WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass products development

  1. Productivity developments in European agriculture: relations to and opportunities for biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Londo, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses if, how fast and to what maximum yield improvements can be realized in Europe in the coming decades and what the opportunities and relations are to biomass production. The starting point for the analysis is the historic context of developments in European agriculture over the pa

  2. Altered sucrose metabolism impacts plant biomass production and flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather D; Beamish, Leigh; Reid, Anya; Park, Ji-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2010-04-01

    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) was transformed with three genes involved in sucrose metabolism, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase, EC 2.7.7.9), sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14). Plants harbouring the single transgenes were subsequently crossed to produce double and triple transgenic lines, including: 2 x 35S::UGPase x SPS, 4CL::UGPase x SPS, 2 x 35S::SuSy x SPS, 4CL::SuSy x SPS, 2 x 35S::UGPase x SuSy x SPS, and 4CL::UGPase x SuSy x SPS. The ultimate aim of the study was to examine whether it is possible to alter cellulose production through the manipulation of sucrose metabolism genes. While altering sucrose metabolism using UGPase, SuSy and SPS does not have an end effect on cellulose production, their simultaneous overexpression resulted in enhanced primary growth as seen in an increase in height growth, in some cases over 50%. Furthermore, the pyramiding strategy of simultaneously altering the expression of multiple genes in combination resulted in increased time to reproductive bud formation as well as altered flower morphology and foliar stipule formation in 4CL lines. Upregulation of these sucrose metabolism genes appears to directly impact primary growth and therefore biomass production in tobacco.

  3. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  4. Development of Value-Added Products from Residual Algae to Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Craig [Sapphire Energy, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    DOE Award # EE0000393 was awarded to fund research into the development of beneficial uses of surplus algal biomass and the byproducts of biofuel production. At the time of award, Sapphire’s intended fuel production pathway was a fairly conventional extraction of lipids from biomass, resulting in a defatted residue which could be processed using anaerobic digestion. Over the lifetime of the award, we conducted extensive development work and arrived at the conclusion that anaerobic digestion presented significant technical challenges for this high-nitrogen, high-ash, and low carbon material. Over the same timeframe, Sapphire’s fuel production efforts came to focus on hydrothermal liquefaction. As a result of this technology focus, the residue from fuel production became unsuitable for either anaerobic digestion (or animal feed uses). Finally, we came to appreciate the economic opportunity that the defatted biomass could represent in the animal feed space, as well as understanding the impact of seasonal production on a biofuels extraction plant, and sought to develop uses for surplus biomass produced in excess of the fuel production unit’s capacity.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BOILER FOR COMBUSTION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS BY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Turanjanin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Serbia consumes about 15 million tons of equivalent oil per year (Mtoe. At the same time potential of the renewable energy sources is about 3,5 Mtoe/year. Main renewable source is biomass, with its potential of about 2,6 Mtoe/year, and 60% of the total biomass source is of agricultural origin. Mainly, that type of biomass is collected, transported and stored in form of bales. At the same time in one of the largest agricultural companies in Serbia (PKB there are over 2000 ha of soya plantations, and also 4000 t/year of baled soya straw available, none of which being used for energy purposes. Therefore, efforts have been made in the Laboratory for Thermal Engineering and Energy of the "Vinča" Institute to develop a technology for utilizing bales of various sizes and shapes for energy production. Satisfactory test results of the 1 MW experimental facility - low CO levels and stable thermal output - led to the building-up of a 1.5 MW soya straw bales-fired hot water boiler, with cigarette type of combustion, for the purposes of greenhouse and office heating in the PKB. Further more, achieving good results in exploitation of that hot water boiler, the next step is building up the first combined heat and power (electricity production facility (CHP, which will use agricultural biomass as a fuel, in Serbia.

  6. Sustainable biomass products development and evaluation, Hamakua project. Final draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The PICHTR Sustainable Biomass Energy Program was developed to evaluate the potential to cultivate crops for energy production as an alternative use of lands made available by the closing of large sugar plantations. In particular, the closing of the Hamakua Sugar Company on the island of Hawaii brought a great deal of attention to the future of agriculture in this region and in the state. Many options were proposed. Several promising alternatives had been proposed for cane lands. These included dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS) for electrical energy production, cultivation of sugarcane to produce ethanol and related by-products, and the production of feed and crops to support animal agriculture. Implementation of some of the options might require preservation of large tracts of land and maintenance of the sugar mills and sugar infrastructure. An analysis of the technical, financial, and other issues necessary to reach conclusions regarding the optimal use of these lands was required. At the request of the Office of State Planning and Senator Akaka`s office, the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) established and coordinated a working group composed of state, county, federal, and private sector representatives to identify sustainable energy options for the use of idle sugar lands on the island of Hawaii. The Sustainable Biomass Energy Program`s Hamakua Project was established to complete a comprehensive evaluation of the most viable alternatives and assess the options to grow crops as a source of raw materials for the production of transportation fuel and/or electricity on the island of Hawaii. The motivation for evaluating biomass to energy conversion embraced the considerations that Hawaii`s energy security would be improved by diversifying the fuels used for transportation and reducing dependency on imported fossil fuels. The use of waste products as feedstocks could divert wastes from landfills.

  7. Fermentative production of lactic acid from biomass: an overview on process developments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rojan P; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok

    2007-03-01

    The concept of utilizing excess biomass or wastes from agricultural and agro-industrial residues to produce energy, feeds or foods, and other useful products is not necessarily new. Recently, fermentation of biomass has gained considerable attention due to the forthcoming scarcity of fossil fuels and also due to the necessity of increasing world food and feed supplies. A cost-effective viable process for lactic acid production has to be developed for which several attempts have been initiated. Fermentation techniques result in the production of either D: (-) or L: (+) lactic acid, or a racemic mixture of both, depending on the type of organism used. The interest in the fermentative production of lactic acid has increased due to the prospects of environmental friendliness and of using renewable resources instead of petrochemicals. Amylolytic bacteria Lactobacillus amylovorus ATCC 33622 is reported to have the efficiency of full conversion of liquefied cornstarch to lactic acid with a productivity of 20 g l(-1) h(-1). A maximum of 35 g l(-1) h(-1) was reported using a high cell density of L. helveticus (27 g l(-1)) with a complete conversion of 55- to 60-g l(-1) lactose present in whey. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is proved to be best in the sense of high substrate concentration in lower reactor volume and low fermentation cost. In this review, a survey has been made to see how effectively the fermentation technology explored and exploited the cheaply available source materials for value addition with special emphasis on lactic acid production.

  8. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  9. Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; Shahab Sokhansanj

    2011-08-01

    A Review on Torrefaction Process and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System for Biomass Processing Jaya Shankar Tumuluru1, Shahab Sokhansanj2 and Christopher T. Wright1 Idaho National Laboratory Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technologies Department Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Group Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Abstract Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. There is a lack of literature on the design aspects of torrefaction reactor and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed torrefier for different capacities ranging from 25-1000 kg/hr, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and

  10. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  11. Butanol production from renewable biomass by clostridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-11-01

    Global energy crisis and limited supply of petroleum fuels have rekindled the worldwide focus towards development of a sustainable technology for alternative fuel production. Utilization of abundant renewable biomass offers an excellent opportunity for the development of an economical biofuel production process at a scale sufficiently large to have an impact on sustainability and security objectives. Additionally, several environmental benefits have also been linked with the utilization of renewable biomass. Butanol is considered to be superior to ethanol due to its higher energy content and less hygroscopy. This has led to an increased research interest in butanol production from renewable biomass in recent years. In this paper, we review the various aspects of utilizing renewable biomass for clostridial butanol production. Focus is given on various alternative substrates that have been used for butanol production and on fermentation strategies recently reported to improve butanol production.

  12. Assessment of driving factors for yield and productivity developments in crop and cattle production as key to increasing sustainable biomass potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable production potential of biomass for energy and material purposes largely depends on the future availability of surplus agricultural lands made available through yield improvements in crop and livestock production. However, the rates at which yields may develop, and the influence of t

  13. Closed photobioreactors for production of microalgal biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Lan, Christopher Q; Horsman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Microalgal biomasses have been produced industrially for a long history for application in a variety of different fields. Most recently, microalgae are established as the most promising species for biofuel production and CO(2) bio-sequestration owing to their high photosynthesis efficiency. Nevertheless, design of photobioreactors that maximize solar energy capture and conversion has been one of the major challenges in commercial microalga biomass production. In this review, we systematically survey the recent developments in this field.

  14. Methane production from plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Methane fermentations of plant biomass were performed to increase basic knowledge necessary for development of suitable conversion technologies. Effects of bacterial inoculants, substrate compounds and varied process conditions were analyzed in batch and continuous fermentation experiments. Use of enriched bacterial populations precultured and adapted to plant materials was proved to be advantageous for inoculation. Methane yields and productivities as well as chemical and bacterial composition of digester fluids were determined at various loading rates and retention times during fermentation of different grass and maize silages. Recycling for favorable amounts of decomposed effluent for neutralization of supplied acid raw materials was important to achieve high methane yields. Quantity and composition of acido-, aceto- and methanogenic bacteria were not essentially influenced by changed fermentation conditions. Results of these laboratory examinations have to be completed by long run and scale up experiments to develop control parameters for plant biogas digesters.

  15. Photoinduced Biohydrogen Production from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Amao

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoinduced biohydrogen production systems, coupling saccharaides biomass such as sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, cellulose, or saccharides mixture hydrolysis by enzymes and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH, and hydrogen production with platinum colloid as a catalyst using the visible light-induced photosensitization of Mg chlorophyll-a (Mg Chl-a from higher green plant or artificial chlorophyll analog, zinc porphyrin, are introduced.

  16. Process development for the production of bioethanol from waste algal biomass of Gracilaria verrucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rishikesh; Kumar, Manoj; Chakraborty, Subhojit; Gupta, Rishi; Kumar, Savindra; Sahoo, Dinabandhu; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2016-11-01

    The algal biomass of different species of Gracilaria were collected from coasts of Orissa and Tamil Nadu, India and characterized biochemically. Among various species, G. verrucosa was found to be better in terms of total carbohydrate content (56.65%) and hence selected for further studies. The agar was extracted from algal biomass and the residual pulp was enzymatically hydrolyzed. The optimization of algal pulp hydrolysis for various parameters revealed a maximum sugar release of 75.8mg/ml with 63% saccharification yield. The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate of algal pulp was optimized and 8% (v/v) inoculum size, 12h inoculum age, pH 5.0 were found to be optimum parameters for maximum ethanol concentration (27.2g/L) after 12h. The process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were successfully scaled up to 2L bioreactor scale.

  17. Electricity from biomass: A development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the current status of biomass power technology and to evaluate the future directions for development that could significantly enhance the contribution of biomass power to U.S. production of electricity. This document reviews the basic principles of biomass electric systems, the previous contributions of industry and the National Biomass Energy Programs to technology development, and the options for future technology development. It discusses the market for biomass electric technology and future needs for electric power production to help establish a market-oriented development strategy. It projects trends in the performance and cost of the technology and examines the changing dynamics of the power generation market place to evaluate specific opportunities for biomass power development. In a separate document, the Biomass Power Program Five Year R&D Plan, the details of schedules, funding, and roles of participating R&D organizations within the R&D program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are presented. In evaluating the future directions for research and development, two cases are examined.

  18. Experimental workflow for developing a feed forward strategy to control biomass growth and exploit maximum specific methane productivity of Methanothermobacter marburgensis in a biological methane production process (BMPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krajete

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interests for new biofuel generations allowing conversion of gaseous substrate(s to gaseous product(s arose for power to gas and waste to value applications. An example is biological methane production process (BMPP with Methanothermobacter marburgensis. The latter, can convert carbon dioxide (CO2 and hydrogen (H2, having different origins and purities, to methane (CH4, water and biomass. However, these gas converting bioprocesses are tendentiously gas limited processes and the specific methane productivity per biomass amount (qCH4 tends to be low. Therefore, this contribution proposes a workflow for the development of a feed forward strategy to control biomass, growth (rx and qCH4 in a continuous gas limited BMPP. The proposed workflow starts with a design of experiment (DoE to optimize media composition and search for a liquid based limitation to control selectively growth. From the DoE it came out that controlling biomass growth was possible independently of the dilution and gassing rate applied while not affecting methane evolution rates (MERs. This was done by shifting the process from a natural gas limited state to a controlled liquid limited growth. The latter allowed exploiting the maximum biocatalytic activity for methane formation of Methanothermobacter marburgensis. An increase of qCH4 from 42 to 129 mmolCH4 g−1 h−1 was achieved by applying a liquid limitation compare with the reference state. Finally, a verification experiment was done to verify the feeding strategy transferability to a different process configuration. This evidenced the ratio of the fed KH2PO4 to rx (R(FKH2PO4/rx has an appropriate parameter for scaling feeds in a continuous gas limited BMPP. In the verification experiment CH4 was produced in a single bioreactor step at a methane evolution rate (MER of   132 mmolCH4*L−1*h−1 at a CH4 purity of 93 [Vol.%].

  19. Biomass gasification and energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinpey, N.; Nikoo, M.B. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The ASPEN PLUS simulation program was used to model an atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The aim of the study was develop a simulation capable of accurately predicting steady state performance of the gasifier in relation to hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. The influences of feed decomposition, volatile reactions, gas gasification and gas-solid separation were considered through modularized ASPEN PLUS models. The ASPEN PLUS yield reactor was used to simulate biomass feed decomposition. A separation column model was used to separate volatile materials and solids. Experimental data from a pine biomass gasification experiment conducted in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed gasifier was used to validate the simulation results. Good agreement was shown for gas composition, although carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) rates were slightly underestimated. The study also demonstrated that higher temperatures improved the gasification process and carbon conversion. The optimized gasification process produced more carbon monoxide (CO) and less CO{sub 2}. The introduction of lower temperature steam to the gasification process increased tar output. It was concluded that the conversion efficiency increased when the equivalence ratio was increased. 7 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  20. 77 FR 6791 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. The Federal Advisory Committee Act requires... production of biobased fuels and biobased products. Tentative Agenda Update on USDA Biomass R&D...

  1. Development of a lactic acid production process using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of crude oil is finite. Therefore, an alternative feedstock has to be found for the production of fuels and plastics. Lignocellulose is such an alternative feedstock. It is present in large quantities in agricultural waste material such as sugarcane bagasse. In this PhD thesis, lign

  2. Development of Genomic and Genetic Tools for Foxtail Millet, and Use of These Tools in the Improvement of Biomass Production for Bioenergy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doust, Andrew, N.

    2011-11-11

    The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al., in prep). In particular, the annotation and analysis of candidate genes for architecture, biomass production and flowering has led to new insights into the control of branching and flowering time, and has shown how closely related flowering time is to vegetative architectural development and biomass accumulation. The differences in genetic control identified at high and low density plantings have direct relevance to the breeding of bioenergy grasses that are tolerant of high planting densities. The developmental analyses have shown how plant architecture changes over time and may indicate which genes may best be manipulated at various times during development to obtain required biomass characteristics. This data contributes to the overall aim of significantly improving genetic and genomic tools in foxtail millet that can be directed to improvement of bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, where it is important to maximize vegetative growth for greatest biomass production.

  3. 76 FR 22091 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Energy... announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. The Federal... products. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include the following: Update on USDA Biomass R&D Activities...

  4. 77 FR 64970 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development... and biobased products. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include the following: Update on USDA Biomass...

  5. 77 FR 26276 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Energy... announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. The Federal... products. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include the following: Update on USDA Biomass R&D Activities...

  6. Development and Testing of Cool-Season Grass Species, Varieties and Hybrids for Biomass Feedstock Production in Western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Larson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of native cool-season grasses has the potential to improve forage production and expand the range of bioenergy feedstocks throughout western North America. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus and creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides rank among the tallest and most rhizomatous grasses of this region, respectively. The objectives of this study were to develop interspecific creeping wildrye (CWR × basin wildrye (BWR hybrids and evaluate their biomass yield relative to tetraploid ‘Trailhead’, octoploid ‘Magnar’ and interploidy-hybrid ‘Continental’ BWR cultivars in comparison with other perennial grasses across diverse single-harvest dryland range sites and a two-harvest irrigated production system. Two half-sib hybrid populations were produced by harvesting seed from the tetraploid self-incompatible Acc:641.T CWR genet, which was clonally propagated by rhizomes into isolated hybridization blocks with two tetraploid BWR pollen parents: Acc:636 and ‘Trailhead’. Full-sib hybrid seed was also produced from a controlled cross of tetraploid ‘Rio’ CWR and ‘Trailhead’ BWR plants. In space-planted range plots, the ‘Rio’ CWR × ‘Trailhead’ BWR and Acc:641.T CWR × Acc:636 BWR hybrids displayed high-parent heterosis with 75% and 36% yield advantages, respectively, but the Acc:641.T CWR × ‘Trailhead’ BWR hybrid yielded significantly less than its BWR high-parent in this evaluation. Half-sib CWR × BWR hybrids of Acc:636 and ‘Trailhead’ both yielded as good as or better than available BWR cultivars, with yields similar to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, in the irrigated sward plots. These results elucidate opportunity to harness genetic variation among native grass species for the development of forage and bioenergy feedstocks in western North America.

  7. Engineering verification of the biomass production chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M., III; Sager, J. C.; Jones, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for life support systems, both biological and physical-chemical, for long-term human attended space missions are under serious study throughout NASA. The KSC 'breadboard' project has focused on biomass production using higher plants for atmospheric regeneration and food production in a special biomass production chamber. This chamber is designed to provide information on food crop growth rate, contaminants in the chamber that alter plant growth requirements for atmospheric regeneration, carbon dioxide consumption, oxygen production, and water utilization. The shape and size, mass, and energy requirements in relation to the overall integrity of the biomass production chamber are under constant study.

  8. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process.

  9. Developing xylem-preferential expression of PdGA20ox1, a gibberellin 20-oxidase 1 from Pinus densiflora, improves woody biomass production in a hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Jin-Seong; Park, Eung-Jun; Han, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Im; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2016-04-01

    Woody biomass has gained popularity as an environmentally friendly, renewable and sustainable resource for liquid fuel production. Here, we demonstrate biotechnological improvement of the quantity and quality of woody biomass by employing developing xylem (DX)-preferential production of gibberellin (GA), a phytohormone that positively regulates stem growth. First, for the proof of concept experiment, we produced transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GA20-oxidase, a key enzyme in the production of bioactive GAs, from Pinus densiflora (PdGA20ox1) under the control of either a constitutive 35S promoter, designated 35S::PdGA20ox1, or a DX-specific promoter (originated from poplar), designated DX15::PdGA20ox1. As we hypothesized, both transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S::PdGA20ox1 and DX15::PdGA20ox1) exhibited an accelerated stem growth that resulted in a large increase of biomass, up to 300% compared to wild-type control plants, together with increased secondary wall thickening and elongation of fibre cells. Next, we applied our concept to the production of transgenic poplar trees. Both transgenic poplar trees (35S::PdGA20ox1 and DX15::PdGA20ox1) showed dramatic increases in biomass, up to 300%, with accelerated stem growth and xylem differentiation. Cell wall monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that in both Arabidopsis and poplar, glucose and xylose contents were significantly increased. However, undesirable phenotypes of 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplar, including poor root growth and leaf development, were found. Interestingly, DX15::PdGA20ox1 poplar resulted in a reduction of undesirable phenotypes. Our results indicate that the controlled production of GAs through a tissue-specific promoter can be utilized as an efficient biotechnological tool for producing enhanced plant biomass, minimizing unwanted effects.

  10. Hydrogen production from biomass over steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, R.; Potetz, A.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Weber, G. [Bioenergy 2020+, Guessing (Austria)

    2010-12-30

    Renewable hydrogen is one option for a clean energy carrier in the future. There were several research programs in the past, to produce hydrogen on a renewable basis by electrolysis, direct conversion of water or by gasification of biomass. None of these options were developed to a stage, that they could be used on a commercial basis. At the moment almost all hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels and one main consumer of hydrogen are refineries. So a good option to demonstrate the production of renewable hydrogen and bring it later into the market is over refineries. The most economic option to produce renewable hydrogen at the moment is over gasification of biomass. In Austria an indirect gasification system was developed and is demonstrated in Guessing, Austria. The biomass CHP Guessing uses the allothermal steam dual fluidised bed gasifier and produces a high grade product gas, which is used at the moment for the CHP in a gas engine. As there is no nitrogen in the product gas and high hydrogen content, this gas can be also used as synthesis gas or for production of hydrogen. The main aim of this paper is to present the experimental and simulation work to convert biomass into renewable hydrogen. The product gas of the indirect gasification system is mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Within the ERA-Net project ''OptiBtLGas'' the reforming of methane and the CO-shift reaction was investigated to convert all hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to hydrogen. On basis of the experimental results the mass- and energy balances of a commercial 100 MW fuel input plant was done. Here 3 different cases of complexity of the overall plant were simulated. The first case was without reforming and CO-shift, only by hydrogen separation. The second case was by including steam - reforming and afterwards separation of hydrogen. The third case includes hydrocarbon reforming, CO-shift and hydrogen separation. In all cases the off-gases (CO

  11. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N. Barry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the more environmentally sustainable ways to produce high energy density (oils feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS has also been proposed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass. To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to two-fold increases in biomass productivity.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A NANO-Ni-La-Fe/Al2O3 CATALYST TO BE USED FOR SYN-GAS PRODUCTION AND TAR REMOVAL AFTER BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfen Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a supported tri-metallic catalyst (nano-Ni-La-Fe/γ-Al2O3 for tar removal in biomass steam gasification, to significantly enhance the quality of the produced gas. For this purpose, the supported tri-metallic catalysts were prepared by a deposition-precipitation (DP method. Different analytical approaches were used to characterize the synthesized catalysts. The results showed that the prepared tri-metallic catalysts had an egg-shell structure with a specific surface area of 214.7 m2/g. The activity of the catalysts for gas production and tar removal in the process of biomass gasification was also investigated using a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. The experiments indicated that the tar yield after adding catalyst was reduced significantly and the efficiency of tar removal reached 99% for the biomass steam gasification at 800oC, while the gas yield after adding catalysts increased markedly and less coke was found over the catalyst. Meanwhile, the compositions of gas products before and after adding catalyst in the process also changed significantly; in particular, the content of hydrogen in catalytic steam gasification was improved by over 10 vol%. Therefore, using the prepared tri-metallic catalyst in biomass gasification can significantly improve the quality of the produced gas and efficiently eliminate the tar generation, preventing coke deposition on the catalyst surfaces, thus demonstrating a long lifetime of the catalyst.

  13. Analysis of the potential production and the development of bioenergy in the province of Mendoza - Bio-fuels and biomass - Using geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Marco, Noelia; Hilbert, Jorge Antonio [Instituto de Ingenieria Rural, INTA Las Cabanas y Los Reseros s/n, CP: 1712 Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Silva Colomer, Jorge [INTA EEA Junin Mendoza, Carril Isidoro Busquets s/n CP: 5572 (Argentina); Anschau, Renee Alicia; Carballo, Stella [Instituto de Clima y Agua, INTA. Las Cabanas y Los Reseros s/n, CP:1712 Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    In this work, the partial results of the potential production of energy, starting from the biomass and the development of the crops, directed to the production of bio-fuels (Colza and Topinamur) in the North irrigation oasis of Mendoza, Argentina within the National Program of Bio-energy developed by INTA is presented. For the evaluation of the bio-energetic potential, derived from the biomass, the WISDOM methodology developed by FAO and implemented by INTA in Argentina was applied with the collaboration of national and provincial governmental entities that contribute local information The study of the potential production and the development of the bio-energetic crops have been carried out with the advising and participation of the experts of INTA of the studied crops. The province of Mendoza has semi-deserted agro-climatic characteristics. The type of soil and type of weather allows the production of great quality fruits and vegetables in the irrigated areas. The four great currents of water conform three oasis; Northeast, Center and South, which occupy the 3.67% of the surface of Mendoza. Today, Mendoza has 267,889 irrigated hectares, but the surface that was farmed by irrigation was near to the 400,000 ha. The climate contingencies, froze and hailstorm precipitations, plus the price instability cause great losses in the productive sector, taking it to the forlornness of the exploitations. The crop setting of these forlornness lands with crops directed to the production of bio-fuels and the utilization of the biomass coming from the agriculture activities and the agro industry (pruning of fruit trees, refuses of olive and vine, remnants of the peach industry, etc.) could assist the access to the energy in the rural areas, stimulating the economical improvement and the development in these communities. (author)

  14. Health impacts of anthropogenic biomass burning in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Torben; Forsberg, Bertil; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Blomberg, Anders; Bølling, Anette; Boman, Christoffer; Bønløkke, Jakob; Brauer, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Kelly, Frank; Künzli, Nino; Lundbäck, Bo; Moshammer, Hanns; Noonan, Curtis; Pagels, Joachim; Sallsten, Gerd; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-12-01

    Climate change policies have stimulated a shift towards renewable energy sources such as biomass. The economic crisis of 2008 has also increased the practice of household biomass burning as it is often cheaper than using oil, gas or electricity for heating. As a result, household biomass combustion is becoming an important source of air pollutants in the European Union.This position paper discusses the contribution of biomass combustion to pollution levels in Europe, and the emerging evidence on the adverse health effects of biomass combustion products.Epidemiological studies in the developed world have documented associations between indoor and outdoor exposure to biomass combustion products and a range of adverse health effects. A conservative estimate of the current contribution of biomass smoke to premature mortality in Europe amounts to at least 40 000 deaths per year.We conclude that emissions from current biomass combustion products negatively affect respiratory and, possibly, cardiovascular health in Europe. Biomass combustion emissions, in contrast to emissions from most other sources of air pollution, are increasing. More needs to be done to further document the health effects of biomass combustion in Europe, and to reduce emissions of harmful biomass combustion products to protect public health.

  15. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  16. Biomass production by freshwater and marine macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.J.; Gerard, V.A.; Kuwabara, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Research on aquatic macrophytes as producers of biomass has been undertaken at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) on the east coast and on the west coast by a group of collaborators in a joint effort known as the Marine Biomass Project. Studies at WHOI have focused on estuarine and coastal situations with some attention recently to freshwater plants. The Marine Farm Project has primarily been concerned with oceanic biomass production. A group at WHOI has undertaken a wide variety of studies concerning aquatic macrophytes including nutrient uptake, growth, yields, and environmental factors affecting yields. Aquatic biomass production systems have been surveyed on a worldwide basis and currently the role of carbon as a potential limiting nutrient in biomass culturing is being examined. The Marine Farm Project is presently attempting to grow giant kelp in offshore waters off southern California. Other work related to aquatic biomass production includes an investigation at the University of California, Berkeley, of microalgae in ponds. This paper will emphasize discussion of the kelp production phases of the Marine Farm Project. Activities by the WHOI are briefly summarized.

  17. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T. [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  18. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  19. Conservative species drive biomass productivity in tropical dry forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado-Junior, Jamir A.; Schiavini, Ivan; Vale, Vagner S.; Sande, van der Masha T.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Forests account for a substantial part of the terrestrial biomass storage and productivity. To better understand forest productivity, we need to disentangle the processes underlying net biomass change. We tested how above-ground net biomass change and its underlying biomass dynamics (biomass recr

  20. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from biomass derivatives and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xihong; Xie, Shilei; Yang, Hao; Tong, Yexiang; Ji, Hongbing

    2014-11-21

    Hydrogen, a clean energy carrier with high energy capacity, is a very promising candidate as a primary energy source for the future. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production from renewable biomass derivatives and water is one of the most promising approaches to producing green chemical fuel. Compared to water splitting, hydrogen production from renewable biomass derivatives and water through a PEC process is more efficient from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. Additionally, the carbon dioxide formed can be re-transformed into carbohydrates via photosynthesis in plants. In this review, we focus on the development of photoanodes and systems for PEC hydrogen production from water and renewable biomass derivatives, such as methanol, ethanol, glycerol and sugars. We also discuss the future challenges and opportunities for the design of the state-of-the-art photoanodes and PEC systems for hydrogen production from biomass derivatives and water.

  1. Woody biomass production systems for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, D.L.; Pathak, N.N.; Satapathy, P.C. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Forestry)

    1993-01-01

    Woody biomass production research in Florida has addressed genetic improvement, coppice productivity, clonal propagation, biomass properties, and economics of Eucalyptus and other species in short rotation, intensive culture systems. Improved E. grandis seedlings could more than double productivity, but exceptional clones offer more immediate potential in southern Florida. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis appear to have frost-resistance and good growth in central and southern Florida. For northern Florida, E. amplifolia has good frost-resilience and coppicing ability. Eucalytpus species are suitable for fermentation processes. Other promising species include Casuarina glauca and Taxodium distichum in southern Florida, and Sapium sebiferum state-wide. Break-even costs for biomass production systems with Eucalyptus range from approximately $2.00 to $4.00 GJ[sup -1]; short rotation culture appears feasible for slash pine in northern and central Florida but cannot yet be advised for sand pine. (author)

  2. Hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass for pellet production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooyserkani, Z. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Clean Energy Research Centre, Biomass and Bioenergy Research Group

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed innovative technologies for the production of wood pellets using the hydrothermal pre-treatment of biomass. Conventional techniques use low-cost mill residues, such as saw dust and shavings, as feedstock to produce durable, low-ash pellets. However, mill residues are becoming less available as a result of fewer saw mills, increased pellet production, and increased competition for saw dust. Advanced techniques use mixed biomass such as logging residue as feedstock, creating pellets that are durable for handling and long-term storage, of a higher energy density for transport and mixing with coal for co-firing, and a choice feedstock for biofuels. Advanced pellet production uses steam explosion/pre-treatment in which biomass receives a short-term high-pressure steam treatment followed by sudden decompression. Mild torrefaction seems to have positive feedback, and steam-treated pellets are durable with superior hydrophobicity. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Biomass and Neutral Lipid Production in Geothermal Microalgal Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Faye Bywaters

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems- in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011;Bird et al., 2012. Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 368 to 3246 mg C L-1 d-1. The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production ranged from zero to 38.74 mg free fatty acids and triacylglycerols L-1 d-1, the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment – all results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels.

  4. Biomass and neutral lipid production in geothermal microalgal consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywaters, Kathryn F; Fritsen, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems - in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011, 2012). Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass, and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 39.0 to 344.1 mg C L(-1) day(-1). The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production) ranged from 0 to 38.74 mg free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) L(-1 )day(-1); the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio) decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment. All results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels.

  5. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  6. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Birk Henriksen, U.; Muenster-Swendsen, J.; Fink, A.; Roengaard Clausen, L.; Munkholt Christensen, J.; Qin, K.; Lin, W.; Arendt Jensen, P.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifier types have been investigated in this project: 1) The Two-Stage Gasifier (Viking Gasifier), designed to produce a very clean gas to be used in a gas engine, has been connected to a lab-scale methanol plant, to prove that the gas from the gasifier could be used for methanol production with a minimum of gas cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). 2) A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 65-71% (LHV). Different routes to produce liquid transport fuels from biomass are possible. They include production of RME (rapeseed oil

  7. Phytoplankton diversity, biomass, and production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madondkar, S.G.P.; Gomes, H.; Parab, S.G.; Pednekar, S.; Goes, J.I.

    of the standing stock and organic productivity of an estuary. These variables have often been utilized to evaluate the overall health of an estuarine ecosystem and in management strategies to ensure sustainable use of the estuaries. Earlier investigations...) 2002. in the Zuari (1.02?3.07 ? 105 cellsl-1), suggesting that the phytoplankton species in the Zuari were more amenable to freshwater as compared to those in the Mandovi. The presence of a prominent community of freshwater phytoplankton was evident...

  8. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Münster-Swendsen, Janus;

    -58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). • A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal...... gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic...

  9. Modeling and analysis of biomass production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishoe, J.W.; Lorber, M.N.; Peart, R.M.; Fluck, R.C.; Jones, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    BIOMET is an interactive simulation model that is used to analyze specific biomass and methane production systems. The system model is composed of crop growth models, harvesting, transportation, conversion and economic submodels. By use of menus the users can configure the structure and set selected parameters of the system to analyze the effects of variables within the component models. For example, simulations of a water hyacinth system resulted in yields of 63, 48 and 37 mg/ha/year for different harvest schedules. For napier grass, unit methane costs were $3.04, $2.86 and $2.98 for various yields of biomass. 10 references.

  10. Fast hydrothermal liquefaction for production of chemicals and biofuels from wet biomass - The need to develop a plug-flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Khanh-Quang

    2016-08-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising technology for converting wet plant biomass directly to liquid fuels and chemicals. However, some aspects of the technology are not fully understood and still disputed. The reactor material constraints and difficulties coupled with the formation of unwanted products are the main challenges limiting the applications of the technology. In addition, heat and mass transfer limitations in the reaction system result in a lower conversion efficiency and selectivity, of which the later would make it difficult and expensive for products separation, purification, and/or modification of the products. This paper discusses the challenges and current status of possible solutions to the challenges, focusing on the need of developing a special plug-flow reactor for scaling up of the HTL process.

  11. Methane production from marine biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, D. P.; Srivastava, V. J.

    1980-01-01

    The overall concept of the giant brown kelp farm and conversion system, the integrated research program engaged in its study, and IGT's work on biogasification process development are discussed. A summary of results to date on anaerobic digestion will be emphasized. (MHR)

  12. Torrefaction of biomass for power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti

    .D. thesis focus on the following subjects: 1) the development of experimental procedures for a novel laboratory scale reactor (simultaneous torrefaction and grinding) and a study on the torrefaction of straw and wood; 2) study the influence of biomass chemical properties such as ash content, ash composition...... and grinding showed a swift grinding of the torrefied biomass which implies that the rate limiting step in the laboratory reactor is the heat transfer, and not the grinding process. Different torrefaction characteristics are observed from straw and wood chips, therefore an improved understanding and ability...... wheat straw, miscanthus, spruce, beech, pine, and spruce bark) with different chemical and physical properties were pyrolyzed by Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and torrefied in the simultaneous torrefaction and grinding reactor. The effect of biomass alkali content on torrefaction characteristics...

  13. Marginal land-based biomass energy production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ya; Xie, Jia-Sui; Geng, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fast economic development in China has resulted in a significant increase in energy demand. Coal accounts for 70% of China's primary energy consumption and its combustion has caused many environmental and health problems. Energy security and environmental protection requirements are the main drivers for renewable energy development in China. Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to China: the focus should be on generating bioenergy from ligno-cellulosic feedstock sources. As China cannot afford biomass energy production from its croplands, marginal lands may play an important role in biomass energy production. Although on a small scale, marginal land has already been used for various purposes. It is estimated that some 45 million hm(2) of marginal land could be brought into high potential biomass energy production. For the success of such an initiative, it will likely be necessary to develop multipurpose plants. A case study, carried out on marginal land in Ningnan County, Sichuan Province with per capita cropland of 0.07 ha, indicated that some 380,000 tons of dry biomass could be produced each year from annual pruning of mulberry trees. This study supports the feasibility of producing large quantities of biomass from marginal land sources.

  14. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  15. Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass : HYVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    HYVOLUTION is the acronym of an Integrated Project ¿Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass¿ which has been granted in the Sixth EU Framework Programme on Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Priority 6.1.ii, Sustainable Energy Systems. The aim of HYVOLUTION: ¿Developm

  16. Wood products biomass gasification: technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G.; Scarzella, L.

    In this paper, a design lay-out is presented for the gasification of wood products biomass. Regarding this alternative energy form, the paper discusses historical aspects and recent technological developments made by Italian industry. The design, construction, performance, efficiency, present and future applications of a twin-feeding system are described.

  17. Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass: HYVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.; Koukios, E.G.; Niel, van E.W.J.; Eroglu, I.; Modigell, M.; Friedl, A.; Wukovits, W.; Ahrer, W.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives and methodology of the EU-funded research project HYVOLUTION devoted to hydrogen production from biomass are reviewed. The main scientific objective of this project is the development of a novel two-stage bioprocess employing thermophilic and phototrophic bacteria, for the cost-effect

  18. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMASS PELLETIZATION – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stelte,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has resulted in a strong growth of biomass utilization for heat and power production. Attempts to overcome the poor handling properties of biomass, i.e. its low bulk density and inhomogeneous structure, have resulted in an increasing interest in biomass densification technologies, such as pelletization and briquetting. The global pellet market has developed quickly, and strong growth is expected for the coming years. Due to an increase in demand for biomass, the traditionally used wood residues from sawmills and pulp and paper industry are not sufficient to meet future needs. An extended raw material base consisting of a broad variety of fibrous residues from agriculture and food industries, as well as thermal pre-treatment processes, provides new challenges for the pellet industry. Pellet production has been an established process for several decades, but only in the past five years has there been significant progress made to understand the key factors affecting pelletizing processes. A good understanding about the pelletizing process, especially the processing parameters and their effect on pellet formation and bonding are important for process and product optimization. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest insights into the biomass pelletization processes, such as the forces involved in the pelletizing processes, modeling, bonding, and adhesive mechanisms. Furthermore, thermal pretreatment of the biomass, i.e. torrefaction and other thermal treatment to enhance the fuel properties of biomass pellets are discussed.

  19. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  20. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota.

  1. Synthesis gas production from various biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Conesa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of five different biomass samples was studied in a horizontal laboratory reactor. The samples consisted of esparto grass, straw, Posidonea Oceanic seaweed, waste from urban and agricultural pruning and waste from forest pruning. Both pyrolysis in inert atmosphere and combustion in the presence of oxygen were studied. Different heating rates were used by varying the input speed. Major gas compounds were analyzed. The experimental results show that the amount of CO formed is lower in less dense species. It is also found that there is an increase of hydrocarbons formed at increasing feeding rates, in particular methane, while there is a decrease in the production of hydrogen.

