2/CO ratio of 1.9 can be achieved at the gasification temperature of 850 °C with a S/B ratio of 1.2. Consumption of excessive fuel in the system at higher biomass feed moisture content can be compensated by the heat recovery such as steam generation while it has adverse impact on exergy efficiency of the system.

  15. Effect of biomass containing zinc metal at different operating parameters on gasification efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Liang; Chen, Hsien

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of Zn on the gas production of a fluidized-bed gasifier to determine the relationship between Zn and the gasification process. Different concentrations of Zn were used in the preparation of artificial waste to elucidate the effect on gas product composition, gas product heat value, gas production rate, and H2 yield in the gasification process. Zn served to increase H2 generation during the gasification process. The molar percentage of H2 with more than 0.1 wt% additional Zn increased by 33.02% and the H2 yield was increased by 11.34% compared to that without Zn. However, the gas heat value decreased, and no significant change in the gas production rate was noted.

  16. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  17. A full-flow catalytic reactor at pilot scale for hot gas cleanup in biomass gasification with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J. [University Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Corella, J.; Martin, J.A. [University of Saragossa (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    A new catalytic reactor for commercial steam reforming (nickel-based) catalysts has been calculated designed, constructed, set up and operated in a full flow mode downstream from a fluidized bed biomass gasifier. It contains 3.9 kg of a commercial catalyst in its full size and shape (rings) and is located in a bed of 75 mm internal diameter and 1.31 m length. Four tests with it has provided excellent results. (author)

  18. Biomass Gasification in Internal Circulating Fluidized Beds: a Thermodynamic Predictive Tool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccio, F.; Svoboda, Karel; Schosger, J.-P.; Baxter, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2008), s. 721-726 ISSN 0256-1115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * fluidized bed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2008

  19. Gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) with CO2/H2O/O2in a circulating fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abdol Ghaffar; Hisoriev, Hikmat

    2017-11-28

    Gasification is one of the most important thermochemical routes to produce both synthesis gas (syngas) and chars. The quality of produced syngas wieldy depends on the operating conditions (temperature, residence time, heating rate, and gasifying agent), hydrodynamic properties of gasifier (particle size, minimum fluidization velocity, and gasifier size), and type of feedstock (coal, biomass, oil, and municipal solid wastes). In the present study, simulation of syngas production via circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) at different gasifying agents and particle sizes was carried out, using Aspen Plus simulator. The model which has been validated by using experimental data of the technical literature was used to evaluate the influence of operating conditions on gas composition and performance parameters. The results show that biomass gasification using pure oxygen as the gasification agent has great potential to improve the caloric value of produced gas and performance indicators. It was also found that the produced gas caloric value, syngas yield, and performance parameters (CCE and CGE) increase with reaction temperature but are inversely proportional to the biomass particle size.

  20. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  2. Integration of mixed conducting membranes in an oxygen–steam biomass gasification process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Soprani, Stefano; Søgaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    distillation, especially for small to medium scale plants. This paper examines different configurations for oxygen production using MIEC membranes where the oxygen partial pressure difference is achieved by creating a vacuum on the permeate side, compressing the air on the feed side or a combination of the two....... However, high costs for both oxygen supply equipment and operation are significant challenges for the commercial implementation of this technology. Mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes can be used for oxygen separation from air at a lower energy consumption compared to cryogenic...... the air feed pressure increases the energy consumption but decreases the membrane area. As an example, for the highest efficiency configuration working at a membrane temperature of 850 _C, 6 bar of air feed pressure and 0.3 bar of permeate side pressure, 150 m2 are needed to generate the oxygen for the 6...

