WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass measurements validation

  1. Grate Firing of Biomass: Measurements, Validation and Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    interpreted as a cross-flow reactor, where biomass is fed in a thick layer perpendicular to the direction of primary air. The bottom of the biomass bed is exposed to preheated inlet air while the top of the bed resides within the furnace. CFD modelling of biomass-fired grate furnaces is inherently difficult...... modelling grate furnaces. General guidelines for CFD simulation of grate furnaces are also given, and demonstrated through the sensitivity analysis. The CFD results are finally compared to the data from measurement campaigns, which are one of other parts of the project PSO4792 and the detailed results are...... documented separately. The comparison shows some discrepancies, indicating that further efforts are needed, e.g., to better evaluate the impact of the combustion instabilities in the fuel bed and the impact of the deposit on both the CFD modelling (particularly the definition of the boundary conditions) and...

  2. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: II—Model validation, and impacts on air quality and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Mitchell, Ross M.; (Mick) Meyer, C. P.; Qin, Yi; Campbell, Susan; Gras, John L.; Parry, David

    This two-part series investigates the emission and transport of biomass burning aerosol (or particulate matter) across the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. In Part I, Meyer et al. [2008. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: I—Modelling the distribution of hourly emissions. Atmospheric Environment, in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.089.] used a fuel load distribution coupled with a satellite-derived imagery of fire scars and hotspots and the diurnal variation of a fire danger index to estimate hourly emission rates of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5) for the dry season April-November 2004 at a spatial resolution of 1 km×1 km. In the present paper, these emission rates are used in TAPM, a three-dimensional meteorological and air pollution model, and the modelled PM 2.5 concentrations and aerosol optical depths are compared with satellite and ground-based measurements. This exercise also seeks to fine-tune and validate the emission calculation methodology, a process through which it is found that cases with hotspots without any corresponding fire scars (e.g. in mountainous terrain), which were initially ignored, need to be included to improve the accuracy of model predictions. Overall, the model is able to describe the measurements satisfactorily, considering the issues associated with the model resolution, emission uncertainty, and modelled meteorology. The model hindcasts numerous exceedences of the advisory maximum PM 2.5 exposure limit across the study region, with large areas in excess of 30 exceedences during the study period. Estimated mean top of atmosphere direct radiative forcing due to aerosol shows a seasonal mean of -1.8 W m -2 with a region of strong enhancement over the western portion of the Top End.

  3. Ecosystem scale measurements of biomass water using cosmic-ray neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T. E.; Zreda, M. G.; Rosolem, R.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Irvin, S.; Adams, H. D.; Kolb, T.; Zweck, C.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate estimates of biomass are imperative for understanding the global carbon cycle. However, measurements of biomass and water in the biomass are difficult to obtain at a scale consistent with measurements of mass and energy transfer, ~ 1 km, leading to substantial uncertainty in dynamic global vegetation models. Here we use a novel cosmic-ray neutron method to estimate a stoichiometric predictor of ecosystem-scale biomass and biomass water equivalent over tens of hectares. We present results from three experimental studies, a ponderosa pine forest, a maize field, and a desert shrubland, where neutron-derived estimates of biomass water equivalent are compared and found consistent with direct observations. In addition, we will describe the uncertainty in the measurements, which are dominated by the largest hydrogen pool sensed of soil moisture. Given the new hectometer scale of nondestructive observation and potential for continuous measurements we anticipate this technique to be useful for validation of remote sensing products.

  4. Performance modelling and validation of biomass gasifiers for trigeneration plants

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Arnavat, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This thesis develops a simple but rigorous model for simulation, design and preliminary evaluation of trigeneration plants based on biomass gasification. It includes a review and study of various models proposed for the biomass gasification process and different plant configurations. A modified thermodynamic equilibrium model is developed for application to real processes that do not reach equilibrium. In addition, two artificial neural network models, based on experimental published data, ar...

  5. Biomass carbon-14 ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement methods of a biomass carbon ratio in biomass products based on 14C-radiocarbon concentration have been reviewed. Determination of the biomass carbon ratio in biomass products is important to secure the reliance in the commercial market, because the 'biomass products' could contain products from petroleum. The biomass carbon ratio can be determined from percent Modern Carbon (pMC) using ASTM D6866 methods. The pMC value is calculated from the comparison between the 14C in sample and 14C in reference material. The 14C concentration in chemical products can be measured by liquid scintillation counter (LSC) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). LSC can be applicable to determine the biomass carbon ratio for liquid samples such as gasoline with bioethanol (E5 or E10). On the other hand, AMS can be used to determine the biomass carbon ratio for almost all kinds of organic and inorganic compounds such as starch, cellulose, ethanol, gasoline, or polymer composite with inorganic fillers. AMS can accept the gaseous and solid samples. The graphite derived from samples included in solid phase is measured by AMS. The biomass carbon of samples derived from wood were higher than 100% due to the effect of atomic bomb test in the atmosphere around 1950 which caused the artificial 14C injection. Exact calculation methods of the biomass carbon ratio from pMC will be required for the international standard (ISO standard). (author)

  6. Remote Characterization of Biomass Measurements: Case Study of Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately quantifying forest biomass is of crucial importance for climate change studies. By quantifying the amount of above and below ground biomass and consequently carbon stored in forest ecosystems, we are able to derive estimates of carbon sequestration, emission and storage and help close the carbon budget. Mangrove forests, in addition to providing habitat and nursery grounds for over 1300 animal species, are also an important sink of biomass. Although they only constitute about 3% of the total forested area globally, their carbon storage capacity -- in forested biomass and soil carbon -- is greater than that of tropical forests (Lucas et al, 2007). In addition, the amount of mangrove carbon -- in the form of litter and leaves exported into offshore areas is immense, resulting in over 10% of the ocean's dissolved organic carbon originating from mangroves (Dittmar et al, 2006) The measurement of forest above ground biomass is carried out on two major scales: on the plot scale, biomass can be measured using field measurements through allometric equation derivation and measurements of forest plots. On the larger scale, the field data are used to calibrate remotely sensed data to obtain stand-wide or even regional estimates of biomass. Currently, biomass can be calculated using average stand biomass values and optical data, such as aerial photography or satellite images (Landsat, Modis, Ikonos, SPOT, etc.). More recent studies have concentrated on deriving forest biomass values using radar (JERS, SIR-C, SRTM, Airsar) and/or lidar (ICEsat/GLAS, LVIS) active remote sensing to retrieve more accurate and detailed measurements of forest biomass. The implementation of a generation of new active sensors (UAVSar, DesdynI, Alos/Palsar, TerraX) has prompted the development of new tecm'liques of biomass estimation that use the combination of multiple sensors and datasets, to quantify past, current and future biomass stocks. Focusing on mangrove forest biomass estimation

  7. The measurement of instrumental ADL: content validity and construct validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Schultz-Larsen, K; Kreiner, S

    1993-01-01

    A new measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), which is able to discriminate among the large group of elderly who do not depend on help, was tested for content validity and construct validity. Most assessments of functional ability include Physical ADL (PADL) and Instrumental ADL....... The measure of Instrumental ADL included 30 activities in relation to tiredness and reduced speed. Construct validity was tested by the Rasch model for item analysis; internal validity was specifically addressed by assessing the homogeneity of items under different conditions. The Rasch item analysis...... of IADL showed that 14 items could be combined into two qualitatively different additive scales. The IADL-measure complies with demands for content validity, distinguishes between what the elderly actually do, and what they are capable of doing, and is a good discriminator among the group of elderly...