  2. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  3. Catalytic Production of Ethanol from Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewyn, Brian G. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Ryan G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been developed for the conversion of biomass-derived synthetic gas (syngas) to ethanol. The objectives of this project were to develop a clean synthesis gas from biomass and develop robust catalysts with high selectivity and lifetime for C2 oxygenate production from biomass-derived syngas and surrogate syngas. During the timeframe for this project, we have made research progress on the four tasks: (1) Produce clean bio-oil generated from biomass, such as corn stover or switchgrass, by using fast pyrolysis system, (2) Produce clean, high pressure synthetic gas (syngas: carbon monoxide, CO, and hydrogen, H2) from bio-oil generated from biomass by gasification, (3) Develop and characterize mesoporous mixed oxide-supported metal catalysts for the selective production of ethanol and other alcohols, such as butanol, from synthesis gas, and (4) Design and build a laboratory scale synthesis gas to ethanol reactor system evaluation of the process. In this final report, detailed explanations of the research challenges associated with this project are given. Progress of the syngas production from various biomass feedstocks and catalyst synthesis for upgrading the syngas to C2-oxygenates is included. Reaction properties of the catalyst systems under different reaction conditions and different reactor set-ups are also presented and discussed. Specifically, the development and application of mesoporous silica and mesoporous carbon supports with rhodium nanoparticle catalysts and rhodium nanoparticle with manganese catalysts are described along with the significant material characterizations we completed. In addition to the synthesis and characterization, we described the activity and selectivity of catalysts in our micro-tubular reactor (small scale) and fixed bed reactor (larger scale). After years of hard work, we are proud of the work done on this project, and do believe that this work will provide a solid

  4. Development of a commercial enzymes system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj

    2012-12-20

    DSM Innovation Inc., in its four year effort was able to evaluate and develop its in-house DSM fungal cellulolytic enzymes system to reach enzyme efficiency mandates set by DoE Biomass program MYPP goals. DSM enzyme cocktail is uniquely active at high temperature and acidic pH, offering many benefits and product differentiation in 2G bioethanol production. Under this project, strain and process development, ratio optimization of enzymes, protein and genetic engineering has led to multitudes of improvement in productivity and efficiency making development of a commercial enzyme system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification viable. DSM is continuing further improvement by additional biodiversity screening, protein engineering and overexpression of enzymes to continue to further lower the cost of enzymes for saccharification of biomass.

  5. An Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Production from Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鹏梅; 常杰; 付严; 王铁军; 陈勇; 祝京旭

    2003-01-01

    In gaseous products of biomass steam gasification, there exist a lot of CO, CH4 and other hydrocarbons that can be converted to hydrogen through steam reforming reactions. There exists potential hydrogen production from the raw gas of biomass steam gasification. In the present work, the characteristics of hydrogen production from biomass steam gasification were investigated in a small-scale fluidized bed. In these experiments, the gasifying agent (air) was supplied into the reactor from the bottom of the reactor and the steam was added into the reactor above biomass feeding location. The effects of reaction temperature, steam to biomass ratio, equivalence ratio (ER) and biomass particle size on hydrogen yield and hydrogen yield potential were investigated. The experimental results showed that higher reactor temperature, proper ER, proper steam to biomass ratio and smaller biomass particle size will contribute to more hydrogen and potential hydrogen yield.

  6. Conversion of biomass to selected chemical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallezot, Pierre

    2012-02-21

    This critical review provides a survey illustrated by recent references of different strategies to achieve a sustainable conversion of biomass to bioproducts. Because of the huge number of chemical products that can be potentially manufactured, a selection of starting materials and targeted chemicals has been done. Also, thermochemical conversion processes such as biomass pyrolysis or gasification as well as the synthesis of biofuels were not considered. The synthesis of chemicals by conversion of platform molecules obtained by depolymerisation and fermentation of biopolymers is presently the most widely envisioned approach. Successful catalytic conversion of these building blocks into intermediates, specialties and fine chemicals will be examined. However, the platform molecule value chain is in competition with well-optimised, cost-effective synthesis routes from fossil resources to produce chemicals that have already a market. The literature covering alternative value chains whereby biopolymers are converted in one or few steps to functional materials will be analysed. This approach which does not require the use of isolated, pure chemicals is well adapted to produce high tonnage products, such as paper additives, paints, resins, foams, surfactants, lubricants, and plasticisers. Another objective of the review was to examine critically the green character of conversion processes because using renewables as raw materials does not exempt from abiding by green chemistry principles (368 references).

  7. Development of innovative technique that may be used as models for the increase of biomass production with grasses and other species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. W.; Hanna, W. W.

    1981-09-01

    Techniques for biomass increase are discussed: irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf bermuda grasses; irradiation breeding of sterile Coastcross-1, a forage grass hybrid to increase winter hardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific irradiation induced mutants with their normal inbred parent; use of mitomycin and streptomycin to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; biomass of napiergrass; evaluation of mutagen induced lignin mutants to maximize metabolizable energy in sorghum; interspecific crosses in Pennisetum; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to induce and transfer reproductive behavior in plants; and genetics of radiation induced mutations.

  8. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  9. Alkane production from biomass: chemo-, bio- and integrated catalytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneyer, Aron; Renders, Tom; Van Aelst, Joost; Van den Bosch, Sander; Gabriëls, Dries; Sels, Bert F

    2015-12-01

    Linear, branched and cyclic alkanes are important intermediates and end products of the chemical industry and are nowadays mainly obtained from fossil resources. In search for alternatives, biomass feedstocks are often presented as a renewable carbon source for the production of fuels, chemicals and materials. However, providing a complete market for all these applications seems unrealistic due to both financial and logistic issues. Despite the very large scale of current alkane-based fuel applications, biomass definitely has the potential to offer a partial solution to the fuel business. For the smaller market of chemicals and materials, a transition to biomass as main carbon source is more realistic and even probably unavoidable in the long term. The appropriate use and further development of integrated chemo- and biotechnological (catalytic) process strategies will be crucial to successfully accomplish this petro-to-bio feedstock transition. Furthermore, a selection of the most promising technologies from the available chemo- and biocatalytic tool box is presented. New opportunities will certainly arise when multidisciplinary approaches are further explored in the future. In an attempt to select the most appropriate biomass sources for each specific alkane-based application, a diagram inspired by van Krevelen is applied, taking into account both the C-number and the relative functionality of the product molecules.

  10. 78 FR 46331 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... for candidates to fill vacancies on the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee...: http://biomassboard.gov/committee/committee.html . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Biomass Research...

  11. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  12. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  13. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    There is considerable public interest in developing a sustainable biobased economy that favors support of family farms and rural communities and also promotes the development of biorenewable energy resources. This study focuses on a number of questions related to the development and exploration of new pathways that can potentially move us toward a more sustainable biobased economy. These include issues related to biomass fuels for drying grain, economies-of-scale, new biomass harvest systems, sugar-to-ethanol crop alternatives for the Upper Midwest U.S., biomass transportation, post-harvest biomass processing and double cropping production scenarios designed to maximize biomass feedstock production. The first section of this study considers post-harvest drying of shelled corn grain both at farm-scale and at larger community-scaled installations. Currently, drying of shelled corn requires large amounts of fossil fuel energy. To address future energy concerns, this study evaluates the potential use of combined heat and power systems that use the combustion of corn stover to produce steam for drying and to generate electricity for fans, augers, and control components. Because of the large capital requirements for solid fuel boilers and steam turbines/engines, both farm-scale and larger grain elevator-scaled systems benefit by sharing boiler and power infrastructure with other processes. The second and third sections evaluate sweet sorghum as a possible "sugarcane-like" crop that can be grown in the Upper Midwest. Various harvest systems are considered including a prototype mobile juice harvester, a hypothetical one-pass unit that separates grain heads from chopped stalks and traditional forage/silage harvesters. Also evaluated were post-harvest transportation, storage and processing costs and their influence on the possible use of sweet sorghum as a supplemental feedstock for existing dry-grind ethanol plants located in the Upper Midwest. Results show that the concept

  14. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  15. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  16. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  17. 76 FR 9339 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development... on USDA Biomass R&D Activities. Update on DOE Biomass R&D Activities. Overview of the DOE...

  18. Agroecology of Novel Annual and Perennial Crops for Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production.......The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production....

  19. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  20. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  1. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin (from Mississippie State University); Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia (from Jackson State University); Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell (from the University of Mississippi); Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester (from the University of Southern Mississippi).

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and

  2. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  3. Iron nutrition, biomass production, and plant product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briat, Jean-François; Dubos, Christian; Gaymard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in modern agriculture is increasing biomass production, while improving plant product quality, in a sustainable way. Of the minerals, iron (Fe) plays a major role in this process because it is essential both for plant productivity and for the quality of their products. Fe homeostasis is an important determinant of photosynthetic efficiency in algae and higher plants, and we review here the impact of Fe limitation or excess on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. We also discuss the agronomic, plant breeding, and transgenic approaches that are used to remediate Fe deficiency of plants on calcareous soils, and suggest ways to increase the Fe content and bioavailability of the edible parts of crops to improve human diet.

  4. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

  5. Production d'éthanol a partir de biomasse lignocellulosique Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogier J. C.

    2006-12-01

    'enzymes. Les principales voies de recherche devraient porter sur l'amélioration de l'activité des cellulases, afin de se rapprocher le plus possible de celles d'enzymes telles que les amylases. Le développement du procédé SFS (saccharification et fermentation simultanées permet d'améliorer l'efficacité des enzymes en minimisant les réactions d'inhibition des enzymes par les produits formés. Son inconvénient est lié aux différences entre les températures optimales de l'hydrolyse enzymatique et de la fermentation. La recherche de micro-organismes conservant de bonnes performances fermentaires à température élevée doit donc se poursuivre. Un autre verrou technologique du procédé concerne la fermentation alcoolique des pentoses, qui peuvent représenter jusqu'à 25 à 40 % des sucres totaux contenus dans la biomasse lignocellulosique. C'est pourquoi il est indispensable de les valoriser en éthanol. Contrairement à la fermentation alcoolique du glucose, largement connue et maîtrisée, celle des pentoses n'est toujours pas résolue, en raison des performances fermentaires médiocres des micro-organismes utilisés. Le développement des outils génétiques et les nouvelles voies de recherche portant sur la transformation de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et de Zymomonas mobilis afin de leur faire acquérir la capacité à fermenter les pentoses, devraient permettre d'améliorer les performances, et éventuellement de se rapprocher de celles enregistrées sur glucose par Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reported study intends to describe the state of the art in the domain of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It was sustained and managed by a specialized group of the French Agrice (Agriculture for Chemical and Energy Organization. Its first goal was to pinpoint the main technical and economical bottlenecks of the processes which are today under consideration, and to identify which research and development efforts could be implemented to overcome them (in

  6. Levulinic acid production from waste biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,; Claudia Antonetti; Valentina De Luise,; Domenico Licursi,; Nicoletta Nassi

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning) were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic perform...

  7. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  8. Sampling of contaminants from product gases of biomass gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staahlberg, P.; Lappi, M.; Kurkela, E.; Simell, P.; Oesch, P.; Nieminen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1998-12-01

    Reliable sampling and analysis of products from biomass gasification are essential for the successful process development and economical operation of commercial gasifiers. One of the most important and most difficult analytical tasks is to characterise the emissions from the gasifiers. This report presents a review of the sampling and analytical systems employed and developed when doing research on coal and biomass gasification. In addition to the sampling systems published in the literature, experiences obtained in various biomass gasification R and D projects of VTT in 1985-1995 are described. The present sampling methods used for different gas contaminants at VTT are also briefly presented. This report focuses mainly on the measurement of tars, nitrogen compounds and sulphur gases. Isokinetic and non-isokinetic sampling train systems are described and, in addition, special sampling apparatus based on liquid-quenched probe and gas dilution is briefly outlined. Sampling of tars with impinger systems and sampling of heavy tars with filter techniques are described in detail. Separate sampling of particulates is briefly discussed. From inorganic compounds the sampling systems used for H{sub 2}S and other sulphur gases, NH{sub 3} and HCN and HCl are presented. Proper storage of the samples is also included in the report. (orig.) 90 refs.

  9. Biomass - Cogeneration - Development survey. Summary report; Biomasse kraftvarme udviklingskortlaegning. Resume-rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In 2001 the Danish Energy Authority, Elkraft System and Eltra decided to initiate a survey on the development of combustion and gasification in connection with biomass-based power heat production. Wastes are included when relevant, but biogas is not included. The overall purposes of the survey were to construct a background on which future strategies can be formulated, and, furthermore, to contribute to a specification of the need for development. An important part of the survey was a questionnaire to players in the biomass area. The aim was to establish both a complete picture, and a picture of each technology, in order to get an overview of obtained results, present level and future needs. This report summarises answers to the questionnaire supplemented with interviews and a seminar hearing. (BA)

  10. Diversity increases biomass production for trematode parasites in snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Ryan F.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing species diversity typically increases biomass in experimental assemblages. But there is uncertainty concerning the mechanisms of diversity effects and whether experimental findings are relevant to ecological process in nature. Hosts for parasites provide natural, discrete replicates of parasite assemblages. We considered how diversity affects standing-stock biomass for a highly interactive parasite guild: trematode parasitic castrators in snails. In 185 naturally occurring habitat replicates (individual hosts), diverse parasite assemblages had greater biomass than single-species assemblages, including those of their most productive species. Additionally, positive diversity effects strengthened as species segregated along a secondary niche axis (space). The most subordinate species—also the most productive when alone—altered the general positive effect, and was associated with negative diversity effects on biomass. These findings, on a previously unstudied consumer class, extend previous research to illustrate that functional diversity and species identity may generally both explain how diversity influences biomass production in natural assemblages of competing species.

  11. Biomass and its potential for protein and amino acids : valorizing agricultural by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomass for industrial products is not new. Plants have long been used for clothes, shelter, paper, construction, adhesives, tools, and medicine. With the exploitation on fossil fuel usage in the early 20th century and development of petroleum based refinery, the use of biomass for indust

  12. Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers Regarding Education about Biomass Production in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Martin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    With the growth of biorenewable energy, biomass production has become an important segment in the agriculture industry (Iowa Energy Center, 2013). A great workforce will be needed for this burgeoning biomass energy industry (Iowa Workforce Development, n. d.). Instructional topics in agricultural education should take the form of problems and…

  13. Biomass logistics analysis for large scale biofuel production: case study of loblolly pine and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Withers, Mitch R; Seifkar, Navid; Field, Randall P; Barrett, Steven R H; Herzog, Howard J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the costs, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the biomass supply chain for large scale biofuel production. Two types of energy crop were considered, switchgrass and loblolly pine, as representative of herbaceous and woody biomass. A biomass logistics model has been developed to estimate the feedstock supply system from biomass production through transportation. Biomass in the form of woodchip, bale and pellet was investigated with road, railway and waterway transportation options. Our analysis indicated that the farm or forest gate cost is lowest for loblolly pine whole tree woodchip at $39.7/dry tonne and highest for switchgrass round bale at $72.3/dry tonne. Switchgrass farm gate GHG emissions is approximately 146kgCO2e/dry tonne, about 4 times higher than loblolly pine. The optimum biomass transportation mode and delivered form are determined by the tradeoff between fixed and variable costs for feedstock shipment.

  14. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  15. GENETICALLY MODIFIED LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feed-stocks is of growing interest worldwide in recent years. However, we are currently still facing significant technical challenges to make it economically feasible on an industrial scale. Genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass has provided a potential alternative to address such challenges. Some studies have shown that genetically modified lignocellulosic biomass can increase its yield, decreasing its enzymatic hydrolysis cost and altering its composition and structure for ethanol production. Moreover, the modified lignocellulosic biomass also makes it possible to simplify the ethanol production procedures from lignocellulosic feed-stocks.

  16. 77 FR 42298 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Energy... Appointment as a Member of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In... soliciting nominations for candidates to fill vacancies on the Biomass Research and Development...

  17. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Münster-Swendsen, Janus

    fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net...... cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51......-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). • A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal...

  18. Investigation of agricultural residues gasification for electricity production in Sudan as an example for biomass energy utilization under arid climate conditions in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhiet, Arig G.

    2008-05-15

    This study examines the possibility of electricity production through gasification of agricultural residues in Sudan. The study begins in Chapter 1, by providing general contextual analysis of the energy situation (production and consumption patterns) in Sudan with specific focus on electricity. It proceeded to study the potential of Petroleum, Biomass and other renewable sources for electricity production. Dramatic increase in electricity production was found to be essential especially through decentralised power plants as the current electricity production services cover {proportional_to} 13 % of the population of Sudan. Biomass potential in Sudan justifies the use of agricultural residues as energy source; its potential was estimated by {proportional_to} 350000 TJ/a. Further, the urban centres of arid regions in western Sudan were identified as the target group for this study. In chapter 2, specific investigations for selected study area through field work using statistical tools such as questionnaires, interviews and field observation show that income is highly correlated to electricity consumption. The flat rate system did not result in higher consumption thus the assumption that this consumption will not drastically change in the next 10 years could be accepted. As orientation value for BGPP, 8000 tons of GN.S are available annually, the average electricity consumption is {proportional_to} 4 kWh/day/family while acceptable price could be 40 SDD/kWh (0.15 Euro). In chapter 3, literature review was carried to spot out the comparative merits of the gasification technology and the most optimum gasifying and electricity production system. As a result downdraft gasifier and ICE were suggested as suitable systems. In chapter 4, fuel properties and fuel properties of agricultural residues were studied, different samples were tested and the results were presented. The main conclusions derived were: fuel properties of agricultural residues are modifiable properties, so

  19. Biomass power for rural development. Revised design report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Edward

    1999-10-03

    The retrofit of Dunkirk Steam Station to fire biomass fuels is an important part of the Consortium's goal--demonstrating the viability of commercial scale willow energy crop production and conversion to power. The goal for th biomass facilities at Dunkirk is to reliably cofire a combination of wood wastes and willow biomass with coal at approximately 20% by heat input.

  20. Investigating combustion as a method of processing inedible biomass produced in NASA's biomass production chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project at the John F. Kennedy Space Center is a research program to integrate and evaluate biological processes to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This project focuses on the use of conventional crop plants as grown in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) for the production and recycling of oxygen, food, and water. The inedible portion of these crops has the potential to be converted to edible biomass or directly to the elemental constituents for direct recycling. Converting inedible biomass directly, by combustion, to carbon dioxide, water, and minerals could provide a baseline for estimating partitioning of the mass balance during recycling in a CELSS. Converting the inedible biomass to carbon dioxide and water requires the same amount of oxygen that was produced by photosynthesis. The oxygen produced during crop growth is just equal to the oxygen required to oxidize all the biomass produced during growth. Thus, the amount of oxygen produced that is available for human consumption is in proportion to the amount of biomass actually utilized by humans. The remaining oxygen must be available to oxidize the rest of the biomass back to carbon dioxide and water or the system will not be a regenerative one.

  1. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  2. Fuels production by the thermochemical transformation of the biomass; La production de carburants par transformation thermochimique de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, G. [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The biomass is a local and renewable energy source, presenting many advantages. This paper proposes to examine the biomass potential in France, the energy valorization channels (thermochemical chains of thermolysis and gasification) with a special interest for the hydrogen production and the research programs oriented towards the agriculture and the forest. (A.L.B.)

  3. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and transportat

  4. Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

  5. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin;

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...

  6. Regulation for Optimal Liquid Products during Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Hu, L. J.; Zheng, Y. W.; Huang, Y. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, C.; Kang, J.; Zheng, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid product obtained from biomass pyrolysis is very valuable that it could be used for extraction of chemicals as well as for liquid fuel. The desire goal is to obtain the most bio-oil with desired higher heating value (HHV), high physicochemical stability. The yields and chemical composition of products from biomass pyrolysis are closely related to the feedstock, pyrolysis parameters and catalysts. Current researches mainly concentrated on the co-pyrolysis of different biomass and introduce of novel catalysts as well as the combined effect of catalysts and pyrolysis parameters. This review starts with the chemical composition of biomass and the fundamental parameters and focuses on the influence of catalysts on bio-oil. What is more, the pyrolysis facilities at commercial scales were also involved. The classic researches and the current literature about the yield and composition of products (mainly liquid products) are summarized.

  7. Sophorolipid production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Abdul

    , the yield of SLs was 0.55 g/g carbon (sugars plus oil) for cultures with bagasse hydrolysates. Further, SL production was investigated using sweet sorghum bagasse and corn stover hydrolysates derived from different pretreatment conditions. For the former and latter sugar sources, yellow grease or soybean oil was supplemented at different doses to enhance sophorolipid yield. 14-day batch fermentation on bagasse hydrolysates with 10, 40 and 60 g/L of yellow grease had cell densities of 5.7 g/L, 6.4 g/L and 7.8 g/L, respectively. The study also revealed that the yield of SLs on bagasse hydrolysate decreased from 0.67 to 0.61 and to 0.44 g/g carbon when yellow grease was dosed at 10, 40 and 60 g/L. With aforementioned increasing yellow grease concentration, the residual oil left after 14 days was recorded as 3.2 g/L, 8.5 g/L and 19.9 g/L. For similar experimental conditions, the cell densities observed for corn stover hydrolysate combined with soybean oil at 10, 20 and 40 g/L concentration were 6.1 g/L, 5.9 g/L, and 5.4 g/L respectively. Also, in the same order of oil dose supplemented, the residual oil recovered after 14-day was 8.5 g/L, 8.9 g/L, and 26.9 g/L. Corn stover hydrolysate mixed with the 10, 20 and 40 g/L soybean oil, the SL yield was 0.19, 0.11 and 0.09 g/g carbon. Overall, both hydrolysates supported cell growth and sophorolipid production. The results from this research show that hydrolysates derived from the different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks can be utilized by C. bombicola to achieve substantial yields of SLs. Based upon the results revealed by several batch-stage experiments, it can be stated that there is great potential for scaling up and industrial scale production of these high value products in future.

  8. 75 FR 56525 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the... participation. This notice announces the meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical...

  9. 78 FR 44105 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Energy... announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. The Federal... contact (Departments of Energy and Agriculture) with respect to the Biomass R&D Initiative...

  10. 75 FR 74026 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the... meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. DATES: December 15, 2010...

  11. 75 FR 30804 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the... participation. This notice announces the meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical...

  12. 78 FR 29125 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development... ] Energy and Agriculture) with respect to the Biomass R&D Initiative (Initiative) and also makes...

  13. 77 FR 20377 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... Open Webinar. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open webinar of the Biomass Research and Development..., members of the public are welcome to observe the business of the Biomass Research and...

  14. 75 FR 11526 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the... participation. This notice announces the meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical...

  15. 78 FR 64932 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the Food.... This notice announces the meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory...

  16. 78 FR 8500 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development.... Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include the following: Update on USDA Biomass R&D Activities Update on...

  17. Challenges of Biomass in a Development Model Based on Renewable Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, F.; González-González, A.; Ruiz-Celma, A.; López-Rodríguez, F.; García-Sanz-Calcedo, J.; García, J. A.; Mena, A.

    Although fire has been known to mankind for about 500,000 years, the implementation of biomass energy in the world has barely changed since then, having been used mainly for heat production. To this end, an estimated global consumption of biomass accounts for 10.6% of total world consumption of primary energy. However, the use of biomass as transportation fuel or for generation of electricity is not displayed in the annual world, European, or national statistics, as if its contribution to primary energy consumption was insignificant. What is the reason behind this? Why is the development of biomass only limited to its thermal use? Why is the production of biomass for electricity and transportation purposes not increasing? And what is then happening to biomass? The present article addresses issues that, in our view, limit the incursion of biomass in current energy systems and provides some answers to solve them.

  18. INTERNATIONAL BIOMASS TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Catalin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is crystal clear that the neoclassical economical theory, despite being probably the best growth model ever invented by man, tickled a cost of environmental degradation which can threaten our wealth and even our existence. For this reason, the concept of sustainable development (SD is so empathic, being considered probably the best theoretical alternative invented by man to standard growth, because of its vision of a better world, where economics, society and environment are intimately linked. Thus, all human activities have to adapt to this new paradigm, in order to achieve its goals. From the economical perspective, production, consumption and trade must incorporate a kind of sustainable type of activity. In the recent years, growing demands in energy use and the increase of oil and coal prices, have led to the usage of new energy sources such as biomass, water, solar, wind and geothermal energy. This is why we propose in this paper to present an overview of international trade in biomass reported to the philosophy of SD. In short, we want to give an answer at two questions: how much is biomass trade sustainable and what risks may arise if the main source of energy used today, based on fossil fuels, will be totally substitute by biomass? To be sustainable, biomass, must meet certain criteria, such as: to possess a high capacity for regeneration, in a relatively short time; to offer a better efficiency compared with the traditional fossil fuel sources; to be less or non-polluting, to be used in solid, liquid and gaseous form; to have a broad applicability in production and consumption; to have a competitive level in terms of costs and prices for transport or storage, in both stages, as a raw material or as a finished product; to be a good substitute of traditional fuels (gasoline or diesel, without the necessity for structural changes of the of the engine. The article will conclude that the uprising trend of the EU biomass trade and

  19. LEVULINIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic performances were also improved by the adoption of microwave irradiation as an efficient heating method, allowing significant energy and time savings. The hydrothermal conversions of inulin and wheat straw were carried out in the presence of niobium phosphate, which up to now have never been employed in these reactions. The preliminary results appeared to be in need of further optimization.

  20. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    OpenAIRE

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib; Bin Che Ku Yahya Che Ku Mohammad Faizal; Jama Oumer Abduaziz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the ...

  1. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces

  2. Development of a Commerical Enzyme System for Lignocellulosic Biomass Saccharification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [DSM Innovation, Incorporated, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2011-02-14

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  3. Contributions ECN biomass to 'Developments in thermochemical biomass conversion' conference. 17-22 September 2000, Tyrol, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerrigter, H.; Daey Ouwens, C.; Van Doorn, J.; Van der Drift, A.; Hofmans, H.; Huijnen, H.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Moonen, R.H.W.; Mozaffarian, M.; Neeft, J.P.A.; Oosting, T.P.; Den Uil, H.; Visser, H.J.M.; Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN , Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the contributions (7) of the business unit ECN Biomass of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) in Petten, Netherlands, to the title conference. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the seven papers: (1) Effect of fuel size and process temperature on fuel gas quality from CFB gasification of biomass; (2) Gas mixing in a pilot scale (500 KW{sub th}) air blown circulating fluidised bed biomass gasifier; (3) Guideline for sampling and analysis of 'tars' and particles in biomass producer gases; (4) Biomass ash - bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in fluidised bed combustion and gasification; (5) Production of substitute natural gas by biomass hydrogasification; (6) CASST. A new and advanced process for biomass gasification; and (7) New developments in the field of tri-generation from biomass and waste. A survey.

  4. Microwave-Assisted γ-Valerolactone Production for Biomass Lignin Extraction: A Cascade Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tabasso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The general need to slow the depletion of fossil resources and reduce carbon footprints has led to tremendous effort being invested in creating “greener” industrial processes and developing alternative means to produce fuels and synthesize platform chemicals. This work aims to design a microwave-assisted cascade process for a full biomass valorisation cycle. GVL (γ-valerolactone, a renewable green solvent, has been used in aqueous acidic solution to achieve complete biomass lignin extraction. After lignin precipitation, the levulinic acid (LA-rich organic fraction was hydrogenated, which regenerated the starting solvent for further biomass delignification. This process does not requires a purification step because GVL plays the dual role of solvent and product, while the reagent (LA is a product of biomass delignification. In summary, this bio-refinery approach to lignin extraction is a cascade protocol in which the solvent loss is integrated into the conversion cycle, leading to simplified methods for biomass valorisation.

  5. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Hydrothermal pretreatment conditions to enhance ethanol production from poplar biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Maria José; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Cabañas, Araceli; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    Pretreatment has been recognized as a key step in enzyme-based conversion processes of lignocellulose biomass to ethanol. The aim of this study is to evaluate two hydrothermal pretreatments (steam explosion and liquid hot water) to enhance ethanol production from poplar (Populus nigra) biomass by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The composition of liquid and solid fractions obtained after pretreatment, enzymatic digestibility, and ethanol production of poplar biomass pretreated at different experimental conditions was analyzed. The best results were obtained in steam explosion pretreatment at 210 C and 4 min, taking into account cellulose recovery above 95%, enzymatic hydrolysis yield of about 60%, SSF yield of 60% of theoretical, and 41% xylose recovery in the liquid fraction. Large particles can be used for poplar biomass in both pretreatments, since no significant effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF was obtained.

  7. Production, characterization and utilization of the biomass from various sources

    OpenAIRE

    Gojkovic, Živan

    2014-01-01

    Biomass management is one of the most important issues in modern natural science as it is the basic category which spans through various disciplines of biotechnology. Whether animal, plant or microbial by its origin, biomass presents a vast source of food components, fine chemicals and bioactive molecules, which extraction, characterization and formulation can result in interesting new products destined for human consumption or as new materials in biomedicine. In the scope of t...

  8. Production of distillate fuels from biomass-derived polyoxygenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kania, John; Blommel, Paul; Woods, Elizabeth; Dally, Brice; Lyman, Warren; Cortright, Randy

    2017-03-14

    The present invention provides methods, reactor systems and catalysts for converting biomass and biomass-derived feedstocks to C.sub.8+ hydrocarbons using heterogenous catalysts. The product stream may be separated and further processed for use in chemical applications, or as a neat fuel or a blending component in jet fuel and diesel fuel, or as heavy oils for lubricant and/or fuel oil applications.

  9. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  10. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  11. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs.

  12. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  13. Production of Spirulina biomass in closed photobioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torzillo, G.; Pushparaj, B.; Bocci, F.; Balloni, W.; Materassi, R.; Florenzano, G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of six years investigation on the outdoor mass culture of Spirulina platensis and S. maxima in closed tubular photobioreactors are reported. On average, under the climatic conditions of central Italy, the annual yield of biomass obtained from the closed culture units was equivalent to 33 t dry weight/ha per year. In the same climatic conditions the yield of the same organisms grown in open ponds was about 18 t/ha per year. This considerable difference is due primarily to better temperature conditions in the closed culture system. The main problems encountered relate to the control of temperature and oxygen concentration in the culture suspension. This will require an appropriate design and management of the photobioreactor as well as the selection of strains specifically adapted to grow at high temperature and high oxygen concentration. 8 references.

  14. Selection of Willows (Salix sp. for Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kajba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Willows compared with other species are the most suitable for biomass production in short rotations because of their very abundant growth during the first years. Nowadays, in Croatia, a large number of selected and registered willow clones are available. The main objective of the research should be to find genotypes which, with minimum nutrients, will produce the maximum quantity of biomass. Material and Methods: Clonal test of the arborescent willows include the autochthonous White Willow (Salix alba, interracial hybrids of the autochthonous White Willow and the English ‘cricket’ Willow (S. alba var. calva, interspecies hybrids (S. matsudana × S. alba, as well as multispecies hybrids of willows. Average production of dry biomass (DM∙ha-1∙a-1 per hectare was estimated in regard to the clone, survival, spacing and the number of shoots per stump. Results: The highest biomass production as well as the best adaptedness and phenotypic stability on testing site was shown by clones (‘V 374’, ‘V 461’, ‘V 578’ from 15.2 - 25.0 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1 originated from backcross hybrid S. matsudana × (S. matsudana × S. alba and by one S. alba clone (‘V 95’, 23.1 - 25.7 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1. These clones are now at the stage of registration and these results indicate significant potential for further breeding aimed at biomass production in short rotations. Conclusions: Willow clones showed high biomass production on marginal sites and dry biomass could be considerably increased with the application of intensive silvicultural and agro technical measures. No nutrition or pest control measures were applied (a practice otherwise widely used in intensive cultivation system, while weed vegetation was regulated only at the earliest age.

  15. Modelling biomass production and yield of horticultural crops: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Goudriaan, J.

    1998-01-01

    Descriptive and explanatory modelling of biomass production and yield of horticultural crops is reviewed with special reference to the simulation of leaf area, light interception, dry matter (DM) production, DM partitioning and DM content. Most models for prediction of harvest date (timing of produc

  16. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  17. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Biomass Torrefaction is gaining attention as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties and chemical composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of approximately 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-280 C. Thus, the process can be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. The present review work looks into (a) torrefaction process and different products produced during the process and (b) solid torrefied material properties which include: (i) physical properties like moisture content, density, grindability, particle size distribution and particle surface area and pelletability; (ii) chemical properties like proximate and ultimate composition; and (iii) storage properties like off-gassing and spontaneous combustion.

  18. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  19. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration

  20. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin (from Mississippie State University); Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia (from Jackson State University); Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell (from the University of Mississippi); Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester (from the University of Southern Mississippi).

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and

  1. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  2. Ethanol production from biomass: technology and commercialization status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielenz, J R

    2001-06-01

    Owing to technical improvements in the processes used to produce ethanol from biomass, construction of at least two waste-to-ethanol production plants in the United States is expected to start this year. Although there are a number of robust fermentation microorganisms available, initial pretreatment of the biomass and costly cellulase enzymes remain critical targets for process and cost improvements. A highly efficient, very low-acid pretreatment process is approaching pilot testing, while research on cellulases for ethanol production is expanding at both enzyme and organism level.

  3. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  4. Spirogyra biomass a renewable source for biofuel (bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Salem Eshaq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels refer to renewable fuels from biological sources that can be used for heat, electricity and fuel. The fuels obtained from algae are termed as third generation fuels. The production of fuel from algae provides many advantages when compared to the fuel produced from other sources like agrobased raw materials. Other than environmental pollution control the algal biofuel will help in reduction of the fuel cost when compared to the agrobased and fossil fuels. In the present study algae specifically Spirogyra was used for the production of bioethanol by the fermentative process. A comparative study was carried out by using chemically pre-treated anduntreated Spirogyra biomass. The Spirogyra has a very simple cell wall made up of cellulose and starch that can be converted to ethanol by the fermentation process. The Spirogyra biomass was subjected to saccharification process by the fungal organism Aspergillus niger MTCCC 2196 for the hydrolysis, this process was followed by the fermentation using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC170 for the production of alcohol. A high yield of ethanol was recorded for untreated Spirogyra biomass when compared to chemically pre-treated biomass. The yield of alcohol using algal biomass is more when compared to alcohol produced from other sources like agrobased rawmaterials.

  5. Feasibility of Bioethanol Production From Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunina, Zane; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Karlis

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to discuss the potential of cellulosic ethanol production processes and compare them, to find the most appropriate production method for Latvia's situation, to perform theoretical calculations and to determine the potential ethanol price. In addition, price forecasts for future cellulosic and grain ethanol are compared. A feasibility estimate to determine the price of cellulosic ethanol in Latvia, if production were started in 2010, was made. The grain and cellulosic ethanol price comparison (future forecast) was made through to the year 2018.

  6. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  7. Biomass Performance : Monitoring and Control in Pharmaceutical Production

    OpenAIRE

    Neeleman, R.

    2002-01-01

    The primary concern in the pharmaceutical industry is not the optimisation of product yield or the reduction of manufacturing cost, but the production of a product of consistently high quality. This has resulted in 'process monitoring' becoming an integral part of process operation. In this thesis process monitoring is one of the central themes, from monitoring the environment of the micro-organisms to monitoring the micro-organisms themselves. The latter is called monitoring biomass performa...

  8. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  9. Energy-efficient photobioreactor configuration for algal biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegallapati, Ambica Koushik; Arudchelvam, Yalini; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2012-12-01

    An internally illuminated photobioreactor (IIPBR) design is proposed for energy-efficient biomass production. Theoretical rationale of the IIPBR design and its advantages over the traditional bubble column photobioreactors (PBRs) are presented, followed by experimental results from prototype scale cultivation of freshwater and marine algal strains in an 18L IIPBR. Based on theoretical considerations, the proposed IIPBR design has the potential to support 160% higher biomass density and higher biomass productivity per unit energy input, B/E, than a bubble column PBR of equal incident area per unit culture volume. Experimental B/E values recorded in this study with fresh water algae and marine algae (1.42 and 0.37 gW(-1)d(-1), respectively) are at least twice as those reported in the literature for comparable species cultivated in bubble column and airlift PBRs.

  10. Algal biomass production and carbon fixation from flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ling; ZHU Jing

    2016-01-01

    Algal biofuel has established as one of renewable energy. In this study, Nannochloropsis salina was cultured to test feasibility of biomass production and CO2 fixation from flue gas. Firstly, cultivation was conducted under different light intensity. Results showed that the highest dry biomass of 1.25±0.061 g/L was achieved at light intensity of 10klux, while the highest total lipids was 33.677±1.9% at light intensity of 15klux. The effect of mercury on algae growth was also investigated, the algae growth was serious limited at the presence of mercury, and there was no any difference at the range of 10-50 ug/m3. These results provide useful information for algal biomass production and CO2 fixation from flue gas.

  11. Biohydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Technology and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the various renewable energy sources, biohydrogen is gaining a lot of traction as it has very high efficiency of conversion to usable power with less pollutant generation. The various technologies available for the production of biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass such as direct biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photo, and dark fermentations have some drawbacks (e.g., low yield and slower production rate, etc., which limits their practical application. Among these, metabolic engineering is presently the most promising for the production of biohydrogen as it overcomes most of the limitations in other technologies. Microbial electrolysis is another recent technology that is progressing very rapidly. However, it is the dark fermentation approach, followed by photo fermentation, which seem closer to commercialization. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass is particularly suitable for relatively small and decentralized systems and it can be considered as an important sustainable and renewable energy source. The comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA of biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass and its comparison with other biofuels can be a tool for policy decisions. In this paper, we discuss the various possible approaches for producing biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass which is an globally available abundant resource. The main technological challenges are discussed in detail, followed by potential solutions.

  12. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  13. Genetic selection of American sycamore for biomass production in the mid-south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, S. B., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    Biomass prediction equations were developed to examine genetic, site, and propagule effects on above stump biomass. Accuracy and precision of subsampling procedures which utilized green weight ratios were high for stem wood and bark, slightly less for limb components, and poorest for the leaf component. The best predictor variables for stem biomass equations were DBH2, (DBH), and (DBH)2, and DBH)2 times height. Crown width, crown surface area, and (DBH)2 times the crown length/tree height ratio were more appropriate predictors for limb of leaf biomass. Specific gravity and moisture content varied within the tree, among sites, and among families within seed sources, but not among sources. Survival, biomass per tree, and biomass per hectare were lowest for trees established from seedling top cuttings, higher for top pruned seedlings, and highest for whole seedlings. Site differences were very large for biomass production, with the best site having nearly as much stem plus limb dry weight per hectare at age five as three other sites combined. Geographic seed sources from south of each planting site produced more biomass per hectare than sources from north of the site. Family differences within sources were significant, as were site-by-family interactions.