  3. Biomass oxygen/steam gasification in a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed: Agglomeration behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chunguang; Rosén, Christer; Engvall, Klas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dolomite is a superior material in preventing bed agglomeration. • Small molten ash particles deposited on magnesite at bed temperatures above 1000 °C. • The performance, when using magnesite, is sensitive to temperature disturbances. • The anti-agglomeration mechanisms of Ca- and Mg-bearing materials were discussed. - Abstract: In this study, the anti-agglomeration abilities of Ca- and Mg-containing bed materials, including dolomite and magnesite, in a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed gasifier using pine pellets and birch chips as feedstock, is investigated. The most typical bed material—silica sand—was also included as a reference for comparison. The sustainability of the operation was evaluated via analyzing the temperatures at different levels along the bed height. During the performances, the aim was to keep the temperature at the bottom zone of the reactor at around 870 °C. However, the success highly depends on the bed materials used in the bed and the temperature can vary significantly in case of agglomeration or bad mixing of bed materials and char particles. Both Glanshammar and Sala dolomites performed well with no observed agglomeration tendencies. In case of magnesite, the bed exhibited a high agglomeration tendency. Silica sand displayed the most severe agglomeration among all bed materials, even when birch chips with a low silica content was fed at a relatively low temperature. The solid samples of all the bed materials were inspected by light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) detector was used to detect the elemental distribution in the surface. The crystal chemical structure was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Magnesite agglomerates glued together by big molten ash particles. There was no coating layer detected on magnesite particles at bed temperatures – below 870 °C. But when the temperature was above 1000 °C, a significant amount of small molten ash particles was deposited on the magnesite particles, indicating a pronounced tendency for formation of a coating layer in case of long-term operation. An increasing trend of Si on the surface of dolomite particles was observed. Simultaneously, potassium deposition on the surface is not obvious. The analyses, based on the XRD diffraction and the K 2 O–SiO 2 –MgO and K 2 O–SiO 2 –CaO ternary diagrams, suggest that the observed decreases in the risks for agglomeration using dolomite, cannot be attributed to formation of alkali-containing compounds with higher melting points, but to the reaction between dolomite and silica, consuming a considerable portion of silicon and thus hinder the formation of low-melting potassium silicate, as well as its ability to stabilize the temperatures under pressurized conditions.

  4. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that the operation of a micro steam turbine is rather inefficient from the technical and economic point of view, a specially modified air compressor can be used as a steam piston engine. Such engine should be designed to work at low pressure of the working medium. Studies regarding the first version of the prototype installation were focused on the confirmation of applicability of a straw boiler in the prototype ORC power system. The results of the previous studies and the studies described in the paper (on the new cogeneration unit confirmed the high potential of the developed solution. Of course, many further studies have to be carried out.

  5. Assessment of the technical and economic potentials of biomass use for the production of steam, chemicals and polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Gielen, D. J.; Draeck, M.; Worrell, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; Patel, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuel substitution with biomass is one of the measures to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This paper estimates the cost-effectiveness of raising industrial steam and producing materials (i.e. chemicals, polymers) from biomass. We quantify their long-term global potentials in terms of

  6. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  7. Preparation and development of Ni/Olivine catalysts for hydrogen production by means of biomass gasification in fluidized bed; Elaboration et developpement d'un catalyseur Ni/Olivine pour la production d'hydrogene par gazeification de la biomasse en lit fluidise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swierczynski, D

    2004-10-01

    Biomass gasification is one of the most interesting ways to valorize this widely accessible source of renewable energy. This process, realized in fluidized bed at high temperature (800-900 C), permits to obtain syngas (mainly H{sub 2}, and CO) which contains however the unwanted sub-products CH{sub 4} and tars. Their catalytic elimination is the key step of the process and permits to clean up the product gas as well as to increase the quantity of H{sub 2} produced. This work describes the development of a catalyst for steam gasification of biomass, designed for fluidized bed, and active for tar and methane reforming. For this we have integrated Ni with natural olivine (Mg{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1})2SiO{sub 4}. Characterization by different techniques (XRD, TPR, SEM, TEM, Moessbauer) showed that during calcination in air, oxidation of olivine leads to a rejection of part of iron (II) from its structure with formation of iron (III) oxides.The catalysts Ni/olivine are obtained by wet impregnation of olivine with an aqueous solution of nickel salt, followed by calcination which leads to a reaction between NiO and olivine. This results in formation of a NiO-MgO solid solution grafted on the support surface and assuring attrition resistance. The catalytic activity was firstly studied in fixed bed in dry reforming of methane, then in steam reforming of tars with toluene as model compound. For both reactions the optimized system showed high activity and selectivity for syngas as well as an excellent stability explained by the presence of the NiO-MgO on the support surface and by formation of Ni-Fe alloys permitting to limit strongly carbon formation and providing long life for the catalyst. Finally the catalyst preparation was scaled-up to 100 kg and its efficacy was confirmed in biomass steam gasification in 100 kWth fluidized bed reactor permitting to envisage its industrial use. (author)