  8. Measuring Forest Biomass and Height from Space - Results from the assessment of ESA's BIOMASS satellite concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipal, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge about forest above-ground biomass is of fundamental importance in quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle, but is also crucial in assessing forest resources and the ecosystem services provided by forests, and is an essential element in assessing carbon fluxes under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. For most parts of the world, in particular the tropical forests, information on biomass is currently very limited, at very coarse scales, and subject to large and unquantified errors. In response to the urgent need for greatly improved mapping of global biomass and the lack of any current space systems capable of addressing this need, the BIOMASS mission was proposed to the European Space Agency for the third cycle of Earth Explorer Core missions and was selected for Feasibility Study (Phase A) in March 2009. Over the five-year mission lifetime, it shall map the full range of the world's above-ground biomass with accuracy and spatial resolution compatible with the needs of national scale inventory and carbon flux calculations, and will map changes in forest biomass. The mission will carry a polarimetric P-Band SAR, capable of providing both direct measurements of biomass derived from inverting intensity data, and measurements of forest height derived from polarimetric interferometry. The BIOMASS payload consists of a fully polarimetric system operated at a centre frequency of 435 MHz (P-band) with a bandwidth of 6 MHz. To enable measurements at a scale comparable to that of deforestation and forest disturbance (i.e. around 1 ha), it is envisaged that BIOMASS will provide level-1 products with around 50 m x 50 m resolution at 4 looks, so around 16 looks at a scale of 1 ha. The satellite shall fly in a sun-synchronous dawn-dusk orbit to minimise ionospheric disturbances with a controlled drift to meet the revisit requirement for forest height recovery using Pol-InSAR techniques. The revisit time will be between 25-45 days to maintain

  9. Measurement and characteristics of microbial biomass in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil microbial biomass is the primary agent responsible for the breakdown and mineralization of soil organic matter and plays a major role in regulating nutrient availability to plants. In this study, methods for measuring biomass in soil were compared and tested in forest soils ranging in pH from 3.2 to 7.2. A good relationship between biomass C measured using the chloroform fumigation-incubation method and soil ATP or microbial biomass C by direct microscopy was found in soils at or above pH 4.2. The fumigation-incubation method consistently underestimated biomass C in soils below pH 4.2, however. Hypotheses for the breakdown of the fumigation-incubation method in strongly acid soils were tested by using an alterative fumigant, measuring the proportion of added 14C labelled fungi and bacteria decomposed in fumigated soils (k/sub C/), and by studying the effect of large, non-fumigated soil inocula on the flush of respiration following fumigation. These studies indicated that the failure of the method in strongly acid soils was due to inhibited decomposition of non-microbial soil organic matter by the microbial recolonizing population following fumigation. A modified method for measuring biomass C by fumigation-incubation in acid soils is proposed

  10. Remote Characterization Of Biomass Measurements: Case Study Of Mangrove Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Fatoyinbo, Lola

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of aboveground biomass in forest ecosystems, including mangroves, is important for Carbon storage and cycling studies, mitigation of climate change and management of natural resources. In recent years, accurately quantifying biomass and carbon storage has become increasingly important for financial mechanisms of carbon emission mitigation such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). In particular the UNFCCC and IPCC are pushing for increased large scale for...

  11. System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick W

    2011-04-12

    A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

  12. Food intake measurements: their validity and reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van W.A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis reports on the validity and the reproduciblity of methods assessing food consumption in groups of free-living Dutch adults consuming self-selected diets. The validity of a method, that is the demonstration that a method measures what it is intended to measure, can only be assessed by com

  13. Particle emission measurement campaign for biomass heating systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at assessing the energetic and environmental performance of operating biomass heating systems, more particularly with respect to regulatory and required limit values of particle emissions. The measurement campaign concerned 14 biomass heating installations of less than 4 MW equipped with either a cyclone-type de-duster, or a sleeve filter, or electro-filters. The report discusses the measured parameters (wood and ash analysis, atmospheric releases) and the applied methodology (sampling and measurements). It describes the methodology used to compute energetic and environmental performance (efficiency, load rate, emission factors), and finally discusses the obtained results

  14. Detecting tropical forest biomass dynamics from repeated airborne lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Meyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing uncertainty of terrestrial carbon cycle depends strongly on the accurate estimation of changes of global forest carbon stock. However, this is a challenging problem from either ground surveys or remote sensing techniques in tropical forests. Here, we examine the feasibility of estimating changes of tropical forest biomass from two airborne lidar measurements of forest height acquired about 10 yr apart over Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama. We used the forest inventory data from the 50 ha Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS plot collected every 5 yr during the study period to calibrate the estimation. We compared two approaches for detecting changes in forest aboveground biomass (AGB: (1 relating changes in lidar height metrics from two sensors directly to changes in ground-estimated biomass; and (2 estimating biomass from each lidar sensor and then computing changes in biomass from the difference of two biomass estimates, using two models, namely one model based on five relative height metrics and the other based only on mean canopy height (MCH. We performed the analysis at different spatial scales from 0.04 ha to 10 ha. Method (1 had large uncertainty in directly detecting biomass changes at scales smaller than 10 ha, but provided detailed information about changes of forest structure. The magnitude of error associated with both the mean biomass stock and mean biomass change declined with increasing spatial scales. Method (2 was accurate at the 1 ha scale to estimate AGB stocks (R2 = 0.7 and RMSEmean = 27.6 Mg ha−1. However, to predict biomass changes, errors became comparable to ground estimates only at a spatial scale of about 10 ha or more. Biomass changes were in the same direction at the spatial scale of 1 ha in 60 to 64% of the subplots, corresponding to p values of respectively 0.1 and 0.033. Large errors in estimating biomass changes from lidar data resulted from the uncertainty in detecting changes at 1 ha from ground

  15. A Survey on Internal Validity Measure for Cluster Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Jegatha Deborah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Data Clustering is a technique of finding similar characteristics among the data set which are always hidden in nature and grouping them into groups, called as clusters. Different clustering algorithms exhibit different results, since they are very sensitive to the characteristics of original data set especially noise and dimension. The quality of such clustering process determines the purity of cluster and hence it is very important to evaluate the results of the clustering algorithm. Due to this, Cluster validation activity had been a major and challenging task. The major factor which influences cluster validation is the internal cluster validity measure of choosing the optimal number of clusters. The main objective of this article is to present a detailed description of the mathematical working of few cluster validity indices and not all, to classify these indices and to explore the ideas for the future promotion of the work in the domain of cluster validation. In addition to this, a maximization objective function is defined assuming to provide a cluster validation activity.

  16. Biomass measurement of living Lumbriculus variegatus with impedance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sammer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Impedance spectroscopy is a useful tool for non-invasive and real time measurements of cell suspensions and a variety of biological tissues. The objective of this study was the investigation of the dielectric properties of living aquatic worms (Lumbriculus variegatus using impedance spectroscopy in a frequency range between 100 Hz and 10 MHz. We demonstrate a linear relation between the worm biomass and the phase response of the signal thereby providing a quick and precise method to determine the biomass of aquatic worms in situ. Possible applications for non-destructive online biomass monitoring of aquatic worms and other aqueous organisms are discussed. Furthermore, we show that groups of worms fed different diets can be distinguished by the method presented. These results reveal a close relationship between the nutritional composition of the worms and the measured phase response. We also demonstrate that the phase response at 90 kHz does not depend on the worm size. In contrast, the response function for the signal at 440 Hz reveals a linear correlation of average individual worm size and phase. Therefore, we conclude that the measured phase response at 90 kHz qualifies as a measure of the total amount of worm biomass present in the measuring cell, whereas the phase measurement at 440 Hz can be used to estimate the average individual worm size. 

  17. Validation of protein carbonyl measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustyniak, Edyta; Adam, Aisha; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Willetts, Rachel; Korkmaz, Ayhan; Atalay, Mustafa; Weber, Daniela; Grune, Tilman; Borsa, Claudia; Gradinaru, Daniela; Chand Bollineni, Ravi; Fedorova, Maria; Griffiths, Helen R

    Protein carbonyls are widely analysed as a measure of protein oxidation. Several different methods exist for their determination. A previous study had described orders of magnitude variance that existed when protein carbonyls were analysed in a single laboratory by ELISA using different commercial...... protein carbonyl analysis across Europe. ELISA and Western blotting techniques detected an increase in protein carbonyl formation between 0 and 5min of UV irradiation irrespective of method used. After irradiation for 15min, less oxidation was detected by half of the laboratories than after 5min...