  14. Biomass-based hydrogen production: A review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinci, Yildiz [Department of Technical Programs, Izmir Vocational High School, Dokuz Eylul University, Education Campus Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, various processes for conversion of biomass into hydrogen gas are comprehensively reviewed in terms of two main groups, namely (i) thermo-chemical processes (pyrolysis, conventional gasification, supercritical water gasification (SCWG)), and (ii) biological conversions (fermentative hydrogen production, photosynthesis, biological water gas shift reactions (BWGS)). Biomass-based hydrogen production systems are discussed in terms of their energetic and exergetic aspects. Literature studies and potential methods are then summarized for comparison purposes. In addition, a biomass gasification process via oxygen and steam in a downdraft gasifier is exergetically studied for performance assessment as a case study. The operating conditions and strategies are really important for better performance of the system for hydrogen production. A distinct range of temperatures and pressures is used, such as that the temperatures may vary from 480 to 1400 C, while the pressures are in the range of 0.1-50 MPa in various thermo-chemical processes reviewed. For the operating conditions considered the data for steam biomass ratio (SBR) and equivalence ratio (ER) range from 0.6 to 10 and 0.1 to 0.4, respectively. In the study considered, steam is used as the gasifying agent with a product gas heating value of about 10-15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, compared to an air gasification of biomass process with 3-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The exergy efficiency value for the case study system is calculated to be 56.8%, while irreversibility and improvement potential rates are found to be 670.43 and 288.28 kW, respectively. Also, exergetic fuel and product rates of the downdraft gasifier are calculated as 1572.08 and 901.64 kW, while fuel depletion and productivity lack ratios are 43% and 74.3%, respectively. (author)

  15. Phytoplankton biomass, production and potential export in the North Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Bert; LeBlanc, Bernard; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Beret, Rachel; Michaud, Josée; Mundy, C.-J.; von Quillfeldt, Cecilie H.; Garneau, Marie-Ève; Roy, Suzanne; Gratton, Yves; Cochran, J. Kirk; Bélanger, Simon; Larouche, Pierre; Pakulski, J. Dean; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    The seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and production were determined in the North Water, located between Greenland and Ellesmere Island (Canadian Arctic), in August 1997, April-July 1998, and August-September 1999. The patterns differed among the four defined regions of this large polynya, i.e. North (>77.5°N), East (>75°W), West (5 μm) fraction dominated the biomass and production during the bloom. During July, August, and September, biomass and production decreased over the whole region, with the highest biomass, dominated by large cells, occurring in the North. The annual particulate and dissolved phytoplankton production were the highest ever reported for the high Arctic, reaching maximum values of 254 and 123 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively, in the East. Rates in the North and West were considerably lower than in the East (ca. two- and three-fold, respectively). The f-ratios (i.e. ratio of new to total production), derived from the size structure of phytoplankton, were high north of 76°N (0.4-0.7). Regionally, this indicated a high potential export of particulate organic carbon ( EPOC) from the phytoplankton community to other trophic compartments and/or downwards in the East (155 g C m -2 yr -1), with lower values in the North and West (i.e. 77 and 42 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively). The seasonal and spatial patterns of EPOC were consistent with independent estimates of potential carbon export. Phytoplankton biomass and production were generally dominated by the large size fraction, whereas EPOC seemed to be dominated by the large size fraction early in the season and by the small size fraction (<5 μm) from June until the end of the growing season.

  16. Recovery of phenolic compounds from biomass during ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass to ethanol conversion represents an alternative liquid fuel technology that does not need to compete with food crops. Maintaining agricultural production of commodity crops such as corn and soybeans for the food supply and using agricultural waste or low input energy crops grown on marginal ...

  17. Progress on optimizing miscanthus biomass production for the european bioeconomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M.; Linden, van der Gerard C.; Schwarz, Kai Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C.L.; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S.; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M.; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; Weijde, van der Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and s

  18. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  19. Optimization of a photobioreactor biomass production using natural light

    CERN Document Server

    Grognard, Frédéric; Pierre, Masci; Bernard, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    We address the question of optimization of the biomass long term productivity in the framework of microalgal biomass production in photobioreactors under the influence of day/night cycles. For that, we propose a simple bioreactor model accounting for light attenuation in the reactor due to biomass density and obtain the control law that optimizes productivity over a single day through the application of Pontryagin's maximum principle, with the dilution rate being the control. An important constraint on the obtained solution is that the biomass in the reactor should be at the same level at the beginning and at the end of the day so that the same control can be applied everyday and optimizes the long term productivity. Several scenarios are possible depending on the microalgae's strain parameters and the maximal admissible value of the dilution rate: bang-bang or bang-singular-bang control or, if the growth rate of the algae is very strong in the presence of light, constant maximal dilution. A bifurcation diagr...

  20. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Budde, M.A.W.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet ex

  1. Photosynthetic pathway and biomass energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, D L; Bartholomew, D P

    1979-08-10

    The current interest in locating new or alternative sources of energy has focused attention on solar energy capture by crops that can be subsequently utilized as a substitute for fossil fuels. The very high productivity of sugarepane and the fact that it accumulates sugars that are directly fermentable to alcohol may have caused seemingly less productive crops to be overlooked. We show here that recoverable alcohol from achievable commercial yields of pineapple can actually equal that of sugarcane, with the pineapple crop requiring only a fraction of the water used by sugarcane. Pineapple is well adapted to the subhumid or semiarid tropics and thus is particularly well suited for exploiting large areas not now under cultivation with any crop of commercial value.

  2. 生物质颗粒燃料生产线及其关键制造技术的研究与开发%The research and development of biomass fuel pellets production line and key manufacturing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱典想

    2014-01-01

    生物质颗粒燃料(俗称木煤)作为生物质能源转化的一个重要领域,越来越受到人们的关注。本文对生物质颗粒燃料的燃烧特性、节能减排效果、制造工艺技术、关键生产设备进行了研究与开发,并在此基础上最终建成了规模化(年产2.0×105 t)、低成本的木煤生产线,对推动我国木煤产业的健康发展具有重要的示范意义。%As an important field of the conversion of biomass energy,biomass fuel pellets (commonly known as“wood-pellet”)get more and more attention. This paper discusses the combustion performance,the effect of energy conservation and emissions reduction,manufa-cturing technology and research achievement of the key production equipments. On the basis, the large-scale(annual output of 2.0 × 105 t) and low-cost wood-pellet production line is comple-ted finally,which has an important demonstration significance to promote the healthy develop-ment of wood-pellet industry.

  3. Modeling Woody Biomass Procurement for Bioenergy Production at the Atikokan Generating Station in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Upadhyay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient procurement and utilization of woody biomass for bioenergy production requires a good understanding of biomass supply chains. In this paper, a dynamic optimization model has been developed and applied to estimate monthly supply and procurement costs of woody biomass required for the Atikokan Generating Station (AGS in northwestern Ontario, based on its monthly electricity production schedule. The decision variables in the model are monthly harvest levels of two types of woody biomass, forest harvest residues and unutilized biomass, from 19,315 forest depletion cells (each 1 km2 for a one year planning horizon. Sixteen scenarios are tested to examine the sensitivity of the cost minimization model to changing economic and technological parameters. Reduction in moisture content and improvement of conversion efficiency showed relatively higher reductions in monthly and total costs of woody biomass feedstock for the AGS. The results of this study help in understanding and designing decision support systems for optimal biomass supply chains under dynamic operational frameworks.

  4. Potential of various fungi for biomass production of castor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, V S; Bansode, K G; Bavachkar, S N; Bhale, U N

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate biomass production of castor (Ricinus communis) with inoculation of native Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF), Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger. In castor, dual treatment of mycorrhiza and T. harzianum was better for shoot length (29.5 cm), root length (40.3 cm), fresh shoot weight (4.90 g), fresh root weight (1.13 g), number of leaves (10) and leaf area (75.5 cm2) than dual treatment of mycorrhiza and A. niger or mycorrhiza alone. These findings established the potential of the fungi for increase in biomass of castor.

  5. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, July 3--December 4, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes progress in several projects related to biomass power. These include switchgrass conversion development; switchgrass gasification development; production activities including soil studies, carbon studies, switchgrass production economics, watershed impacts, and prairie lands bio-products; information and education; and geographical information system. Attachments describe switchgrass co-firing test; switchgrass production in Iowa; cooperative agreements with ISU; Rathbun Lake watershed project; newspaper articles and information publications; Secretary of Agriculture Glickman`s visit; integration of technical aspects of switchgrass production in Iowa; and evaluation of an integrated biomass gasification/fuel cell power plant.

  6. Developing Two Additive Biomass Equations for Three Coniferous Plantation Species in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihu Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantification of tree biomass is critical and essential for calculating carbon storage, as well as for studying climate change, forest health, forest productivity, nutrient cycling, etc. Tree biomass is typically estimated using statistical models. In this study, a total of 289 trees were harvested and measured for stem, root, branch, and foliage biomass from three coniferous plantation species in northeastern P.R. China. We developed two additive systems of biomass equations based on tree diameter (D only and both tree diameter (D and height (H. For each system, likelihood analysis was used to verify the error structures of power functions in order to determine if logarithmic transformation should be applied on both sides of biomass equations. The model coefficients were simultaneously estimated using seemingly unrelated regression (SUR. The results indicated that stem biomass had the largest relative contribution to total biomass, while foliage biomass had the smallest relative proportion for the three species. The root to shoot ratio averaged 0.27 for Korean pine, 0.25 for larch, and 0.23 for Mongolian pine. The two additive biomass systems obtained good model fitting and prediction performance, of which the model Ra2 > 0.80, and the percent mean absolute bias (MAB%, was <17%. The second additive system (D and H had a relatively greater Ra2 and smaller root mean square error (RMSE. The model coefficient for the predictor H was statistically significant in eight of the twelve models, depending on tree species and biomass component. Adding tree height into the system of biomass equations can marginally improve model fitting and performance, especially for total, aboveground, and stem biomass. The two additive systems developed in this study can be applied to estimate individual tree biomass of three coniferous plantation species in the Chinese National Forest Inventory.

  7. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Macauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales. Meeting participants agreed that users of biomass information will look to the CMS effort not only to provide basic data for carbon or biomass measurements but also to provide data to help serve a broad range of goals, such as forest watershed management for water quality, habitat management for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and potential use for developing payments for ecosystem service projects. Participants also reminded the CMS group that potential users include not only public sector agencies and nongovernmental organizations but also the

  8. Ethanol Production from Biomass: Large Scale Facility Design Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, R. Eric [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2009-10-29

    High solids processing of biomass slurries provides the following benefits: maximized product concentration in the fermentable sugar stream, reduced water usage, and reduced reactor size. However, high solids processing poses mixing and heat transfer problems above about 15% for pretreated corn stover solids due to their high viscosities. Also, highly viscous slurries require high power consumption in conventional stirred tanks since they must be run at high rotational speeds to maintain proper mixing. An 8 liter scraped surface bio-reactor (SSBR) is employed here that is designed to efficiently handle high solids loadings for enzymatic saccharification of pretreated corn stover (PCS) while maintaining power requirements on the order of low viscous liquids in conventional stirred tanks. Saccharification of biomass exhibit slow reaction rates and incomplete conversion, which may be attributed to enzyme deactivation and loss of activity due to a variety of mechanisms. Enzyme deactivation is classified into two categories here: one, deactivation due to enzyme-substrate interactions and two, deactivation due to all other factors that are grouped together and termed “non-specific” deactivation. A study was conducted to investigate the relative extents of “non-specific” deactivation and deactivation due to “enzyme-substrate interactions” and a model was developed that describes the kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by considering the observed deactivation effects. Enzyme substrate interactions had a much more significant effect on overall deactivation with a deactivation rate constant about 20X higher than the non-specific deactivation rate constant (0.35 h-1 vs 0.018 h-1). The model is well validated by the experimental data and predicts complete conversion of cellulose within 30 hours in the absence of enzyme substrate interactions.

  9. USE OF AGRICULTURAL WASTES FOR BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF THE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER ACTINOBACTERIA, Streptomyces sp. MCR26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ávila-Cortes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of agricultural wastes for plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR biomass production has not been widely explored. This study focuses on the development a culture medium for PGPR Streptomyces sp. MCR26, evaluating the influence of carnation harvest waste, yeast extract and ammonium sulfate on biomass production, as well as, the effect of biomass produced in the designed culture medium on the maintenance of PGPR MCR26 traits. The experiments were conducted by a full factorial design, varying nutritional sources concentrations, with duplicate experiments at the central point. Yeast extract and carnation harvest waste were the most influential factors, showing a positive effect on biomass production. The statistical model predicted optimal conditions for maximal biomass production at 20.0 g/L carnation harvest waste and 4.0 g/L yeast extract. Shake flask validation experiments resulted in 8.087 g/L of MCR26 biomass, 80.6% higher compared to carboxymetil cellulose (CMC broth. MCR26 biomass produced on designed culture medium enhanced hydroxamate production, and maintained phosphatases and indole-3-acetic acid synthesis. In addition, white clover inoculated plants presented higher shoot biomass accumulation compared to control treatment; nevertheless, there were no effects on seed germination. These results demonstrated that the designed culture medium effectively induced Streptomyces sp. MCR26 biomass production and maintained its plant growth promotion traits.

  10. Energy-efficient biomass processing with pulsed electric fields for bioeconomy and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Sack, Martin; Teissie, Justin; Pataro, Gianpiero; Pliquett, Uwe; Saulis, Gintautas; Stefan, Töpfl; Miklavcic, Damijan; Vorobiev, Eugene; Frey, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fossil resources-free sustainable development can be achieved through a transition to bioeconomy, an economy based on sustainable biomass-derived food, feed, chemicals, materials, and fuels. However, the transition to bioeconomy requires development of new energy-efficient technologies and processes to manipulate biomass feed stocks and their conversion into useful products, a collective term for which is biorefinery. One of the technological platforms that will enable various pathways of biomass conversion is based on pulsed electric fields applications (PEF). Energy efficiency of PEF treatment is achieved by specific increase of cell membrane permeability, a phenomenon known as membrane electroporation. Here, we review the opportunities that PEF and electroporation provide for the development of sustainable biorefineries. We describe the use of PEF treatment in biomass engineering, drying, deconstruction, extraction of phytochemicals, improvement of fermentations, and biogas production. These applications show the potential of PEF and consequent membrane electroporation to enable the bioeconomy and sustainable development.

  11. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Abt, Robert C.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS) was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  12. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  13. Production of Renewable Natural Gas from Waste Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Suresh, S.; Arisutha, S.

    2013-03-01

    Biomass energy is expected to make a major contribution to the replacement of fossil fuels. Methane produced from biomass is referred to as bio-methane, green gas, bio-substitute natural gas or renewable natural gas (RNG) when it is used as a transport fuel. Research on upgrading of the cleaned producer gas to RNG is still ongoing. The present study deals with the conversion of woody biomass into fuels, RNG using gasifier. The various effects of parameters like temperature, pressure, and tar formation on conversion were also studied. The complete carbon conversion was observed at 480 °C and tar yield was significantly less. When biomass was gasified with and without catalyst at about 28 s residence time, ~75 % (w/w) and 88 % (w/w) carbon conversion for without and with catalyst was observed. The interest in RNG is growing; several initiatives to demonstrate the thermal-chemical conversion of biomass into methane and/or RNG are under development.

  14. Challenges for the production of bioethanol from biomass using recombinant yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, William; Fitzpatrick, James; Bond, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulose biomass, one of the most abundant renewable resources on the planet, is an alternative sustainable energy source for the production of second-generation biofuels. Energy in the form of simple or complex carbohydrates can be extracted from lignocellulose biomass and fermented by microorganisms to produce bioethanol. Despite 40 years of active and cutting-edge research invested into the development of technologies to produce bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, the process remains commercially unviable. This review describes the achievements that have been made in generating microorganisms capable of utilizing both simple and complex sugars from lignocellulose biomass and the fermentation of these sugars into ethanol. We also provide a discussion on the current "roadblocks" standing in the way of making second-generation bioethanol a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuels.

  15. Biomass storage for further energy use through biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atem, A.D. [Instituto CEDIAC, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas - CONICET, Mendoza (Argentina); Indiveri, M.E. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Llamas, S. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The present work approaches the residual biomass conservation for later digestion in an anaerobic batch reactor. Twenty 4 L capacity PET reactors were used. A measuring device was constructed to quantify the biogas production. As substrate were used tomato wastes from local industry and rumen fluid as inoculum. Digestion start up was able to be controlled by varying the temperature, during a period of 118 days was not verified biogas production. After re-inoculated with rumen fluid stabilized for 34 days, biogas production was verified. They were obtained 0.10 m{sup 3} of biogas per kilogram of volatile solids, with 50% of methane content. (author)

  16. Hybrid-renewable processes for biofuels production: concentrated solar pyrolysis of biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Anthe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The viability of thermochemically-derived biofuels can be greatly enhanced by reducing the process parasitic energy loads. Integrating renewable power into biofuels production is one method by which these efficiency drains can be eliminated. There are a variety of such potentially viable "hybrid-renewable" approaches; one is to integrate concentrated solar power (CSP) to power biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL) processes. Barriers to CSP integration into BTL processes are predominantly the lack of fundamental kinetic and mass transport data to enable appropriate systems analysis and reactor design. A novel design for the reactor has been created that can allow biomass particles to be suspended in a flow gas, and be irradiated with a simulated solar flux. Pyrolysis conditions were investigated and a comparison between solar and non-solar biomass pyrolysis was conducted in terms of product distributions and pyrolysis oil quality. A novel method was developed to analyse pyrolysis products, and investigate their stability.

  17. Carbonaceous residues from biomass gasification as catalysts for biodiesel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael Luque; Antonio Pineda; Juan C. Colmenares; Juan M. Campelo; Antonio A. Romero; Juan Carlos Serrano-Ruiz; Luisa F. Cabeza; Jaime Cot-Gores

    2012-01-01

    Tars and alkali ashes from biomass gasification processes currently constitute one of the major problems in biomass valorisation,generating clogging of filters and issues related with the purity of syngas production.To date,these waste residues find no useful applications and they are generally disposed upon generation in the gasification process.A detailed analysis of these residues pointed out the presence of high quantities of Ca (>30 wt%).TG experiments indicated that a treatment under air at moderate temperatures (400-800 ℃) decomposed the majority of carbon species,while XRD indicated the presence of a crystalline CaO phase.CaO enriched valorized materials turned out to be good heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils,providing moderate to good activities (50%-70% after 12 h) to fatty acid methyl esters in the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol.

  18. [Moraxella bovis biomass production in a bench-top fermentor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R D; Oberti, E R

    1994-01-01

    A Moraxella bovis strain was isolated from a kerato-conjunctivities lesion of a calf in Villa Valeria (Córdoba); it was used to establish improved cultural conditions, such as nature and concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources, and pH control in shaken flasks. The selected conditions were assayed for biomass production in a bench-top fermentor. The strain is used by the pharmaceutical industry to produce vaccines and adjuvants. In the initial condition (48 h culture on blood agar) 0.019 g biomass/l.h-1 was obtained. With the use of liquid defined medium with pH control, productivity was increased to 0.153g/l.h-1, with optimum harvest time of 32 h.

  19. Sustainability of biofuels and renewable chemicals production from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    In the sectors of biofuel and renewable chemicals the big feedstock demand asks, first, to expand the spectrum of carbon sources beyond primary biomass, second, to establish circular processing chains and, third, to prioritize product sectors exclusively depending on carbon: chemicals and heavy-duty fuels. Large-volume production lines will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission significantly but also low-volume chemicals are indispensable in building 'low-carbon' industries. The foreseeable feedstock change initiates innovation, securing societal wealth in the industrialized world and creating employment in regions producing biomass. When raising the investments in rerouting to sustainable biofuel and chemicals today competitiveness with fossil-based fuel and chemicals is a strong issue. Many countries adopted comprehensive bioeconomy strategies to tackle this challenge. These public actions are mostly biased to biofuel but should give well-balanced attention to renewable chemicals as well.

  20. Production of substitute natural gas by biomass hydrogasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffarian, M.; Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-11-01

    Hydrogen, generated from renewable sources, is likely to play a major role in the future energy supply. The storage and transport of hydrogen can take place in its free form (H2), or chemically bound, e.g. as methane. However, the storage and transport of hydrogen in its free form are more complex, and probably would require more energy than the storage and transport of hydrogen in chemical form. An additional important advantage of the indirect use of hydrogen as energy carrier is, that in the future renewable energy supply, pads of the existing large-scale energy infra- structure could still be used. Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) by biomass hydrogasification has been assessed as a process for chemical storage of hydrogen. Thermodynamic analysis has shown the feasibility of this process. The product gas of the process has a Wobbe-index, a mole percentage methane, and a calorific value quite comparable to the quality of the Dutch natural gas. With a hydrogen content below 10 mol%, the produced SNG can be transported through the existing gas net without any additional adjustment. The integrated system has an energetic efficiency of 81% (LHV). In the long term, the required hydrogen for this process can be produced by water electrolysis, with electricity from renewable sources. In the short term, hydrogen may be obtained from hydrogen-rich gases available as by-product from industrial processes. Results of thermodynamic analysis of the process and experimental work, application potentials of the process in the Netherlands, and plans for future development are presented. 21 refs.

  1. Lignocellulosic biomass utilization toward biorefinery : technologies, products and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass wastes (LBW) are generated and accumulated in large amounts around the world every year. The disposal of large amounts of such wastes in the nature may cause environmental problems, affecting the quality of the soil, lakes and rivers. In order to avoid these problems, efforts have been directed to use LBW in a biorefinery to maximize the reutilization of these wastes with minimal or none production of residual matter. Through biorefiner...

  2. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  3. Yeast biomass production: a new approach in glucose-limited feeding strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Durão Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to implement experimentally a simple glucose-limited feeding strategy for yeast biomass production in a bubble column reactor based on a spreadsheet simulator suitable for industrial application. In biomass production process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, one of the constraints is the strong tendency of these species to metabolize sugars anaerobically due to catabolite repression, leading to low values of biomass yield on substrate. The usual strategy to control this metabolic tendency is the use of a fed-batch process in which where the sugar source is fed incrementally and total sugar concentration in broth is maintained below a determined value. The simulator presented in this work was developed to control molasses feeding on the basis of a simple theoretical model in which has taken into account the nutritional growth needs of yeast cell and two input data: the theoretical specific growth rate and initial cell biomass. In experimental assay, a commercial baker's yeast strain and molasses as sugar source were used. Experimental results showed an overall biomass yield on substrate of 0.33, a biomass increase of 6.4 fold and a specific growth rate of 0.165 h-1 in contrast to the predicted value of 0.180 h-1 in the second stage simulation.

  4. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  5. Toward concise metrics for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheldon, R.A.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a set of sustainability metrics for quickly evaluating the production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass is described. The method is based on four criteria: material and energy efficiency, land use and process economics. The method will be used for comparing the sustain

  6. Analysis and optimisation of plant biomass degrading enzyme production in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culleton, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Much research over the past 25 years has been applied to the development of filamentous fungi, most notably Aspergillus, as hosts for recombinant protein production. Their inherent abilities to grow at high rates and to high biomass densities and their exceptional capacity to secrete high levels of

  7. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  8. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China

  9. Best Available Techniques (BAT) in solid biomass fuel processing, handling, storage and production of pellets from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.P.; Tana, J. [AaF-Industri Ab, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    With the increasing use of biomass fuels the varieties of sources for biomass have expanded to almost all possible combustible matter with biological origin. The increasing scale in solid biomass fuel production and utilization at the combustion plants of the wide variety of biomass fuels have contributed to littering, dust, odor and noise emissions of the production chain. The report aims to provide information for operators, environmental consultants and competent environmental authorities on what is considered BAT, as defined in the IPPC directive (2008/1/EC), in biomass processing and handling as well as the production of pellets from biomass. The project gives a brief description of commonly used solid biomass fuels and the processes, handling and storage of these biomasses in the Nordic countries covering processes from production site to the point of use. Environmental emissions, sources of waste and other relevant environmental aspects from commonly used processes, included raw material and energy use, chemical use and emissions to soil are also included in the report. (Author)

  10. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  11. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  12. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  13. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  14. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠益; 方梦祥; ANDRIES,J.; 骆仲泱; SPLIETHOFF,H.; 岑可法

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The ki-netic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into pri-mary products ( tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  15. Ethanol, biomass and enzyme production for whey waste abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorella, B.L.; Castillo, F.J.

    1984-08-01

    Methods of ethanol, biomass, and lactase production are evaluated for the treatment of whey waste. These processes can all reduce the whey BOD load of 35,000 ppm by at least 90%. Plant designs are evaluated at the scale of 25,000 l whey per day, corresponding to the output of a typical independent cheese factory. Ethanol production is the most practical of the alternatives evaluated and the waste treatment would add 7.3 US cents per kilogramme to the cost of cheese manufacture. 57 references.

  16. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  17. Hydrogen production via thermal gasification of biomass in near-to-medium term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.

    2009-09-15

    Dedicated biomass gasification technologies are presently being developed in many countries for the production of second-generation liquid biofuels. Both fluidised-bed gasification and special entrained flow systems are under intensive development. These technologies can also be used for hydrogen production, which may become an interesting alternative in replacing part of fossil fuel input in oil refineries and chemical industries. In addition, fuel cell technology is being developed for hydrogen-rich gases. New and revolutionary production methods, capable of replacing the classical process routes, can not however be foreseen to emerge in the medium-term. Also the new hydrogen separation technologies, presently under development, seem to have only limited potential to reduce the production cost of hydrogen compared to commercially available technology. However, with rising prices of fossil fuels and locally depleting natural gas reserves, gasification route is likely to gain more ground as a credible production technology for hydrogen. The global needs to cut down the CO{sub 2} emissions can also make gasification of biomass an interesting possibility. Several biomass gasification processes are presently at demonstration phase, mostly aimed for the production of liquid transportation fuels. If and when this technology will be commercialized, it could easily be adopted to the production of hydrogen. (orig.)

  18. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology.

  19. Comparative study of thermochemical processes for hydrogen production from biomass fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Masoni, Lorenzo; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2010-08-01

    Different thermochemical configurations (gasification, combustion, electrolysis and syngas separation) are studied for producing hydrogen from biomass fuels. The aim is to provide data for the production unit and the following optimization of the "hydrogen chain" (from energy source selection to hydrogen utilization) in the frame of the Italian project "Filiera Idrogeno". The project focuses on a regional scale (Tuscany, Italy), renewable energies and automotive hydrogen. Decentred and small production plants are required to solve the logistic problems of biomass supply and meet the limited hydrogen infrastructures. Different options (gasification with air, oxygen or steam/oxygen mixtures, combustion, electrolysis) and conditions (varying the ratios of biomass and gas input) are studied by developing process models with uniform hypothesis to compare the results. Results obtained in this work concern the operating parameters, process efficiencies, material and energetic needs and are fundamental to optimize the entire hydrogen chain.

  20. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  1. A proposal for pellet production from residual woody biomass in the island of Majorca (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of residual biomass for energy purposes is of great interest in isolated areas like Majorca for waste reduction, energy sufficiency and renewable energies development. In addition, densification processes lead to easy-to-automate solid biofuels which additionally have higher energy density. The present study aims at (i the estimation of the potential of residual biomass from woody crops as well as from agri-food and wood industries in Majorca, and (ii the analysis of the optimal location of potential pellet plants by means of a GIS approach (location-allocation analysis and a cost evaluation of the pellets production chain. The residual biomass potential from woody crops in Majorca Island was estimated at 35,874 metric tons dry matter (t DM per year, while the wood and agri-food industries produced annually 21,494 t DM and 2717 t DM, respectively. Thus, there would be enough resource available for the installation of 10 pellet plants of 6400 t·year−1 capacity. These plants were optimally located throughout the island of Mallorca with a maximum threshold distance of 28 km for biomass transport from the production points. Values found for the biomass cost at the pellet plant ranged between 57.1 €·t−1 and 63.4 €·t−1 for biomass transport distance of 10 and 28 km. The cost of pelleting amounted to 56.7 €·t−1; adding the concepts of business fee, pellet transport and profit margin (15%, the total cost of pelleting was estimated at 116.6 €·t−1. The present study provides a proposal for pellet production from residual woody biomass that would supply up to 2.8% of the primary energy consumed by the domestic and services sector in the Balearic Islands.

  2. Biomass Steam Gasification with In-Situ CO2 Capture for Enriched Hydrogen Gas Production: A Reaction Kinetics Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work. This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of hydrogen production process via biomass steam gasification with calcium oxide as sorbent in a gasifier. A modelling framework consisting of kinetics models for char gasification, methanation, Boudouard, methane reforming, water gas shift and carbonation reactions to represent the gasification and CO2 adsorption in the gasifier, is developed and implemented in MATLAB. The scope of the work includes an investigation of the influence of the temperature, steam/biomass ratio and sorbent/biomass ratio on the amount of hydrogen produced, product gas compositions and carbon conversion. The importance of different reactions involved in the process is also discussed. It is observed that hydrogen production and carbon conversion increase with increasing temperature and steam/biomass ratio. The model predicts a maximum hydrogen mole fraction in the product gas of 0.81 occurring at 950 K, steam/biomass ratio of 3.0 and sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.0. In addition, at sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.52, purity of H2 can be increased to 0.98 mole fraction with all CO2 present in the system adsorbed.

  3. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    , enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  4. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  5. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    xylose conversion, effective glucose/xylose co-fermentation, and ethanol productivity of 1 g/l/h required for an economically viable bioethanol process. Furthermore, the fermentation of two undetoxified feed streams of industrial interest (acid hydrolyzed corn stover and wet-exploded wheat straw...... steps, various inhibitors towards microbial fermentation are generated along with the monomeric sugars. The inhibitors can be removed by various detoxification methods but the inclusion of this extra process step increases significantly the ethanol production cost. Compared with glucose, which can....... In order to keep ethanol production cost at a minimum, the major sugars in lignocellulosic biomass (glucose and xylose) must be converted into ethanol due to high raw material cost, typically about 40% of the total ethanol production cost. The need for a microorganism able to utilize both glucose...

  6. Progress on lipid extraction from wet algal biomass for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; González González, Lina M; Chan, William; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-11-01

    Lipid recovery and purification from microalgal cells continues to be a significant bottleneck in biodiesel production due to high costs involved and a high energy demand. Therefore, there is a considerable necessity to develop an extraction method which meets the essential requirements of being safe, cost-effective, robust, efficient, selective, environmentally friendly, feasible for large-scale production and free of product contamination. The use of wet concentrated algal biomass as a feedstock for oil extraction is especially desirable as it would avoid the requirement for further concentration and/or drying. This would save considerable costs and circumvent at least two lengthy processes during algae-based oil production. This article provides an overview on recent progress that has been made on the extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass. The biggest contributing factors appear to be the composition of algal cell walls, pre-treatments of biomass and the use of solvents (e.g. a solvent mixture or solvent-free lipid extraction). We compare recently developed wet extraction processes for oleaginous microalgae and make recommendations towards future research to improve lipid extraction from wet algal biomass.

  7. On-line catalytic upgrading of biomass fast pyrolysis products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiang; ZHU XiFeng; LI WenZhi; ZHANG Ying; CHEN DengYu

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was employed to achieve fast pyrolysis of biomass and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Four biomass materials (poplar wood, fir wood, cotton straw and rice husk) were pyrolyzed to reveal the difference among their products. Moreover, catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors from cotton straw was performed by using five catalysts, including two microporous zeolites (HZSM-5 and HY) and three mesoporous catalysts (ZrO2&TiO2, SBA-15 and AI/SBA-15). The results showed that the distribution of the pyrolytic products from the four materials differed a little from each other, while catalytic cracking could significantly alter the pyrolytic products. Those important primary pyrolytic products such as levoglucosen, hydroxyacetaldehyde and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone were decreased greatly after catalysis. The two microporous zeolites were ef-fective to generate high yields of hydrocarbons, while the three mesoporous materials favored the formation of furan, furfural and other furan compounds, as well as acetic acid.

  8. Microbial biodiesel production by direct methanolysis of oleaginous biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thliveros, Panagiotis; Uçkun Kiran, Esra; Webb, Colin

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is usually produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with methanol, catalyzed by strong acids or bases. This study introduces a novel biodiesel production method that features direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of the cellular biomass of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. NaOH was used as catalyst for transesterification reactions and the variables affecting the esterification level including catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent loading (methanol) and moisture content were investigated using the oleaginous yeast biomass. The most suitable pretreatment condition was found to be 4gL(-1) NaOH and 1:20 (w/v) dried biomass to methanol ratio for 10h at 50°C and under ambient pressure. Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was 97.7%. Therefore, the novel method of direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of R. toruloides is a much simpler, less tedious and time-consuming, process than the conventional processes with higher FAME (biodiesel) conversion yield.

  9. Economic development through biomass system integration: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. Chapters describe alfalfa basics, production risks, production economics, transportation and storage, processing, products, market analysis, business analysis, environmental impact, and policy issues. 69 figs., 63 tabs.

  10. New developments in the field of tri-generation from biomass and waste. A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daey Ouwens, C.; Boerrigter, H. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Biomass is considered as an important, and maybe the most important, energy source for this century. An aspect of biomass is that this renewable source can produce liquid (bio) fuels. The most optimal chain to produce these liquids might be the combined production of the liquids and electricity and heat: tri-generation. The overall efficiency for the generation of energy biomass is higher than for conventional biomass gasification. The production of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids is today the most optimal route for producing liquid fuels. FT diesel is directly applicable in the existing infrastructure and is free from sulphur and aromatics. For the demonstration of integrated systems ECN focuses on two lines of development: (1) large-scale dedicated installations for imported biomass and (2) small- to medium scale for local biomass and wastes. In a large plant (with a price for biomass of 3.6 Euro/GJ) electricity can be produced for 0.05 Euro/kWh and diesel for 0.22 Euro/litre (6.0 Euro/GJ). The overall efficiency of the FT synthesis will be circa 62% and the energy flows for electricity and fuel are about equal. For small-scale systems the local situation will determine the cost figures. 18 refs.

  11. Productivity ranges of sustainable biomass potentials from non-agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Vivian; Fuss, Sabine; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Weddige, Ulf; Beringer, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Land is under pressure from a number of demands, including the need for increased supplies of bioenergy. While bioenergy is an important ingredient in many pathways compatible with reaching the 2 °C target, areas where cultivation of the biomass feedstock would be most productive appear to co-host other important ecosystems services. We categorize global geo-data on land availability into productivity deciles, and provide a geographically explicit assessment of potentials that are concurrent with EU sustainability criteria. The deciles unambiguously classify the global productivity range of potential land currently not in agricultural production for biomass cultivation. Results show that 53 exajoule (EJ) sustainable biomass potential are available from 167 million hectares (Mha) with a productivity above 10 tons of dry matter per hectare and year (tD Mha-1 a-1), while additional 33 EJ are available on 264 Mha with yields between 4 and 10 tD M ha-1 a-1: some regions lose less of their highly productive potentials to sustainability concerns than others and regional contributions to bioenergy potentials shift when less productive land is considered. Challenges to limit developments to the exploitation of sustainable potentials arise in Latin America, Africa and Developing Asia, while new opportunities emerge for Transition Economies and OECD countries to cultivate marginal land.

  12. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  13. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route) and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  14. Production of Solid sustainable Energy Carriers from biomass by means of TORrefaction (SECTOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Bienert, Kathrin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Zwart, Robin; Kiel, Jaap; Englisch, Martin; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2012-07-01

    SECTOR is a large-scale European project with a strong consortium of over 20 partners from industry and science. The project is focussed on the further development of torrefaction-based technologies for the production of solid bioenergy carriers up to pilot-plant scale and beyond, and on supporting the market introduction of torrefaction-based bioenergy carriers as a commodity renewable solid fuel. The torrefaction of biomass materials is considered to be a very promising technology for the promotion of the large-scale implementation of bioenergy. During torrefaction biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of 250-320 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density commodity solid fuel or bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage, and also with superior properties in many major end-use applications. Torrefaction has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass. In this way, the SECTOR project is expected to shorten the time-to-market of torrefaction technology and to promote market introduction within stringent sustainability boundary conditions. The European Union provides funding for this project within the Seventh Framework Programme. The project has a duration of 42 months and started in January 2012. (orig.)

  15. Production of yeast biomass using waste Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ho Choi; Yun Hee Park [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea). Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology

    2003-08-01

    The possibility of using waste Chinese cabbage as a substrate for microbial biomass production was investigated. Cell mass and the protein content of four species of yeast, Candida utilis, Pichia stipitis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were determined when cultured in juice extracted from cabbage waste. Compared to YM broth containing the same level of sugar, all the strains except C. utilis showed higher total protein production in cabbage juice medium (CJM). Cell mass production was lower for all four strains in heat-treated CJM than in membrane-filtered medium, and this adverse effect was pronounced when the CJM was autoclaved at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. As a source of inorganic nitrogen, only ammonium sulfate added at a concentration of 0.5 g nitrogen per liter of CJM increased cell growth. Of the seven organic nitrogen sources tested, only corn steep powder was effective in increasing cell mass (by about 11%). As a micronutrient, the addition of 0.5 mM zinc increased cell mass. The results suggest that juice from waste Chinese cabbages can be used to produce microbial biomass protein without substantial modification, after preliminary heat treatment at temperatures below those required for sterilization. (Author)

  16. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  17. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt % wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3,000 psi. By comparison, conventional pumping systems are capable of pumping slurries containing only 10--20 wt % wood flour in wood oil under similar conditions. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a 3,000 psi pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed during 1983--84. Following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. During the period January 1985 through July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3,000 psi and temperatures from 350{degrees}C to 430{degrees}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt % residual oxygen were produced. 43 refs., 81 figs., 52 tabs.

  18. Sustainable Production of Asphalt using Biomass as Primary Process Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The production of construction materials is very energy intensive and requires large quantities of fossil fuels.Asphalt is the major road paving material in Europe and is being produced primarily in stationary batch mixasphalt factories. The production process requiring the most energy...... is the heating and drying of aggregate,where natural gas, fuel oil or LPG is burned in a direct-fired rotary dryer. Replacing this energy source with amore sustainable one presents several technical and economic challenges, as high temperatures, short startuptimes and seasonal production variations are required....... This paper analyses different pathways for the useof biomass feedstock as a primary process fuel. The analysed cases consider the gasification of straw andwood chips and the direct combustion of wood pellets. The additional use of syngas from the gasifier for theproduction of heat or combined heat and power...