  8. Gasification of Biomass with CO2 and H2O Mixtures in a Catalytic Fluidised Bed.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeremiáš, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Manovic, V.; Anthony, E.J.; Skoblia, S.; Beňo, Z.; Šyc, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 210, DEC 15 (2017), s. 605-610 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:NSC(TW) 103-2923-E-042A-001-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fluidised bed * gasification * catalyst Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use OBOR OECD: Energy and fuels Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2016

  9. Applications of subcritical and supercritical water conditions for extraction, hydrolysis, gasification, and carbonization of biomass: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lachos-Perez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the recent essential aspects of subcritical and supercritical water technology applied tothe extraction, hydrolysis, carbonization, and gasification processes. These are clean and fast technologies which do not need pretreatment, require less reaction time, generate less corrosion and residues, do not usetoxic solvents, and reduce the synthesis of degradation byproducts. The equipment design, process parameters, and types of biomass used for subcritical and supercritical water process are presented. The benefits of catalysis to improve process efficiency are addressed. Bioactive compounds, reducing sugars, hydrogen, biodiesel, and hydrothermal char are the final products of subcritical and supercritical water processes. The present review also revisits advances of the research trends in the development of subcriticaland supercritical water process technologies.

  10. Comparative evaluation of power generation systems with integrated gasification of biomass; Vergleich von Systemen zur Stromerzeugung mit integrierter Biomassevergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Gasification of biomass followed by power generation from the lean product gas can make a significant contribution to power generation without affecting the climate or environment. It is made even more interesting by the high efficiencies and promising pollution ratings that can be achieved. To make full use of this technology, some technical problems still require solving, and some non-technical obstacles need to be removed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zusammenfassend kann festgehalten werden, dass die Biomassevergasung mit anschliessender Verstromung des Schwachgases einen nennenswerten Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energiebereitstellung in Europa leisten kann. Dies gilt insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund der erreichbaren hohen Stromwirkungsgrade und der vielversprechenden Umweltkenngroessen, durch die diese Technik gekennzeichnet ist. Um die Vorteile der Biomassevergasung realisieren zu koennen, muessen jedoch noch verschiedene technische Probleme geloest und nicht technische Hindernisse aus dem Weg geraeumt werden. (orig./SR)

  11. Gasification of biomass wastes in an entrained flow gasifier: Effect of the particle size and the residence time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Juan J.; Aranda-Almansa, Guadalupe [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Departamento de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Edificio Politecnico), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Bula, Antonio [Universidad del Norte, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Km.5 Antigua Via Puerto Colombia, Barranquilla (Colombia)

    2010-06-15

    Experimental tests in an entrained flow gasifier have been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of the biomass particle size and the space residence time on the gasifier performance and the producer gas quality. Three types of biomass fuels (grapevine pruning and sawdust wastes, and marc of grape) and a fossil fuel (a coal-coke blend) have been tested. The results obtained show that a reduction in the fuel particle size leads to a significant improvement in the gasification parameters. The thermochemical characterisation of the resulting char-ash residue shows a sharp increase in the fuel conversion for particles below 1 mm diameter, which could be adequate to be used in conventional entrained flow gasifiers. Significant differences in the thermochemical behaviour of the biomass fuels and the coal-coke blend have been found, especially in the evolution of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio with the space time, mainly due to the catalytic effect of the coal-coke ash. The reaction temperature and the space time have a significant effect on the H{sub 2}/CO ratio (the relative importance of each of these parameters depending on the temperature), this value being independent of the fuel particle size. (author)

  12. Energy and exergy analysis of alternating injection of oxygen and steam in the low emission underground gasification of deep thin coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Wolf, Karl Heinz; Rogut, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that by coupling the underground coal gasification (UCG) with the carbon capture and storage (CCS), the coal energy can be economically extracted with a low carbon footprint. To investigate the effect of UCG and CCS process parameters on the feasibility of the UCG......-CCS process, we utilize a validated mathematical model, previously published by the same authors, that can predict the composition of the UCG product, temperature profile, and coal conversion rate for alternating injection of air and steam for unmineable deep thin coal layers. We use the results of the model...... to conduct an energy and exergy analysis of the UCG process. We study the effect of various process parameters on the efficiency of the UCG process, the zero-emission recovery factor of coal, and the total CO2 emission of the process. Moreover, we compare the alternating injection of air...

  13. Closed-loop system for growth of aquatic biomass and gasification thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler, James R.