  18. Measuring Forest Height and Biomass from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueh, Temilola Elisabeth Fato

    2013-01-01

    Talk about doing earth science at NASA and how what we do is focus on the biosphere- that is the living portion of the earth.In particular, we are interested in looking at forests-quantifying deforestation, regrowth, change in general and helping develop new cutting-edge technologies and instruments to be able to measure these changes in land use, land cover and quality more accurately.

  19. Measurement-Reliability-Validity in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Cakmur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Science use measurement understanding, evaluating and differentiating. Measurement is the display of a feature belonging to an object, fact or attitude with countable symbols. Scientific measurements is intended to create value in relation to a particular phenomenon or the comparision predetermined value. In case there is no predetermined norm value which displays the generalisation of the measurement, problems of reliability and validity arise. In this study, reliability and validity concepts in measurements made without a predetermined value were analyzed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 339-344

  20. Fossil- and bio-mass combustion: C-14 for source identification, chemical tracer development, and model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaceous gases and aerosols emitted during fossil- and bio-mass combustion processes have significant impacts on regional health and visibility, and on global climate. 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has become the accepted standard for quantitatively partitioning individual combustion products between fossil and biospheric sources. Increased demands for source apportionment of toxic gases/vapors such as carbon monoxide and benzene, and toxic aerosol species such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, however, have led to increased needs for chemical source tracers. As a result, the application of atmospheric 14C measurements has been extended to the discovery of new chemical tracers and the validation of the related apportionment models. These newer applications of 14C are illustrated by recent investigations of: 1) sources of excessive concentrations of carbon monoxide and benzene in the urban atmosphere during the winter, as related to combustion source control strategies; and 2) the development/validation of potassium and hydrocarbon tracer models for the apportionment of mutagenic aerosols from biomass (wood) burning and motor vehicle emissions. Among the important consequences of these studies are new insights into potential limitations of elemental tracer models for biomass burning, and the impact of bivariate (isotopic, mass) chemical blanks on atmospheric 14C-AMS data. ((orig.))

  1. A framework for creating and validating a non-linear spectrum-biomass model to estimate the secondary succession biomass in moist tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Mausel, Paul; Brondizio, Eduardo; Deardorff, David

    Uncertainties remain in the use of remote sensing technologies to provide validated model-derived estimates of the biomass of the secondary succession (SS) forests in the Amazon Basin. The objectives of this study were to develop a modeling framework for creating a valid spectrum-biomass model to estimate the SS biomass, to assess the utility of the framework and the accuracy and validity of the model, and to identify the model's determinants. Data sources for this study include 1992-1993 vegetation inventory data and 1991 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data on the Altamira region of Para, Brazil, and 1994-1995 vegetation inventory data and 1994 Landsat TM data on the nearby Bragantina region. The allometric approach was used to estimate the biomass of the sampled sites based on the vegetation inventory data. A framework for the spectrum-biomass regression model was developed based on the estimated biomass of the sampled sites and the Landsat data. The framework includes (1) the pooling of data from Bragantina and the use of ANCOVA to justify this approach; (2) image calibration; (3) biomass data age-adjustment, (4) selection of independent variables, (5) regression model development, and (6) model assessment and validation. The cubic regression model with TM Band5-related predictors was found to best fit the data as evidenced by an adjusted R-squared value of 0.865, mean square error (MSE) of the model, and the analysis of residuals. Residual analysis showed that the model might yield a better estimation on a lower biomass values than on higher biomass values. In addition, further analyses identified several determinants that can impact the accuracy of the spectrum-biomass model. ANCOVA confirmed that the relationship between the biomass and the spectrum is independent of the Altamira and Bragantina regions, and that it was appropriate to pool sampled data from both regions in the proposed model. The model development methodology and the model produced from this

  2. Multi basin desalination using biomass heat source and analytical validation using RSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biomass boiler is coupled with multi basin solar still. • Top basin is divided into small stepped basins. • Surface response method is used for analytical validation. • Biomass is eco-friendly. • Higher productivity than conventional still. - Abstract: In this field a multi basin solar still is, used to heighten the productivity. The concept of integrating the multi basin still with biomass heat source is introduced in this research area. In the multi basin still heat exchanger is placed at the bottom end of the watershed region. The heat exchanger is connected to the biomass boiler heat source to create heat energy. This system increases the water temperature in the sword and also increases the productivity in the blade. The upper watershed is separated into small stepped basins. So the flat plate collector and stepped basin are used to increase the turnout in this work. The heat from lower basin is used by the upper basin for desalination. Experiments are conducted with various water depths. In this work the solar still behaves like a capacitor. A conventional still is fabricated and run parallel with the experimental setup for comparison. Sensible heat storage materials such as cement blocks, sand, glass eggs are added to the tail end and top basins to increase water temperature. Latent heat storage materials such as water, wax are introduced in the material body of small pellets to increase productivity. Biomass such as wood, wood wastes, palm wastes is tried in this workplace. A higher productivity is obtained for sensible storage materials when compared to latent heat storage. Theoretical analysis is performed by using RSM (response surface methodology) well agrees with experimental values. The efficiency of the system is compared with conventional still. Experiments are conducted in once flow mode, continuous stream mode and solar modes. Output from RSM are compared with experimental values for error analysis

  3. Validation of modelled forest biomass in Germany using BETHY/DLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tum, M.; Buchhorn, M.; Günther, K. P.; Haller, B. C.

    2011-11-01

    We present a new approach to the validation of modelled forest Net Primary Productivity (NPP), using empirical data on the mean annual increment, or MAI, in above-ground forest stock. The soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer model BETHY/DLR is used, with a particular focus on a detailed parameterization of photosynthesis, to estimate the NPP of forest areas in Germany, driven by remote sensing data from VEGETATION, meteorological data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and additional tree coverage information from the MODIS Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF). The output of BETHY/DLR, Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), is converted to NPP by subtracting the cumulative plant maintenance and growth respiration, and then validated against MAI data that was calculated from German forestry inventories. Validation is conducted for 2000 and 2001 by converting modelled NPP to stem volume at a regional level. Our analysis shows that the presented method fills an important gap in methods for validating modelled NPP against empirically derived data. In addition, we examine theoretical energy potentials calculated from the modelled and validated NPP, assuming sustainable forest management and using species-specific tree heating values. Such estimated forest biomass energy potentials play an important role in the sustainable energy debate.

  4. Validation of modelled forest biomass in Germany using BETHY/DLR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to the validation of modelled forest Net Primary Productivity (NPP, using empirical data on the mean annual increment, or MAI, in above-ground forest stock. The soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer model BETHY/DLR is used, with a particular focus on a detailed parameterization of photosynthesis, to estimate the NPP of forest areas in Germany, driven by remote sensing data from VEGETATION, meteorological data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, and additional tree coverage information from the MODIS Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF. The output of BETHY/DLR, Gross Primary Productivity (GPP, is converted to NPP by subtracting the cumulative plant maintenance and growth respiration, and then validated against MAI data that was calculated from German forestry inventories. Validation is conducted for 2000 and 2001 by converting modelled NPP to stem volume at a regional level. Our analysis shows that the presented method fills an important gap in methods for validating modelled NPP against empirically derived data. In addition, we examine theoretical energy potentials calculated from the modelled and validated NPP, assuming sustainable forest management and using species-specific tree heating values. Such estimated forest biomass energy potentials play an important role in the sustainable energy debate.

  5. Estimating aboveground biomass in interior Alaska with Landsat data and field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Nossov, Dana R.; Peterson, Birgit; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Rover, Jennifer; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial plant biomass is a key biophysical parameter required for understanding ecological systems in Alaska. An accurate estimation of biomass at a regional scale provides an important data input for ecological modeling in this region. In this study, we created an aboveground biomass (AGB) map at 30-m resolution for the Yukon Flats ecoregion of interior Alaska using Landsat data and field measurements. Tree, shrub, and herbaceous AGB data in both live and dead forms were collected in summers and autumns of 2009 and 2010. Using the Landsat-derived spectral variables and the field AGB data, we generated a regression model and applied this model to map AGB for the ecoregion. A 3-fold cross-validation indicated that the AGB estimates had a mean absolute error of 21.8 Mg/ha and a mean bias error of 5.2 Mg/ha. Additionally, we validated the mapping results using an airborne lidar dataset acquired for a portion of the ecoregion. We found a significant relationship between the lidar-derived canopy height and the Landsat-derived AGB (R2 = 0.40). The AGB map showed that 90% of the ecoregion had AGB values ranging from 10 Mg/ha to 134 Mg/ha. Vegetation types and fires were the primary factors controlling the spatial AGB patterns in this ecoregion.