  19. Fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making for Sustainability Assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Fedele, Andrea; Mason, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability assessment method to rank the prior sequence of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. A novel fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making method which allows multiple groups of decision-makers to use linguistic variables...... to assess the biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production has been developed. Fifteen criteria relevant to in economic, environmental, technological and social-political aspects have been used in sustainability assessment. Four biomass-based technologies including pyrolysis, conventional gasification......, supercritical water gasification and fermentative hydrogen production have been studied by the proposed method, and biomass gasification has been considered as the most sustainable scenario and can be chosen for further development....

  20. Succinate production from CO2-grown microalgal biomass as carbon source using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum through consolidated bioprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jungseok; Sim, Sang Jun; Bott, Michael; Um, Youngsoon; Oh, Min-Kyu; Woo, Han Min

    2014-01-01

    The potential for production of chemicals from microalgal biomass has been considered as an alternative route for CO2 mitigation and establishment of biorefineries. This study presents the development of consolidated bioprocessing for succinate production from microalgal biomass using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum. Starch-degrading and succinate-producing C. glutamicum strains produced succinate (0.16 g succinate/g total carbon source) from a mixture of starch and glucose as a model m...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC AND GENETIC TOOLS FOR FOXTAIL MILLET, AND USE OF THESE TOOLS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION FOR BIOENERGY CROPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xinlu; Zale, Janice; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-22

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is a warm-season, C4 annual crop commonly grown for grain and forage worldwide. It has a relatively short generation time, yet produces hundreds of seeds per inflorescence. The crop is inbred and it has a small-size genome (~500 Mb). These features make foxtail millet an attractive grass model, especially for bioenergy crops. While a number of genomic tools have been established for foxtail millet, including a fully sequenced genome and molecular markers, the objectives of this project were to develop a tissue culture system, determine the best explant(s) for tissue culture, optimize transient gene expression, and establish a stable transformation system for foxtail millet cultivar Yugu1. In optimizing a tissue culture medium for the induction of calli and somatic embryos from immature inflorescences and mature seed explants, Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.5 mg l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.6 mg l-1 6- benzylaminopurine was determined to be optimal for callus induction of foxtail millet. The efficiency of callus induction from explants of immature inflorescences was significantly higher at 76% compared to that of callus induction from mature seed explants at 68%. The calli induced from this medium were regenerated into plants at high frequency (~100%) using 0.2 mg l-1 kinetin in the regeneration media. For performing transient gene expression, immature embryos were first isolated from inflorescences. Transient expression of the GUS reporter gene in immature embryos was significantly increased after sonication, a vacuum treatment, centrifugation and the addition of L-cysteine and dithiothreitol, which led to the efficiency of transient expression at levels greater than 70% after Agrobacterium inoculation. Inoculation with Agrobacterium was also tested with germinated seeds. The radicals of germinated seeds were pierced with needles and dipped into Agrobacterium solution. This method achieved a 10% transient

  2. Poverty alleviation, energy production and use of biomass. Different visions on global developments; Armoedebestrijding, energiewinning en gebruik van biomassa. Uiteenlopende visies op mondiale ontwikkelingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabbinge, R. [Wageningen Universiteit, Wageningen (Netherlands); Bindraban, P. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Daey Ouwens, K.

    2007-07-01

    In a reaction to a letter of one of the authors in this article the production of biofuels is discussed and the impacts on agriculture, water, nutrients, the environment, and poverty alleviation. [Dutch] In een reactie op een brief van 1 van de auteurs wordt in dit artikel een discussie gevoerd over de productie van biobrandstof en de wereldwijde invloed daarvan op landbouw, water, nutrienten, het milieu, en armoedebestrijding.

  3. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  4. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  5. Assessment of potential biomass energy production in China towards 2030 and 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a more detailed picture of potential biomass energy production in the Chinese energy system towards 2030 and 2050. Biomass for bioenergy feedstocks comes from five sources, which are agricultural crop residues, forest residues and industrial wood waste......, energy crops and woody crops, animal manure, and municipal solid waste. The potential biomass production is predicted based on the resource availability. In the process of identifying biomass resources production, assumptions are made regarding arable land, marginal land, crops yields, forest growth rate......, and meat consumption and waste production. Four scenarios were designed to describe the potential biomass energy production to elaborate the role of biomass energy in the Chinese energy system in 2030. The assessment shows that under certain restrictions on land availability, the maximum potential biomass...

  6. Innovation in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2005-01-01

    The course on Innovation in Product Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and product development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format...... insight. Course content The following aspects of innovation in product development are considered: - Humans and products - Needs and products - Product life - Teams creating products - Products creating business - Product development models - Organising product development - Product development tools...... - The future of product development....

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC AND GENETIC TOOLS FOR FOXTAIL MILLET, AND USE OF THESE TOOLS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION FOR BIOENERGY CROPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xinlu; Zale, Janice; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-22

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is a warm-season, C4 annual crop commonly grown for grain and forage worldwide. It has a relatively short generation time, yet produces hundreds of seeds per inflorescence. The crop is inbred and it has a small-size genome (~500 Mb). These features make foxtail millet an attractive grass model, especially for bioenergy crops. While a number of genomic tools have been established for foxtail millet, including a fully sequenced genome and molecular markers, the objectives of this project were to develop a tissue culture system, determine the best explant(s) for tissue culture, optimize transient gene expression, and establish a stable transformation system for foxtail millet cultivar Yugu1. In optimizing a tissue culture medium for the induction of calli and somatic embryos from immature inflorescences and mature seed explants, Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.5 mg l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.6 mg l-1 6- benzylaminopurine was determined to be optimal for callus induction of foxtail millet. The efficiency of callus induction from explants of immature inflorescences was significantly higher at 76% compared to that of callus induction from mature seed explants at 68%. The calli induced from this medium were regenerated into plants at high frequency (~100%) using 0.2 mg l-1 kinetin in the regeneration media. For performing transient gene expression, immature embryos were first isolated from inflorescences. Transient expression of the GUS reporter gene in immature embryos was significantly increased after sonication, a vacuum treatment, centrifugation and the addition of L-cysteine and dithiothreitol, which led to the efficiency of transient expression at levels greater than 70% after Agrobacterium inoculation. Inoculation with Agrobacterium was also tested with germinated seeds. The radicals of germinated seeds were pierced with needles and dipped into Agrobacterium solution. This method achieved a 10% transient

  8. Biomass. Energy carrier and biobased products; Biomasse. Energietraeger und biobasierte Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene; Groeger, G. (eds.) [BioRegionUlm Foerderverein Biotechnologie e.V., Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd Reivensburg Environmental Biotechnology Meeting at 29th June, 2007, at Castle Reivensburg near Guenzburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Challenges according to materials management, land use and power generation in the background of precarious economical situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (H.-G. Petersen); (b) Regenerative raw materials in Germany: Plant sources and potentials (W. Luehs, W. Friedt); (c) Biobased industrial products and bioraffinery systems (B. Kamm, M. Kamm); (d) Potential of biomass materials conversion in chemical industries (R. Busch); (e) Environmental compatible processes and low-priced ecological materials from the processing of biotechnological poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (H. Seliger, H. Haeberlein, R. Kohler, P. Sulzberger); (f) New starch from potatoes - a regenerative raw material (T. Servay); (g) Fuels from renewable energy sources: potential, production, perspectives (M. Specht, U. Zuberbuehler, A. Bandi); (h) Application of biogas as a fuel from the view of a car manufacturer (S. Schrahe); (i) Large-scale production of bioethanol (P. Johne, C. Sauter); (j) Environmental political evaluation of the use of biofuels and politics of biofuels of selected countries (J.M. Henke).

  9. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency.

  10. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  11. Biomass for bioethanol production and technological process in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiradze, K.; Phirosmanashvili, N. [Association for Farmers Rights Defence, Tbilisi (Georgia)

    2010-07-01

    This study discussed the use of biomass for bioethanol production in Georgia and its potential impacts on the country's rural economy. Eighty-five per cent of the country's lands are forested or used for agricultural purposes, and more than 56 per cent of the adult population is involved in the agricultural sector. The privatization of land in post-Soviet Georgia has resulted in the creation of a new social class of land-owners. The use of biofuel in petroleum fuel has significantly lowered greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the country. The biofuel is produced using local agricultural and forest wastes. Use of the biofuel has lowered the country's reliance on imported oil and has increased its energy security. The production of ethanol in Georgia has resulted in significant socio-economic benefits in the country.

  12. Sustainable Production of Algal Biomass and Biofuels Using Swine Wastewater in North Carolina, US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae were recently considered as a promising third-generation biofuel feedstock due to their superior productivity, high oil content, and environmentally friendly nature. However, the sustainable production became the major constraint facing commercial development of algal biofuels. For this study, firstly, a factorial experimental design was used to analyze the effects of the process parameters including temperatures of 8–25 °C, light intensity of 150–900 μmol·m−2s−1, and light duration of 6–24 h on the biomass yields of local alga Chlamydomonas debaryana in swine wastewater. The results were fitted with a quadratic equation (R2 = 0.9706. The factors of temperature, light duration, the interaction of light intensity-light duration, and the quadratic effect of temperature were statistically significant. When evaluating different scenarios for the sustainable production of algal biomass and biofuels in North Carolina, US, it showed that: (a Growing C. debaryana in a 10-acre pond on swine wastewater under local weather conditions would yield algal biomass of 113 tonnes/year; (b If all swine wastewater generated in North Carolina was treated with algae, it will require 137–485 acres of ponds, yielding biomass of 5048–10,468 tonnes/year and algal oil of 1010–2094 tonnes/year. Annually, hundreds of tonnes of nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from swine wastewater. The required area is mainly dependent on the growth rate of algal species.

  13. Hydrogen production from high-moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Adschiri, T.; Ekbom, T. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming methane at elevated pressures. The goal of this research is to develop commercial processes for the catalytic steam reforming of biomass and other organic wastes at high pressures. This approach avoids the high cost of gas compression and takes advantage of the unique properties of water at high pressures. Prior to this year the authors reported the ability of carbon to catalyze the decomposition of biomass and related model compounds in supercritical water. The product gas consists of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and traces of higher hydrocarbons. During the past year the authors have: (a) developed a method to extend the catalyst life, (b) begun studies of the role of the shift reaction, (c) completed studies of carbon dioxide absorption from the product effluent by high pressure water, (d) measured the rate of carbon catalyst gasification in supercritical water, (e) discovered the pumpability of oil-biomass slurries, and (f) completed the design and begun fabrication of a flow reactor that will steam reform whole biomass feedstocks (i.e. sewage sludge) and produce a hydrogen rich synthesis gas at very high pressure (>22 MPa).

  14. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  15. Advances in the Research and Development of Acrylic Acid Production from Biomass%从生物量生产丙烯酸的研究和开发进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓波; 林建平; 岑沛霖

    2006-01-01

    The shortage of petroleum has resulted in worldwide efforts to produce chemicals from renewable resources. Among these attempts, the possibility of producing acrylic acid from biomass has caught the eye of many researchers. Converting the carbohydrates first to lactic acid by fermentation and then dehydrating lactic acid to acrylic acid is hitherto the most effective way for producing acrylic acid from biomass. While the lactic acid fermentation has been commercialized since longer times, the dehydration process of lactic acid is still under development because of its low yield. Further efforts should be made before this process became economically feasible.Because of the existence of acrylic acid pathways in some microorganisms, strain improvement and metabolic engineering provides also a possibility to produce acrylic acid directly from biomass by fermentation.

  16. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Univ. of Agronomy

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  17. Production of Solid Fuel by Torrefaction Using Coconut Leaves As Renewable Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Domnina Bote Pestaño

    2016-11-01

    online How to Cite This Article: Pestaño, L.D.B. and Jose, W.I. (2016 Production of Solid Fuel by Torrefaction Using Coconut Leaves As Renewable Biomass. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 187-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.187-197

  18. Biorefinery - development of chemical platforms through biomass integrated technologies; Biorefinaria - desenvolvimento de plataformas quimicas atraves de tecnologias integradas de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sain, Mohini M.; Pervaiz, Muhammad; Correa, Carlos A.

    2009-07-01

    The sustainable industrial conversion of biomass into products with high aggregate dd value are still needing a partial restructure or even the complete of all economy basing on new research and development methods. A new approach consists of development of technologies for bio refineries and systems which are similar to the petroleum refinery, and involve processes of integrated conversion of biomass and equipment for fuel, energy and bio based biochemical products.

  19. System studies on Biofuel production via Integrated Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Malek, Laura; Hulteberg, Christian [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ. Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly. The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for fair techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project. Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found. In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and

  20. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: developments from batch to continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew B; Schmidt, Andrew J; Jones, Susanne B

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described; however, they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available, process models have been developed, and mass and energy balances determined. From these models, process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  1. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  2. Prediction of product distribution in fine biomass pyrolysis in fluidized beds based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    A predictive model was satisfactorily developed to describe the general trends of product distribution in fluidized beds of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis. The model was made of mass balance based on proximate analysis and an empirical relationship with operating parameters including fluidization hydrodynamics. The empirical relationships between product yields and fluidization conditions in fluidized bed pyrolyzers were derived from the data of this study and literature. The gas and char yields showed strong functions of temperature and vapor residence time in the pyrolyzer. The yields showed a good correlation with fluidization variables related with hydrodynamics and bed mixing. The predicted product yields based on the model well accorded well with the experimental data.

  3. Rationally engineered synthetic coculture for improved biomass and product formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Santala

    Full Text Available In microbial ecosystems, bacteria are dependent on dynamic interspecific interactions related to carbon and energy flow. Substrates and end-metabolites are rapidly converted to other compounds, which protects the community from high concentrations of inhibitory molecules. In biotechnological applications, pure cultures are preferred because of the more straight-forward metabolic engineering and bioprocess control. However, the accumulation of unwanted side products can limit the cell growth and process efficiency. In this study, a rationally engineered coculture with a carbon channeling system was constructed using two well-characterized model strains Escherichia coli K12 and Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. The directed carbon flow resulted in efficient acetate removal, and the coculture showed symbiotic nature in terms of substrate utilization and growth. Recombinant protein production was used as a proof-of-principle example to demonstrate the coculture utility and the effects on product formation. As a result, the biomass and recombinant protein titers of E. coli were enhanced in both minimal and rich medium simple batch cocultures. Finally, harnessing both the strains to the production resulted in enhanced recombinant protein titers. The study demonstrates the potential of rationally engineered cocultures for synthetic biology applications.

  4. Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.P. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bain, R.L.; Craig, K.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In the U.S.A., the widely recognized importance of biomass utilization in controlling carbon build-up in the biosphere and the potential benefit of creating new industries associated with new job opportunities, particularly in the rural areas, have added impetus to the development and commercialization of advanced biomass energy conversion methods. Recent analyses and evaluations have shown that many short rotation energy crops (SREC) produce significant net-energy (i.e., energy yield greater than the energy input for plant growth). SREC such as willow, poplar, and miscanthus may yield up to 20 dry tonnes/yr/ha/year of biomass feedstocks, some with about 20 % moisture, after the third year of plantation. Implementation by U.S. EPA of the recent Clean Water Act Federal Biosolids Rules specified as Code 40 of Federal Register 503, should make available large quantities of high nitrogen content, pathogen-free municipal sludges ideally suited as an inexpensive source of organic fertiliser, thus improving the economics of SREC. The concept of herbaceous SREC can be further augmented when value-added byproducts, such as cattle feed, could be produced along with biomass energy feedstocks. Since 1990, there has been renewed interest in the United States in developing advanced power-generating cycles utilizing biomass gasification. The advanced systems have the potential for higher generation efficiencies, 35 % to 40 %, and lower costs of electricity, $0.045 to $0.055/kWh, compared to conventional direct-combustion systems. The efficiency of power production can be even higher (about 55 %) when the fuel gas is converted to hydrogen followed by electrochemical conversion to electricity in a fuel cell. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes a number of provisions to promote the commercialisation of biomass power production. The recent Global Climate Change Action Plan also includes several programs and incentives for biomass power production. A summary of U.S. demonstration

  5. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Subramanian, Ramanathan [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rizeq, George [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Eiteneer, Boris [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ladd, David [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Vazquez, Arturo [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Anderson, Denise [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bates, Noel [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation

  6. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  7. Development of Switchgrass Into a Biomass Energy Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American prairie grass that is being developed into a biomass energy crop in the USA and other countries. Research on switchgrass as a pasture and forage crop was initiated in the mid-1930's in an U.S. Department of Agriculture and University of Nebraska ...

  8. Biomass refining for sustainable development : analysis and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the contribution of biomass refining to sustainable development, the technical, environmental and economic aspects are summarized in this thesis. This work begins from life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as corn stover, sugarcane and bagasse,

  9. Production and trading of biomass for energy: an overview of the global status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinimö, J.; Junginger, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The markets for industrially used biomass for energy purposes are developing rapidly toward being international commodity markets. Determining international traded biomass volumes for energy purposes is difficult, for several reasons, such as challenges regarding the compilation of statistics on the

  10. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal contribution to biorefinery processes, which are instrumental for improved resource efficiency and central to the new bioeconomy. Which types of processes, inherent to fungal physiology and activities in nature, are exploited in the new industrial processes? Which families of the fungal kingdom and which types of fungal habitats and ecological specializations are hot spots for fungal biomass conversion? How can the best fungal enzymes be found and optimized for industrial use? How can they be produced most efficiently-in fungal expression hosts? How have industrial biotechnology and biomass conversion research contributed to mycology and environmental research? Future perspectives and approaches are listed, highlighting the importance of fungi in development of the bioeconomy.

  11. THE PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AND BIO-MASS GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. G. McKellar; G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O' Brien

    2008-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to improve the hydrogen production efficiency of the steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon dioxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K.

  12. Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at enhancing biomass and pigments production together with pollution removal in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment via different light sources. Red, yellow, blue, white LED and incandescent lamp were used. Results showed different light sources had great effects on the PSB. PSB had the highest biomass production, COD removal and biomass yield with red LED. The corresponding biomass, COD removal and biomass yield reached 2580 mg/L, 88.6% and 0.49 mg-biomass/mg-COD-removal, respectively. The hydraulic retention time of wastewater treatment could be shortened to 72 h with red LED. Mechanism analysis showed higher ATP was produced with red LED than others. Light sources could significantly affect the pigments production. The pigments productions were greatly higher with LED than incandescent lamp. Yellow LED had the highest pigments production while red LED produced the highest carotenoid/bacteriochlorophyll ratio. Considering both efficiency and energy cost, red LED was the optimal light source.

  13. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie;

    2015-01-01

    species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this could......Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass...... and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and determined...

  14. Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Baum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the production capacity of Polish agriculture with respect to biomass used for energy production. The forecast production potential of agricultural biomass in Poland in 2020 includes three key areas: the expected consumption of renewable energy according to energy type, the energy potential of agriculture and barriers to the use of biomass. Studies have shown that in Poland, total energy consumption will significantly increase (over 10% by 2020. Growth of demand for renewable energy will primarily result from strong growth of demand for transport biofuels and electricity. In 2020, approximately 80% of final energy from renewable sources will come from biomass. More than three-quarters of the biomass will be generated from agriculture. In Poland, crops from 1.0 to 4.3 million ha can be used for energy production. The study shows changes in the structure of biomass use, and the analysis confirms the declining share of biomass for heat production and the increasing share of biomass for electricity and biofuels. The main obstacles to the continued use of agricultural biomass are a lack of local markets for biomass energy and poor financial support for energy crop production.

  15. Techno-economic evaluation of alternative process configurations for the production of biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuels and chemicals; Techno-oekonomische Bewertung alternativer Verfahrenskonfigurationen zur Herstellung von Biomass-to-Liquid (BtL) Kraftstoffen und Chemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippe, Frederik

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to identify, from a technical and economic point of view promising procedural configurations of a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) concept for the production of fuels and chemicals from biomass and to evaluate. The example of the process bioliq a techno-economic assessment model is developed, the process design parameters directly linked to their economic impact.

  16. Production of nanocrystalline cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass: technology and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinchi, L; Cotana, F; Fortunati, E; Kenny, J M

    2013-04-15

    The use of renewables materials for industrial applications is becoming impellent due to the increasing demand of alternatives to scarce and unrenewable petroleum supplies. In this regard, nanocrystalline cellulose, NCC, derived from cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer, is one of the most promising materials. NCC has unique features, interesting for the development of new materials: the abundance of the source cellulose, its renewability and environmentally benign nature, its mechanical properties and its nano-scaled dimensions open a wide range of possible properties to be discovered. One of the most promising uses of NCC is in polymer matrix nanocomposites, because it can provide a significant reinforcement. This review provides an overview on this emerging nanomaterial, focusing on extraction procedures, especially from lignocellulosic biomass, and on technological developments and applications of NCC-based materials. Challenges and future opportunities of NCC-based materials will be are discussed as well as obstacles remaining for their large use.

  17. Catalytic hydrotreating of biomass liquefaction products to produce hydrocarbon fuels: Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1986-03-01

    Research catalytic hydrotreatment of biomass liquefaction products to a gasoline has been technically demonstrated in a bench-scale continuous processing unit. This report describes the development of the chemistry needed for hydrotreatment of both high pressure and pyrolyzate biomass liquefaction products and outlines the important processing knowledge gained by the research. Catalyst identity is important in hydrotreatment of phenolics. Hydrogenation catalysts such as palladium, copper chromite, cobalt and nickel show activity with nickel being the most active. Major products include benzene, cyclohexane, and cyclohexanone. The hydrotreating catalysts cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-molybdenum and nickel-tungsten exhibit some activity when added to the reactor in the oxide form and show a great specificity for hydrodeoxygenation of phenol without saturation of the benzene product. The sulfide form of these catalysts is much more active than the oxide form and, in the case of the cobalt-molybdenum, much of the specificity for hydrodeoxygenation is retained. Substitution on the phenolic ring has only marginal effects on the hydrotreating reaction. However, the methoxy (OCH/sub 3/) substituent on the phenol ring is thermally unstable relative to other phenolics tested. The pyrolysis products dominate the product distribution when cobalt-molybdenum is used as the hydrotreating catalyst for methoxyphenol. The product from catalytic hydrotreatment of high-pressure biomass liquefaction products confirms the model compounds studies. Catalytic processing at 350 to 400/sup 0/C and 2000 psig with the sulfided cobalt-molybdenum or nickel-molybdenum catalyst produced a gasoline-like product composed of cyclic and aromatic compounds. Oxygen contents in products were in the range of 0 to 0.7 wt % and hydrogen to carbon atomic ratios ranged from 1.5 to 2.0. 46 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

  19. Development of hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes verification tests on fuel conversion to methanol for oil-fired thermal power plants. Methanol is a liquid in normal temperatures, easy to transport and store, clean and affluent in raw material availability, such as natural gas and coal. High-efficiency refuse power generation uses refuses having been made high in calories, produces high temperature and pressure steam stably, and aims at high-efficiency power generation. In manufacturing high-efficiency methane gas, general refuses having been removed of non-combustible materials such as metals are solubilized, and then methane fermentation is carried out to recover energy as methane and give waste water a high-level treatment at the same time. The paper also describes joint researches with developing countries on simplified purification systems for industrial waste water by using anaerobic treatment. Discussions have been given on low-temperature crushing and sorting of wastes from large-size household electric appliances to re-utilize them and recover energy therefrom. Discussions have also been given on new methods for manufacturing methanol for fuel, such as an air-phase fluidized bed method that achieves cost reduction by means of upsizing, and a low-temperature liquid phase method which simplifies manufacturing facilities. Descriptions are given also on a global-scale utilization system for hydrogen electrolyzed by using hydraulic power and solar power. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Hydrogen production from high moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Xu, X. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1998-08-01

    By mixing wood sawdust with a corn starch gel, a viscous paste can be produced that is easily delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Mixtures of about 10 wt% wood sawdust with 3.65 wt% starch are employed in this work, which the authors estimate to cost about $0.043 per lb. Significant reductions in feed cost can be achieved by increasing the wood sawdust loading, but such an increase may require a more complex pump. When this feed is rapidly heated in a tubular flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22 MPa), the sawdust paste vaporizes without the formation of char. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at about 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. The temperature and history of the reactor`s wall influence the hydrogen-methane product equilibrium by catalyzing the methane steam reforming reaction. The water effluent from the reactor is clean. Other biomass feedstocks, such as the waste product of biodiesel production, behave similarly. Unfortunately, sewage sludge does not evidence favorable gasification characteristics and is not a promising feedstock for supercritical water gasification.

  1. Biomass storage, decision support systems, and expert systems in crop production and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Agricultural production depends on obtaining and efficiently using the necessary resources. Producers must have access to information that will allow them to select among alternative resource inputs and farming practices. This dissertation covers research into the storage of alternative biomass energy crops and the progression into developing integrated, interactive computer based information systems to support agricultural decisions. Biomass could be a significant source of energy and industrial feedstocks. Storing moist biomass between harvest and conversion can lead to degradation and loss of the material. Data on the storage characteristics of corn cobs and corn silage was obtained over two seasons. The results of studies on corn cob storage in outside piles indicated that up to 33% of the available energy and 43% of the available pentosans were lost during 18 months storage. Studies of corn silage preservation showed that 0.5% sulfur dioxide effectively reduced losses of water soluble sugars. The storage research indicated that integrated biomass energy systems with the conversion of silages to ethanol and utilizing crop residues for heat are feasible. The development of decision support systems (DDS) and expert systems (ES) offers great potential for effective transfer of technology from researchers to farmers. A crop planning DSS was constructed on an integrated spreadsheet framework with interactive screen inputs and numerical and graphical outputs.

  2. A review on biomass production from C4 grasses: yield and quality for end-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubeileh, Ashraf; Rennie, Timothy J; Goss, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    With a dry biomass production exceeding 40Mgha(-1) in many environments, Miscanthus spp. is the most productive perennial C4 grass species thanks to five advantages over North American prairie tallgrasses. However, miscanthus has a slower nutrient remobilization system, resulting in higher nutrient concentrations at harvest. Perennial C4 grasses benefit from soil microbial associations, reducing their nutrient needs. For combustion purposes, grasses with low moisture content, high lignin and low nutrients are desired. For ethanol, preferred feedstock will have lower lignin, higher sugars, starch, or cellulose/hemicellulose depending on the conversion method. Species with high stem-to-leaf ratio provide better biofuel conversion efficiency and quality. Recently-developed transgenic switchgrass lines have much higher ethanol yields and lower transformation costs. Further selection and breeding are needed to optimize biomass quality and nutrient cycling.

  3. Evaluation and comparison of present R and D for the production of syngas from biomass in the USA and Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: ilkka.hannula@vtt.fi

    2010-10-15

    The most essential application of biomass gasification is the production of liquid fuels. Finnish knowhow and position in biomass gasification is strong although significant investments for the development of this technology have been made also elsewhere in the world. The main objective of this project is to produce a report about the current status of syngas technology in the USA and to identify such process configurations that have the potential to increase overall efficiency of biomass based syngas technology. The project involves genuine international co-operation in a significant field of Finnish energy technology. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  5. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study.

  6. Vertical Integration of Biomass Saccharification of Enzymes for Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Production in a Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [DSM Innovation, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2011-05-09

    These are a set of slides from this conference. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  7. Vertical Integration of Biomass Saccharification of Enzymes for Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Production in a Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-05-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  8. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  9. Unconventional biomasses as feedstocks for production of biofuels and succinic acid in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi

    Biorefinery has the potential of displacing fossil fuels and oil-refinery based products. Within the biorefinery a palette of marketable commodities can be produced from biomass, including food, feed, biochemicals and biofuels. Which bioproducts are produced is largely dependent on the chemical....... The chemical composition of biomasses was determined in order to demonstrate their biorefinery potential. Bioethanol and biogas along with succinic acid production were the explored bioconversion routes, while potential production of other compounds was also investigated. Differences and changes in biomass...... biogas upgrading technologies deliver. Results obtained in this study constitute the first report for utilization of macroalgae, hemp and Jerusalem artichoke tuber biomass for fermentative succinic acid production. It was demonstrated that all biomasses are attractive biomass feedstocks for succinic acid...

  10. Nutrient recovery from swine waste and protein biomass production using duckweed ponds (Landoltia punctata): southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important countries in pork production worldwide, ranking third. This activity has an important role in the national economic scenario. However, the fast growth of this activity has caused major environmental impacts, especially in developing countries. The large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in pig manure has caused ecological imbalances, with eutrophication of major river basins in the producing regions. Moreover, much of the pig production in developing countries occurs on small farms, and therefore causes diffuse pollution. Therefore, duckweed pond have been successfully used in the swine waste polishing, generating further a biomass with high protein content. The present study evaluated the efficiency of two full scale duckweed ponds for the polishing of a small pig farm effluent, biomass yield and crude protein (CP) content. Duckweed pond series received the effluent from a biodigester-storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3)/day (chemical oxygen demand rate = 186 kg/ha day) produced by 300 animals. After 1 year a great improvement of effluent quality was observed, with removal of 96% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and 89% of total phosphorus (TP), on average. Nitrogen removal rate is one of the highest ever found (4.4 g TKN/m(2) day). Also, the dissolved oxygen rose from 0.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The two ponds produced together over 13 tons of fresh biomass (90.5% moisture), with 35% of CP content, which represents a productivity of 24 tonsCP/ha year. Due to the high rate of nutrient removal, and also the high protein biomass production, duckweed ponds revealed, under the presented conditions, a great potential for the polishing and valorization of swine waste. Nevertheless, this technology should be better exploited to improve the sustainability of small pig farms in order to minimize the impacts of this activity on the environment.

  11. Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Schaffartzik, Anke; Ludwiczek, Nikolaus; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2012-12-01

    Global trade of biomass-related products is growing exponentially, resulting in increasing 'teleconnections' between producing and consuming regions. Sustainable management of the earth's lands requires indicators to monitor these connections across regions and scales. The 'embodied human appropriation of NPP' (eHANPP) allows one to consistently attribute the HANPP resulting from production chains to consumers. HANPP is the sum of land-use induced NPP changes and biomass harvest. We present the first national-level assessment of embodied HANPP related to agriculture based on a calculation using bilateral trade matrices. The dataset allows (1) the tracing of the biomass-based products consumed in Austria in the year 2000 to their countries of origin and quantifying the HANPP caused in production, and (2) the assigning of the national-level HANPP on Austria's territory to the consumers of the products on the national level. The dataset is constructed along a consistent system boundary between society and ecosystems and can be used to assess Austria's physical trade balance in terms of eHANPP. Austria's eHANPP-trade balance is slightly negative (imports are larger than exports); import and export flows are large in relation to national HANPP. Our findings show how the eHANPP approach can be used for quantifying and mapping the teleconnections related to a nation's biomass metabolism.

  12. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  13. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  14. MICROALGAE BIOMASS PRODUCTION BASED ON WASTEWATER FROM DAIRY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Dębowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of culturing high-oil algae biomass based on wastewater from dairy processing plants. The experiments were conducted in laboratory scale with tubular photobioreactor using. The best technological properties were demonstrated for eluates from an anaerobic reactor treating dairy wastewater. The use of a substrate of this type yielded algae biomass concentration at a level of 3490 mg d.m./dm3, with the mean rate of algae biomass growth at 176 mg d.m./dm3∙d. The mean content of oil in the proliferated biomass of algae approximated 20%.

  15. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) germplasm for biomass production and nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing trees of the genus Prosopis (mesquite or algaroba) are well adapted to the semi-arid and often saline regions of the world. These trees may produce firewood or pods for livestock food, they may stabilize sand dunes and they may enrich the soil by production of leaf litter supported by nitrogen fixation. A collection of nearly 500 Prosopis accessions representing North and South American and African germplasm has been established. Seventy of these accessions representing 14 taxa are being grown under field conditions where a 30-fold range in biomass productivity among accessions has been estimated. In a greehouse experiment, 13 Prosopis taxa grew on nitrogen-free medium nodulated, and had a 10-fold difference in nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction). When Prosopis is propagated by seed the resulting trees are extremely variable in growth rate and presence or absence of thorns. Propagation of 6 Prosopis taxa by stem cuttings has been achieved with low success (1 to 10%) in field-grown plants and with higher success (50 to 100%) with young actively growing greenhouse plants.

  16. Ethanol and lignin production from Brazilian empty fruit bunch biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2014-11-01

    Brazil Government is promoting palm plantations to use degraded land for biofuels. Palm production is expected to increase 35 per cent in future and there would be profuse biomass available that needs to be handled efficiently. Therefore, in this study the potential of EFB from Brazil as raw material for biorefinery was explored by compositional analysis and pretreatment conditions optimization to produce ethanol and co-products. EFB from Brazil contains significant cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and low ash content. The optimized dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment conditions for efficient cellulose and hemicellulose separation were 160°C temperature, 1.025% v/v acid concentration, 10.5min and 20% solid loading. Under optimum pretreatment process conditions, low enzyme loading (10FPU, 20IU cellulase and glucosidase enzyme/g glucan) and 15% solid loading, 51.1g ethanol, 344.1g solid residue (65% lignin and 24.87MJ/kg LHV) and 3.7l xylose rich liquid could be produced per kg dry EFB.

  17. Valorisation of biodiesel production wastes: Anaerobic digestion of residual Tetraselmis suecica biomass and co-digestion with glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ballardo, David U; Font-Segura, Xavier; Ferrer, Antoni Sánchez; Barrena, Raquel; Rossi, Sergio; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel

    2015-03-01

    One of the principal opportunity areas in the development of the microalgal biodiesel industry is the energy recovery from the solid microalgal biomass residues to optimise the fuel production. This work reports the cumulative methane yields reached from the anaerobic digestion of the solid microalgal biomass residues using different types of inocula, reporting also the improvement of biogas production using the co-digestion of microalgal biomass with glycerol. Results demonstrate that the solid microalgal biomass residues showed better biogas production using a mesophilic inoculum, reaching almost two-fold higher methane production than under thermophilic conditions. Furthermore, the solid microalgal biomass residues methane production rate showed an increase from 173.78 ± 9.57 to 438.46 ± 40.50 mL of methane per gram of volatile solids, when the co-digestion with glycerol was performed. These results are crucial to improve the energy balance of the biodiesel production from Tetraselmis suecica, as well as proposing an alternative way to treat the wastes derived from the microalgae biodiesel production.

  18. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased

  19. Vertical gradient in soil temperature stimulates development and increases biomass accumulation in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllner, K; Temperton, V M; Rascher, U; Jahnke, S; Rist, R; Schurr, U; Kuhn, A J

    2012-05-01

    We have detailed knowledge from controlled environment studies on the influence of root temperature on plant performance, growth and morphology. However, in all studies root temperature was kept spatially uniform, which motivated us to test whether a vertical gradient in soil temperature affected development and biomass production. Roots of barley seedlings were exposed to three uniform temperature treatments (10, 15 or 20°C) or to a vertical gradient (20-10°C from top to bottom). Substantial differences in plant performance, biomass production and root architecture occurred in the 30-day-old plants. Shoot and root biomass of plants exposed to vertical temperature gradient increased by 144 respectively, 297%, compared with plants grown at uniform root temperature of 20°C. Additionally the root system was concentrated in the upper 10cm of the soil substrate (98% of total root biomass) in contrast to plants grown at uniform soil temperature of 20°C (86% of total root biomass). N and C concentrations in plant roots grown in the gradient were significantly lower than under uniform growth conditions. These results are important for the transferability of 'normal' greenhouse experiments where generally soil temperature is not controlled or monitored and open a new path to better understand and experimentally assess root-shoot interactions.

  20. Product Characterization and Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis in a Three-Zone Free-Fall Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaya Punsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of biomass including palm shell, palm kernel, and cassava pulp residue was studied in a laboratory free-fall reactor with three separated hot zones. The effects of pyrolysis temperature (250–1050°C and particle size (0.18–1.55 mm on the distribution and properties of pyrolysis products were investigated. A higher pyrolysis temperature and smaller particle size increased the gas yield but decreased the char yield. Cassava pulp residue gave more volatiles and less char than those of palm kernel and palm shell. The derived solid product (char gave a high calorific value of 29.87 MJ/kg and a reasonably high BET surface area of 200 m2/g. The biooil from palm shell is less attractive to use as a direct fuel, due to its high water contents, low calorific value, and high acidity. On gas composition, carbon monoxide was the dominant component in the gas product. A pyrolysis model for biomass pyrolysis in the free-fall reactor was developed, based on solving the proposed two-parallel reactions kinetic model and equations of particle motion, which gave excellent prediction of char yields for all biomass precursors under all pyrolysis conditions studied.

  1. Fast pyrolysis of biomass : an experimental study on mechanisms influencing yield and composition of the products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil originating from biomass has the potential to replace ‘crude fossil oil’ and to produce fuels and chemicals in a more sustainable way. The favorable perspective of fast pyrolysis as biomass pre-treatment step is directly related to the production of a liquid as main product and the sig

  2. A METHOD OF IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION OF BIOMASS OR A DESIRED PRODUCT FROM A CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    the F¿1? ATPase or portions thereof is expressed, may be selected from prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In particular the DNA encoding F¿1? or a portion thereof may be derived from bacteria and eukaryotic microorganisms such as yeasts, other fungi and cell lines of higher organisms and be selected from......The production of biomass or a desired product from a cell can be improved by inducing conversion of ATP to ADP without primary effects on other cellular metabolites or functions which is achieved by expressing an uncoupled ATPase activity in said cell and incubating the cell with a suitable...... substrate to produce said biomass or product. This is conveniently done by expressing in said cell the soluble part (F¿1?) of the membrane bound (F¿0?F¿1? type) H?+¿-ATPase or a portion of F¿1? exhibiting ATPase activity. The organism from which the F¿1? ATPase or portions thereof is derived, or in which...