    2017-09-19

    Processes, systems, and methods for producing combustible gas from wet biomass are provided. In one aspect, for example, a process for generating a combustible gas from a wet biomass in a closed system is provided. Such a process may include growing a wet biomass in a growth chamber, moving at least a portion of the wet biomass to a reactor, heating the portion of the wet biomass under high pressure in the reactor to gasify the wet biomass into a total gas component, separating the gasified component into a liquid component, a non-combustible gas component, and a combustible gas component, and introducing the liquid component and non-combustible gas component containing carbon dioxide into the growth chamber to stimulate new wet biomass growth.

  14. Wood into the natural gas distribution system. Sweden and Finland as a pioneer for the gasification of biomass; Holz ins Gasnetz. Schweden und Finnland als Vorreiter fuer Grossanlagen zur Biomasse-Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Right now, the thermochemical gasification of biomass and waste is developed on many fronts due to the manifold and attractive options. In Lahti (Finland) a large plant for waste incineration already has gone into operation. A plant for energy production from biomethane from wood is currently being built in Gothenburg (Sweden).

  15. Steam gasification of coal at low-medium (600-800{sup o}C) temperature with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture in a bubbling fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure. 2. Results and recommendations for scaling up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Toledo, J.M.; Molina, G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-19

    A gasification gas with an H{sub 2} content as high as 80 vol %, dry basis has been obtained by gasification of coal with pure steam at 600-800{sup o}C. The gasifier used was an atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed operating with CaO in the bed as the CO{sub 2} sorbent. The research was carried out at a small pilot plant scale with continuous feeding of coal and batch mode introduction of the CaO. The gas composition and gas quality (tar content) is given for the following variables of operation: (a) type of in-bed sorbent used, (b) the amount of CaO in the bed related to the amount of coal fed, (c) temperature in the gasifier bed, (d) weight hourly space velocity (h{sup -1}) of the coal in the gasifier, and (e) time(-on-stream). To capture CaO at atmospheric pressure, the gasification with in-bed CaO had to be carried out at low-medium (600-800{sup o}C) gasification temperatures. For this reason, the tar content in the gasification gas was high (up to 52 g/Nm{sup 3}), which lowered the value of the H{sub 2}-rich gasification raw gas. It is demonstrated that a gas rich in H{sub 2} (80 vol % H{sub 2}, dry basis), and with very low CO{sub 2} and tar contents, can be obtained only if the coal gasification, at atmospheric pressure and with pure steam, is carried out at (CaO/coal) ratios above 10-15.

  16. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fluidized Bed Gasification of Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmina Begum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a thermo-chemical process to convert carbon-based products such as biomass and coal into a gas mixture known as synthetic gas or syngas. Various types of gasification methods exist, and fluidized bed gasification is one of them which is considered more efficient than others as fuel is fluidized in oxygen, steam or air. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of fluidized bed gasification of solid waste (SW (wood. The experimental measurement of syngas composition was done using a pilot scale gasifier. A numerical model was developed using Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen Plus software. Several Aspen Plus reactor blocks were used along with user defined FORTRAN and Excel code. The model was validated with experimental results. The study found very similar performance between simulation and experimental results, with a maximum variation of 3%. The validated model was used to study the effect of air-fuel and steam-fuel ratio on syngas composition. The model will be useful to predict the various operating parameters of a pilot scale SW gasification plant, such as temperature, pressure, air-fuel ratio and steam-fuel ratio. Therefore, the model can assist researchers, professionals and industries to identify optimized conditions for SW gasification.

  17. Methanol production via pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification – Techno-economic comparison of integrated vs. stand-alone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim; Marklund, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11–18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR. - Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding integration of methanol synthesis processes in a pulp and paper mill are presented. • The overall energy efficiency increases in integrated methanol production systems compared to stand-alone production units. • The economics of the integrated system improves compared to stand-alone alternatives. • Tax

  18. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  19. Biomass gasification cogeneration – A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable resource from which a broad variety of commodities can be produced. However, the resource is scarce and must be used with care to avoid depleting future stock possibilities. Flexibility and efficiency in production are key characteristics for biomass conversion technologies...