  6. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. van Leeuwen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter ha−1, tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126, temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93, boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39, pasture (n = 6, FC = 28, crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5, chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32, tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314, boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42, and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40. Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  7. Validation of measured friction by process tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten; Henningsen, Poul; Tan, Xincai;

    The objective of sub-task 3.3 is to evaluate under actual process conditions the friction formulations determined by simulative testing. As regards task 3.3 the following tests have been used according to the original project plan: 1. standard ring test and 2. double cup extrusion test. The task...... has, however, been extended to include a number of new developed process tests: 3. forward rod extrusion test, 4. special ring test at low normal pressure, 5. spike test (especially developed for warm and hot forging). Validation of the measured friction values in cold forming from sub-task 3.1 has...... been made with forward rod extrusion, and very good agreement was obtained between the measured friction values in simulative testing and process testing....

  8. Uav-Based Automatic Tree Growth Measurement for Biomass Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpina, M.; Jarząbek-Rychard, M.; Tymków, P.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Manual in-situ measurements of geometric tree parameters for the biomass volume estimation are time-consuming and economically non-effective. Photogrammetric techniques can be deployed in order to automate the measurement procedure. The purpose of the presented work is an automatic tree growth estimation based on Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) imagery. The experiment was conducted in an agriculture test field with scots pine canopies. The data was collected using a Leica Aibotix X6V2 platform equipped with a Nikon D800 camera. Reference geometric parameters of selected sample plants were measured manually each week. In situ measurements were correlated with the UAV data acquisition. The correlation aimed at the investigation of optimal conditions for a flight and parameter settings for image acquisition. The collected images are processed in a state of the art tool resulting in a generation of dense 3D point clouds. The algorithm is developed in order to estimate geometric tree parameters from 3D points. Stem positions and tree tops are identified automatically in a cross section, followed by the calculation of tree heights. The automatically derived height values are compared to the reference measurements performed manually. The comparison allows for the evaluation of automatic growth estimation process. The accuracy achieved using UAV photogrammetry for tree heights estimation is about 5cm.

  9. High temporal resolution measurements of biomass burning events during summertime in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Zarmpas, Pavlos; Theodosi, Christina; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Canonaco, Francesco; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    Several major wildfires occurred at the Greek islands of Chios, Euboea and Andros during the summer of 2012. The corresponding biomass burning-influenced air masses were studied at the remote background site of Finokalia, Crete. The smoke was transported several hundreds of kilometers, arriving at the measurement station after approximately half a day of atmospheric processing, mostly during night-time. The origin of air masses was confirmed by back-trajectory analyses and the chemical composition of the particulate matter was studied by different high-resolution measurements, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), and a seven wavelengths aethalometer. Despite the distance between the islands and the travel time, a clear biomass burning profile containing characteristic markers could be derived from BC measurements and exploiting the statistical tool Multilinear Engine (ME-2). During these events aerosol particles contained a noteworthy amount of black carbon, ranging from 2.8 up to 5 μg m-3, which exceeds typical background values by a factor of 8 or more. Simultaneously organic matter concentrations increased significantly. In the case of the island of Chios fires the fine PM levels exceeded background values by a factor of 4 ranging from 2.9 to11.6 μg m-3. PMF is a statistical tool used to deconvolve the organic aerosol spectral matrix measured by the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), resulting in a number of components/factors that are a posteriori validated as possible sources. A successful unconstrained run (PMF) within the Multilinear Engine (ME-2) over the fire events only, lead to a clear biomass burning profile which correlates well with reference biomass burning spectra (R2=0.9). The model was rerun over the entire period by constraining this biomass burning profile and the fire events were all well-represented. More than 70% of the measured OA is "aged", oxidized organic aerosol, which correlates well with reference OOA

  10. Perovskite sensing materials for syngas composition monitoring and biomass gasifier numerical model validation: A preliminary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallozzi, V.; Di Carlo, A.; Zaza, F.; Villarini, M.; Carlini, M.; Bocci, E.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass gasification represents a suitable choice for global environmental impact reduction, but more efforts on the process efficiency need to be conducted in order to enhance the use of this technology. Studies on inputs and outputs of the process, as well as measurements and controls of syngas composition and correlated organic and inorganic impurities, are crucial points for the optimization of the entire process: models of the system and sensing devices are, thus, very attractive for this purpose. In particular, perovskite based chemoresistive sensors could represent a promising technology, since their simplicity in function, relatively low cost and direct high temperature operation. The aim of this work is to develop a steam fluidized bed biomass gasifier model, for the prediction of the process gas composition, and new perovskite compounds, LaFeO3 based, as sensing material of chemoresistive sensors for syngas composition and impurities measurements. Chemometric analysis on the combustion synthesis via citrate-nitrate technique of LaFeO3 was also performed, in order to evaluate the relationship between synthesis conditions and perovskite materials and, thus, sensor properties. Performance of different sensors will be tested, in next works, with the support of the developed gasifier model.

  11. Image fusion tool: Validation by phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Validation of a new image fusion tool with regard to handling, application in a clinical environment and fusion precision under different acquisition and registration settings. Methods: The image fusion tool investigated allows fusion of imaging modalities such as PET, CT, MRI. In order to investigate fusion precision, PET and MRI measurements were performed using a cylinder and a body contour-shaped phantom. The cylinder phantom (diameter and length 20 cm each) contained spheres (10 to 40 mm in diameter) which represented 'cold' or 'hot' lesions in PET measurements. The body contour-shaped phantom was equipped with a heart model containing two 'cold' lesions. Measurements were done with and without four external markers placed on the phantoms. The markers were made of plexiglass (2 cm diameter and 1 cm thickness) and contained a Ga-Ge-68 core for PET and Vitamin E for MRI measurements. Comparison of fusion results with and without markers was done visually and by computer assistance. This algorithm was applied to the different fusion parameters and phantoms. Results: Image fusion of PET and MRI data without external markers yielded a measured error of 0 resulting in a shift at the matrix border of 1.5 mm. Conclusion: The image fusion tool investigated allows a precise fusion of PET and MRI data with a translation error acceptable for clinical use. The error is further minimized by using external markers, especially in the case of missing anatomical orientation. Using PET the registration error depends almost only on the low resolution of the data

  12. Validation of Airborne CO2 Laser Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Kooi, S.; Fenn, M. A.; Choi, Y.; Vay, S. A.; Harrison, F. W.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    This paper discusses the flight test validation of a unique, multi-frequency, intensity-modulated, single-beam laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) that operates near 1.57 μm for remote column CO2 measurements. This laser system is under development for a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of regional-scale CO2 sources and sinks, which is the objective of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions during Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. A prototype of this LAS system, called the Multi-frequency Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), was developed by ITT, and it has been flight tested in nine airborne campaigns since May 2005. This paper focuses on the most recent results obtained over the last two years of flight-testing where the MFLL remote CO2 column measurements were evaluated against airborne in situ CO2 profile measurements traceable to World Meteorological Organization standards. A comprehensive multiple-aircraft flight test program was conducted over Oklahoma and Virginia in July-August 2009. The MFLL obtained surface reflectance and average CO2 column variations along the 50-km flight legs over the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility (CF) in Lamont, Oklahoma; over rural Virginia and North Carolina; and over the Chesapeake Bay. For a flight altitude of 4.6 km, the average signal to noise ratio (SNR) for a 1-s CO2 column measurement was found to be 760, which is the equivalent of a CO2 mixing ratio precision of 0.60 ppmv, and for a 10-s average the SNR was found to be 2002 or 0.20 ppmv. Absolute comparisons of MFLL-derived and in situ-derived CO2 column measurements were made for all daytime flights conducted over Oklahoma and Virginia with an average agreement to within 0.32 ppmv. A major ASCENDS flight test campaign was conducted using the NASA DC-8 during 6-18 July 2010. The MFLL system and associated in situ CO2 instrumentation were operated on DC-8 flights over the Central Valley