  3. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  4. Crop production without fossil fuel: production systems for tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen based on biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlgren, Serina

    2009-12-15

    With diminishing fossil fuel reserves and concerns about global warming, the agricultural sector needs to reduce its use of fossil fuels. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate different systems for biomass-based production of tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen fertilisers, which at present are the two largest fossil energy carriers in Swedish agriculture. The land use, energy input and environmental load of the systems were calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Two categories of renewable tractor fuel were studied: first generation fuels and second generation fuels, the latter defined as fuels not yet produced on a commercial scale. An organic farm self-sufficient in tractor fuel was modelled. Raw material from the farm was assumed to be delivered to a large fuel production facility and fuel transported back to the farm, where it was utilised. In general, the second generation renewable fuels had higher energy balance and lower environmental impact than the first generation fuels. However all systems studied reduced the use of fossil fuels to a great extent and lowered the contribution to global warming. The land needed to be set aside for tractor fuel varied between 2% and 5% of the farm's available land. Two major routes for biomass-based production of mineral nitrogen for conventional agriculture were studied, one based on anaerobic digestion and one on thermochemical gasification of biomass. The crops studied were able to produce between 1.6 and 3.9 tonnes N per hectare in the form of ammonium nitrate. The use of fossil fuel for ammonium nitrate production was 35 MJ per kg N in the fossil reference scenario, but only 1-4 MJ per kg N in the biomass systems. The contribution to global warming can be greatly reduced by the biomass systems, but there is an increased risk of eutrophication and acidification. It is clear that the agricultural sector has great potential to reduce the use of fossil fuel and to lower the emissions of greenhouse

  5. Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Nasrin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB, in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its physical and chemical properties, mechanical strength and burning characteristics. It was found that briquettes made either from 100% pulverized EFB or mixed with sawdust exhibited good burning properties. EFB fibre and PKE, due to their physical properties, were recommended to be blended with sawdust in producing quality briquettes. In overall, converting palm biomass into briquettes has increased its energy content and reduced moisture content about minimum of 5% and 38% respectively compared to its raw materials. The properties of palm biomass briquettes obtained from the study were compared to the commercial sawdust briquettes properties and to the minimum requirements of DIN 51731. The details of the study were highlighted in this paper. Palm biomass briquettes can become an important renewable energy fuel source in the future.

  6. Evaluating lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream products with Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupoi, Jason S; Gjersing, Erica; Davis, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    The creation of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plants can aid in replacing products fabricated from non-renewable energy sources. Before using biomass in downstream applications, it must be characterized to assess chemical traits, such as cellulose, lignin, or lignin monomer content, or the sugars released following an acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The measurement of these traits allows researchers to gage the recalcitrance of the plants and develop efficient deconstruction strategies to maximize yields. Standard methods for assessing biomass phenotypes often have experimental protocols that limit their use for screening sizeable numbers of plant species. Raman spectroscopy, a non-destructive, non-invasive vibrational spectroscopy technique, is capable of providing qualitative, structural information and quantitative measurements. Applications of Raman spectroscopy have aided in alleviating the constraints of standard methods by coupling spectral data with multivariate analysis to construct models capable of predicting analytes. Hydrolysis and fermentation products, such as glucose and ethanol, can be quantified off-, at-, or on-line. Raman imaging has enabled researchers to develop a visual understanding of reactions, such as different pretreatment strategies, in real-time, while also providing integral chemical information. This review provides an overview of what Raman spectroscopy is, and how it has been applied to the analysis of whole lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream process monitoring.

  7. Biomass gasification with CHP production: A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the state of the art of biomass gasification and the future of using biomass in Serbia and it presents researches within the project “The Development of a CHP Plant with Biomass Gasification”. The concept of downdraft demonstration unit coupled with gas engine is adopted. Downdraft fixed-bed gasification is generally favored for CHP, owing to the simple and reliable gasifiers and low content of tar and dust in produced gas. The composition and quantity of gas and the amount of air are defined by modeling biomass residues gasification process. The gas (290-400m3/h for 0.5- 0.7MW biomass input obtained by gasification at 800oC with air at atmospheric pressure contains 14% H2, 27% CO, 9% CO2, 2% CH4, and 48% N2, and its net heating value is 4.8-6 MJ/Nm3. The expected gasifier efficiency is up to 80%. The review of the work on biomass gasification has shown that the development of technology has reached the mature stage. There are CHP plants with biomass gasification operating as demonstration plants and several gasification demonstration units are successfully oriented to biofuel production. No attempt has been made here to address the economic feasibility of the system. Economics will be the part of a later work as firmer data are acquired.

  8. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, David E. [Environmental Energy Inc., Blacklick, OH (United States); Yang, Shang-Tian [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2005-08-25

    Butanol replaced gasoline gallon for gallon in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States without the need to highly modify a ’92 Buick (your existing car today). Butanol can now be made for less than ethanol and yields more Btu’s from the same corn, making the plow to tire equation positive – more energy out than it takes to make it and Butanol is much safer. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as tested in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as ethanol in U.S. legislation “ethanol/butanol”. There is abundant plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry, which processes more than 13% of the ~9.5 billion bushels (~240 million metric tons) of corn annually produced in the U.S. to produce high-fructose-corn-syrup, dextrose, starch, and fuel alcohol, and generates more than 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that are currently of limited use and pose significant environmental problems. The abundant inexpensive renewable resources as feedstock for fermentation, and recent advances in the fields of biotechnology and bioprocessing have resulted in a renewed interest in the fermentation production of chemicals and fuels, including n-butanol. The historic acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum is one of the oldest known industrial fermentations. It was ranked second only to ethanol fermentation by yeast in its scale of production, and is one of the largest biotechnological processes ever known. However, since the 1950's industrial ABE fermentation has declined continuously, and almost all butanol is now produced via petrochemical routes (Chemical Marketing Reporter, 1993). Butanol is an important industrial solvent and is a better fuel for replacing gasoline – gallon for gallon than ethanol. Current butanol

  9. Biomass, strain engineering, and fermentation processes for butanol production by solventogenic clostridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Jungyeon; Lee, Sang Jun; Um, Youngsoon; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-10-01

    Butanol is considered an attractive biofuel and a commercially important bulk chemical. However, economical production of butanol by solventogenic clostridia, e.g., via fermentative production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), is hampered by low fermentation performance, mainly as a result of toxicity of butanol to microorganisms and high substrate costs. Recently, sugars from marine macroalgae and syngas were recognized as potent carbon sources in biomass feedstocks that are abundant and do not compete for arable land with edible crops. With the aid of systems metabolic engineering, many researchers have developed clostridial strains with improved performance on fermentation of these substrates. Alternatively, fermentation strategies integrated with butanol recovery processes such as adsorption, gas stripping, liquid-liquid extraction, and pervaporation have been designed to increase the overall titer of butanol and volumetric productivity. Nevertheless, for economically feasible production of butanol, innovative strategies based on recent research should be implemented. This review describes and discusses recent advances in the development of biomass feedstocks, microbial strains, and fermentation processes for butanol production.

  10. Glycolate oxidation in A. thaliana chloroplasts improves biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eMaier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A complete glycolate catabolic cycle was established in chloroplasts of the C3-model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by which one molecule of glycolate is completely oxidized within the chloroplast to two molecules of CO2. Genes coding for glycolate oxidase, malate synthase, and catalase were introduced into the nuclear genome of A. thaliana by step-wise transformation. Other genes required for a fully operational pathway are the endogenous NADP-malic enzyme and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transgenic lines expressing the complete novel pathway produced rossettes with more leaves and higher fresh and dry weight but individual leaves were flatter and thinner than the wild type. The photosynthetic rates of the transgenic plants were higher on a dry weight and chlorophyll basis, but there were no differences in the compensation point. In addition, transgenic plants showed a lower glycine/serine ratio than the wild type indicating a reduction of the flux through the photorespiratory pathway. In this way, due to the increased oxidation of glycolate inside the chloroplasts, a photorespiratory bypass was created, which resulted in higher CO2 assimilation and enhanced biomass production.

  11. Sago Biomass as a Sustainable Source for Biohydrogen Production by Clostridium butyricum A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Faizal Ibrahim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production from biomass is attracting many researchers in developing a renewable, clean and environmental friendly biofuel. The biohydrogen producer, Clostridium butyricum A1, was successfully isolated from landfill soil. This strain produced a biohydrogen yield of 1.90 mol H2/mol glucose with productivity of 170 mL/L/h using pure glucose as substrate. The highest cumulative biohydrogen collected after 24 h of fermentation was 2468 mL/L-medium. Biohydrogen fermentation using sago hampas hydrolysate produced higher biohydrogen yield (2.65 mol H2/mol glucose than sago pith residue (SPR hydrolysate that produced 2.23 mol H2/mol glucose. A higher biohydrogen productivity of 1757 mL/L/h was obtained when using sago hampas hydrolysate compared to when using pure glucose that has the productivity of 170 mL/L/h. A comparable biohydrogen production was also obtained by C. butyricum A1 when compared to C. butyricum EB6 that produced a biohydrogen yield of 2.50 mol H2/mol glucose using sago hampas hydrolysate as substrate. This study shows that the new isolate C. butyricum A1 together with the use of sago biomass as substrate is a promising technology for future biohydrogen production.

  12. New trends and challenges in lactic acid production on renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić-Vuković Aleksandra J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is a relatively cheap chemical with a wide range of applications: as a preservative and acidifying agent in food and dairy industry, a monomer for biodegradable poly-lactide polymers (PLA in pharmaceutical industry, precursor and chemical feedstock for chemical, textile and leather industries. Traditional raw materials for fermentative production of lactic acid, refined sugars, are now being replaced with starch from corn, rice and other crops for industrial production, with a tendency for utilization of agro industrial wastes. Processes based on renewable waste sources have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials, reduction of storage costs advantages. An intensive research interest has been recently devoted to develop and improve the lactic acid production on more complex industrial by-products, like thin stillage from bioethanol production, corncobs, paper waste, straw etc. Complex and variable chemical composition and purity of these raw materials and high nutritional requirements of Lare the main obstacles in these production processes. Media supplementation to improve the fermentation is an important factor, especially from an economic point of view. Today, a particular challenge is to increase the productivity of lactic acid production on complex renewable biomass. Several strategies are currently being explored for this purpose such as process integration, use of Lwith amylolytic activity, employment of mixed cultures of Land/or utilization of genetically engineered microorganisms. Modern techniques of genetic engineering enable construction of microorganisms with desired characteristics and implementation of single step processes without or with minimal pre-treatment. In addition, new bioreactor constructions (such as membrane bioreactors, utilization of immobilized systems are also being explored. Electrodialysis, bipolar membrane separation process, enhanced filtration

  13. Potential of water surface-floating microalgae for biodiesel production: Floating-biomass and lipid productivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Masaki; Nojima, Daisuke; Yue, Liang; Kanehara, Hideyuki; Naruse, Hideaki; Ujiro, Asuka; Yoshino, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae have been accepted as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production owing to their capability of converting solar energy into lipids through photosynthesis. However, the high capital and operating costs, and high energy consumption, are hampering commercialization of microalgal biodiesel. In this study, the surface-floating microalga, strain AVFF007 (tentatively identified as Botryosphaerella sudetica), which naturally forms a biofilm on surfaces, was characterized for use in biodiesel production. The biofilm could be conveniently harvested from the surface of the water by adsorbing onto a polyethylene film. The lipid productivity of strain AVFF007 was 46.3 mg/L/day, allowing direct comparison to lipid productivities of other microalgal species. The moisture content of the surface-floating biomass was 86.0 ± 1.2%, which was much lower than that of the biomass harvested using centrifugation. These results reveal the potential of this surface-floating microalgal species as a biodiesel producer, employing a novel biomass harvesting and dewatering strategy.

  14. Chromium speciation in coal and biomass co-combustion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Arthur F; Meij, Ruud; Te Winkel, Henk; Eijk, Ronald J van; Huggins, Frank E; Brem, Gerrit

    2011-03-15

    Chromium speciation is vital for the toxicity of products resulting from co-combustion of coal and biomass. Therefore, understanding of formation processes has been studied using a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The influence of cofiring on Cr speciation is very dependent on the type of fuel. Cr(VI) contents in the investigated fly ash samples from coal and cofiring average around 7% of the total chromium. An exception is cofiring 7-28% wood for which ashes exhibited Cr(VI) concentrations of 12-16% of the total chromium. Measurements are in line with thermodynamic predictions: RE factors of Cr around 1 are in line with volatile Cr only above 1400 °C; lower Cr(VI) concentrations with lower oxygen content and Cr(III) dissolved in aluminosilicate glass. Stability of Cr(VI) below 700 °C does not correlate with Cr(VI) concentrations found in the combustion products. It is indicated that Cr(VI) formation is a high-temperature process dependent on Cr evaporation (mode of occurrence in fuel, promoted by organic association), oxidation (local oxygen content), and formation of solid chromates (promoted by presence of free lime (CaO) in the ash). CaCrO(4)(s) is a probable chemical form but, given different leachable fractions (varying from 25 to 100%), different forms of Cr(VI) must be present. Clay-bound Cr is likely to dissolve in the aluminosilicate glass phase during melting of the clay.

  15. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  16. Woody-biomass production in Michigan: species, genotype, and cultural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    A stepwise approach was adopted in 1978 for developing a comprehensive woody-biomass production system for Michigan. The program consisted of four phases: 1) identification of the most promising biomass species through trial plantings on abandoned agricultural fields and cleared forest stands, 2) preliminary yield comparisons of several species growing in existing experimental plantations, 3) species improvement using standard tree improvement techniques, and 4) development of cultural techniques designed to optimize woody-biomass yield from energy plantations. This dissertation summarizes results of research in each of these areas. Species recommendations for each of three climatic zones in Michigan are based on survival and growth of 23 species at nine oil-field sites after four growing seasons. Pinus sylvestris, P. banksiana, P. resinosa, P. nigra x P. densiflora, Larix leptolepis, Alnus glutinosa, and Picea abies are recommended for use in the Upper Peninsula; Pinus sylvestris, P. resinosa, P. nigra x P. densiflora, Larix leptolepis, Alnus glutinosa, Picea abies, and Quercus robur are recommended for use in the northern Lower Peninsula; and Pinus sylvestris, Alnus glutinosa, Larix leptolepis, Populus, Quercus robur, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Salix are recommended for use in the southern Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Yield predictor equations were developed and yields analyzed for 13 species. The best yielding species in the older plantations (14- 16-years old) were Pinus nigra x P. densiflora and Betula alleghaniensis. The best species in the group of younger plantations (five- to nine-years old) were a Populus hybrid mixture and Ailanthus altissima.

  17. Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal Biomass: Algal Biomass Production in Open Pond Systems and Processing Through Dewatering for Downstream Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grundl, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This report describes in detail a set of aspirational design and process targets to better understand the realistic economic potential for the production of algal biomass for subsequent conversion to biofuels and/or coproducts, based on the use of open pond cultivation systems and a series of dewatering operations to concentrate the biomass up to 20 wt% solids (ash-free dry weight basis).

  18. Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shakar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2010-08-01

    Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, producing a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. An important aspect of research is to establish a degree of torrefaction where gains in heating value offset the loss of mass. There is a lack of literature on torrefaction reactor designs and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed for different capacities, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and developing an interactive excel sheet where the user can define design specifications. In this report, 25-1000 kg/hr are used in equations for the design of the torrefier, examples of calculations, and specifications for the torrefier.

  19. Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shakar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-08-01

    Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300°C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200–230ºC and 270–280ºC. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, producing a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. An important aspect of research is to establish a degree of torrefaction where gains in heating value offset the loss of mass. There is a lack of literature on torrefaction reactor designs and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed for different capacities, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and developing an interactive excel sheet where the user can define design specifications. In this report, 25–1000 kg/hr are used in equations for the design of the torrefier, examples of calculations, and specifications for the torrefier.

  20. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  1. 76 FR 63614 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Doc No: 2011-26476] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research... Update on USDA Biomass R&D Activities; Update on DOE Biomass R&D Activities; Presentation on...

  2. Synthesis and analysis of biomass and net primary productivity in Chinese forests

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Jian; Zhang, Xin-Shi; Scurlock, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    International audience; An extant dataset is presented on biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of 6 forest biomes, including 690 stands from 17 forest types of China. Data on latitude, longitude, elevation, field measurements of stand age, leaf area index (LAI) and total biomass were collected for 29 provinces from forestry inventory data of the Forestry Ministry of China, as well as a wide range of published literature. The individual site-based NPP was estimated from field biomass mea...

  3. Sustainable production of microalgae biomass in liquid digestates and by products from agro-food industries

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there is growing interest in microalgae production as innovative vegetable biomass rich in phytochemicals at high added value to apply in different commercial sectors (food, feed, nutraceutical, cosmetician and wastewaters depuration) and as future biodiesel source for the high lipid content and fatty acid profile of some species. To date the microalgae market for food and feed is a niche market but it is increasingly relevant and strictly correlate to their chemical com...

  4. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  5. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    , environmental pressures from intensive agriculture and policy developments. Use of conservation buffers by farmers outside of designated schemes is limited to date, but the increasing demand for bioenergy and the combination of agricultural production with conservation calls for a much wider implementation...... effective for pesticide removal and farmland biodiversity conservation with a high potential for low-input fuel, feed, or fibre production. Landscape amenities, sporting opportunities, and a display of land stewardship are additional benefits....

  6. Economic development through biomass systems integration in central Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, J.A.; Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    A biomass to energy system for central Florida was conceptualized with sugarcane as the main feedstock. Additional feedstocks include elephantgrass, leucaena (woody tropical legume), and Eucalyptus. Juice will be pressed from sugarcane and sugars fermented into ethanol with conventional technology. Enough sugarcane will be grown to supply a conventional ethanol plant with juice for a 330 day operating period each yr. Juice will be condensed to 24 degrees Brix for direct conversion during the approximately 100 day harvest season and to 70 degrees Brix for storage and use the remaining 230 days. Residues (mainly lignin), from converting lignocellulosic materials to ethanol, will fuel the plant including evaporators for sugarcane juice. Sugarcane presscake, elephantgrass, leucaena, and Eucalyptus will be feedstocks for the lignocellulose conversion processes. The lignocellulose plant will be sized to convert all sugarcane presscake as it is produced to reduce storage costs. Elephantgrass, leucaena and Eucalyptus will feed the plant outside sugarcane harvest season. The biomass/energy system will produce 123,230,000 L (32,830,000 gal) of ethanol per year with 90% conversion of sugars from juice, hemicellulose, and cellulose to ethanol. Estimated cost of producing ethanol form various feedstocks include: sugarcane $0.25/L ($0.94/gal), elephantgrass $0.30/L ($1.13/gal), 1 leucaena $0.28/L ($1.06/gal), and Eucalyptus $0.28/L (1.07/gal). Future opportunities exist for development of a chemical industry based on lignocellulose materials from biomass.

  7. Maximum hydrogen production from genetically modified microalgae biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Jose; Kava, Vanessa; Ordonez, Juan

    A transient mathematical model for managing microalgae derived H2 production as a source of renewable energy is developed for a well stirred photobioreactor, PBR. The model allows for the determination of microalgae and H2 mass fractions produced by the PBR in time. A Michaelis-Menten expression is proposed for modeling the rate of H2 production, which introduces an expression to calculate the resulting effect on H2 production rate after genetically modifying the microalgae. The indirect biophotolysis process was used. Therefore, an opportunity was found to optimize the aerobic to anaerobic stages time ratio of the cycle for maximum H2 production rate, i.e., the process rhythm. A system thermodynamic optimization is conducted with the model equations to find accurately the optimal system operating rhythm for maximum H2 production rate, and how wild and genetically modified species compare to each other. The maxima found are sharp, showing up to a ~60% variation in hydrogen production rate within 2 days around the optimal rhythm, which highlights the importance of system operation in such condition. Therefore, the model is expected to be useful for design, control and optimization of H2 production. Brazilian National Council of Scientific and Technological Development, CNPq (project 482336/2012-9).

  8. Biomass and fibre productivity evaluation of novel native warm season grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, P.G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, SK (Canada); McElroy, A.R. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Grain and Oilseeds Branch; McCaughey, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Brandon, MB (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Biomass production and cellulose content of a range of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars was discussed. In 1991 the U.S. Department of Energy identified switchgrass, a native warm-season grass, as the model biomass crop for ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. A Canadian study was conducted in which 11 cultivars of switchgrass were seeded at small plots of dryland and irrigated sites in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. No switchgrass plants established themselves at the dryland site at Swift Current Saskatchewan. Biomass was determined by clipping above-ground biomass in September 1994 and 1996. Dry matter content and cellulose content was determined. Results showed that the biomass production of the cultivar Dacotah was less than cool-season grasses at test sites in Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. The high yields observed for cultivars adapted to southern or eastern regions were not sustainable in the semiarid prairie region of Canada. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Food and disturbance effects on Arctic benthic biomass and production size spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Barbara; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Body size is a fundamental biological unit that is closely coupled to key ecological properties and processes. At the community level, changes in size distributions may influence energy transfer pathways in benthic food webs and ecosystem carbon cycling; nevertheless they remain poorly explored in benthic systems, particularly in the polar regions. Here, we present the first assessment of the patterns of benthic biomass size spectra in Arctic coastal sediments and explore the effects of glacial disturbance and food availability on the partitioning of biomass and secondary productivity among size-defined components of benthic communities. The samples were collected in two Arctic fjords off west Spitsbergen (76 and 79°N), at 6 stations that represent three regimes of varying food availability (indicated by chlorophyll a concentration in the sediments) and glacial sedimentation disturbance intensity (indicated by sediment accumulation rates). The organisms were measured using image analysis to assess the biovolume, biomass and the annual production of each individual. The shape of benthic biomass size spectra at most stations was bimodal, with the location of a trough and peaks similar to those previously reported in lower latitudes. In undisturbed sediments macrofauna comprised 89% of the total benthic biomass and 56% of the total production. The lower availability of food resources seemed to suppress the biomass and secondary production across the whole size spectra (a 6-fold decrease in biomass and a 4-fold decrease in production in total) rather than reshape the spectrum. At locations where poor nutritional conditions were coupled with disturbance, the biomass was strongly reduced in selected macrofaunal size classes (class 10 and 11), while meiofaunal biomass and production were much higher, most likely due to a release from macrofaunal predation and competition pressure. As a result, the partitioning of benthic biomass and production shifted towards meiofauna

  10. Challenges and perspectives for catalysis in production of diesel from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Søndergaard, Helle; Fehrmann, Rasmus;

    2011-01-01

    The production of biofuels is expected to increase in the future due to environmental concerns, accelerating oil prices and the desire to achieve independence from mineral oil sources. Of the proposed methods for diesel production from biomass, the esterification and transesterification of plant ...... gas of CO and H2 and liquefaction to alkanes via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Here, the current challenges and perspectives regarding catalysis and raw materials for diesel production from biomass are surveyed. © Future Science Ltd....

  11. Electrocatalytic processing of renewable biomass-derived compounds for production of chemicals, fuels and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Le

    The dual problems of sustaining the fast growth of human society and preserving the environment for future generations urge us to shift our focus from exploiting fossil oils to researching and developing more affordable, reliable and clean energy sources. Human beings had a long history that depended on meeting our energy demands with plant biomass, and the modern biorefinery technologies realize the effective conversion of biomass to production of transportation fuels, bulk and fine chemicals so to alleviate our reliance on fossil fuel resources of declining supply. With the aim of replacing as much non-renewable carbon from fossil oils with renewable carbon from biomass as possible, innovative R&D activities must strive to enhance the current biorefinery process and secure our energy future. Much of my Ph.D. research effort is centered on the study of electrocatalytic conversion of biomass-derived compounds to produce value-added chemicals, biofuels and electrical energy on model electrocatalysts in AEM/PEM-based continuous flow electrolysis cell and fuel cell reactors. High electricity generation performance was obtained when glycerol or crude glycerol was employed as fuels in AEMFCs. The study on selective electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol shows an electrode potential-regulated product distribution where tartronate and mesoxalate can be selectively produced with electrode potential switch. This finding then led to the development of AEMFCs with selective production of valuable tartronate or mesoxalate with high selectivity and yield and cogeneration of electricity. Reaction mechanisms of electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol were further elucidated by means of an on-line sample collection technique and DFT modeling. Besides electro-oxidation of biorenewable alcohols to chemicals and electricity, electrocatalytic reduction of keto acids (e.g. levulinic acid) was also studied for upgrading biomass-based feedstock to biofuels while

  12. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the potential of bioethanol production using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was studied. For the saccharification of the carbohydrate-enriched biomass, four acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H3PO4) were investigated. Each acid were used at...

  13. Lutein production from biomass: marigold flowers versus microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Hao; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have faster growth rates and more free lutein than marigold flowers, the current source of lutein. However, no commercial lutein production uses microalgae. This review compares lutein content, cultivation, harvesting, cell disruption, and extraction stages of lutein production using marigold flowers and those using microalgae as feedstock. The lutein production rate of microalgae is 3-6 times higher than that of marigold flowers. To produce 1 kg of pure lutein, marigolds need more land and water, but require less nutrients (N, P, K) and less energy than microalgae. Since lutein is tightly bound in microalgae and microalgae are small, cell disruption and subsequent extraction stages consume a considerable amount of energy. Research and development of affordable lutein production from microalgae are discussed.

  14. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, September 23, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1997-02-01

    Goals for the biomass power for rural development include: expanded feedstock research and demonstration activities to provide soil-specific production costs and yield data, as well as better methods for harvest and transport; four thousand acres of feedstock available for fueling a commercial venture; comparison of the feasibility of gasification and cocombustion; designs for on-site switchgrass handling and feeding system; a detailed assessment of utilizing switchgrass for gasification and cocombustion to generate electricity using turbines and fuel cells.

  15. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  16. Simulation of biomass yield and soil organic carbon under bioenergy sorghum production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fugen; Wight, Jason P; Wilson, Lloyd T; Storlien, Joseph O; Hons, Frank M

    2014-01-01

    Developing sustainable management practices including appropriate residue removal and nitrogen (N) fertilization for bioenergy sorghum is critical. However, the effects of residue removal and N fertilization associated with bioenergy sorghum production on soil organic carbon (SOC) are less studied compared to other crops. The objective of our research was to assess the impacts of residue removal and N fertilization on biomass yield and SOC under biomass sorghum production. Field measurements were used to calibrate the DNDC model, then verified the model by comparing simulated results with measured results using the field management practices as agronomic inputs. Both residue removal and N fertilization affected bioenergy sorghum yields in some years. The average measured SOC at 0-50 cm across the treatments and the time-frame ranged from 47.5 to 78.7 Mg C ha-1, while the simulated SOC was from 56.3 to 67.3 Mg C ha-1. The high correlation coefficients (0.65 to 0.99) and low root mean square error (3 to 18) between measured and simulated values indicate the DNDC model accurately simulated the effects of residue removal with N fertilization on bioenergy sorghum production and SOC. The model predictions revealed that there is, in the long term, a trend for higher SOC under bioenergy sorghum production regardless of residue management.

  17. Development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia: niche development and the formation of innovative capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to advance further the emerging research agenda on the transfer and diffusion of low-carbon technologies in developing countries by adopting a study of the development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia. The main research question addresses...... the main factors influencing the transfer and diffusion of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia. This question is explored in the four papers comprising the thesis, which are based on analyses of qualitative data, mainly in the form of interviews, documents and observations collected during...... successive periods of fieldwork in Malaysia. The thesis conceptualises the diffusion of biomass technologies in Malaysia as a niche development process and finds that the development of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia has only made limited progress despite a period of twenty years...

  18. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O. [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology

    1997-12-31

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  19. Independency of Japan's Agriculture through Food and Energy Self-sufficiency : Hokkaido Model Toward the Sustainability of Food and Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Osaki, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability Weeks 2009 Opening Symposium "International Symposium on Sustainable Development -Recommendations for Tackling the 5 Challenges of Global Sustainability-". Session 5, Toward the Sustainability of Food and Biomass Production. 2 November 2009. Sapporo, Japan.

  20. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  1. Integration of heterogeneous and biochemical catalysis for production of fuels and chemicals from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ian; Christopher, Phillip; Blanch, Harvey

    2017-03-30

    The past decade has seen significant government and private investment in fundamental research and process development for the production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars. This investment has helped create new metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches, novel homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and chemical and biological routes that convert sugars, lignin, and waste products such as glycerol into hydrocarbon fuels and valuable chemicals. With the exception of ethanol, economical biofuels processes have yet to be realized. A potentially viable way forward is the integration of biological and chemical catalysis into processes that exploit the inherent advantages of each technology while circumventing their disadvantages. Microbial fermentation excels at converting sugars from low-cost raw materials streams into simple alcohols, acids, and other reactive intermediates that can be condensed into highly reduced, long and branched chain hydrocarbons and other industrially useful compounds. Chemical catalysis most often requires clean feed streams to avoid catalyst deactivation, but the chemical and petroleum industries have developed large scale processes for C-C coupling, hydrogenation, and deoxygenation that are driven by low grade heat and low-cost feeds such as hydrogen derived from natural gas. In this context, we suggest that there is a reasonably clear route to the high yield synthesis of biofuels from biomass- or otherwise derived-fermentable sugars: the microbial production of reactive intermediates that can be extracted or separated into clean feed stream for upgrading by chemical catalysis. When coupled with new metabolic engineering strategies that maximize carbon and energy yields during fermentation, biomass-to-fuels processes may yet be realized.

  2. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  3. Airborne measurements of biomass burning products over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helas, Guenter; Lobert, Juergen; Goldammer, Johann; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Lacaux, J. P.; Delmas, R.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone has been observed in elevated concentrations by satellites over hitherto believed 'background' areas. There is meteorological evidence that these ozone 'plumes' found over the Atlantic ocean originate from biomass fires on the African continent. Therefore we have investigated ozone and assumed precursor compounds over African regions. The measurements revealed large photosmog layers in altitudes between 1.5 and 4 km. Here we will focus on some results of ozone mixing ratios obtained during the DECAFE 91/FOS experiment and estimate the relevance of biomass burning as a source by comparing the strength of this source to stratospheric input.

  4. Supercritical water gasification of biomass for H2 production: process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Luca; Valbusa, Michele; Castello, Daniele

    2012-10-01

    The supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass for H(2) production is analyzed in terms of process development and energetic self-sustainability. The conceptual design of a plant is proposed and the SCWG process involving several substrates (glycerol, microalgae, sewage sludge, grape marc, phenol) is simulated by means of AspenPlus™. The influence of various parameters - biomass concentration and typology, reaction pressure and temperature - is analyzed. The process accounts for the possibility of exploiting the mechanical energy of compressed syngas (later burned to sustain the SCWG reaction) through expansion in turbines, while purified H(2) is fed to fuel cells. Results show that the SCWG reaction can be energetically self-sustained if minimum feed biomass concentrations of 15-25% are adopted. Interestingly, the H(2) yields are found to be maximal at similar feed concentrations. Finally, an energy balance is performed showing that the whole process could provide a net power of about 150 kW(e)/(1000 kg(feed)/h).

  5. Recombinant protein production facility for fungal biomass-degrading enzymes using the yeast Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haon, Mireille; Grisel, Sacha; Navarro, David; Gruet, Antoine; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bignon, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the predominant source of lignocellulolytic enzymes used in industry for the transformation of plant biomass into high-value molecules and biofuels. The rapidity with which new fungal genomic and post-genomic data are being produced is vastly outpacing functional studies. This underscores the critical need for developing platforms dedicated to the recombinant expression of enzymes lacking confident functional annotation, a prerequisite to their functional and structural study. In the last decade, the yeast Pichia pastoris has become increasingly popular as a host for the production of fungal biomass-degrading enzymes, and particularly carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). This study aimed at setting-up a platform to easily and quickly screen the extracellular expression of biomass-degrading enzymes in P. pastoris. We first used three fungal glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that we previously expressed using the protocol devised by Invitrogen to try different modifications of the original protocol. Considering the gain in time and convenience provided by the new protocol, we used it as basis to set-up the facility and produce a suite of fungal CAZymes (GHs, carbohydrate esterases and auxiliary activity enzyme families) out of which more than 70% were successfully expressed. The platform tasks range from gene cloning to automated protein purifications and activity tests, and is open to the CAZyme users’ community. PMID:26441929

  6. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses, the assessment of their genetic and cytogenetic effects and biomass production from grass. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, G W; Hanna, W W

    1979-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: altering protein quantity and quality in pearl millet grain by irradiation and mutation breeding; effect of nitrogen and genotype (male and female) on pearl millet grain; irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf bermudagrasses; irradiation breeding of sterile Coastcross-1, a forage grass hybrid to increase winterhardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific irradiation induced mutants with their normal inbred parent; economic assessment of irradiation induced mutants; use of ethidium bromide to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; use of mitomycin and streptomycin to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; biomass of napiergrass; evaluation of mutagen induced lignin mutants in sorghum; interspecific transfer of germplasm using gamma radiation; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to control the reproductive behavior in plants; genetics of radiation induced mutations; response of pearl millet pollen to gamma radiation; and nature of morphological changes in sterile triploid bermudagrass on golf courses.

  7. Sucrose fed-batch strategy enhanced biomass, polysaccharide, and ganoderic acids production in fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum 5.26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-hua; Liu, Lianliang; Guo, Xiao-feng; Li, Yan-jun; Hou, Bao-chao; Fan, Qiu-ling; Wang, Kai-xiang; Luo, Yingdi; Zhong, Jian-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma, as a Chinese traditional medicine, has multiple bioactivities. However, industrial production was limited due to low yield during Ganoderma fermentation. In this work, sucrose was found to greatly enhance intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) content and specific extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production rate. The mechanism was studied by analyzing the activities of enzymes related to polysaccharide biosynthesis. The results revealed that sucrose regulated the activities of phosphoglucomutase and phosphoglucose isomerase. When glucose and sucrose mixture was used as carbon source, biomass, polysaccharide and ganoderic acids (GAs) production was greatly enhanced. A sucrose fed-batch strategy was developed in 10-L bioreactor, and was scaled up to 300-L bioreactor. The biomass, EPS and IPS production was 25.5, 2.9 and 4.8 g/L, respectively, which was the highest biomass and IPS production in pilot scale. This study provides information for further understanding the regulation mechanism of Ganoderma polysaccharide biosynthesis. It demonstrates that sucrose fed-batch is a useful strategy for enhancing Ganoderma biomass, polysaccharide and GAs production.

  8. Exploiting plant-microbe partnerships to improve biomass production and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-10-01

    Although many plant-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on their host, their importance during plant growth and development is still underestimated. A better understanding of their plant growth-promoting mechanisms could be exploited for sustainable growth of food and feed crops, biomass for biofuel production and feedstocks for industrial processes. Such plant growth-promoting mechanisms might facilitate higher production of energy crops in a more sustainable manner, even on marginal land, and thus contribute to avoiding conflicts between food and energy production. Furthermore, because many bacteria show a natural capacity to cope with contaminants, they could be exploited to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation or to protect the food chain by reducing levels of agrochemicals in food crops.

  9. Biomass for energy production. Economic evaluation, efficiency comparison and optimal utilization of biomass; Biomasse zur Energiegewinnung. Oekonomische Bewertung, Effizienzvergleich und optimale Biomassenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeddies, Juergen [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Betriebslehre; Schoenleber, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    An optimized and/or goal-oriented use of available biomass feedstock for energetic conversion requires a detailed analysis of bioenergy production lines according to technical and economic efficiency indicators. Accordingly, relevant parameters of selected production lines supplying heat, electricity and fuel have been studied and used as data base for an optimization model. Most favorable combination of bioenergy lines considering political and economic objectives are analyzed by applying a specifically designed linear optimization model. Modeling results shall allow evaluation of political courses of action.

  10. A hyperspectral approach to estimating biomass and plant production in a heterogeneous restored temperate peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Schile, L. M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Kelly, M.; Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Restoration of drained peatlands that are managed to reverse subsidence through organic accretion holds significant potential for large-scale carbon storage and sequestration. This potential has been demonstrated in an experimental wetland restoration site established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1997 on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, where soil carbon storage is up to 1 kg C m-2 and root and rhizome production can reach over 7 kg m-2 annually. Remote sensing-based estimation of biomass and productivity over a large spatial extent helps to monitor carbon storage potential of these restored peatlands. Extensive field measurements of plant biophysical characteristics such as biomass, leaf area index, and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) [an important variable in light-use efficiency (LUE) models] have been collected for agricultural systems and forests. However the small size and local spatial variability of U.S. Pacific Coast wetlands pose new challenges for measuring these variables in the field and generating estimates through remote sensing. In particular background effects of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), floating aquatic vegetation, and inundation of wetland vegetation influence the relationship between field measurements and multispectral or hyperspectral indices. Working at the USGS experimental wetland site, characterized by variable water depth and substantial NPV, or thatch, we collected field data on hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattail (Typha spp.) coupled with reflectance data from a field spectrometer (350-2500 nm) every two to three weeks during the summers of 2011 and 2012. We calculated aboveground biomass with existing allometric relationships, and fAPAR was measured with line and point quantum sensors. We analyzed reflectance data to develop hyperspectral and multispectral indices that predict biomass and fAPAR and account for background effects of water

  11. A Site-Related Suitability Analysis for the Production of Biomass as a Contribution to Sustainable Regional Land-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  12. A site-related suitability analysis for the production of biomass as a contribution to sustainable regional land-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  13. Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops, such as rye (Secale cereale), are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops ...

  14. Grate-firing of biomass for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2008-01-01

    , modelling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are discussed in detail. The literature survey and discussions are primarily pertaining to grate-fired boilers burning biomass, though these issues are more or less general. Other technologies (e.g., fluidized bed combustion or suspension...

  15. Evaluation of yeast strains for production of fuel ethanol from biomass hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust industrial yeast strains are needed for profitable production of fuel ethanol from mixed biomass waste. USDA, ARS, NCAUR, RPT has been evaluating ethanol-producing yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, engineered GMAX Saccharomyces cerevisiae, irradiated Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pi...

  16. Development of biomass in a drinking water granular active carbon (GAC) filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Silvana; Boller, Markus; Köster, Oliver; Helbing, Jakob; Weilenmann, Hans-Ulrich; Hammes, Frederik

    2011-12-01

    Indigenous bacteria are essential for the performance of drinking water biofilters, yet this biological component remains poorly characterized. In the present study we followed biofilm formation and development in a granular activated carbon (GAC) filter on pilot-scale during the first six months of operation. GAC particles were sampled from four different depths (10, 45, 80 and 115 cm) and attached biomass was measured with adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis. The attached biomass accumulated rapidly on the GAC particles throughout all levels in the filter during the first 90 days of operation and maintained a steady state afterward. Vertical gradients of biomass density and growth rates were observed during start-up and also in steady state. During steady state, biomass concentrations ranged between 0.8-1.83 x 10(-6) g ATP/g GAC in the filter, and 22% of the influent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was removed. Concomitant biomass production was about 1.8 × 10(12) cells/m(2)h, which represents a yield of 1.26 × 10(6) cells/μg. The bacteria assimilated only about 3% of the removed carbon as biomass. At one point during the operational period, a natural 5-fold increase in the influent phytoplankton concentration occurred. As a result, influent assimilable organic carbon concentrations increased and suspended bacteria in the filter effluent increased 3-fold as the direct consequence of increased growth in the biofilter. This study shows that the combination of different analytical methods allows detailed quantification of the microbiological activity in drinking water biofilters.