  20. Gasification-based methanol production from biomass in industrial clusters: Characterisation of energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina M.; Andersson, Eva; Berntsson, Thore; Rydberg, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential for reducing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biomass gasification-based methanol production systems based on energy balances. Configurations which are process integrated with a chemical cluster have been compared to stand-alone units, i.e. units with no connection to any other industry but with the possibility to district heating connection. Two different uses of methanol are considered: the use as a vehicle fuel and the use for production of olefins via the methanol-to-olefins process. An added value of the integration can be the availability of excess hydrogen. For the studied case, the methanol production could be increased by 10% by using excess hydrogen from the cluster. The results show that the integrated systems have greater potential to reduce GHG emissions than the stand-alone systems. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the references for electricity production and district heating production technology have important impacts on the outcomes. Using excess heat for district heating was found to have positive or negative impacts on GHG emissions depending on what heat production technologies it replaces. The investigated olefins production systems resulted in GHG emissions reductions that were similar in magnitude to those of the investigated biofuel production systems. - Highlights: • Gasification-based bio-methanol/olefin production integrated with chemical cluster. • GHG emission comparison with stand-alone, based on energy analysis. • Results show lower GHG emissions in the cluster-integrated cases. • Identified improvement of methanol conversion efficiency by use of excess hydrogen. • Similar GHG emission levels for bio-methanol as biofuel as for olefins production

  1. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Gasification with gas turbine/engine for power plants; Incl. English lang. appendix of 24 p. titled 'Status of large-scale biomass gasification for power production'; Inventering av framtidens el och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Foergasning med gasturbin/motor foer kraftvaerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldheim, Lars; Larsson, Eva K. (TPS Termiska Processer, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This subproject is limited to applications with gas turbines or engines from approximately 1 MWe and firing of gas in a boiler either as indirect cofiring or as separate firing of gas from waste gasification. Gasification with gas engine, BIG-ICE (Biomass Integrated Gasification Internal-Combustion Engine) is realized in approximately 10 plants in Europe between 1 and 7 MWe. The gas needs to be cleaned from particles and tar before it is fed to the engine. A number of different gasifiers and gas cleaning technologies are applied in these prototypes, and in certain cases a second generation is being built. Gas engines from GE Jenbacher are most common, but there are also other producers with engines for low-calorific-value gas. The exhausts from engines must, unlike gas turbines, be cleaned catalytically, but emissions of hydrocarbons in particular are still higher than from gas turbines. It is possible to increase the electricity generation by applying a 'bottoming cycle' in the form of a steam or an ORC cycle. Such a plant with ORC has been started in Austria this year. During the 1990's expectations were high concerning the development of biomass gasification with gas turbine in a combined cycle BIG-CC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) towards commercialisation. Two demonstration plants were built for the same gas turbine model, Siemens SGT 100 (earlier Typhoon); Vaernamo with pressurised gasification and ARBRE in Eggborough, England, with atmospheric gasification. The atmospheric technology has basically the same demands on gas cleaning as in the engine application, but downstream the gas is compressed to the pressure required by the gas turbine. In pressurised gasification, the gasifier pressure is set by the gas turbine. The gas is not cooled below 350-400 deg C and is cleaned in a high-temperature filter. Despite successful demonstration in Vaernamo, no more plants have been built. The ARBRE plant was never put into regular

  2. Methanol from biomass and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    For Hawaii in the near term, the only liquid fuels indigenous sources will be those that can be made from biomass, and of these, methanol is the most promising. In addition, hydrogen produced by electrolysis can be used to markedly increase the yield of biomass methanol. This paper calculates cost of producing methanol by an integrated system including a geothermal electricity facility plus a plant producing methanol by gasifying biomass and adding hydrogen produced by electrolysis. Other studies cover methanol from biomass without added hydrogen and methanol from biomass by steam and carbon dioxide reforming. Methanol is made in a two-step process: the first is the gasification of biomass by partial oxidation with pure oxygen to produce carbon oxides and hydrogen, and the second is the reaction of gases to form methanol. Geothermal steam is used to generate the electricity used for the electrolysis to produce the added hydrogen

  3. Biomass gasification with air in an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed. Effect of six operational variables on the quality of the produced raw gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, I.; Orio, A.; Corella, J. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Aznar, M.P. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Biomass gasification with air in a bubbling fluidized bed is studied in a small pilot plant. Variables analyzed are equivalence ratio (from 0.20 to 0.45), temperatures of the gasifier bed (750--850 C) and of its freeboard (500--600 C), H/C ratio in the feed, use of secondary air (10% of the overall) in the freeboard, and addition (2--5 wt %) of a calcined dolomite mixed with the biomass used as the feedstock. Using advanced tar and gas sampling and analysis methods, the gas composition and tar content in the gas are determined and their variation with the operation parameters is given. A statistical analysis of the effects of the gasification variables is also here presented.

  4. A study on pyro