  13. Biomass Burning Aerosol Absorption Measurements with MODIS Using the Critical Reflectance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Martins, Vanderlei J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2010-01-01

    This research uses the critical reflectance technique, a space-based remote sensing method, to measure the spatial distribution of aerosol absorption properties over land. Choosing two regions dominated by biomass burning aerosols, a series of sensitivity studies were undertaken to analyze the potential limitations of this method for the type of aerosol to be encountered in the selected study areas, and to show that the retrieved results are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the assumptions used in the retrieval of smoke aerosol. The critical reflectance technique is then applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to retrieve the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) in South African and South American 35 biomass burning events. The retrieved results were validated with collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals. One standard deviation of mean MODIS retrievals match AERONET products to within 0.03, the magnitude of the AERONET uncertainty. The overlap of the two retrievals increases to 88%, allowing for measurement variance in the MODIS retrievals as well. The ensemble average of MODIS-derived SSA for the Amazon forest station is 0.92 at 670 nm, and 0.84-0.89 for the southern African savanna stations. The critical reflectance technique allows evaluation of the spatial variability of SSA, and shows that SSA in South America exhibits higher spatial variation than in South Africa. The accuracy of the retrieved aerosol SSA from MODIS data indicates that this product can help to better understand 44 how aerosols affect the regional and global climate.

  14. IASI measurements of reactive trace species in biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-F. Coheur

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents observations of a series of short-lived species in biomass burning plumes from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, launched onboard the MetOp-A platform in October 2006. The strong fires that have occurred in the Mediterranean Basin – and particularly Greece – in August 2007, and those in Southern Siberia and Eastern Mongolia in the early spring of 2008 are selected to support the analyses. We show that the IASI infrared spectra in these fire plumes contain distinctive signatures of ammonia (NH3, ethene (C2H4, methanol (CH3OH and formic acid (HCOOH in the atmospheric window between 800 and 1200 cm−1, with some noticeable differences between the plumes. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3COOONO2, abbreviated as PAN was also observed with good confidence in some plumes and a tentative assignment of a broadband absorption spectral feature to acetic acid (CH3COOH is made. For several of these species these are the first reported measurements made from space in nadir geometry. The IASI measurements are analyzed for plume height and concentration distributions of NH3, C2H4 and CH3OH. The Greek fires are studied in greater detail for the days associated with the largest emissions. In addition to providing information on the spatial extent of the plume, the IASI retrievals allow an estimate of the total mass emissions for NH3, C2H4 and CH3OH. Enhancement ratios are calculated for the latter relative to carbon monoxide (CO, giving insight in the chemical processes occurring during the transport, the first day after the emission.

  15. SMOS Measurements Preliminary Validation: Objectives and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Roberto; Gourrion, Jerome; Gabarró, Carolina; Talone, Marco; Portabella, Marcos; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Lopez de Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Camps, Adriano; Monerris, Alessandra; Font, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    strategy to mitigate the scene-dependent bias found in the SMOS measurements. The comparison of TB departures distributions will be performed within specific classes, aiming at reducing the degrees of freedom of the measurement. Namely, the data will be sorted according to the incidence angle, the wind speed, the across-track distance, the radiometric accuracy and the spatial resolution. Concerning SSS, in turn, the proposed activities will involve inter-comparisons with various external salinity sources. As a further classification, external sources can be distinguished into data coming from models and data collected in-situ. The validation strategy foresees the comparison of SSS misfit (retrieved SSS minus ground-truth SSS) distributions within specific classes. This will be performed sorting geographical areas (different oceans, different zonal frames) and geophysical conditions (e.g. low/high surface temperature, wind speed and SSS conditions). Specific comparisons with in-situ data coming from oceanographic cruises transects and from VOS (Voluntary Observatory Ships) are foreseen, as well as against moored buoys, profilers, and drifters. These data will be arranged in specific match-up datasets, to properly organize the spatio-temporal collocation of the SMOS and in-situ measurements. The possibility of using model solutions for validation will also be considered. Model data are obtained from hindcast simulations from available prediction systems. Concerning the salinity retrieval inversion scheme, efforts will be devoted to the optimization of both the GMF (Geophysical Model Function) and the minimization cost function. With the increase of data availability, the semi-empirical GMF in the ocean salinity Level 2 operational processor will be improved, in particular the roughness-dependent TB term. The introduction of non-linear relationships in the semi-empirical roughness model is a likely extension of this formulation. The prospective approach is to develop, at a

  16. Embedded Performance Validity Measures with Postdeployment Veterans: Cross-Validation and Efficiency with Multiple Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shura, Robert D; Miskey, Holly M; Rowland, Jared A; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; Denning, John H

    2016-01-01

    Embedded validity measures support comprehensive assessment of performance validity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of individual embedded measures and to reduce them to the most efficient combination. The sample included 212 postdeployment veterans (average age = 35 years, average education = 14 years). Thirty embedded measures were initially identified as predictors of Green's Word Memory Test (WMT) and were derived from the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Conners' Continuous Performance Test-Second Edition (CPT-II), Trail Making Test, Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Letter-Number Sequencing, Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, and the Finger Tapping Test. Eight nonoverlapping measures with the highest area-under-the-curve (AUC) values were retained for entry into a logistic regression analysis. Embedded measure accuracy was also compared to cutoffs found in the existing literature. Twenty-one percent of the sample failed the WMT. Previously developed cutoffs for individual measures showed poor sensitivity (SN) in the current sample except for the CPT-II (Total Errors, SN = .41). The CVLT-II (Trials 1-5 Total) showed the best overall accuracy (AUC = .80). After redundant measures were statistically eliminated, the model included the RCFT (Recognition True Positives), CPT-II (Total Errors), and CVLT-II (Trials 1-5 Total) and increased overall accuracy compared with the CVLT-II alone (AUC = .87). The combination of just 3 measures from the CPT-II, CVLT-II, and RCFT was the most accurate/efficient in predicting WMT performance. PMID:26375185

  17. Validation of Continuous CHP Operation of a Two-Stage Biomass Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Torben Kvist;

    2006-01-01

    The Viking gasification plant at the Technical University of Denmark was built to demonstrate a continuous combined heat and power operation of a two-stage gasifier fueled with wood chips. The nominal input of the gasifier is 75 kW thermal. To validate the continuous operation of the plant, a 9-day...... measurement campaign was performed. The campaign verified a stable operation of the plant, and the energy balance resulted in an overall fuel to gas efficiency of 93% and a wood to electricity efficiency of 25%. Very low tar content in the producer gas was observed: only 0.1 mg/Nm3 naphthalene could be...... measured in raw gas. A stable engine operation on the producer gas was observed, and very low emissions of aldehydes, N2O, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured....

  18. Calibration and Validation of Measurement System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Riemann, Sven; Knapp, Wilfried

    The report deals with the calibration of the measuring equipment on board the Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype.......The report deals with the calibration of the measuring equipment on board the Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype....

  19. NDVI FROM ACTIVE OPTICAL SENSORS AS A MEASURE OF CANOPY COVER AND BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Perry; Fitzgerald, G J; Poole, N.; Craig, S; A. Whitlock

    2012-01-01

    Commercially available proximal sensors are being used in precision agriculture to provide non-destructive, real-time spatial information on 'green biomass' that may be of interest to the remote sensing community. The sensors are described as biomass sensors, but questions remain on which canopy characteristics can be best estimated by the sensor measurements. In this study Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) measurements from active optical sensors were examined across mul...