  17. Metabolic engineering of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii yields increased hydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Minseok [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Chung, Daehwan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Elkins, James G [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Westpheling, Janet [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-01-01

    Background: Members of the anaerobic thermophilic bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are emerging candidates for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) because they are capable of efficiently growing on biomass without conventional pretreatment. C. bescii produces primarily lactate, acetate and hydrogen as fermentation products, and while some Caldicellulosiruptor strains produce small amounts of ethanol C. bescii does not, making it an attractive background to examine the effects of metabolic engineering. The recent development of methods for genetic manipulation has set the stage for rational engineering of this genus for improved biofuel production. Here, we report the first targeted gene deletion, the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), for metabolic engineering of a member of this genus. Results: A deletion of the C. bescii L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldh) was constructed on a non-replicating plasmid and introduced into the C. bescii chromosome by marker replacement. The resulting strain failed to produce detectable levels of lactate from cellobiose and maltose, instead increasing production of acetate and H2 by 21-34% relative to the wild type and pyrFA parent strains. The same phenotype was observed on a real-world substrate switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Furthermore, the ldh deletion strain grew to a higher maximum optical density than the wild type on maltose and cellobiose, consistent with the prediction that the mutant would gain additional ATP with increased acetate production. Conclusions: Deletion of ldh in C. bescii is the first use of recently developed genetic methods for metabolic engineering of these bacteria. This deletion resulted in a redirection of electron flow from production of lactate to acetate and hydrogen. New capabilities in metabolic engineering combined with intrinsic utilization of lignocellulosic materials position these organisms to provide a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing of fuels and other products from

  18. Biomass torrefaction: modeling of volatile and solid product evolution kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard B; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a kinetics model for the evolution of the volatile and solid product composition during torrefaction conditions between 200 and 300°C. Coupled to an existing two step solid mass loss kinetics mechanism, this model describes the volatile release kinetics in terms of a set of identifiable chemical components, permitting the solid product composition to be estimated by mass conservation. Results show that most of the volatiles released during the first stage include highly oxygenated species such as water, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide, while volatiles released during the second step are composed primarily of lactic acid, methanol, and acetic acid. This kinetics model will be used in the development of a model to describe reaction energy balance and heat release dynamics.

  19. Application and Development of Biomass Fuels for Transportation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianxin; SHUAI Shijin; CHEN Hu

    2007-01-01

    Biomass fuels have become a big concern due to the large increase in green house gases and the rapid rise of petroleum prices around the world. This paper reviews recent developments in biomass fuels,such as ethanol and biodiesel, in China. Ethanol-gasoline mixture (E10) for vehicles is currently distributed in nine provinces while biodiesel is under development. One way to extend the application of ethanol is to burn it in diesel engines to lower soot emissions. The effects of the different methods blending ethanol with fossil diesel, and blending biodiesel with fossil diesel and ethanol-diesel on the combustion and emissions are investigated. The test results show that ethanol and biodiesel can be mixed with fossil diesel to greatly reduce particulate matter and soot emissions from diesel engines. But the application of ethanol blending with fossil diesel is more difficult than that of ethanol blending with gasoline, and biodiesel blending with fossil diesel. The dual-fuel injection of ethanol and diesel systems has the highest smoke reduction effect for a high ethanol fraction.

  20. Biomass Briquette Production: A Propagation of Non-Convention Technology and Future of Pollution Free Thermal Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass briquettes are a biofuel substitute to coal and charcoal. Briquettes are mostly used in the developing world where cooking fuels are not as easily available. Briquettes are used to heat industrial boilers in order to produce electricity from steam. The briquettes are con-fired with coal in order to create the heat supplied to the boiler. People have been using biomass briquettes since before recorded history. Biomass briquettes are made from agriculture waste and are a replacement for fossils fuels such as oil or coal, and can be used to heat boiler in manufacturing plants. Biomass briquettes are a renewable source of energy and avoid adding fossils carbon to the atmosphere. The extrusion production technology of briquettes is the process of extrusion screw wastes (straw, sunflower husks, buckwheat, etc. or finely shredded wood waste (sawdust under high pressure. There is a tremendous scope to bring down the waste of convention energy sources to a considerable level through the development, propagation of non-convention briquettes technology i.e. briquettes machine , briquettes plant, biomass briquettes plant for production of agro residue briquettes to meet thermal energy requirement . Therefore this substitute energy medium is given national priority as appears to be the only permanent solution into restriction of the national laws and avoid pollutions.

  1. Enhanced hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass: Bi-functional enzyme complexes expressed in Pichia pastoris improve bioethanol production from Miscanthus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Young In; Kang, Dea Hee; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant utilizable natural resource. In the process of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, an efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to release hexose and pentose is essential. We have developed a strain of Pichia pastoris that can produce ethanol via pentose and hexose using an assembly of enzyme complexes. The use of enzyme complexes is one of the strategies for effective lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. Xylanase XynB from Clostridium cellulovorans and a chimeric endoglucanase cCelE from Clostridium thermocellum were selected as enzyme subunits, and were bound to a recombinant scaffolding protein mini-CbpA from C. cellulovorans to assemble the enzyme complexes. These complexes efficiently degraded xylan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), producing approximately 1.18 and 1.07 g/L ethanol from each substrate, respectively, which is 2.3-fold and 2.7-fold higher than that of the free-enzyme expressing strain. Miscanthus sinensis was investigated as the lignocellulosic biomass for producing bioethanol, and 1.08 g/L ethanol was produced using our recombinant P. pastoris strain, which is approximately 1.9-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. In future research, construction of enzyme complexes containing various hydrolysis enzymes could be used to develop biocatalysts that can completely degrade lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products such as biofuels.

  2. Combining drought survival via summer dormancy and annual biomass productivity in Dactylis glomerata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajae eKallida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Under Mediterranean climates, the best strategy to produce rain-fed fodder crops is to develop perennial drought resistant varieties. Summer dormancy present in native germplasm has been shown to confer a high level of survival under severe drought. Nevertheless it has also been shown to be negatively correlated with annual biomass productivity. The aim of this study was to analyse the correlations between summer dormancy and annual biomass productivity related traits and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits in a progeny of a summer dormant cocksfoot parent (Kasbah and a summer active parent (Medly. A total of 283 offspring and the parents were phenotyped for summer dormancy, plant growth rate and heading date in Morocco and for maximum leaf elongation rate (LERm in France. The individuals were genotyped with a total of 325 markers including 59 AFLP, 64 SSR and 202 DArT markers. The offspring exhibited a large quantitative variation for all measured traits. Summer dormancy showed a negative correlation with both plant growth rate (-0.34 p<0.005 and LERm (-0.27 p<0.005. However, genotypes with both a high level of summer dormancy and a high level of plant growth rate were detected in the progeny. One genetic map per parent was built with a total length of 377 and 423 cM for Kasbah and Medly, respectively. Both different and co-localised QTL for summer dormancy and plant growth rate were identified. These results demonstrate that it should be possible to create summer dormant cocksfoot varieties with a high annual biomass productivity.

  3. Combining Drought Survival via Summer Dormancy and Annual Biomass Productivity in Dactylis glomerata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallida, Rajae; Zhouri, Latifa; Volaire, Florence; Guerin, Adrien; Julier, Bernadette; Shaimi, Naima; Fakiri, Malika; Barre, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Under Mediterranean climates, the best strategy to produce rain-fed fodder crops is to develop perennial drought resistant varieties. Summer dormancy present in native germplasm has been shown to confer a high level of survival under severe drought. Nevertheless it has also been shown to be negatively correlated with annual biomass productivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlations between summer dormancy and annual biomass productivity related traits and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits in a progeny of a summer dormant cocksfoot parent (Kasbah) and a summer active parent (Medly). A total of 283 offspring and the parents were phenotyped for summer dormancy, plant growth rate (PGR) and heading date in Morocco and for maximum leaf elongation rate (LERm) in France. The individuals were genotyped with a total of 325 markers including 59 AFLP, 64 SSR, and 202 DArT markers. The offspring exhibited a large quantitative variation for all measured traits. Summer dormancy showed a negative correlation with both PGR (-0.34 p < 0.005) and LERm (-0.27 p < 0.005). However, genotypes with both a high level of summer dormancy and a high level of PGR were detected in the progeny. One genetic map per parent was built with a total length of 377 and 423 cM for Kasbah and Medly, respectively. Both different and co-localized QTL for summer dormancy and PGR were identified. These results demonstrate that it should be possible to create summer dormant cocksfoot varieties with a high annual biomass productivity. PMID:26904054

  4. Optimising the Environmental Sustainability of Short Rotation Coppice Biomass Production for Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Dimitriou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Solid biomass from short rotation coppice (SRC has the potential to significantly contribute to European renewable energy targets and the expected demand for wood for energy, driven mainly by market forces and supported by the targets of national and European energy policies. It is expected that in the near future the number of hectares under SRC will increase in Europe. Besides producing biomass for energy, SRC cultivation can result in various benefits for the environment if it is conducted in a sustainable way. This paper provides with an overview of these environmental benefits. Discussion and Conclusions: The review of existing literature shows that SRC helps to improve water quality, enhance biodiversity, prevent erosion, reduce chemical inputs (fertilizers, pesticides and mitigate climate change due to carbon storage. To promote and disseminate environmentally sustainable production of SRC, based on existing literature and own project experience, a set of sustainability recommendations for SRC production is developed. In addition to numerous environmental benefits, sustainable SRC supply chains can bring also economic and social benefits. However, these aspects of sustainability are not addressed in this paper since they are often country specific and often rely on local conditions and policies. The sustainable practices identified in this manuscript should be promoted among relevant stakeholder to stimulate sustainable local SRC production.

  5. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saatchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  6. Biomass energy production. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    These 210 citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential.

  7. Impact of light quality on biomass production and fatty acid content in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Malin; Jönsson, Helene Larsson; Bergstrand, Karl-Johan; Carlsson, Anders S

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to monochromatic light at six different wavelengths in order to study the effect on biomass productivity and fatty acid content. A significantly higher amount of biomass by produced in the treatments with yellow, red and white light compared with blue, green and purple light. There were also significant differences in total lipid content and fatty acid profile between the treatments. The green light regime gave the lowest concentration of lipids, but increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus it can be concluded that light quality significantly affects biomass productivity, total lipid concentration and fatty acid profile in the microalga C. vulgaris.

  8. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and β-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared.

  9. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass for the production of synthetic natural gas[Dissertation 17100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, M. H.

    2007-07-01

    Energy from biomass is a CO{sub 2} neutral, sustainable form of energy. Anaerobic digestion is an established technology for converting biomass to biogas, which contains around 60% methane, besides CO{sub 2} and various contaminants. Most types of biomass contain material that cannot be digested; in woody biomass, this portion is particularly high. Therefore, conventional anaerobic digestion is not suited for the production of biogas from woody biomass. While wood is already being converted to energy by conventional thermal methods (gasification with subsequent methanation), dung, manure, and sewage sludge represent types of biomass whose energy potential remains largely untapped (present energetic use of manure in Switzerland: 0.4%). Conventional gas phase processes suffer from a low efficiency due to the high water content of the feed (enthalpy of vaporization). An alternative technology is the hydrothermal gasification: the water contained within the biomass serves as reaction medium, which at high pressures of around 30 MPa turns into a supercritical fluid that exhibits apolar properties. Under these conditions, tar precursors, which cause significant problems in conventional gasification, can be solubilized and gasified. The need to dry the biomass prior to gasification is obsolete, and as a consequence high thermal process efficiencies (65 - 70%) are possible. Due to their low solubility in supercritical water, the inorganics that are present in the biomass (up to 20 wt % of the dry matter of manure) can be separated and further used as fertilizer. The biomass is thus not only converted into an energy carrier, but it allows valuable substances contained in the biomass to be extracted and re-used. Furthermore, the process can be used for aqueous waste stream destruction. The aim of this project at the Paul Scherrer Institute was to develop a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously

  10. Consolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Garima

    Fossil fuels have been the major source for liquid transportation fuels for ages. However, decline in oil reserves and environmental concerns have raised a lot of interest in alternative and renewable energy sources. One promising alternative is the conversion of plant biomass into ethanol. The primary biomass feed stocks currently being used for the ethanol industry have been food based biomass (corn and sugar cane). However, interest has recently shifted to replace these traditional feed-stocks with more abundant, non-food based cellulosic biomass such as agriculture wastes (corn stover) or crops (switch grass). The use of cellulosic biomass as feed stock for the production of ethanol via bio-chemical routes presents many technical challenges not faced with the use of corn or sugar-cane as feed-stock. Recently, a new process called consolidated Bio-processing (CBP) has been proposed. This process combines simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulose with fermentation of the resulting sugars into a single process step mediated by a single microorganism or microbial consortium. Although there is no natural microorganism that possesses all properties of lignocellulose utilization and ethanol production desired for CBP, some bacteria and fungi exhibit some of the essential traits. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most attractive host organism for the usage of this strategy due to its high ethanol productivity at close to theoretical yields (0.51g ethanol/g glucose consumed), high osmo- and ethanol- tolerance, natural robustness in industrial processes, and ease of genetic manipulation. Introduction of the cellulosome, found naturally in microorganisms, has shown new directions to deal with recalcitrant biomass. In this case enzymes work in synergy in order to hydrolyze biomass more effectively than in case of free enzymes. A microbial consortium has been successfully developed, which ensures the functional assembly of minicellulosome on the yeast surface

  11. Maximizing renewable hydrogen production from biomass in a bio/catalytic refinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westermann, Peter; Jørgensen, Betina; Lange, L.;

    2007-01-01

    Biological production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentative or photofermentative microorganisms has been described in numerous research articles and reviews. The major challenge of these techniques is the low yield from fermentative production, and the large reactor volumes necessary...... for photofermentative production. Due to these constraints biological hydrogen production from biomass has so far not been considered a significant source in most scenarios of a future hydrogen-based economy. In this review we briefly summarize the current state of art of biomass-based hydrogen production and suggest...... a combination of a biorefinery for the production of multiple fuels (hydrogen, ethanol, and methane) and chemical catalytic technologies which could lead to a yield of 10-12 mol hydrogen per mol glucose derived from biological waste products. Besides the high hydrogen yield, the advantage of the suggested...

  12. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed

  13. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps

  14. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  15. Woody biomass-based bioenergy development at the Atikokan Power Generating Station: Local perceptions and public opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Cassia Sanzida

    To tackle climate change, reduce air pollution and promote development of renewable energy, the Ontario government is investing in the conversion of the coal-based Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) in Atikokan, Ontario, to woody biomass feedstock. This research offers one of the first looks at the perspectives of different individuals and groups on converting woody biomass to energy. Using a combination of study instruments which include literature review, surveys, interviews with key informants, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions, this dissertation uses qualitative research to provide a picture of the public's opinions and attitudes towards the APGS biomass energy development. Given Ontario's huge and sustainably managed forest resource, woody biomass is expected to be a major component of renewable energy production in Ontario. The move towards renewable energy that replaces fossil fuels with woody biomass will have considerable socio-economic implications for local and First Nation communities living in and around the bioenergy power generating station. Findings indicate that there is wide support for biomass utilization at the APGS by local people, especially since the project would create sustainable employment. The connection of woody biomass-based energy generation and rural community development provides opportunities and challenges for Atikokan's economic development. Respondents identified economic, environmental and social barriers to biomass utilization, and emphasized trust and transparency as key elements in the successful implementation of the APGS project. As demand for woody biomass-based energy increases, special attention will be needed to ensure and maintain the social, economic and environmental sustainability of biomass use at the APGS. In this research, respondents' views about biomass utilization for energy mainly focused on forest-related issues rather than energy. In Atikokan much of the project's social

  16. Biomass viability: An experimental study and the development of an empirical mathematical model for submerged membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuthi, M F R; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Xia, S Q; Zhang, Z Q; Li, J X

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the influence of key biomass parameters on specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) in a sponge submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) to develop mathematical models of biomass viability. Extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) were considered as a lumped parameter of bound EPS (bEPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP). Statistical analyses of experimental results indicate that the bEPS, SMP, mixed liquor suspended solids and volatile suspended solids (MLSS and MLVSS) have functional relationships with SOUR and their relative influence on SOUR was in the order of EPS>bEPS>SMP>MLVSS/MLSS. Based on correlations among biomass parameters and SOUR, two independent empirical models of biomass viability were developed. The models were validated using results of the SSMBR. However, further validation of the models for different operating conditions is suggested.

  17. Biomass and lipid production of a local isolate Chlorella sorokiniana under mixotrophic growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntila, D J; Bautista, M A; Monotilla, W

    2015-09-01

    A local Chlorella sp. isolate with 97% rbcL sequence identity to Chlorella sorokiniana was evaluated in terms of its biomass and lipid production under mixotrophic growth conditions. Glucose-supplemented cultures exhibited increasing growth rate and biomass yield with increasing glucose concentration. Highest growth rate and biomass yield of 1.602 day(-1) and 687.5 mg L(-1), respectively, were achieved under 2 g L(-1) glucose. Nitrogen starvation up to 75% in the 1.0 g L(-1) glucose-supplemented culture was done to induce lipid accumulation and did not significantly affect the growth. Lipid content ranges from 20% to 27% dry weight. Nile Red staining showed more prominent neutral lipid bodies in starved mixotrophic cultures. C. sorokiniana exhibited enhanced biomass production under mixotrophy and more prominent neutral lipid accumulation under nitrogen starvation with no significant decrease in growth; hence, this isolate could be further studied to establish its potential for biodiesel production.

  18. Hydrogen Production From Crude Bio-oil and Biomass Char by Electrochemical Catalytic Reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-long Li; Shen Ning; Li-xia Yuan; Quan-xin Li

    2011-01-01

    We reports an efficient approach for production of hydrogen from crude bio-oil and biomass char in the dual fixed-bed system by using the electrochemical catalytic reforming method.The maximal absolute hydrogen yield reached 110.9 g H2/kg dry biomass.The product gas was a mixed gas containing 72%H2,26%CO2,1.9%CO,and a trace amount of CH4.It was observed that adding biomass char (a by-product of pyrolysis of biomass) could remarkably increase the absolute H2 yield (about 20%-50%).The higher reforming temperature could enhance the steam reforming reaction of organic compounds in crude bio-oil and the reaction of CO and H2O.In addition,the CuZn-Al2O3 catalyst in the water-gas shift bed could also increase the absolute H2 yield via shifting CO to CO2.

  19. Hydrogen Production From Crude Bio-oil and Biomass Char by Electrochemical Catalytic Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-long; Ning, Shen; Yuan, Li-xia; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-08-01

    We reports an efficient approach for production of hydrogen from crude bio-oil and biomass char in the dual fixed-bed system by using the electrochemical catalytic reforming method. The maximal absolute hydrogen yield reached 110.9 g H2/kg dry biomass. The product gas was a mixed gas containing 72%H2, 26%CO2, 1.9%CO, and a trace amount of CH4. It was observed that adding biomass char (a by-product of pyrolysis of biomass) could remarkably increase the absolute H2 yield (about 20%-50%). The higher reforming temperature could enhance the steam reforming reaction of organic compounds in crude bio-oil and the reaction of CO and H2O. In addition, the CuZn-Al2O3 catalyst in the water-gas shift bed could also increase the absolute H2 yield via shifting CO to CO2.

  20. Methane and fertilizer production from seaweed biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzer, P.R.; Humm, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    It was demonstrated that several varieties of abundant benthic algae indigenous to Tampa Bay (Gracilaria, Hypnea, and Ulva) were readily degradable via anaerobic digestion to methane. The energy yield per unit weight biomass degraded was higher than any previously reported. Given the large masses of readily degradable plants which are annually produced in and around Tampa Bay, the resource is estimated to be at least equivalent to several million gallons of gasoline.

  1. Simulation of Fuel Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素平; Francois Maréchal; Martin Gassner; 任铮伟; 颜涌捷; Daniel Favrat

    2009-01-01

    Models for hydrolysis, fermentation and concentration process, production and utilization of biogas as well as lignin gasification are developed to calculate the heat demand of ethanol production process and the amounts of heat and power generated from residues and wastewater of the process. For the energy analysis, all relevant information about the process streams, physical properties, and mass and energy balances are considered. Energy integration is investigated for establishing a network of facilities for heat and power generation from wastewater and residues treatment aiming at the increase of energy efficiency. Feeding the lignin to an IGCC process, the electric efficiency is increased by 4.4% compared with combustion, which leads to an overall energy efficiency of 53.8%. A detailed sensitivity analysis on energy efficiency is also carried out.

  2. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes.

  3. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies] [and others

    1997-10-01

    The conventional fluidized-bed combustion has become commercially available also to relatively small scale (5 MWe), but this technology has rather low power-to-heat ratio and consequently it`s potential is limited to applications where district or process heat is the main product. Thus, there seems to be a real need to develop more efficient methods for small-scale power production from biomass. Gasification diesel power plant is one alternative for the small-scale power production, which has clearly higher power-to-heat ratio than can be reached in conventional steam cycles. The main technical problem in this process is the gas cleaning from condensable tars. In addition to the diesel-power plants, there are several other interesting applications for atmospheric-pressure clean gas technology. One alternative for cost-effective biomass utilization is co-firing of biomass derived product gas in existing pulverized coal fired boilers (or other types of boilers and furnaces). The aim of the project is to develop dry gas cleaning methods for gasification-diesel power plants and for other atmospheric-pressure applications of biomass and waste gasification. The technical objectives of the project are as follows: To develop and test catalytic gas cleaning methods for engine. To study the removal of problematic ash species of (CFE) gasification with regard to co-combustion of the product gas in PC boilers. To evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of different small-scale power plant concepts based on fixed-bed updraft and circulating fluidized- bed gasification of biomass and waste. (orig.)

  4. Bioenergy production potential for aboveground biomass from a subtropical constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Chung [Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114 (China); Ko, Chun-Han [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Bioenergy Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Chang, Fang-Chih [The Instrument Center, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City 70101 (China); Chen, Pen-Yuan [Department of Landscape Architecture, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City 60004 (China); Liu, Tzu-Fen [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Sheu, Yiong-Shing [Department of Water Quality Protection, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan, Taipei 10042 (China); Shih, Tzenge-Lien [Department of Chemistry, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taipei 25137 (China); Teng, Chia-Ji [Environmental Protection Bureau, Taipei County Government, Taipei 22001 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Wetland biomass has potentials for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration. Planted with multiple species macrophytes to promote biodiversity, the 3.29 ha constructed wetland has been treated 4000 cubic meter per day (CMD) domestic wastewater and urban runoff. This study investigated the seasonal variations of aboveground biomass of the constructed wetland, from March 2007 to March 2008. The overall aboveground biomass was 16,737 kg and total carbon content 6185 kg at the peak of aboveground accumulation for the system emergent macrophyte at September 2007. Typhoon Korsa flood this constructed wetland at October 2007, however, significant recovery for emergent macrophyte was observed without human intervention. Endemic Ludwigia sp. recovered much faster, compared to previously dominated typha. Self-recovery ability of the macrophyte community after typhoon validated the feasibility of biomass harvesting. Incinerating of 80% biomass harvested of experimental area in a nearby incineration plant could produce 11,846 kWh for one month. (author)

  5. Production of biofuels from pretreated microalgae biomass by anaerobic fermentation with immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremenko, E N; Nikolskaya, A B; Lyagin, I V; Senko, O V; Makhlis, T A; Stepanov, N A; Maslova, O V; Mamedova, F; Varfolomeev, S D

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the possible use of pretreated biomass of various microalgae and cyanobacteria as substrates for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum cells immobilized into poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel. To this end, the biochemical composition of photosynthetic microorganisms cultivated under various conditions was studied. The most efficient technique for pretreating microalgal biomass for its subsequent conversion into biofuels appeared to be thermal decomposition at 108 °C. For the first time the maximum productivity of the ABE fermentation in terms of hydrogen (8.5 mmol/L medium/day) was obtained using pretreated biomass of Nannochloropsis sp. Maximum yields of butanol and ethanol were observed with Arthrospira platensis biomass used as the substrate. Immobilized Clostridium cells were demonstrated to be suitable for multiple reuses (for a minimum of five cycles) in ABE fermentation for producing biofuels from pretreated microalgal biomass.

  6. Systemic analysis of production scenarios for bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghysel, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining alternatives for non-renewable energy sources constitutes a priority to the development of our societies. One of these alternatives is biofuels production starting from energy crops, agricultural wastes, forest products or wastes. In this context, a "second generation" biofuels production, aiming at utilizing the whole plant, including ligno-cellulosic (hemicelluloses, cellulose, lignin fractions (Ogier et al., 1999 that are not used for human food, would allow the reduction of the drawbacks of bioethanol production (Schoeling, 2007. However, numerous technical, economical, ethical and environmental questions are still pending. One of the aims of the BioEtha2 project, directed by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, is to define the position of bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass among the different renewable energy alternatives that could be developed in Wallonia towards 2020. With this aim, and in order to answer the numerous questions in this field, the project aims at using tools and methods coming from the concept of "forecasting scenarios" (Sebillotte, 2002; Slegten et al., 2007; For-learn, 2008. This concept, based on a contemporary reality, aims to explore different possible scenarios for the future development of alternative sources of energy production. The principle is to evaluate, explore, possible futures of the studied problematic, through the establishment of possible evolution trajectories. We contribute to this prospective through a systemic approach (Vanloqueren, 2007 that allows lightening the existing interactions within the system "ligno-cellulosic biomass chain" without isolating it from its environment. We explain and sketch the two contexts needed to identify primary stakes. The global context includes inter-dependant and auto-regulating fields such as society, politics, technology and economy. These four fields influence each part of the "chain" with specific tools. However, the interest and

  7. Process energy comparison for the production and harvesting of algal biomass as a biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Matthew K; Barr, William J; Harper, Willie F; Landis, Amy E

    2014-02-01

    Harvesting and drying are often described as the most energy intensive stages of microalgal biofuel production. This study analyzes two cultivation and eleven harvest technologies for the production of microalgae biomass with and without the use of drying. These technologies were combined to form 122 different production scenarios. The results of this study present a calculation methodology and optimization of total energy demand for the production of algal biomass for biofuel production. The energetic interaction between unit processes and total process energy demand are compared for each scenario. Energy requirements are shown to be highly dependent on final mass concentration, with thermal drying being the largest energy consumer. Scenarios that omit thermal drying in favor of lipid extraction from wet biomass show the most promise for energy efficient biofuel production. Scenarios which used open ponds for cultivation, followed by settling and membrane filtration were the most energy efficient.

  8. Effects of Chemical Parameters on Spirulina platensis Biomass Production: Optimized Method for Phycocyanin Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vasanthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cultures was maximum at pH 10.0. Among the cultures, CS-1 recorded maximum biomass at pH 10.0. S. platensis culture S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. S. platensis cultures were grown under different light wave lengths ranging from 340-700 nm and observed that it grows best in red light but later on there was no significant difference between the biomass produced under red and normal white lights. S. platensis culture CS-1 has shown the highest chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycocyanin and protein contents. When the extracted protein was resolved on a 15% SDS-PAGE gel, the cultures have polypeptide subunits ranging from the molecular weights 20 to 95 kDa. The liquid nitrogen method was found to be the best by extraction higher quantity of phycocyanin from all S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures, S. platensis culture CS-1 recorded the highest phycocyanin content and among the local isolates SM-2 showed the highest pigment content. SDS-PAGE analysis of phycocyanin pigment revealed two characteristic bands with a molecular weights of 14.3 and 20.1 kDa approximately for a and subunits.

  9. Development and field performance of a woody biomass harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Frederic; D' Amours, Luc [McGill University (Canada). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Savoie, Philippe [Universite Laval (Canada). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

    2008-07-01

    A novel harvester using a round baler platform was developed to collect woody biomass with stems up to 75 mm in diameter in a single pass. Two cutter heads were developed to optimize cutting, perform light shredding and feed the woody biomass into the bale chamber. The first header was designed to harvest willow plantations in rows. Four rotary saws with a total cutting width of 1.97 m were integrated in a disc mower frame and were installed in front of the baler. A modified hammer type shredder was placed between the saws and the baler to break the willow stems and make them more flexible. The narrow compression chamber belts were replaced by a single full-width belt to better contain long stems within the chamber. A swing-pivot tongue was added to offset the baler from the tractor's drive line. Five field trials were carried out in 2006 using the four-saw header; a total of 92 bales were harvested and several functional components of the willow harvester were improved. The second header developed in 2007 used a wider shredder of 2.3 m without saws; it cut and shredded brushes or stems in the same action. The second header was tested in various conditions: on abandoned agricultural land, in a willow plantation, on wetland and in a natural forest. More than 250 bales were harvested in 2007, of which 98 were monitored for baling capacity. The harvesting rates achieved during trials ranged from 2 to 17 t/h according to yield and field conditions. (author)

  10. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  11. Production of Biofuel from Waste Lignocellulosic Biomass Materials Based on Energy Saving Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Maki; Hoshino, Kazuhiro

    To develop biofuel production from waste lignocellulosic biomass materials the rice straw was selected one of renewable material and the degradation condition about pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain effectively fermentable sugars was investigated. Rice straw was pretreated by five kinds of methods and then the components ratio of rice straw was examined. First, the steam explosion was selected based on the degradability and the requirement energy. In addition, the best suitable combination of two cellulases to effective and economical hydrolyze was determined from the degradability of these pretreated rice straws. In the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the steam explosion rice straw by combining cellulase cocktail and a novel fermenting fungus, 13.2 g/L ethanol was able to product for 96 h.

  12. Production of furfural from pentosan-rich biomass: analysis of process parameters during simultaneous furfural stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirrezabal-Telleria, I; Gandarias, I; Arias, P L

    2013-09-01

    Among the furan-based compounds, furfural (FUR) shows interesting properties as building-block or industrial solvent. It is produced from pentosan-rich biomass via xylose cyclodehydration. The current FUR production makes use of homogeneous catalysts and excessive amounts of steam. The development of greener furfural production and separation techniques implies the use of heterogeneous catalysts and innovative separation processes. This work deals with the conversion of corncobs as xylose source to be dehydrated to furfural. The results reveal differences between the use of direct corncob hydrolysis and dehydration to furfural and the prehydrolysis and dehydration procedures. Moreover, this work focuses on an economical analysis of the main process parameters during N2-stripping and its economical comparison to the current steam-stripping process. The results show a considerable reduction of the annual utility costs due to use of recyclable nitrogen and the reduction of the furfural purification stages.

  13. Monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass: modeling of dilute acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Juan G; Mateo, Soledad; Fonseca, Bruno G; Roberto, Inês C; Sánchez, Sebastián; Moya, Alberto J

    2013-12-01

    Statistical modeling and optimization of dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass has been performed using response surface methodology. Central composite rotatable design was applied to assess the effect of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature on efficiency and selectivity of hemicellulosic monomeric carbohydrates to d-xylose. Second-order polynomial model was fitted to experimental data to find the optimum reaction conditions by multiple regression analysis. The monomeric d-xylose recovery 85% (as predicted by the model) was achieved under optimized hydrolysis conditions (1.27% acid concentration, 96.5°C and 138 min), confirming the high validity of the developed model. The content of d-glucose (8.3%) and monosaccharide degradation products (0.1% furfural and 0.04% 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) provided a high quality subtract, ready for subsequent biochemical conversion to value-added products.

  14. Commercial production of specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, J.D. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The chemical substances utilized in consumer products, and for pharmaceutical and agricultural uses are generally referred to as specialty chemicals. These may be flavor or fragrance substances, intermediates for synthesis of drugs or agrochemicals or the drugs or agrochemicals themselves, insecticides or insect pheromones or antifeedants, plant growth regulators, etc. These are in contrast to chemicals which are utilized in large quantities for fuels or preparation of plastics, lubricants, etc., which are usually referred to as industrial chemicals. The specific utilization of specialty chemicals is associated with a specific important physiochemical or biological property. They may possess unique properties as lubricants or waxes or have a very desirable biological activity such as a drug, agrochemical or perfume ingredient. These unique properties convey significant economic value to the specific specialty chemical. The economic commercial production of specialty chemicals commonly requires the isolation of a precursor or the specialty chemical itself from a natural source. The discovery, development and commercialization of specialty chemicals is presented and reviewed. The economic and sustainable production of specialty chemicals is discussed.

  15. Biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamate conjugates: Implications for sustainable biomass and biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu C. J.

    2010-09-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids constitute a large class of phenylpropanoid metabolites that are distributed ubiquitously in terrestrial plants. They occur most frequently as esters, amides or glycosides within the cytosol, the particular subcellular compartments such as the vacuole or the cell wall. Hydroxycinnamate conjugates play a vital role in the plant's growth and development and in its defense responses against biotic- and abiotic-stresses. Furthermore, the incorporation of hydroxycinnamate conjugates into the cell wall is a major factor attenuating the wall's biodegradability. Understanding the biosyntheses of hydroxycinnamate conjugates and its molecular regulation may well facilitate the sustainable production of cell wall biomass, and the efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials. This paper reviews our current molecular and biochemical understandings on the formation of several classes of hydroxycinnamate esters and amides, including the soluble conjugates and the 'wall-bound' phenolics. It also discusses the emerging biotechnological applications in manipulating hydroxycinnamates to improve the degradability of the cell wall biomass and enhance the production of valuable chemicals and biomaterials.

  16. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    Selecting key performance indicators in conventional product development is a challenging task for project management and is compound by global product development. Informed from the findings of two in depth case studies conducted with large Danish manufacturing companies, in this paper we develop...... and test a framework that supports the selection of Leading and Lagging key performance indicators in global product development. The framework provides an alternative approach to design, select and document key performance indicators by incorporating a challenge-oriented approach to selection....

  17. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hechun Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  18. Direct biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through in situ transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  19. Techno-Economic Basis for Coproduct Manufacturing To Enable Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Humbird, David; Tao, Ling; Dowe, Nancy; Guarnieri, Michael T.; Linger, Jeffrey G.; Karp, Eric M.; Salvachua, Davinia; Vardon, Derek R.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-06-06

    Biorefinery process development relies on techno-economic analysis (TEA) to identify primary cost drivers, prioritize research directions, and mitigate technical risk for scale-up through development of detailed process designs. Here, we conduct TEA of a model 2000 dry metric ton-per-day lignocellulosic biorefinery that employs a two-step pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce biomass-derived sugars, followed by biological lipid production, lipid recovery, and catalytic hydrotreating to produce renewable diesel blendstock (RDB). On the basis of projected near-term technical feasibility of these steps, we predict that RDB could be produced at a minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) of USD $9.55/gasoline-gallon-equivalent (GGE), predicated on the need for improvements in the lipid productivity and yield beyond current benchmark performance. This cost is significant given the limitations in scale and high costs for aerobic cultivation of oleaginous microbes and subsequent lipid extraction/recovery. In light of this predicted cost, we developed an alternative pathway which demonstrates that RDB costs could be substantially reduced in the near term if upgradeable fractions of biomass, in this case hemicellulose-derived sugars, are diverted to coproducts of sufficient value and market size; here, we use succinic acid as an example coproduct. The coproduction model predicts an MFSP of USD $5.28/GGE when leaving conversion and yield parameters unchanged for the fuel production pathway, leading to a change in biorefinery RDB capacity from 24 to 15 MM GGE/year and 0.13 MM tons of succinic acid per year. Additional analysis demonstrates that beyond the near-term projections assumed in the models here, further reductions in the MFSP toward $2-3/GGE (which would be competitive with fossil-based hydrocarbon fuels) are possible with additional transformational improvements in the fuel and coproduct trains, especially in terms of carbon efficiency to both fuels and

  20. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    a production potential of 45 T (TS) ha−1 y−1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g−1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase...... in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  1. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass for the production of synthetic natural gas[Dissertation 17100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, M. H.

    2007-07-01

    Energy from biomass is a CO{sub 2} neutral, sustainable form of energy. Anaerobic digestion is an established technology for converting biomass to biogas, which contains around 60% methane, besides CO{sub 2} and various contaminants. Most types of biomass contain material that cannot be digested; in woody biomass, this portion is particularly high. Therefore, conventional anaerobic digestion is not suited for the production of biogas from woody biomass. While wood is already being converted to energy by conventional thermal methods (gasification with subsequent methanation), dung, manure, and sewage sludge represent types of biomass whose energy potential remains largely untapped (present energetic use of manure in Switzerland: 0.4%). Conventional gas phase processes suffer from a low efficiency due to the high water content of the feed (enthalpy of vaporization). An alternative technology is the hydrothermal gasification: the water contained within the biomass serves as reaction medium, which at high pressures of around 30 MPa turns into a supercritical fluid that exhibits apolar properties. Under these conditions, tar precursors, which cause significant problems in conventional gasification, can be solubilized and gasified. The need to dry the biomass prior to gasification is obsolete, and as a consequence high thermal process efficiencies (65 - 70%) are possible. Due to their low solubility in supercritical water, the inorganics that are present in the biomass (up to 20 wt % of the dry matter of manure) can be separated and further used as fertilizer. The biomass is thus not only converted into an energy carrier, but it allows valuable substances contained in the biomass to be extracted and re-used. Furthermore, the process can be used for aqueous waste stream destruction. The aim of this project at the Paul Scherrer Institute was to develop a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously

  2. Production of biomass by Spirulina at different groundwater type. Case of Ouargla-Southeast Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggaï, Ali; Dadamoussa, Belkheir; Djaghoubi, Afaf; Bissati, Samia

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, Spirulina platensis was cultivated to estimate the biomass production with different groundwater type in Ouargla. Growth experiments were undertaken in flasks under shelter in outdoor condition. For this, the temperature, pH and salinity value was recorded between two days of growth. Biomass concentration in the culture media was calculated by measuring the DO625. The combination of the Mioplocen water with the nutriments gave the highest values of biomass concentration with avenge of 1.78 ±0.91g/l. All the three-type water supported the growth of Spirulina that appeared as good as a culture media.