  20. Reliability and validity of optoelectronic method for biophotonical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpienko, Katarzyna; Wróbel, Maciej S.; UrniaŻ, Rafał

    2013-11-01

    Reliability and validity of measurements is of utmost importance when assessing measuring capability of instruments developed for research. In order to perform an experiment which is legitimate, used instruments must be both reliable and valid. Reliability estimates the degree of precision of measurement, the extent to which a measurement is internally consistent. Validity is the usefulness of an instrument to perform accurate measurements of quantities it was designed to measure. Statistical analysis for reliability and validity control of low-coherence interferometry method for refractive index measurements of biological fluids is presented. The low-coherence interferometer is sensitive to optical path difference between interfering beams. This difference depends on the refractive index of measured material. To assess the validity and reliability of proposed method for blood measurements, the statistical analysis of the method was performed on several substances with known refractive indices. Analysis of low-coherence interferograms considered the mean distances between fringes. Performed statistical analysis for validity and reliability consisted of Grubb's test for outliers, Shapiro-Wilk test for normal distribution, T-Student test, standard deviation, coefficient of determination and r-Pearson correlation. Overall the tests proved high statistical significance of measurement method with confidence level < 0.0001 of measurement method.

  1. Comparison of task complexity measures for emergency operating procedures: Convergent validity and predictive validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human performance while executing operating procedures is critically important for the safety of complex industrial systems. To predict and model human performance, several complexity measures have been developed. This study aims to compare the convergent validity and predictive validity of three existing complexity measures, step complexity (SC), task size, and task complexity (TC), using operator performance data collected from an emergency operating procedure (EOP) experiment. This comparative study shows that these measures have a high convergent validity with each other, most likely because all of them involve the size dimension of complexity. These measures and their sub-measures also have a high predictive validity for operation time and a moderate-to-high predictive validity for error rate, except the step logic complexity (SLC) measure, a component of the SC measure. SLC appears not to contribute to the predictive validity in the experimental EOPs. The use of visual, auditory, cognitive, and psychomotor (VACP) rating scales in the TC measure seems to be significantly beneficial for explaining the human error rate; however, these rating scales appear not to adequately reflect the complexity differences among the meta-operations in EOPs

  2. Space Suit Joint Torque Measurement Method Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valish, Dana; Eversley, Karina

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test method was developed and performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits. This was done in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design met the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future development programs. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis; the results indicated a significant variance in values reported for a subset of the re-tested joints. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and a third round of testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate and/or quantify the effects of these variables. The results of the third test effort will be used to determine whether or not the proposed joint torque methodology can be applied to future space suit development contracts.

  3. Dynamic Modeling and Validation of a Biomass Hydrothermal Pretreatment Process - A Demonstration Scale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a cost effective technology for second generation biorefineries. The process occurs in large horizontal and pressurized thermal reactors where the biomatrix is opened under the action of steam pressure and temperature to expose cellulose for...

  4. A multi-decadal history of biomass burning plume heights identified using aerosol index measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have quantified the relationship between Aerosol Index (AI measurements and plume height for young biomass burning plumes using coincident OMI and CALIPSO measurements. This linear relationship allows the determination of high-altitude plumes wherever AI data are available, and it provides a data set for validating global fire plume injection heights in chemistry transport models. We find that all plumes detected from June 2006 to February 2009 with an AI value ≥9 are located at altitudes higher than 5 km. Older high-altitude plumes have lower AI values than young plumes at similar altitudes. We have examined available AI data from the OMI and TOMS instruments (1978–2009 and find that large AI plumes occur more frequently over North America than over Australia or Russia/Northeast Asia. According to the derived relationship, during this time interval, 181 plumes reached altitudes above 8 km. One hundred and thirty-two had injection heights ≥8 km but below 12 km, and 49 were lofted to 12 km or higher, including 14 plumes injected above 16 km.

  5. A multi-decadal history of biomass burning plume heights identified using aerosol index measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have quantified the relationship between Aerosol Index (AI measurements and plume height for young biomass burning plumes using coincident Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO measurements. This linear relationship allows the determination of high-altitude plumes wherever AI data are available, and it provides a data set for validating global fire plume heights in chemistry transport models. We find that all plumes detected from June 2006 to February 2009 with an AI value ≥9 are located at altitudes higher than 5 km. Older high-altitude plumes have lower AI values than young plumes at similar altitudes. We have examined available AI data from the OMI and TOMS instruments (1978–2009 and find that large AI plumes occur more frequently over North America than over Australia or Russia/Northeast Asia. According to the derived relationship, during this time interval, 181 plumes, in various stages of their evolution, reached altitudes above 8 km.

  6. In-flight Validation and Routine Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods of aircrew dose assessment are under discussion and evaluation by several international research groups. The TEPC (tissue-equivalent proportional counter) has been used very successfully to describe the radiation field during in-flight measurements. Cosmic ray transport calculations of effective dose have been compared with TEPC measurements, with good results. Several active conventional photon and neutron detectors, as well as a passive dosemeter, have been prepared and characterised for in-flight radiation measurements. A novel method, combining measurements with a conventional radiation detector and results of cosmic ray transport calculations is at present under evaluation in the European research project ACREM (Air Crew Radiation Monitor). Superimposed on the regular and more-or-less predictable eleven year cosmic ray intensity variation, events on the sun will occasionally result in high energy particle fluxes that will impact on the tellurian atmosphere and result in unforeseen high additional radiation exposures. Appropriate methods to determine the resulting radiation dose rates will be described. (author)

  7. Contribution to a decision making model for analogical measurement validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In limits of studies taken on validity of analogic measures in nuclear power plant's operation, the present thesis takes aim at establishment of a model to reaching a decision on the indice of probability on measures obtained by preliminary validation system. In a first step, it is proposed to retain a system made by redundant measures in which the calcul of measures is based on the coherence between measures themselves and logic vote. In the second step, one equation is proposed to compute the index of probability of measures taken in account, the characteristics of the system

  8. Measurement of transpiration and biomass of coconut palm with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of transpiration rate and biomass of coconut palm have been made using tritiated water as a tracer. The method of tracer injection into the coconut trunk and the extraction of tritiated water from coconut leaves are outlined. The transpiration rate of the tree selected for the study was found to be 2.2 litres/hour with a total biomass of 172 kg. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Political Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Napier, John D.

    The Opinionnaire on Political Institutions and Participation (OPIP) was designed to measure six dimensions of the overall construct of political attitude. Three studies were undertaken to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, and the OPIP was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for research and evaluations using…

  10. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  11. Measuring workaholism: content validity of the Work Addiction Risk Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B E; Phillips, B

    1995-10-01

    A total of 20 psychotherapists, randomly selected from a state list, critically examined the 25 items on the Work Addiction Risk Test for content validity. Subjects were asked to identify 25 items from a list of 35 which most accurately measured work addiction. Selected test items have generally high content validity for the domain of work addiction. PMID:8559897

  12. Practical guide for validated memristance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Nan; Shuai, Yao; Luo, Wenbo; Mayr, Christian; Schüffny, René; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2013-02-01

    Chua [IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory 18, 507-519 (1971), 10.1109/TCT.1971.1083337] predicted rather simple charge-flux curves for active and passive memristors (short for memory resistors) and presented active memristor circuit realizations already in the 1970 s. The first passive memristor has been presented in 2008 [D. B. Strukov, G. S. Snider, and D. R. Williams, Nature (London) 453, 80-83 (2008), 10.1038/nature06932]. Typically, memristors are traced in complicated hysteretic current-voltage curves. Therefore, the true essence of many new memristive devices has not been discovered so far. Here, we give a practical guide on how to use normalized charge-flux curves for the prediction of hysteretic current-voltage characteristics of memristors. In the case of memristive BiFeO3 thin film capacitor structures, the normalized charge-flux curves superimpose for different numbers of measurement points Ns and a different measurement time per measurement point Ts. Such normalized charge-flux curves can be used for the prediction of current-voltage characteristics for input signals with arbitrarily chosen Ns and Ts.

  13. Construct Validation of Anxiety Measures Using Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma J. Amajuoyi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish the construct validity for an instrument for measuring anxiety. The researchers used a four-point questionnaire and a seven-point Osgood semantic differential scale on depression to ascertain the convergent validity while two instruments measuring aggression were employed to establish the divergent trait with anxiety using multitrait-multimethod matrix. The face validity was carried out by experts in Educational Measurement and Evaluation. Cronbach Alpha reliability estimates for internal consistency of the items yielded 0.76, 0.98 for anxiety measures; 0.74, 0.85 for depression measures and 0.63, 0.79 for aggression measures respectively. The PPMC coefficient was used to test the hypotheses. Samples of thirty Senior Secondary III students of University of Nigeria Demonstration Secondary School were purposively selected for the study. The results demonstrated moderate convergence (r = 0.20, 0.49, 0.39 for measures of anxiety, depression and aggression respectively between two different methods of the same trait. Measures assessing anxiety and depression could be distinguished from measures assessing aggression. In conclusion the rejection of the first hypothesis and the retention of the second and third hypotheses based on the correlation confirm the convergent and divergent validities of the instruments; therefore, the instruments for measuring anxiety were deemed valid and reliable.

  14. Designing and Validating a Model for Measuring Innovation Capacity Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Doroodian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s rapid changing and highly competitive business environment, innovation is broadly recognized as a powerful competitive weapon. Innovation is a dynamic process that needs continuous, evolving, and mastered management. Thus, companies need to monitor and measure their innovation capacity to manage the innovation process. Yet, there is lack of a psychometrically valid scale for innovation capacity construct in the current innovation literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a reliable and valid scale of measurement for innovation capacity. To test its unidimensionality, reliability, and several components of validity, we used data collected from 175 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Iran and performed a series of analyses. The reliability measures, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and several components of validity tests strongly support a four-dimensional scale for measuring innovation capacity. The dimensions are knowledge and technology management, idea management, project development, and commercialization capabilities.

  15. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) Science Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Hou, Arthur Y.

    2008-01-01

    For pre-launch algorithm development and post-launch product evaluation Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) goes beyond direct comparisons of surface rain rates between ground and satellite measurements to provide the means for improving retrieval algorithms and model applications.Three approaches to GPM GV include direct statistical validation (at the surface), precipitation physics validation (in a vertical columns), and integrated science validation (4-dimensional). These three approaches support five themes: core satellite error characterization; constellation satellites validation; development of physical models of snow, cloud water, and mixed phase; development of cloud-resolving model (CRM) and land-surface models to bridge observations and algorithms; and, development of coupled CRM-land surface modeling for basin-scale water budget studies and natural hazard prediction. This presentation describes the implementation of these approaches.

  16. Small Rocket Measurements / Validation in Support of SABER

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anthony J.; Baker, Doran

    2003-01-01

    Small rocket measurements in the Mesosphere and lower Thermosphere / Ionosphere will serve to validate and improve measurements being made by the TIMED satellite's SABER instrument. This validation can be made more cost effective and versatile by developing a smaller, lighter, and less expensive radiometer module. Recent developments in technology have allowed us to proceed in developing this smaller, more lightweight radiometric instrument We are currently working on a miniature 2-channel ra...

  17. Construction and initial validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Jackson, Kelly F; Guevarra, Rudy P; Miller, Matthew J; Harrington, Blair

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM): a new measure that assesses uniquely racialized risks and resiliencies experienced by individuals of mixed racial heritage. Across 2 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 25-item MEM with 5 subscales including Shifting Expressions, Perceived Racial Ambiguity, Creating Third Space, Multicultural Engagement, and Multiracial Discrimination. The 5-subscale structure of the MEM was supported by a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Evidence of criterion-related validity was partially supported with MEM subscales correlating with measures of racial diversity in one's social network, color-blind racial attitude, psychological distress, and identity conflict. Evidence of discriminant validity was supported with MEM subscales not correlating with impression management. Implications for future research and suggestions for utilization of the MEM in clinical practice with multiracial adults are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460977

  18. Validation of a high-throughput fermentation system based on online monitoring of biomass and fluorescence in continuously shaken microtiter plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensy Frank

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An advanced version of a recently reported high-throughput fermentation system with online measurement, called BioLector, and its validation is presented. The technology combines high-throughput screening and high-information content by applying online monitoring of scattered light and fluorescence intensities in continuously shaken microtiter plates. Various examples in calibration of the optical measurements, clone and media screening and promoter characterization are given. Results Bacterial and yeast biomass concentrations of up to 50 g/L cell dry weight could be linearly correlated to scattered light intensities. In media screening, the BioLector could clearly demonstrate its potential for detecting different biomass and product yields and deducing specific growth rates for quantitatively evaluating media and nutrients. Growth inhibition due to inappropriate buffer conditions could be detected by reduced growth rates and a temporary increase in NADH fluorescence. GFP served very well as reporter protein for investigating the promoter regulation under different carbon sources in yeast strains. A clone screening of 90 different GFP-expressing Hansenula polymorpha clones depicted the broad distribution of growth behavior and an even stronger distribution in GFP expression. The importance of mass transfer conditions could be demonstrated by varying filling volumes of an E. coli culture in 96 well MTP. The different filling volumes cause a deviation in the culture growth and acidification both monitored via scattered light intensities and the fluorescence of a pH indicator, respectively. Conclusion The BioLector technology is a very useful tool to perform quantitative microfermentations under engineered reaction conditions. With this technique, specific yields and rates can be directly deduced from online biomass and product concentrations, which is superior to existing technologies such as microplate readers or optode

  19. Effect of forest biomass on airborne snow water equivalent estimates obtained by measuring terrestrial gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of snow water equivalent derived from measurements of the attenuation of terrestrial gamma radiation emitted by potassium are systematically biased downward if substantial amounts of forest biomass exist in the region where the radiation measurements are obtained. The degree of underestimation is a function of the amount and type of biomass. The effects of these factors on the snow water equivalent estimate are examined, and a means of correcting for the downward bias is given. The methodology presented can aid National Weather Service hydrologists in improving river and flood forecasts, water supply forecasts, and spring flood outlooks for large areas of the United States and Canada

  20. Improved Forest Biomass and Carbon Estimations Using Texture Measures from WorldView-2 Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Eckert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of aboveground biomass and carbon stock has gained importance in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. In order to develop improved forest stratum–specific aboveground biomass and carbon estimation models for humid rainforest in northeast Madagascar, this study analyzed texture measures derived from WorldView-2 satellite data. A forest inventory was conducted to develop stratum-specific allometric equations for dry biomass. On this basis, carbon was calculated by applying a conversion factor. After satellite data preprocessing, vegetation indices, principal components, and texture measures were calculated. The strength of their relationships with the stratum-specific plot data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation. Biomass and carbon estimation models were developed by performing stepwise multiple linear regression. Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed that (a texture measures correlated more with biomass and carbon than spectral parameters, and (b correlations were stronger for degraded forest than for non-degraded forest. For degraded forest, the texture measures of Correlation, Angular Second Moment, and Contrast, derived from the red band, contributed to the best estimation model, which explained 84% of the variability in the field data (relative RMSE = 6.8%. For non-degraded forest, the vegetation index EVI and the texture measures of Variance, Mean, and Correlation, derived from the newly introduced coastal blue band, both NIR bands, and the red band, contributed to the best model, which explained 81% of the variability in the field data (relative RMSE = 11.8%. These results indicate that estimation of tropical rainforest biomass/carbon, based on very high resolution satellite data, can be improved by (a developing and applying forest stratum–specific models, and (b including textural information in addition to spectral information.

  1. Validation of long-term measurements from FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Jaber, Hiba; Glisic, Branko

    2016-04-01

    Temperature monitoring has been of increased importance in recent years due to the need for temperature measurements in order to compensate other measurement parameters, such as strain, and the increased attention to understanding thermal behaviors of structures in order to assess their performance and condition. To ensure the accuracy of thermal compensation and study of thermal behavior, reliable long-term temperature measurements are required. In this paper, two methods that are aimed at validating long-term temperature measurements are created and their application is presented. The methods differ in the type of data they use for the purpose of validation. The first method relies on the existence of two independent temperature sensors at the same location. Validation is performed by comparing the measurements from the two sensors to one another, and discrepancies between the two data sets indicate malfunction or drift in at least one of the sensors. The second method is applicable to the more general case where only one temperature sensor is available at a given location. The method thus utilizes ambient temperature data from a nearby weather tower to validate measurements from the sensor. The two methods are applied to temperature measurements from FBG sensors installed on Streicker Bridge on the Princeton University campus. The methods successfully identified and characterized malfunction and drift in some of the sensors and confirmed stable measurements in other sensors.