  3. Effects of nurse trees, spacing, and tree species on biomass production in mixed forest plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Meilby, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Growing concern about increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and resulting global climate change, has spurred a growing demand for renewable energy. In this study, we hypothesized that a nurse tree crop may provide additional early yields of biomass for fuel, while...... observed among the different sites (P growing seasons. Compared to pure beech stands, mixtures with beech and Japanese larch on average produced 4.4 t ha−1 yr−1 more biomass. The additional biomass production was similar to what was obtained in stands...... in the longterm leading to deciduous stands that are believed to better meet the demands for other ecosystem services. Ten different species combinations were planted, with two different stocking densities, at three different sites in Denmark. Significant differences, with regard to biomass production, were...

  4. Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

  5. Biomass production and nutritional value of Artemia sp. (Anostraca: Artemiidae) in Campeche, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Montiel, Teresita D N J; Rodríguez-Canché, Leticia G

    2005-01-01

    Biomass of the crustacean Artemia sp. has multiple uses. The biochemical composition and biomass production of Artemia grown from cysts produced by a native population from Real de Salinas were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Nauplii (instar I) were stocked at density of 10 nauplii/ml in 1.5 l tanks, fed with rice bran from day 2 to day 6, and with the microalgae Tetraselmis suecica from day 7 to day 15. At the end of the trial (day 15) the average length was 5.34 mm, biomass production was 15.72 g/l (wet weight), and survival was 79%. The proximal analysis and biochemical composition of Artemia biomass indicated that its nutrient percentages are closely similar to Artemia from other regions, making this species a suitable food for cultured fish and crustacean.

  6. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps...... in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal...... of fungal habitats and ecological specializations are hot spots for fungal biomass conversion? How can the best fungal enzymes be found and optimized for industrial use? How can they be produced most efficiently-in fungal expression hosts? How have industrial biotechnology and biomass conversion research...

  7. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  8. Algal biomass as a global source of transport fuels:Overview and development perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kifayat Ullah; Mushtaq Ahmad; Sofia; Vinod Kumar Sharma; Pengmei Lu; Adam Harvey; Muhammad Zafar; Shazia Sultana; C.N. Anyanwu

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the global fuel crisis of the early 1970s, coupled with concerns for the environment, the use of biofuel has been on the increase in many regions throughout the world. At present, a total of approximately 30 billion (30 × 109) liters of biofuel are utilized worldwide annually, although most countries rely hugely on the first generation biofuel. The limitations of the first and second generation biofuel gave rise to current interest in algae as a promising alternative to these conventional biofuel sources. Algal biomass could provide a lion's share of the global transport fuel requirements in future. The present review highlights some important developments in, and potentials of algaculture as a major biomass resource of the future. However, the major constraint to commercial-scale algae farming for energy production is the cost factor, which must be addressed adequately before its potentials can be harnessed.

  9. Development of a bi-equilibrium model for biomass gasification in a downdraft bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes a simple and accurate tool for predicting the main parameters of biomass gasification (syngas composition, heating value, flow rate), suitable for process study and system analysis. A multizonal model based on non-stoichiometric equilibrium models and a repartition factor, simulating the bypass of pyrolysis products through the oxidant zone, was developed. The results of tests with different feedstocks (corn cobs, wood pellets, rice husks and vine pruning) in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350kW) were used for validation. The average discrepancy between model and experimental results was up to 8 times less than the one with the simple equilibrium model. The repartition factor was successfully related to the operating conditions and characteristics of the biomass to simulate different conditions of the gasifier (variation in potentiality, densification and mixing of feedstock) and analyze the model sensitivity.

  10. Utilization of rural wastes for algal biomass production with Scenedesmus acutus and Spirulina platensis in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, L.V.; Devi, K.M.; Mahadevaswamy, M.; Mohammed Kunhi, A.A.

    1982-03-01

    A technology for the production of the green alga, Scenedesmus acutus, and blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis, in clean water has been developed to suit Indian conditions. Experience gained on algal production technology in India indicates the scope for applying this at the rural level for use in the production of animal feed. Spirulina is the most promising alga in view of its amenability to low level technology. Nutrient input to the cultures is one of the most expensive steps. It is shown that agricultural and domestic wastes can be effectively recycled for algal biomass production by replacing, at least partly, the nutrient inputs. Urine and bonemeal reduce the inputs of nitrate, calcium and phosphate salts into the culture medium. Sheep's blood has a growth promoting effect on algal cultures and a good potential for application. Carbon dioxide enriched air-'aerobic biogas'-produced by composting cow dung, can be used as a carbon source for algal cultivation. Several experiments carried out in India indicate the possibility of developing an integrated algal production system in rural areas by means of which wastes can be effectively recycled. The use of algae in poultry and fish feeds is a distinct possibility for the future. (Refs. 25).

  11. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1977-11-01

    Progress in studies on the production of reducing sugars and other products by Clostridium thermocellum on cellulosic biomass is reported. The rate of reducing sugar production using corn residue was found to be equal if not greater than on solka floc. Current work is being devoted towards elucidating discrepancies between reducing sugar analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography sugar analysis in order to permit accurate material balances to be completed. Studies are reported in further characterizing the plasmics of C. thermocellum and in the development of protoplasts of the same microorganism. A process and economic analysis for the production of 200 x 10/sup 6/ pounds (90 x 10/sup 6/ kilograms) per year of soluble reducing sugars from corn stover cellulose, using enzymes derived from Clostridium thermocellum was designed. Acrylic acid was produced in resting cell preparation of Clostridium propionicum from both ..beta..-alanine and from propionic acid. Results from the conversion of corn stover hydrolyzates to lactic acid, a precursor to acrylic acid, show that up to 70% of the sugars produced are converted to lactic acid. Efforts are proceeding to improve the conversion yield and carry out the overall conversion of corn stover to acrylic acid in the same fermentor. Results on the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum demonstrated the capability of the strain to produce mixed solvents in concentration and conversion similar to that achieved in industrial processes. Various studies on the production of acetic acid by Clostridium thermoaceticum are also reported.

  12. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass (UCGFunda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Nasrullah, M.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-10-15

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international co-operation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. A lot of data on the reactivity and ash sintering properties of various kinds of biomasses has been obtained in the project and the information will now be formulated into a mathematical model. In addition to catalysis also thermal reactions play an important role in gas cleaning. Both experimental and modelling work on both of the reaction types is being carried out. Three techno-economic evaluations on alternative and competing technologies will be completed in the coming year. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. New analysis techniques developed in the project have proven very useful and for instance a fast on-line tar analysis method is now well established. (orig.)

  13. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  14. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier

    2008-09-15

    . In the case of large scale, interest has shifted from electricity generation to biofuel production, primarily due to the failed demonstration projects of the technology coupled with combined cycle for electricity generation. On the other hand, in small scale projects, cogeneration applications have gained interest over heat production. However, there are fewer actors involved in small scale experimentation than in large scale. Once the specific situation of each country has been analyzed, and the main characteristics of the development process have been identified, one of the causes which have hindered the technology to reach the expected commercial stage has been the lack of resources to demonstrate its competitiveness. So far, a significant number of experimentation activities, based on demonstration projects and pilot plants, have proved the future potential of the technology. Nonetheless, the uncertainty, shown by the great majority of actors, about integrating the biomass gasification in their industrial process has hindered the demonstration of its operational feasibility. Following this, further efforts should focus on the creation of incentives for the construction of new plants which integrate this technology in an industrial process already consolidated in the market. An approximation of the number of new plants needed, could be a good indicator of the economical resources required in order to acquire enough experience to make biomass gasification a competitive technology in the short-term. After simulating various future evolutions for small scale cogeneration applications, the learning rate obtained through the learning curves model predict that, building roughly forty plants in six years, the technology can be consolidated firmly in the market. Considering the decrease in the number of new plants built since 2002, the expectancies are not really optimistic. Nevertheless, it is not an unachievable objective if incentives are created by all administrative

  15. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; McKeough, P.; Hannula, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The project will both broaden and deepen the knowledge base and, in particular, will generate new fundamental information about the most critical process steps from the point of view of the realisation of the technology. The results will be exploited in the ongoing industrial-driven development and demonstration projects. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, in particular the reactions of hydrocarbons at gasification temperatures, during hot-gas filtration and on catalytic surfaces, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) monitoring of developments elsewhere in the world. In addition VTT itself finances two additions subtopics (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. (orig.)

  16. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, January 1--April 2, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    During the period of January 2 to April 2, 1998, efforts revolved around the design of the switchgrass materials handling/feeding system for the co-fire test and permanent system, the development of a revised statement of work and budget for fiscal years 1998--1999 and, the continuation of farmer/land conversion, and public relations efforts. The weather continues to be a major problem with an unprecedented warm winter. Much of Iowa has had little or no frost in the ground. This lack of frost has prevented farmers from getting into their fields and harvesting switchgrass. Farmers are hesitant to drive processing equipment into unfrozen fields due to the large ruts left by the wheels. The producers group has continued to gather information and develop resources necessary to supply the switchgrass to the facility in a competitive manner. Information and contacts are starting to be gathered which will help establish a market for the dedicated biomass generated electricity. The report describes the progress in the following tasks: Switchgrass conversion development including fuel analysis and engineering; Production activities which include: soil studies, carbon studies, switchgrass production economics, and switchgrass yield improvements; Information and education; and Miscellaneous which includes legislation and regulatory activities. Appendices contain the following: Switchgrass sample analysis; Chariton Valley biomass project cooperator agreement; Soil and landscape characterization status report for switchgrass project; Agreement with Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research; A literature review of reed canarygrass utility for biomass; Prairie Lands Bio-Products, Inc. agenda; Feasibility analysis and cooperative structure for value-added switchgrass products; and Information and education efforts.

  17. Renewable energy from biomass: a sustainable option? - Hydrogen production from alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly; Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development requires us to find new energy sources instead of fossil fuels. One possibility is the hydrogen fuel cell, which uses significantly more efficient than the current combustion engines. The task of the hydrogen is clean, carbon-free renewable energy sources to choose in the future by growing degree. Hungary can play a role in the renewable energy sources of biomass as a renewable biomass annually mass of about 350 to 360 million tons. The biomass is only a very small proportion of fossil turn carbonaceous materials substitution, while we may utilize alternative energy sources as well. To the hydrogen production from biomass, the first step of the chemical transformations of chemical bonds are broken, which is always activation energy investment needs. The methanol and ethanol by fermentation from different agricultural products is relatively easy to produce, so these can be regarded as renewable energy carriers of. The ethanol can be used directly, and used in several places in the world are mixed with the petrol additive. This method is the disadvantage that the anhydrous alcohol is to be used in the combustion process in the engine more undesired by-products may be formed, and the fuel efficiency of the engine is significantly lower than the efficiency of the fuel cells. More useful to produce hydrogen from the alcohol and is used in a fuel cell electric power generation. Particularly attractive option for the so-called on-board reforming of alcohols, that happens immediately when the vehicle hydrogen production. It does not need a large tank of hydrogen, because the hydrogen produced would be directly to the fuel cell. The H2 tank limit use of its high cost, the significant loss evaporation, the rare-station network, production capacity and service background and lack of opportunity to refuel problems. These can be overcome, if the hydrogen in the vehicle is prepared. As volume even 700 bar only about half the H2 pressure gas can be stored

  18. Development and performance evaluation of an algal biofilm reactor for treatment of multiple wastewaters and characterization of biomass for diverse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Poonam; Prajapati, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Pushpendar; Malik, Anushree; Pant, Kamal K

    2017-01-01

    A modified algal biofilm reactor (ABR) was developed and assessed for high biomass productivity and treatment potential using variable strength wastewaters with accumulation of specialized bio-products. The nonwoven spun bond fabric (70GSM) was selected as suitable biofilm support on the basis of attachment efficiency, durability and ease of harvesting. The biomass productivity achieved by ABR biofilms were 4gm(-2)d(-1), 3.64gm(-2)d(-1) and 3.10gm(-2)d(-1) when grown in livestock wastewater (LSW), domestic grey water (DGW) and anaerobically digested slurry (ADS), respectively. Detailed characterization of wastewater grown biomass showed specific distribution of biomolecules into high lipid (38%) containing biomass (DGW grown) and high protein (44%) biomass (LSW and ADS grown). The feasibility assessment of ABR in terms of net energy return (>1) favored its application in an integrated system for treatment and recycling of rural wastewaters with simultaneous production of biomethane, livestock feed supplement and bio fertilizers.

  19. Influence of plant community composition on biomass production in planted grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschell, Max A; Webster, Christopher R; Flaspohler, David J; Fortin, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    United States energy policy mandates increased use of renewable fuels. Restoring grasslands could contribute to a portion of this requirement through biomass harvest for bioenergy use. We investigated which plant community characteristics are associated with differences in biomass yield from a range of realistic native prairie plantings (n = 11; i.e., conservation planting, restoration, and wildlife cover). Our primary goal was to understand whether patterns in plant community composition and the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) were related to productivity as evidenced by dormant season biomass yield. FQI is an objective measure of how closely a plant community represents that of a pre-European settlement community. Our research was conducted in planted fields of native tallgrass prairie species, and provided a gradient in floristic quality index, species richness, species diversity, and species evenness in south-central Wisconsin during 2008 and 2009. We used a network of 15 randomly located 1 m2 plots within each field to characterize the plant community and estimate biomass yield by clipping the plots at the end of each growing season. While plant community composition and diversity varied significantly by planting type, biomass yield did not vary significantly among planting types (ANOVA; P >0.05). Biomass yield was positively correlated with plant community evenness, richness, C4 grass cover, and floristic quality index, but negatively correlated with plant species diversity in our multi-season multiple linear mixed effects models. Concordantly, plots with biomass yield in the lowest quartile (biomass yield biomass yield > 5800 kh/ha). Our results suggest that promoting the establishment of fields with high species evenness and floristic quality may increase biomass yield, while simultaneously supporting biodiversity.

  20. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O' Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  1. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, Februray 1, 1980-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The project will result in two distinct products: (1) a biomass allocation model which will serve as a tool for the energy planner. (2) the experimental data is being generated to help compare and contrast the behavior of a large number of biomass material in thermochemical environments. Based on information in the literature, values have been developed for regional biomass costs and availabilities and for fuel costs and demands. This data is now stored in data banks and may be updated as better data become available. Seventeen biomass materials have been run on the small TGA and the results partially analyzed. Ash analysis has been performed on 60 biomass materials. The Effluent Gas Analyzer with its associated gas chromatographs has been made operational and some runs have been carried out. Using a computerized program for developing product costs, parametric studies on all but 1 of the 14 process configurations being considered have been performed. Background economic data for all the configuration have been developed. Models to simulate biomass gasifications in an entrained and fixed bed have been developed using models previously used for coal gasification. Runs have been carried out in the fluidized and fixed bed reactor modes using a variety of biomass materials in atmospheres of steam, O/sub 2/ and air. Check aout of the system continues using fabricated manufacturing cost and efficiency data. A users manual has been written.

  2. Fungal biomass development in a chronosequence of land abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der A.; Veen, van J.A.; Smant, W.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Bloem, J.; Kardol, P.; Putten, van der W.H.; Boer, de W.

    2006-01-01

    Based on biomass size, the contribution of fungi to nutrient cycling and soil properties is in general more important in natural ecosystems than in agro-ecosystems. Therefore, we expect an increase of fungal biomass after cessation of cultivation to values of a natural ecosystem. However, so far, in

  3. Energy biomass tree seedling production study. Fuels from woody biomass. Progress report, September 1978-January 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, K.R.

    1980-03-01

    The research to date has centered around the establishment of baseline growing conditions for a number of species of tree seedlings, primarily deciduous hardwoods. As these baseline conditions were established for each specie, the shoot and root environments were manipulated in an attempt to establish techniques to increase seedling growth and reduce production times. Seedlings were outplanted in an attempt to establish baseline survival rates for seedlings grown in totally controlled environments. Studies to determine the optimum container for tree seedling production have been run and will continue as other containers are identified and made available. The most significant of the research results has been in the maximization of seedling growth. Seedling production times have been decreased in some species by as much as 50% under the baseline production times. Controlled environment production techniques provide for plant densities as high as 144 seedlings per square foot of growing space. Investigations of growing media indicate a significant species specific responses. Preliminary results of outplanting indicate survival rates as high as 90% plus.

  4. Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass.

  5. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-06-24

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product.

  6. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Gregory W.; Williams, John R.; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  7. Technoeconomic analysis of different options for the production of hydrogen from sunlight, wind, and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Amos, W.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    To determine their technical and economic viability and to provide insight into where each technology is in its development cycle, different options to produce hydrogen from sunlight, wind, and biomass were studied. Additionally, costs for storing and transporting hydrogen were determined for different hydrogen quantities and storage times. The analysis of hydrogen from sunlight examined the selling price of hydrogen from two technologies: direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of sunlight and photovoltaic (PV)-generated electricity production followed by electrolysis. The wind analysis was based on wind-generated electricity production followed by electrolysis. In addition to the base case analyses, which assume that hydrogen is the sole product, three alternative scenarios explore the economic impact of integrating the PV- and wind-based systems with the electric utility grid. Results show that PEC hydrogen production has the potential to be economically feasible. Additionally, the economics of the PV and wind electrolysis systems are improved by interaction with the grid. The analysis of hydrogen from biomass focused on three gasification technologies. The systems are: low pressure, indirectly-heated gasification followed by steam reforming; high pressure, oxygen-blown gasification followed by steam reforming; and pyrolysis followed by partial oxidation. For each of the systems studied, the downstream process steps include shift conversion followed by hydrogen purification. Only the low pressure system produces hydrogen within the range of the current industry selling prices (typically $0.7--$2/kg, or $5--14/GJ on a HHV basis). A sensitivity analysis showed that, for the other two systems, in order to bring the hydrogen selling price down to $2/kg, negative-priced feedstocks would be required.

  8. Characterization of residual biomass from the Arequipa region for the production of biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Stronguiló Leturia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to select residual biomass from the Arequipa Region for the production of biofuels (biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. In each case, the initial point is a matrix based on products with residual biomass available in the region, from the agricultural and livestock sectors, information that was obtained from the regional Management of Agriculture web site. Specific factors of the resudue that will be used as raw material for each biofuel production would be considered for the selection process. For the production of biodiesel it is necessary to start from the oil extracted from oilseeds. Regarding obtaining bioethanol, it requires that the residual biomass has high percent of cellulose. With regard to the generation of biogas, we will use animal droppings. Finally, the raw materials selected are: squash and avocado seeds for biodiesel, rice chaff and deseeded corncob for bioethanol and cow and sheep droppings for biogas

  9. Optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass: A superstructure based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case with different choices of objective functions. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed...

  10. Overview of the Chariton Valley switchgrass project: A part of the biomass power for rural development initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.; Braster, M. [Chariton Valley Resource Conservation and Development, Inc., Centerville, IA (United States); Woolsey, E. [E.L. Woolsey and Associates, Prole, IA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Investigation of renewable energy in Iowa is centering on the use of agricultural crops to generate electricity. Switchgrass, a native grass of Iowa, is one of the most promising biomass producers. Chariton Valley RC and D Inc., a USDA affiliated rural development organization based in southern Iowa and Alliant Power, a major Iowa energy company, are leading a statewide coalition of public and private interests to develop a sustainable biomass industry. Chariton Valley RC and D is working with local producers and the agricultural professionals to develop a biomass supply infrastructure. Alliant Power is working to develop the technology to convert agricultural crops to energy to serve as the basis for sustainable commercial energy production. Iowa State University and others are assessing the long-term potential of gasification for converting switchgrass to energy. Plans call for modifications to a 750 MW Alliant Power coal plant that will allow switchgrass to be co-fired with coal. A 5% co-fire rate would produce 35 MW of electrical power production and require 50,000 acres of dedicated biomass supply in southern Iowa. Growing biomass crops on erosive lands, then using them as a substitute fuel in coal-fired boilers can potentially reduce air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion and water pollution.

  11. Formic acid production from carbohydrates biomass by hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J; Kishita, A; Tohji, K; Enomoto, H [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Jin, F, E-mail: yun@bucky1.kankyo.tohoku.ac.j [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200091 (China)

    2010-03-01

    The formation of formic acid or formate salts by hydrothermal oxidation of model biomass materials (glucose, starch and cellulose) was investigated. All experiments were conducted in a batch reactor, made of SUS 316 tubing, providing an internal volume of 5.7 cm{sup 3}. A 30 wt% hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution was used as an oxidant. The experiments were carried out with temperature of 250{sup 0}C, reaction time varying from 0.5 min to 5 min, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} supply of 240%, and alkaline concentration varying from 0 to 1.25 M. Similar to glucose, in the cases of the oxidation of hydrothermal starch and cellulose, the addition of alkaline can also improve the yield of formic acid. And the yield were glucose>starch> cellulose in cases of with or without of alkaline addition.

  12. Bio-oil production from biomass via supercritical fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction is used for producing bio-fuel from biomass. Supercritical fluid extraction process under supercritical conditions is the thermally disruption process of the lignocellulose or other organic materials at 250-400 °C temperature range under high pressure (4-5 MPa). Supercritical fluid extraction trials were performed in a cylindrical reactor (75 mL) in organic solvents (acetone, ethanol) under supercritical conditions with (calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate) and without catalyst at the temperatures of 250, 275 and 300 °C. The produced liquids at 300 °C in supercritical liquefaction were analyzed and characterized by elemental, GC-MS and FT-IR. 36 and 37 different types of compounds were identified by GC-MS obtained in acetone and ethanol respectively.

  13. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamshad, Kourosh

    2013-12-31

    This report is the final reporting installment of the DOE project titled DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES. This rerport includes a summary of the work completed to date including the experimental methods used to acheive the results, discussions, conclusions and implications of the final product delivered by the project.

  15. Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, coal and biomass: production costs in 2030–2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.; Daniëls, B.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2009-01-01

    Methane, coal and biomass are being considered as alternatives to crude oil for the production of basic petrochemicals, such as light olefins. This paper is a study on the production costs of 24 process routes utilizing these primary energy sources. A wide range of projected energy prices in 2030–20

  16. Nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on urine in a short light-path photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuantet, K.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high nitrogen and phosphorus content, source-separated urine can serve as a major nutrient source for microalgae production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient removal rate and the biomass production rate of Chlorella sorokiniana being grown continuously in urine employing

  17. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  18. Biomass Performance : Monitoring and Control in Pharmaceutical Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, R.

    2002-01-01

    The primary concern in the pharmaceutical industry is not the optimisation of product yield or the reduction of manufacturing cost, but the production of a product of consistently high quality. This has resulted in 'process monitoring' becoming an integral part of process operation. In this thesis p

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  20. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  1. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  2. Photosynthetic biomass and H2 production by green algae: from bioengineering to bioreactor scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankamer, Ben; Lehr, Florian; Rupprecht, Jens; Mussgnug, Jan H; Posten, Clemens; Kruse, Olaf

    2007-09-01

    The development of clean borderless fuels is of vital importance to human and environmental health and global prosperity. Currently, fuels make up approximately 67% of the global energy market (total market = 15 TW year(-1)) (Hoffert et al. 1998). In contrast, global electricity demand accounts for only 33% (Hoffert et al. 1998). Yet, despite the importance of fuels, almost all CO(2) free energy production systems under development are designed to drive electricity generation (e.g. clean-coal technology, nuclear, photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, wave and hydroelectric). In contrast, and indeed almost uniquely, biofuels also target the much larger fuel market and so in the future will play an increasingly important role in maintaining energy security (Lal 2005). Currently, the main biofuels that are at varying stages of development include bio-ethanol, liquid carbohydrates [e.g. biodiesel or biomass to liquid (BTL) products], biomethane and bio-H(2). This review is focused on placing bio-H(2) production processes into the context of the current biofuels market and summarizing advances made both at the level of bioengineering and bioreactor design.

  3. Biomass Productivity Dynamics Monitoring and its Drivers in Sahelian Croplands and Rangelands to Support Food Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, L.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Sahelian population livelihood relies mainly on agropastoral activities, accurate information on biomass productivity dynamics and the underlying drivers are needed to manage a wide range of issues such as food security. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of these drivers in rangeland and cropland, both at the Sahel and local scales (an agropastoral site in South-West Niger). At the Sahel scale, the MODIS Land Cover product was used to extract cropland and rangeland pixels. By analyzing MODIS NDVI trends together with TRMM3B43 annual rainfall (2000-2010), we developed a new classification scheme allowing to identify areas of persistent decline/improvement in biomass productivity and to separate rainfall-driven dynamics from other factors. The results showed an overall increase of productivity in the rangeland, and both an improvement and a degradation in the cropland. We found strong evidence that the increase in biomass productivity was generally linked to increasing rainfall, while the decrease could be attributed chiefly to other factors exclusively or to a combination of both climate- and human-induced factors (see the attached Figure). At the Niger site scale, biomass trends have been put in relation with a set of potential drivers via a RandomForest model, to define which were the explanatory factors of the observed trends. The factor set covered 5 categories: climate, natural constraints, demography, physical accessibility and land cover changes. We highlighted that tiger bushes areas were particularly prone to pressure due to overgrazing and overexploitation of wood, while positive trends were mainly observed near rivers and in fossil valleys where new agricultural practices might have been promoted. The approach developped here could help to delineate areas with decrease in crop and grassland production and thus to assess the vulnerability of the population, but also to target zones with good potential for planning long

  4. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, Xuejun; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2010-07-01

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the total sugar recovery divided by total energy consumption for pretreatment, should be used to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment process. A post-chemical pretreatment wood size-reduction approach was proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption. The review also emphasizes using a low liquid-to-wood ratio (L/W) to reduce thermal energy consumption for any thermochemical/physical pretreatment in addition to reducing pretreatment temperature.

  5. Transdisciplinary product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Savšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How can transdisciplinary approach increase the product development process in future industry? Purpose: The aim of the research is to develop a model of an effective product development in the automotive industry based on the transdisciplinary approach. Method: We used a qualitative research approach in order to develop a theoretical framework of transdisciplinarity. The framework comprises the concurrent engineering and experts from different disciplines. The framework was represented by a mathematical model which based on stochastic dynamic programming. Results: We developed a theoretical frameworkand a practical case of transdisciplinary product development in the automotive industry. We presented a mathematical model and information environment which supports such a model. Organization: The findings of the research will provide higher productivity, lower operating costs, change in personnel structure, higher added value, lower sales costs, lower administration costs, reduction in growth of expenses, and lower costs of work equipment. Society: The research impact on higher customer’s satisfaction, increased flexibility of operations, better quality of information, improved control of sources, less waste materials and less pollution, improved planning process, more favourable consideration of employees , improved portfolio management, and better corporate presentation of company. Originality: Transdisciplinary framework combines methods of concurrent engineering and interdisciplinary approach in a process of product development. The development of such a framework is a complete novelty and represents an original approach to product development, which will be particularly suitable for the smart factories of the future. Transdisciplinary framework was transformed in to a mathematical model based on stochastic dynamic programming. Model is supported by the existing information warehouse and represents a potential for

  6. Hydrogen production from biomass gasification using biochar as a catalyst/support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dingding; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Daqian; Yang, Haiping; Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Xianhua; Chen, Hanping

    2016-09-01

    Biochar is a promising catalyst/support for biomass gasification. Hydrogen production from biomass steam gasification with biochar or Ni-based biochar has been investigated using a two stage fixed bed reactor. Commercial activated carbon was also studied as a comparison. Catalyst was prepared with an impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, specific surface and porosity analysis, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron micrograph. The effects of gasification temperature, steam to biomass ratio, Ni loading and bio-char properties on catalyst activity in terms of hydrogen production were explored. The Ni/AC catalyst showed the best performance at gasification temperature of 800°C, S/B=4, Ni loading of 15wt.%. Texture and composition characterization of the catalysts suggested the interaction between volatiles and biochar promoted the reforming of pyrolysis volatiles. Cotton-char supported Ni exhibited the highest activity of H2 production (64.02vol.%, 92.08mgg(-1) biomass) from biomass gasification, while rice-char showed the lowest H2 production.

  7. Production and characterization of bio-oil from catalytic biomass pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonakou Eleni V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass flash pyrolysis is a very promising thermochemical process for the production of bio-fuels and/or chemicals. However, large-scale applications are still under careful consideration, because of the high bio-liquid upgrading cost. In this paper the production of bio-liquids from biomass flash pyrolysis in a single stage catalytic process is being investigated using a novel once through fluid bed reactor. This biomass pyrolysis unit was constructed in Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute and comprises of a catalyst regenerator, a biomass-vibrating hopper, a fluidization reactor (that consists of an injector and a riser reactor, a product stripper along with a hot cyclone and a filter housing and finally a product condensation/recovery section. The unit can process up to 20 g/min. of biomass (50-800 mm and can circulate up to 300 g/min. of catalyst or inert material. The experiments performed in the pilot plant showed that the unit operates without problems and with satisfactory mass balances in a wide range of experimental conditions both in the absence and presence of catalyst. With the incorporation of an FCC catalyst in the pyrolysis, the physical properties of the bio-oil produced changed, while more stable bio-oil was produced. .

  8. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass - UCGFunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: matti.reinikainen@vtt.fi; Suominen, T.P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering); Linnekoski, J.; Roenkkoenen, E. (Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry.)

    2010-10-15

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international cooperation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. The project comprises experimental work, modelling, techno-economic evaluations as well as studies based on literature. The project is steered by a wide industrial consortium and the research work is carried out by VTT, Aalto University and Aabo Akademi. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. (orig.)

  9. Goal and Scope in Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis: The Case of Hydrogen Production from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stefanova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The framework for life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA developed within the project CALCAS (Co-ordination Action for innovation in Life-Cycle Analysis for Sustainability is introducing a truly integrated approach for sustainability studies. However, it needs to be further conceptually refined and to be made operational. In particular, one of the gaps still hindering the adoption of integrated analytic tools for sustainability studies is the lack of a clear link between the goal and scope definition and the modeling phase. This paper presents an approach to structure the goal and scope phase of LCSA so as to identify the relevant mechanisms to be further detailed and analyzed in the modeling phase. The approach is illustrated with an on-going study on a new technology for the production of high purity hydrogen from biomass, to be used in automotive fuel cells.

  10. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study.

  11. Optimization of the pyrolysis process for the production of a biomass derived reducing agent and hydrogen-rich gases

    OpenAIRE

    Adrados López de Viñaspre, Aitziber

    2014-01-01

    221 p. [EN] This thesis is devoted to the optimization of the biomass pyrolysis process for the simultaneous production of bioreducing agents and high value gases. The thesis is part of the existing collaborative research work between the Befesa Steel R&D S.L. Company and the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department of the Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao. This company was interested in developing the pyrolysis process at large scale to produce biocoke to be used as reducing agent...

  12. New product development and product launch strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Filiz Bozkurt Bekoğlu; Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    In today’s highly competitive environment, a balanced product portfolio, success in new product development and product launch are important factors for the sustainability of organizations. The aim of the study is to reveal the right product launch steps for the companies through theory and case study. In the study, new product development and product launch strategies are first investigated theoretically. Afterwards, a successful product series launch case from cosmetics sector is analyzed. ...

  13. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  16. Development of Nutraceutical Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Yusof

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to discuss the development of nutraceutical product which includes the current market trends, challenges, and exploitation of natural resources through various processing. Wet granulation and dry granulation techniques were adopted for such processes. Wet granulation covers high shear mixing granulation, fluidized bed granulation, and twin screw granulation. Dry granulation covers roll compaction and uniaxial die compaction. These techniques were compared and reviewed in terms of physical, chemical and toxicity studies. The physical study considered the particle size, density, morphology, flowability and dissolution. The chemical study discussed on the active ingredients in the nutraceutical products and the toxicity study was presented by investigation carried out on rats. There is a high potential for development of nutraceutical product. By understanding the various techniques of processing and characterisations, more nutraceutical products can be marketed.

  17. Oligosaccharides and monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Sánchez, Sebastián; Moya, Alberto J

    2013-04-02

    Using the severity factor, it has been possible to study cellulose and hemicellulose fractional conversion, sugar yields change and oligosaccharides variation through olive tree pruning biomass pretreatments with acid or liquid hot water under pressure. The temperatures tested were in the range 180-230°C, operation time varying between 0 and 30min and acid concentration used did not exceed 0.05M. Complete hemicellulose solubilization in autohydrolysis was achieved using severity factors (logR0) close to 3.9 (most sugars are like oligomers), while if sulfuric acid 0.025M is employed, this parameter could be smaller (≥3.4). With these treatments, we have obtained cellulose conversions between 30 and 42% from liquid hot water experiments, 40-51% with sulfuric acid 0.025M and 42-57% when the acid concentration was 0.05M. The best results in terms of maximum yield in total sugars, d-glucose and d-xylose, with a low amount of acetic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural, was obtained at 200°C, 0min (what means that there is no time of temperature maintenance, only heating and cooling) and H2SO4 0.025M.

  18. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata.

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Zymomonas mobilis for 2,3-Butanediol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shihui; Mohagheghi, Ali; Franden, Mary Ann; Chou, Yat-Chen; Chen, Xiaowen; Dowe, Nancy; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-09-02

    To develop pathways for advanced biofuel production, and to understand the impact of host metabolism and environmental conditions on heterologous pathway engineering for economic advanced biofuels production from biomass, we seek to redirect the carbon flow of the model ethanologen Zymomonas mobilis to produce desirable hydrocarbon intermediate 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO). 2,3-BDO is a bulk chemical building block, and can be upgraded in high yields to gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. 2,3-BDO biosynthesis pathways from various bacterial species were examined, which include three genes encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase. Bioinformatics analysis was carried out to pinpoint potential bottlenecks for high 2,3-BDO production. Different combinations of 2,3-BDO biosynthesis metabolic pathways using genes from different bacterial species have been constructed. Our results demonstrated that carbon flux can be deviated from ethanol production into 2,3-BDO biosynthesis, and all three heterologous genes are essential to efficiently redirect pyruvate from ethanol production for high 2,3-BDO production in Z. mobilis. The down-selection of best gene combinations up to now enabled Z. mobilis to reach the 2,3-BDO production of more than 10 g/L from glucose and xylose, as well as mixed C6/C5 sugar streams derived from the deacetylation and mechanical refining process. This study confirms the value of integrating bioinformatics analysis and systems biology data during metabolic engineering endeavors, provides guidance for value-added chemical production in Z. mobilis, and reveals the interactions between host metabolism, oxygen levels, and a heterologous 2,3-BDO biosynthesis pathway. Taken together, this work provides guidance for future metabolic engineering efforts aimed at boosting 2,3-BDO titer anaerobically.

  20. Maximizing biomass productivity and cell density of Chlorella vulgaris by using light-emitting diode-based photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weiqi; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Feist, Adam M; Herjolfsson, Gisli; Brynjolfsson, Sigurdur; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2012-10-31

    Green microalgae have recently drawn attention as promising organisms for biofuel production; however, the question is whether they can grow sufficient biomass relative to limiting input factors to be economically feasible. We have explored this question by determining how much biomass the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris can produce in photobioreactors based on highly efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs). First, growth results were improved under the less expensive light of 660 nm LEDs, developing them in the laboratory to meet the performance levels of the traditional but more expensive 680 nm LEDs by adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE). We then optimized several other key parameters, including input superficial gas velocity, CO(2) concentration, light distribution, and growth media in reference to nutrient stoichiometry. Biomass density thereby rose to approximately 20 g dry-cell-weight (gDCW) per liter (L). Since the light supply was recognized as a limiting factor, illumination was augmented by optimization at systematic level, providing for a biomass productivity of up to 2.11 gDCW/L/day, with a light yield of 0.81 gDCW/Einstein. These figures, which represent the best results ever reported, point to new dimensions in the photoautotrophic performance of microalgal cultures.

  1. Tissue culture and micropropagation for forest biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, E.; Maine, F.W.

    1984-09-01

    An increase in forest production will be necessary in the future when wood becomes a major renewable source of energy and chemicals along with its traditional role of fibre source. This increase could eventually by achieved be proper selection and breeding of trees. Clonal forestry by vegetative propagation of cuttings is becoming a viable alternative to a seedling-based forestry with many advantages, and cutting could be used to quickly propagate large numbers of clones of control-pollinated seedlings. Most forest trees are propagated sexually and seed orchards were started in the US and Canada in the last 40-50 years for breeding purposes. Forests could ultimately be established with improved seedlings instead of from seed with unknown genetic potential, or by natural regeneration. Micropropagation is the term used to refer to the propagation of plants raised by tissue culture methods rather than from seeds or cuttings. Many clonal plantlets could be regenerated asexually in the laboratory and eventually transplanted to permanent sites. In addition the technology could be developed to produce new variants from somatic cells. Tissue culture is a technique which may be useful for plant propagation where conventional methods are inadequate or unsuitable. However, traditional studies of field planting observed over long periods of time would still be necessary. This document has the object of informing those who may wish to know more about these techniques in relation to practical application, and require a general overview rather than experimental details, which are given in an annotated bilbiography. 274 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Synergies between bio- and oil refineries for the production of fuels from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, George W; Corma, Avelino

    2007-01-01

    As petroleum prices continue to increase, it is likely that biofuels will play an ever-increasing role in our energy future. The processing of biomass-derived feedstocks (including cellulosic, starch- and sugar-derived biomass, and vegetable fats) by catalytic cracking and hydrotreating is a promising alternative for the future to produce biofuels, and the existing infrastructure of petroleum refineries is well-suited for the production of biofuels, allowing us to rapidly transition to a more sustainable economy without large capital investments for new reaction equipment. This Review discusses the chemistry, catalysts, and challenges involved in the production of biofuels.

  3. Effect of caffeine concentration on biomass production, caffeine degradation, and morphology of Aspergillus tamarii

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Sanchez, G.; Roussos, Sevastianos; Augur, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the initial caffeine concentration (1-8 g/L) on growth and caffeine consumption by Aspergillus tamarii as well as pellet morphology, in submerged fermentation. Caffeine was used as sole nitrogen source. At 1 g/L of initial caffeine concentration, caffeine degradation was not affected, resulting in a production of 8.7 g/L of biomass. The highest biomass production (12.4-14.8 g/L) was observed within a range of 2 to 4 g/L of initial caf...

  4. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the use of renewable biomass for energy production. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers (ethanol and a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol) from biomass can be employed to decrease environmental...... is determined by substrates and microbial communities available as well as the operating conditions applied. In this review, we evaluate the recent biotechnological approaches employed in ethanol and ABE fermentation. Practical applicability of different technologies is discussed taking into account...... the microbiology and biochemistry of the processes....

  5. Biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, CO2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ortigueira, Joana; Alves, Luís; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia; Silva, Carla

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole Scenedesmus obliquus biomass. The main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. This was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. The scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a potential application to a fuel cell hybrid taxi fleet. The H2 yield obtained was 7.3 g H2/kg of S. obliquus dried biomass. The results show that the production of biohydrogen required 71-100 MJ/MJ(H2) and emitted about 5-6 kg CO2/MJ(H2). Other studies and production technologies were taken into account to discuss an eventual process scale-up. Increased production rates of microalgal biomass and biohydrogen are necessary for bioH2 to become competitive with conventional production pathways.

  6. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds) for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection. PMID:25157367

  7. Biological effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) biopolymers and biomass in the development of nanostructured scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds) for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  8. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  9. A Review on Biomass Densification Systems to Develop Uniform Feedstock Commodities for Bioenergy Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney

    2011-11-01

    Developing uniformly formatted, densified feedstock from lignocellulosic biomass is of interest to achieve consistent physical properties like size and shape, bulk and unit density, and durability, which significantly influence storage, transportation and handling characteristics, and, by extension, feedstock cost and quality. A variety of densification systems are considered for producing a uniform format feedstock commodity for bioenergy applications, including (a) baler, (b) pellet mill, (c) cuber, (d) screw extruder, (e) briquette press, (f) roller press, (g) tablet press, and (g) agglomerator. Each of these systems has varying impacts on feedstock chemical and physical properties, and energy consumption. This review discusses the suitability of these densification systems for biomass feedstocks and the impact these systems have on specific energy consumption and end product quality. For example, a briquette press is more flexible in terms of feedstock variables where higher moisture content and larger particles are acceptable for making good quality briquettes; or among different densification systems, a screw press consumes the most energy because it not only compresses but also shears and mixes the material. Pretreatment options like preheating, grinding, steam explosion, torrefaction, and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) can also help to reduce specific energy consumption during densification and improve binding characteristics. Binding behavior can also be improved by adding natural binders, such as proteins, or commercial binders, such as lignosulphonates. The quality of the densified biomass for both domestic and international markets is evaluated using PFI (United States Standard) or CEN (European Standard).

  10. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has enabled companies to globalise their product development process. Today, everything from manufacturing to R&D can be globally distributed. This has led to a more complex and disintegrated product development process. This paper investigates the impacts companies have experienced...... as a result of this, and how they have been addressed. Data was collected through case studies of five Danish multinational corporations. The findings showed that the companies experienced several challenges when they globalised their product development process. They consequently implemented various...... companies employ to minimize the risks of globalisation and the limitations of these solutions. Finally, this paper provides information on the likely causes for these limitations with the current industry solutions, and suggests how these can be addressed....

  11. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-10-01

    Torrefaction of biomass can be described as a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically ranging between 200 and 300 C in an inert and reduced environment. Common biomass reactions during torrefaction include devolatilization, depolymerization, and carbonization of hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Torrefaction process produces a brown to black solid uniform product and also condensable (water, organics, and lipids) and non condensable gases (CO2, CO, and CH4). Typically during torrefaction, 70% of the mass is retained as a solid product, containing 90% of the initial energy content, and 30% of the lost mass is converted into condensable and non-condensable products. The system's energy efficiency can be improved by reintroducing the material lost during torrefaction as a source of heat. Torrefaction of biomass improves its physical properties like grindability; particle shape, size, and distribution; pelletability; and proximate and ultimate composition like moisture, carbon and hydrogen content, and calorific value. Carbon and calorific value of torrefied biomass increases by 15-25%, and moisture content reduces to <3% (w.b.). Torrefaction reduces grinding energy by about 70%, and the ground torrefied biomass has improved sphericity, particle surface area, and particle size distribution. Pelletization of torrefied biomass at temperatures of 225 C reduces specific energy consumption by two times and increases the capacity of the mill by two times. The loss of the OH group during torrefaction makes the material hydrophobic (loses the ability to attract water molecules) and more stable against chemical oxidation and microbial degradation. These improved properties make torrefied biomass particularly suitable for cofiring in power plants and as an upgraded feedstock for gasification.

  12. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansons A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

  13. Geographic and habitat origin influence biomass production and storage translocation in the clonal plant Aegopodium podagraria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina D'Hertefeldt

    Full Text Available Through physiological integration, clonal plants can support ramets in unfavourable patches, exploit heterogeneously distributed resources and distribute resources that are taken up over large areas. Physiological integration generally increases in adverse conditions, but it is not well known which factors determine the evolution of physiological integration. The aim of this study was to investigate if clonal plants from Southern and Northern populations of the clonal herb Aegopodium podagraria differed in physiological integration in terms of translocation of carbon to the rhizomes, and in biomass production using a reciprocal transplant experiment. Aegopodium podagraria from shaded conditions have been suggested to share more resources than clones from open conditions and therefore, plants from forest and open populations within the Southern and Northern regions were included. The regional growing conditions greatly affected biomass production. Plants grown in North Sweden produced more biomass and allocated more biomass to shoots, while plants grown in South Sweden allocated more biomass to rhizomes. There was a regional origin effect as plants originating from North Sweden produced more biomass in both regions. Within the Northern region, plants from shaded habitats translocated more (14C to the rhizomes, suggesting more storage there than in plants from open habitats. In addition to genetic differentiation in biomass production between Northern and Southern populations, probably as a response to a shorter growing season in the North, there appeared to be genetic differentiation in physiological integration within the Northern region. This shows that both regional and local conditions need to be taken into account in future studies of genetic differentiation of physiological integration in clonal plants.

  14. Geographic and habitat origin influence biomass production and storage translocation in the clonal plant Aegopodium podagraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hertefeldt, Tina; Eneström, Johanna M; Pettersson, Lars B

    2014-01-01

    Through physiological integration, clonal plants can support ramets in unfavourable patches, exploit heterogeneously distributed resources and distribute resources that are taken up over large areas. Physiological integration generally increases in adverse conditions, but it is not well known which factors determine the evolution of physiological integration. The aim of this study was to investigate if clonal plants from Southern and Northern populations of the clonal herb Aegopodium podagraria differed in physiological integration in terms of translocation of carbon to the rhizomes, and in biomass production using a reciprocal transplant experiment. Aegopodium podagraria from shaded conditions have been suggested to share more resources than clones from open conditions and therefore, plants from forest and open populations within the Southern and Northern regions were included. The regional growing conditions greatly affected biomass production. Plants grown in North Sweden produced more biomass and allocated more biomass to shoots, while plants grown in South Sweden allocated more biomass to rhizomes. There was a regional origin effect as plants originating from North Sweden produced more biomass in both regions. Within the Northern region, plants from shaded habitats translocated more (14)C to the rhizomes, suggesting more storage there than in plants from open habitats. In addition to genetic differentiation in biomass production between Northern and Southern populations, probably as a response to a shorter growing season in the North, there appeared to be genetic differentiation in physiological integration within the Northern region. This shows that both regional and local conditions need to be taken into account in future studies of genetic differentiation of physiological integration in clonal plants.

  15. Comparison of ultrasound and thermal pretreatment of Scenedesmus biomass on methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, C; Sialve, B; Bernet, N; Steyer, J P

    2012-04-01

    Ultrasound at 20Hz was applied at different energy levels (Es) to treat Scenedesmus biomass, and organic matter solubilization, particle size distribution, cell disruption and biochemical methane potential were evaluated. An Es of 35.5 and 47.2MJ/kg resulted in floc deagglomeration but no improvement in methane production compared to untreated biomass. At an Es of 128.9, cell wall disruption was observed together with a 3.1-fold organic matter solubilization and an approximately 2-fold methane production in comparison with untreated biomass. Thermal pretreatment at 80°C caused cell wall disruption and improved anaerobic biodegradability 1.6-fold compared to untreated biomass. Since sonication caused a temperature increase in samples to as high as 85°C, it is likely that thermal effects accounted for much of the observed changes in the biomass. Given that ultrasound treatment at the highest Es studied only increased methane production by 1.2-fold over thermal treatment at 80°C, the higher energy requirement of sonication might not justify the use of this approach over thermal treatment.

  16. Enhanced biomass production through optimization of carbon source and utilization of wastewater as a nutrient source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prabuddha L; Choi, Hee-Jeong; Pawar, Radheshyam R; Jung, Sokhee P; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2016-12-15

    The study aimed to utilize the domestic wastewater as nutrient feedstock for mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae by evaluating appropriate carbon source. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in municipal wastewater under various carbon sources (glucose, glycerol, and acetate), followed by optimization of appropriate carbon source concentration to augment the biomass, lipid, and carbohydrate contents. Under optimized conditions, namely of 5 g/L glucose, C. vulgaris showed higher increments of biomass with 1.39 g/L dry cell weight achieving biomass productivity of 0.13 g/L/d. The biomass accumulated 19.29 ± 1.83% total lipid, 41.4 ± 1.46% carbohydrate, and 33.06 ± 1.87% proteins. Moreover, the cultivation of Chlorella sp. in glucose-supplemented wastewater removed 96.9% chemical oxygen demand, 65.3% total nitrogen, and 71.2% total phosphate. The fatty acid methyl ester obtained showed higher amount (61.94%) of saturated fatty acid methyl esters associated with the improved fuel properties. These results suggest that mixotrophic cultivation using glucose offers great potential in the production of renewable biomass, wastewater treatment, and consequent production of high-value microalgal oil.

  17. Pretreatment optimization of the biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa for efficient bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Moon Geon; Shin, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Jong Deog

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae are considered to be the future promising sources of biofuels and bio products. The algal carbohydrates can be fermented to bioethanol after pretreatment process. Efficient pretreatment of the biomass is one of the major requirements for commercialization of the algal based biofuels. In present study the microalga, M. aeruginsa was used for pretreatment optimization and bioethanol production. Treatment of algal biomass with CaO before acid and/or enzymatic hydrolysis enhanced the degradation of algal cells. Monomeric sugars yield was increased more than twice when biomass was pretreated with CaO. Similarly, an increase was noted in the amount of fermentable sugars when biomass was subjected to invertase saccharification after acid or lysozyme pretreatment. Highest yield of fermentable sugars (16 mM/ml) in the centrifuged algal juice was obtained. 4 Different microorganisms' species were used individually and in combination for converting centrifuged algal juice to bioethanol. Comparatively higher yield of bioethanol (60 mM/ml) was obtained when the fermenter microorganisms were used in combination. The results demonstrated that M. arginase biomass can be efficiently pretreated to get higher yield of fermentable sugars for enhanced yield of bioethanol production.

  18. Development of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  19. PRODUCTION OF ENRICHED BIOMASS BY RED YEASTS OF SPOROBOLOMYCES SP. GROWN ON WASTE SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Breierova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids and ergosterol are industrially significant metabolites probably involved in yeast stress response mechanisms. Thus, controlled physiological and nutrition stress including use of waste substrates can be used for their enhanced production. In this work two red yeast strains of the genus Sporobolomyces (Sporobolomyces roseus, Sporobolomyces shibatanus were studied. To increase the yield of metabolites at improved biomass production, several types of exogenous as well as nutrition stress were tested. Each strain was cultivated at optimal growth conditions and in medium with modified carbon and nitrogen sources. Synthetic media with addition of complex substrates (e.g. yeast extract and vitamin mixtures as well as some waste materials (whey, apple fibre, wheat, crushed pasta were used as nutrient sources. Peroxide and salt stress were applied too, cells were exposed to oxidative stress (2-10 mM H2O2 and osmotic stress (2-10 % NaCl. During the experiment, growth characteristics and the production of biomass, carotenoids and ergosterol were evaluated. In optimal conditions tested strains substantially differed in biomass as well as metabolite production. S.roseus produced about 50 % of biomass produced by S.shibatanus (8 g/L. Oppositely, production of pigments and ergosterol by S.roseus was 3-4 times higher than in S.shibatanus. S.roseus was able to use most of waste substrates, the best production of ergosterol (8.9 mg/g d.w. and beta-carotene (4.33 mg/g d.w. was obtained in medium with crushed pasta hydrolyzed by mixed enzyme from Phanerochaetae chrysosporium. Regardless very high production of carotenes and ergosterol, S.roseus is probably not suitable for industrial use because of relatively low biomass production.

  20. Coupled production in biorefineries--combined use of biomass as a source of energy, fuels and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyko, Hildegard; Deerberg, Görge; Weidner, Eckhard

    2009-06-01

    In spite of high prices for fossil raw materials the production of biomass-based products is rarely economically successful today. Depending on the location feedstock prices are currently so high that products from renewable resources are not marketable when produced in existing process chains. Apart from the higher feedstock costs one reason is that at present no optimized production systems exist in contrast to the chemical and petrochemical industry where these systems have been established over the last decades. If we succeed in developing production systems modelled on those of petroleum refineries where we can provide a flexible coupled production of energy, fuels, materials and chemicals chances are good to enable a lastingly successful production on the basis of renewable resources. Based on examples of fat-based and sugar-based concepts ideas for platform oriented biorefineries are outlined.

  1. Forest biomass density, utilization and production dynamics in a western Himalayan watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Prem Lall Sankhayan; Ole Hofstad

    2008-01-01

    There is enough evidence to show that the forest biomass has decreased significantly in the Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh. The government has responded through restrictive measures to check this decline. Using tree biomass as proxy for degradation, we assessed the current state of biomass within dominant land use types and examined its implications for sustainability. The highest above-ground mean tree biomass density of 1158 t·ha-1 was recorded for the reserved forest followed by 728, 13, 11, 8, 5 and 3 t·ha-1 in the protected forest, fallow land, cultivated-unirrigated land, grassland, orchard land and cultivated-irrigated land respectively. Of the total accessible biomass, only 0.31% was extracted annually by the local people for fuel, fodder and other uses. Though, the current level of extraction may be sustainable in the short run, insufficient regeneration is observed for long term sustainability. Forest biomass production was simulated for the next 30 years with a logistic growth model and the relative significance of input variables in influencing system behaviour was analysed through sensitivity analysis. The model results highlighted the declining forest resources in the long run. Positive response through appropriate government policies can, however, change the scenario for the better.

  2. Economic Development Through Biomass Systems Integration in Central Florida: Final Report; May 5, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, J. A.; Smith, W. H.

    2004-07-01

    Reclaimed phosphate mined land in central Florida has been identified as an area with potential for growing biomass crops. Approximately 73,000 acres of land could be available for production. Additional research is needed to define the possibilities.

  3. Production of Leuconostoc oenos Biomass under pH Control †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.; Gardner, Nancy; Doyon, Gilles

    1989-01-01

    Leuconostoc oenos was grown on apple juice-based media. The effect of pH control on metabolism and biomass production was studied. Without pH control, L. oenos acidified the apple juice media to approximately pH 3.6. More than 75% of the malic acid was used under these conditions, but less than half of the carbohydrates was assimilated. Under pH control, biomass yields increased by 60%; most of the malic acid was used, but high levels of unfermented carbohydrates remained. The addition of tomato juice, vitamins, nucleotides, Mn+, and malic acid did not permit further increases in the cell counts; however, malic acid did induce further acidification. Growth without pH control favored a more homofermentative metabolism. Biomass production was higher in filter-sterilized apple juice media compared with that in the autoclaved media. PMID:16348025

  4. Carbon balance of rewetted and drained peat soils used for biomass production: A mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka

    2016-01-01

    Rewetting of drained peatlands has been recommended to reduce CO2 emissions and to restore the carbon sink function of peatlands. Recently, the combination of rewetting and biomass production (paludiculture) has gained interest as a possible land use option in peatlands for obtaining such benefits...... of lower CO2 emissions without losing agricultural land. The present study quantified the carbon balance (CO2, CH4 and harvested biomass C) of rewetted and drained peat soils under intensively managed reed canary grass (RCG) cultivation. Mesocosms were maintained at five different ground water levels (GWL...... closed chamber methods. The average dry biomass yield was significantly lower from rewetted peat soils (12 Mg ha−1) than drained peat soils (15 Mg ha−1). Also, CO2 fluxes of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) from rewetted peat soils were significantly lower than drained peat...

  5. Biomass production and energy source of thermophiles in a Japanese alkaline geothermal pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kousuke; Nashimoto, Hiroaki; Hattori, Shohei; Yamada, Keita; Koba, Keisuke; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kato, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Microbial biomass production has been measured to investigate the contribution of planktonic bacteria to fluxations in dissolved organic matter in marine and freshwater environments, but little is known about biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting geothermal and hydrothermal regions. The biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting an 85 degrees C geothermal pool was measured by in situ cultivation using diffusion chambers. The thermophiles' growth rates ranged from 0.43 to 0.82 day(-1), similar to those of planktonic bacteria in marine and freshwater habitats. Biomass production was estimated based on cellular carbon content measured directly from the thermophiles inhabiting the geothermal pool, which ranged from 5.0 to 6.1 microg C l(-1) h(-1). This production was 2-75 times higher than that of planktonic bacteria in other habitats, because the cellular carbon content of the thermophiles was much higher. Quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that thermophilic H2-oxidizing bacteria closely related to Calderobacterium and Geothermobacterium were dominant in the geothermal pool. Chemical analysis showed the presence of H2 in gases bubbling from the bottom of the geothermal pool. These results strongly suggested that H2 plays an important role as a primary energy source of thermophiles in the geothermal pool.

  6. Effects of Nitrogen and Desferal Treatments on CROTALARIA's (Crotalaria juncea Roth) Biomass Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    , depending on the N+Desferal treatment rates. g. On the given soil the highest quantity of 300 kg ha-1 year-1 N mineral fertilizer + 20 kg ha-1 year-1 Desferal chelating agent seemed to give already over fertilization and lowered in its tendency mainly the total green biomass yield and verifiable the total air dry biomass yield. By experimental results can be summarised that we was able to increase with a great rate Crotalaria juncea L. total green biomass yield and total air dry biomass yield by N and Desferal treatments. As well as so we can show and offer our results to different sustainable farming managements with nutrition system of low, mean and high input in the next future. Keywords: nitrogen, desferal, crotalaria, soil fertility, sustainable agriculture management Introduction Presently sustainable agriculture is vital to achieving food security poverty alleviation and environmental protection because land degradation and desertification has occurred in all the world over cutting across a broad spectrum of contrasts in climate, ecosystem types, land uses and socio/economic settings. For this reason improving integrated soil fertility management is appreciationed and has become a major issue of concern on the development plant nutrition and plant production agendas. On plant nutrition level mineral macronutrients so nitrogen and chelating agents of different microelements so Desferal- deferoxamin-methansulfonic are essential for plant growth and development. Crotalari juncea L. is a well-known nutrient indicator fodder and green manure crop with a high yield potential. The complexity of the desertification phenomenon has drawn our attention to categorize, inventory, monitor and repair the condition of the land (Arnalds and Archer 1999). Therefore, farmers are constantly being subjected to soil fertility changes that are beyond their control on account of factors that affect the viability and profitability their farming enterprise. They must acquire the capacity to

  7. Product development leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Peter Lindgren introducerer i sin artikel begrebet ”Product Development Leadership”, som sætter fokus på produktudviklingens strategiske og markedsmæssige rolle. Begrebet omfatter bl.a. virksomhedens evne til at generere eller indfange ideer og udvikle disse via eksisterende eller nye måder...

  8. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  9. Production of mycelial biomass by the Amazonian edible mushroom Pleurotus albidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Souza Kirsch

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Edible mushroom species are considered as an adequate source of food in a healthy diet due to high content of protein, fiber, vitamins, and a variety of minerals. The representatives of Pleurotus genus are characterized by distinct gastronomic, nutritional, and medicinal properties among the edible mushrooms commercialized worldwide. In the present study, the growth of mycelial biomass of Pleurotus albidus cultivated in submerged fermentation was evaluated. Saccharose, fructose, and maltose were the three main carbon sources for mycelial biomass formation with corresponding yields of 7.28 g L−1, 7.07 g L−1, and 6.99 g L−1. Inorganic nitrogen sources did not stimulate growth and the optimal yield was significantly higher with yeast extract (7.98 g L−1. The factorial design used to evaluate the influence of saccharose and yeast extract concentration, agitation speed, and initial pH indicated that all variables significantly influenced the production of biomass, especially the concentration of saccharose. The greater amount of saccharose resulted in the production of significantly more biomass. The highest mycelial biomass production (9.81 g L−1 was reached in the medium formulated with 30.0 g L−1 saccharose, 2.5 g L−1 yeast extract, pH 7.0, and a speed of agitation at 180 rpm. Furthermore, P. albidus manifested different aspects of morphology and physiology under the growth conditions employed. Media composition affected mycelial biomass production indicating that the diversification of carbon sources promoted its improvement and can be used as food or supplement.

  10. Production of mycelial biomass by the Amazonian edible mushroom Pleurotus albidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Larissa de Souza; de Macedo, Ana Júlia Porto; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas

    2016-01-01

    Edible mushroom species are considered as an adequate source of food in a healthy diet due to high content of protein, fiber, vitamins, and a variety of minerals. The representatives of Pleurotus genus are characterized by distinct gastronomic, nutritional, and medicinal properties among the edible mushrooms commercialized worldwide. In the present study, the growth of mycelial biomass of Pleurotus albidus cultivated in submerged fermentation was evaluated. Saccharose, fructose, and maltose were the three main carbon sources for mycelial biomass formation with corresponding yields of 7.28gL(-1), 7.07gL(-1), and 6.99gL(-1). Inorganic nitrogen sources did not stimulate growth and the optimal yield was significantly higher with yeast extract (7.98gL(-1)). The factorial design used to evaluate the influence of saccharose and yeast extract concentration, agitation speed, and initial pH indicated that all variables significantly influenced the production of biomass, especially the concentration of saccharose. The greater amount of saccharose resulted in the production of significantly more biomass. The highest mycelial biomass production (9.81gL(-1)) was reached in the medium formulated with 30.0gL(-1) saccharose, 2.5gL(-1) yeast extract, pH 7.0, and a speed of agitation at 180rpm. Furthermore, P. albidus manifested different aspects of morphology and physiology under the growth conditions employed. Media composition affected mycelial biomass production indicating that the diversification of carbon sources promoted its improvement and can be used as food or supplement.

  11. Production of methanol from biomass waste via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, S K; Shamsul, N S; Ghani, J A; Chia, S K; Liew, H S; Samsudin, A S

    2013-02-01

    The production of methanol from agricultural, forestry, livestock, poultry, and fishery waste via pyrolysis was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted in a tube furnace at 450-500 °C. Sugarcane bagasse showed the methanol production (5.93 wt.%), followed by roots and sawdust with 4.36 and 4.22 wt.%, respectively. Animal waste offered the lowest content of methanol, as only 0.46, 0.80, and 0.61 wt.% were obtained from fishery, goat, and cow waste, respectively. It was also observed that the percentage of methanol increased with an increase in volatile compounds while the percentage of ethanol increased with the percentage of ash and fix carbon. The data indicate that, pyrolysis is a means for production of methanol and ethanol after further optimization of the process and sample treatment.

  12. Application of response surface methodology to enhancement of biomass production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus E/N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Polak-Berecka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to study the effects of various medium components on biomass production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus E/N. This strain is commonly used in the pharmaceutical and food industries due to its beneficial effect on the human gut and general health. The best medium composition derived from RSM regression was (in g/l glucose 15.44, sodium pyruvate 3.92, meat extract 8.0, potassium phosphate 1.88, sodium acetate 4.7, and ammonium citrate 1.88. With this medium composition biomass production was 23 g/l of dry cell weight after 18 h of cultivation in bioreactor conditions, whereas on MRS the yield of biomass was 21 g/l of dry cell weight. The cost of 1 g of biomass obtained on MRS broth was calculated at the level of 0.44 € whereas on the new optimal medium it was 25% lower. It may be concluded then, that the new medium, being cheaper than the control MRS allows large scale commercial cultivation of the L. rhamnosus strain. This study is of relevance to food industry because the possibility to obtain high yield of bacterial biomass is necessary step in manufacturing of probiotic food.

  13. Biodiesel production potential of wastewater treatment high rate algal pond biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert; Farid, Mohammed M

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the year-round production potential and quality of biodiesel from wastewater treatment high rate algal pond (WWT HRAP) biomass and how it is affected by CO2 addition to the culture. The mean monthly pond biomass and lipid productivities varied between 2.0±0.3 and 11.1±2.5gVSS/m(2)/d, and between 0.5±0.1 and 2.6±1.1g/m(2)/d, respectively. The biomass fatty acid methyl esters were highly complex which led to produce low-quality biodiesel so that it cannot be used directly as a transportation fuel. Overall, 0.9±0.1g/m(2)/d (3.2±0.5ton/ha/year) low-quality biodiesel could be produced from WWT HRAP biomass which could be further increased to 1.1±0.1g/m(2)/d (4.0ton/ha/year) by lowering culture pH to 6-7 during warm summer months. CO2 addition, had little effect on both the biomass lipid content and profile and consequently did not change the quality of biodiesel.

  14. Influence of temperature on biomass production of clones of Atriplex halimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessena, Leonarda; Mulas, Maurizio

    2016-05-01

    A very effective tool to combat desertification is revegetation. Promising species for this purpose are the evergreen shrubs of the genus Atriplex. The objective of the research was to study the growing responses of Atriplex halimus under different thermal regimes and to evaluate the biomass accumulation of selected clones. The test was carried out in four sites of Sardinia Island (Italy) characterized by different latitude, altitude and air temperature trends along the year. In every site, potted plants of five clones of A. halimus were compared for biomass production as measured by linear growth of plants (central axis and secondary shoots), as well as by dry weight of leaves, shoots and roots per plant. Correlations between sums of hour-degrees under or above the thresholds of critical air temperatures, comprised between 0 and 35 °C, and the plant growth indicators were analysed. Differences among the five clones, with regard to the influence of low temperatures on plant growth and on the biomass production were evaluated. Among five tested clones, GIO1 and SAN3 resulted more sensitive to low temperatures. Clones MAR1, PAL1 and FAN3 resulted less sensitive to low temperatures and in the site characterized by the lowest minimum temperatures also have shown greater adaptability and thus biomass growth in the observed period. The clone PAL1 showed a lower shoot/root biomass ratio as adaptation to cold temperature, and the clone FAN3, the opposite behaviour and a general preference to temperate thermal regimes.

  15. Root Characteristics of Perennial Warm-Season Grasslands Managed for Grazing and Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Minirhizotrons were used to study root growth characteristics in recently established fields dominated by perennial C4-grasses that were managed either for cattle grazing or biomass production for bioenergy in Virginia, USA. Measurements over a 13-month period showed that grazing resulted in smaller total root volumes and root diameters. Under biomass management, root volume was 40% higher (49 vs. 35 mm3 and diameters were 20% larger (0.29 vs. 0.24 mm compared to grazing. While total root length did not differ between grazed and biomass treatments, root distribution was shallower under grazed areas, with 50% of total root length in the top 7 cm of soil, compared to 41% in ungrazed exclosures. These changes (i.e., longer roots and greater root volume in the top 10 cm of soil under grazing but the reverse at 17–28 cm soil depths were likely caused by a shift in plant species composition as grazing reduced C4 grass biomass and allowed invasion of annual unsown species. The data suggest that management of perennial C4 grasslands for either grazing or biomass production can affect root growth in different ways and this, in turn, may have implications for the subsequent carbon sequestration potential of these grasslands.

  16. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  17. Consolidated briefing of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achinas, Spyridon; Euverink, Gerrit Jan Willem

    2016-01-01

    Bioethanol production is one pathway for crude oil reduction and environmental compliance. Bioethanol can be used as fuel with significant characteristics like high octane number, low cetane number and high heat of vaporization. Its main drawbacks are the corrosiveness, low flame luminosity, lower v

  18. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass in improved production of ethanol and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ningjun; Gong, C.S.; Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Yutang Huang [Jilin Corn Research and Development Center (China)

    1996-12-31

    A highly efficient process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose using fungal cellulose and yeast to produce ethanol from lignocellulose pretreated with ammonia was developed. The process entails steeping the biomass with ammonia at ambient temperature to remove and extract lignin. This is followed by dilute acid hydrolysis at 100-108{degrees}C under atmospheric pressure to remove and recover a xylose-rich hemicellulose fraction as hemicellulose hydrolysate. This xylose-rich (92% xylose) hydrolysate was used as substrate for xylitol production by yeast and cellulose fraction was used for ethanol production in the SSF process with yeast. The same substrate was also used for 2,3-butanediol production in the SSF process with Klebsiella pneumonia. Experiments show that 98% of ammonia is recoverable for reuse and that the treated ground corn cob gives close to 86% theoretical yield of ethanol based on cellulose content. An ethanol concentration of over 60 g/L was obtained within 72 hours of SSF. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  19. New market potential: Torrefaction of Woody Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J. Richard Hess

    2015-07-01

    According to researchers in Idaho National Laboratory’s Bioenergy Program, torrefaction of woody biomass could reduce variability in biomass feedstock and enable development of a commodity-type product for green energy generation and usage.

  20. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World's Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Simon; Collingridge, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world's oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes) and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ≈4 fold when smaller individuals (biomass and production estimates, which have yet to be achieved with complex models, and will therefore help to highlight priorities for future research and data collection. However, the focus on simple model structures and global processes means that non-phytoplankton primary production and several groups, structures and processes of ecological and conservation interest are not represented

  1. A reanalysis of North Sea plaice spawning-stock biomass using the annual egg production method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.; Bolle, L.J.; Fossum, P.; Kraus, G.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty about the quality of current virtual population analysis-based stock assessment for North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) has led to various abundance indices. We compared biomass estimates from the annual egg production (AEP) method with current stock assessments based on catch-at-ag

  2. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biochemical and Products Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biochemical and Products Platform Review held on August 7-9, 2007 in Denver, Colorado.

  3. Biological formation of caproate and caprylate from acetate: fuel and chemical production from low grade biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This research introduces an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology for anaerobic digestion to recover valuable products from low grade biomass. In this mixed culture fermentation, organic waste streams are converted to caproate and caprylate as precursors for biodiesel or chemicals. It wa

  4. Improvement of biomass production and glucoamylase activity by Candida famata using factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbah, Habib; Aissa, Imen; Hassad, Nahla; Farh, Dhaker; Bakhrouf, Amina; Achour, Sami

    2016-07-01

    To improve biomass production and glucoamylase activity (GA) by Candida famata, culture conditions were optimized. A 2(3) full factorial design (FFD) with a response surface model was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of pH (X1 ), time of cultivation (X2 ), and starch concentration (X3 ) on the biomass production and enzyme activity. A total of 16 experiments were conducted toward the construction of an empiric model and a first-order equation. It was found that all factors (X1 , X2 , and X3 ) and their interactions were significant at a certain confidence level (P biomass production and GA of C. famata. Under this optimized medium, the experimental biomass production and GA obtained were 1.8 ± 0.54 g/L and 0.078 ± 0.012 µmol/L/Min, about 1.5- and 1.8-fold, respectively, higher than those in basal medium. The (R(2) ) coefficients obtained were 0.997 and 0.990, indicating an adequate degree of reliability in the model. Approximately 99% of validity of the predicted value was achieved.

  5. Radiation use efficiency, biomass production, and grain yield in two maize hybrids differing in drought tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought tolerant (DT) maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids have potential to increase yield under drought conditions. However, little information is known about the physiological determinations of yield in DT hybrids. Our objective was to assess radiation use efficiency (RUE), biomass production, and yield ...

  6. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in aBelarussian-American-Danish collaborative project. H...

  7. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    2006-01-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated with help of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from o

  8. Hyperspectral predictors for monitoring biomass production in Mediterranean mountain grasslands: Majella National Park, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    The research objective was to determine robust hyperspectral predictors for monitoring grass/herb biomass production on a yearly basis in the Majella National Park, Italy. HyMap images were acquired over the study area on 15 July 2004 and 4 July 2005. The robustness of vegetation indices and red-edg

  9. Intrinsic autotrophic biomass yield and productivity in algae: modeling spectral and mixing-rate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alexandra D; Wheeler, Dean R

    2011-05-01

    For non-inhibitory irradiances, the rate of algal biomass synthesis was modeled as the product of the algal autotrophic yield Φ(DW) and the flux of photons absorbed by the culture, as described using Beer-Lambert law. As a contrast to earlier attempts, the use of scatter-corrected extinction coefficients enabled the validation of such approach, which bypasses determination of photosynthesis-irradiance (PI) kinetic parameters. The broad misconception that PI curves, or the equivalent use of specific growth rate expressions independent of the biomass concentration, can be extended to adequately model biomass production under light-limitation is addressed. For inhibitory irradiances, a proposed mechanistic model, based on the photosynthetic units (PSU) concept, allows one to estimate a target speed νT across the photic zone in order to limit the flux of photons per cell to levels averting significant reductions in Φ(DW) . These modeled target speeds, on the order of 5-20 m s(-1) for high outdoor irradiances, call for fundamental changes in reactor design to optimize biomass productivity. The presented analysis enables a straightforward bioreactor parameterization, which, in-turn, guides the establishment of conditions ensuring maximum productivity and complete nutrients consumption. Additionally, solar and fluorescent lighting spectra were used to calculate energy to photon-counts conversion factors.

  10. Methane and hydrogen production from crop biomass through anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, O.

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of methane and hydrogen production from energy crops through anaerobic digestion was evaluated in this thesis. The effects of environmental conditions, e.g. pH and temperature, as well as inoculum source on H{sub 2} yield were studied in batch assays. In addition, the effects of pre-treatments on methane and hydrogen yield as well as the feasibility of two-stage H{sub 2} + CH{sub 4} production was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of storage on methane yield of grasses was evaluated. Monodigestion of grass silage for methane production was studied, as well as shifting the methanogenic process to hydrogenic. Hydrogen production from grass silage and maize was shown to be possible with heat-treated inoculum in batch assays, with highest H{sub 2} yields of 16.0 and 9.9 ml gVS{sub added}-1 from untreated grass silage and maize, respectively. Pre-treatments (NaOH, HCl and water-extraction) showed some potential in increasing H{sub 2} yields, while methane yields were not affected. Two-stage H{sub 2} + CH{sub 4} producing process was shown to improve CH{sub 4} yields when compared to traditional one-stage CH{sub 4} process. Methane yield from grass silage monodigestion in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 kgVS (m3d)-1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days was at most 218 l kgVS{sub fed}-1. Methanogenic process was shifted to hydrogenic by increasing the OLR to 10 kgVS (m3d)-1 and shortening the HRT to 6 days. Highest H{sub 2} yield from grass silage was 42 l kgVS{sub fed}-1 with a maximum H{sub 2} content of 24 %. Energy crops can be successfully stored even for prolonged periods without decrease in methane yield. However, under sub-optimal storage conditions loss in volatile solids (VS) content and methane yield can occur. According to present results energy crops such as grass silage and maize can be converted to hydrogen or methane in AD process. Hydrogen energy yields are typically only 2-5 % of the

  11. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, January 1, 1997--April 1, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1997-05-01

    The following information summarizes the major areas of project activities accomplished during the last quarter. Activities addressing conversion technology have been geared towards gathering information and drawing comparisons to specific project need. Of major benefit was the trip taken to Denmark by Project Manager, Edward Woolsey. The first section of this report provides an overview of his experiences and findings. As a follow up to this trip, representatives from Iowa State University and from IES Utilities will also visit some of these facilities. Their information will be included in the next report. At the supply development level, the RC&D has been working to identify and organize producers of swithgrass. A major accomplishment has been the formation of the Prairie Lands Bio-Products group. This association will explore different business structures that energy crop producers can use to supply biomass and to effectively market their materials to the energy industry. Thus, the group will begin to interact with IES in the next few months to determine how the supplier and the utility must interact to establish a working relationship and to efficiently provide biomass as a boiler fuel. Other major areas of focus for the group will be the development and implementation of risk management strategies to overcome income loss and allow acreage increases during market development. These strategies include the development of niche markets for swithgrass, the use of CRP lands, and outside sources of cost share for establishment.

  12. Management of warm-season grass mixtures for biomass production in South Dakota USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, V R; Owens, V N; Lee, D K

    2008-02-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), and indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash) are native warm-season grasses commonly used for pasture, hay, and conservation. More recently switchgrass has also been identified as a potential biomass energy crop, but management of mixtures of these species for biomass is not well documented. Therefore, the objectives of our study were to: (1) determine the effects of harvest timing and N rate on yield and biomass characteristics of established warm-season grass stands containing a mixture of switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass, and (2) evaluate the impact of harvest management on species composition. Five N rates (0, 56, 112, and 224 kg ha(-1) applied annually in spring and 224 kg ha(-1) evenly split between spring and fall) and two harvest timings (anthesis and killing frost) were applied to plots at two South Dakota USA locations from 2001 to 2003. Harvesting once a year shortly after a killing frost produced the greatest yields with high concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) along with lower concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and ash. This harvest timing also allowed for the greatest percentage of desirable species while maintaining low grass weed percentages. While N rates of 56 and 112 kg ha(-1) tended to increase total biomass without promoting severe invasion of grass and broadleaf weed species, N application did not always result in significant increases in biomass production. Based on these results, mixtures of switchgrass and big bluestem were well suited for sustainable biomass energy production. Furthermore, N requirements of these mixtures were relatively low thus reducing production input costs.

  13. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    The main constituents rendering the engine use of gas produced from biomass are the tar content of the gases (condensing hydrocarbons), which cause problems for pipings, nozzles, and control of combustion. Purification methods, based on catalytic cracking of tars are investigated in the research in order to eliminate these problems. The target of the project is to demonstrate the developed gasification/gas purification process with engine test using PDU-scale equipment. Impurities of biomasses and biomass wastes (alkalis, chlorine, heavy metals), and the ash melting properties restrict in many cases the combined utilisation of biomasses and coal in power plant boilers. The second main task of this research