  2. Impact factor: a valid measure of journal quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Somnath; Saint, Sanjay; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Impact factor, an index based on the frequency with which a journal's articles are cited in scientific publications, is a putative marker of journal quality. However, empiric studies on impact factor's validity as an indicator of quality are lacking. The authors assessed the validity of impact factor as a measure of quality for general medical journals by testing its association with journal quality as rated by clinical practitioners and researchers.

  3. Tibial Torsion in Cerebral Palsy: Validity and Reliability of Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Hyeong; Chung, Chin Youb; Park, Moon Seok; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon

    2009-01-01

    Physical examinations of tibial torsion are used for preoperative planning and to assess outcomes of tibial osteomy in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). The thigh-foot angle (TFA) and transmalleolar axis (TMA) are commonly used, and the second toe test recently was introduced. However, the validity and reliability of the three methods have not been clarified. This study was performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of these physical measures. We recruited 18 patients (36 limbs) with...

  4. Integration and Improvement of Geophysical Root Biomass Measurements for Determining Carbon Credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitet, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon trading schemes fundamentally rely on accurate subsurface carbon quantification in order for governing bodies to grant carbon credits inclusive of root biomass (What is Carbon Credit. 2013). Root biomass makes up a large chunk of the subsurface carbon and is difficult, labor intensive, and costly to measure. This paper stitches together the latest geophysical root measurement techniques into site-dependent recommendations for technique combinations and modifications that maximize large-scale root biomass measurement accuracy and efficiency. "Accuracy" is maximized when actual root biomass is closest to measured root biomass. "Efficiency" is maximized when time, labor, and cost of measurement is minimized. Several combinations have emerged which satisfy both criteria under different site conditions. Use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and/or electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) allow for large tracts of land to be surveyed under appropriate conditions. Among other characteristics, GPR does best with detecting coarse roots in dry soil. ERT does best in detecting roots in moist soils, but is especially limited by electrode configuration (Mancuso, S. 2012). Integration of these two technologies into a baseline protocol based on site-specific characteristics, especially soil moisture and plants species heterogeneity, will drastically theoretically increase efficiency and accuracy of root biomass measurements. Modifications of current measurement protocols using these existing techniques will also theoretically lead to drastic improvements in both accuracy and efficiency. These modifications, such as efficient 3D imaging by adding an identical electrode array perpendicular to the first array used in the Pulled Array Continuous Electrical Profiling (PACEP) technique for ERT, should allow for more widespread application of these techniques for understanding root biomass. Where whole-site measurement is not feasible either due to financial, equipment, or

  5. Experimentally measured morphology of biomass burning aerosol and its impacts on CCN ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giordano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the morphological properties of freshly emitted and atmospherically aged aerosols from biomass burning. The impacts of particle morphology assumptions on hygroscopic predictions are examined. Chamber experiments were conducted at the UC-Riverside Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT Atmospheric Processes Lab using two biomass fuel sources, manzanita and chamise. Morphological data was obtained through the use of an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM, scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS system and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Data from these instruments was used to calculate both a dynamic shape factor and a fractal-like dimension for the biomass burning emissions. This data was then used with κ-Köhler theory to adjust the calculated hygroscopicity for experimentally determined morphological characteristics of the aerosol. Laboratory measurement of biomass burning aerosol from two chaparral fuels show that particles are non-spherical with dynamic shape factors greater than 1.15 for aerosol sizes relevant to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activation. Accounting for particle morphology can shift the hygroscopicity parameter κ by 0.15 or more. To our knowledge, this work provides the first laboratory chamber measurements of morphological characteristics for biomass burning cloud condensation nuclei and provides experimental particle shape evidence to support the variation in reported hygroscopicities of the complex aerosol.

  6. A Dynamic Model for Cellulosic Biomass Hydrolysis: a Comprehensive Analysis and Validation of Hydrolysis and Product Inhibition Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Chien Tai; Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Sin, Gürkan;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a comprehensive enzyme kinetics analysis in view of validating and consolidating a semimechanistic kinetic model consisting of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass proposed by the U.S. National...... product inhibitors such as glucose, cellobiose and xylose) to test the hydrolysis and product inhibition mechanisms of the model. A nonlinear least squares method was used to identify the model and estimate kinetic parameters based on the experimental data. The suitable mathematical model for industrial...... application was selected among the proposed models based on statistical information (weighted sum of square errors). The analysis showed that transglycosylation plays a key role at high glucose levels. It also showed that the values of parameters depend on the selected experimental data used for parameter...

  7. Nondestructive measurements of nuclear wastes: validation and industrial operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short survey of the means employed for the nondestructive measurement of specific activities (γ and X-ray) in waste packages and raw waste, the performances of the device and the ANDRA requirements are presented. The validation of the γ and X-ray measurements on packages is obtained through determining, by destructive means, the same activity on coring samples. The same procedure is used for validating the homogeneity measurements on packages (either homogeneous or heterogeneous). Different operating experiences are then exposed for several kinds of packages and waste. Up to now, about twenty different types of packages have been examined and more than 200 packages have allowed the calibration, validation and control

  8. The development and validation of the Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Richard Q; Ezeofor, Ijeoma; Smith, Lance C; Welch, Jamie C; Goodrich, Kristopher M

    2016-03-01

    The development of critical consciousness (CC) has been theorized to be an essential prerequisite for individual and collective action toward changing inequitable social conditions. However, empirically supported instruments intended to measure this important construct have only recently been introduced to the literature. The purpose of this project was to create a brief, psychometrically sound measure of CC. Two studies with over 600 observations provide initial reliability and validity data on the Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure (CCCM). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the final 19-item CCCM assesses CC associated with racism, classism, and heterosexism and provides a general index of CC. Results support the internal consistency and factor structure of the measure. Expected relationships between the CCCM and existing measures of symbolic racism, classism, and homonegativity provide evidence for the validity of the instrument. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed. PMID:26937990

  9. Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Magi, Brian

    2002-06-17

    Particulate matter collected aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft over southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season was analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, and black carbon contents using thermal and optical methods. Samples were collected in smoke plumes of burning savanna and in regional haze. A known artifact, produced by the adsorption of organic gases on the quartz filter substrates used to collect the particulate matter samples, comprised a significant portion of the total carbon collected. Consequently, conclusions derived from the data are greatly dependent on whether or not organic carbon concentrations are corrected for this artifact. For example, the estimated aerosol co-albedo (1 - single scattering albedo), which is a measure of aerosol absorption, of the biomass smoke samples is 60 percent larger using corrected organic carbon concentrations. Thus, the corrected data imply that the biomass smoke is 60 percent more absorbing than do the uncorrected data. The black carbon to (corrected) organic carbon mass ratio (BC/OC) of smoke plume samples (0.18/2610.06) is lower than that of samples collected in the regional haze (0.25/2610.08). The difference may be due to mixing of biomass smoke with background air characterized by a higher BC/OC ratio. A simple source apportionment indicates that biomass smoke contributes about three-quarters of the aerosol burden in the regional haze, while other sources (e.g., fossil fuel burning) contribute the remainder.

  10. Modeling and simulation of a downdraft biomass gasifier 1. Model development and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 'EQB' computer program for a downdraft gasifier has been developed to predict steady state performance. Moving porous bed of suction gasifier is modeled as one-dimensional (1-D) with finite control volumes (CVs), where conservation of mass, momentum and energy is represented by fluid flow, heat transfer analysis, drying, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction reaction modules; which have solved in integral form using tri-diagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA) for reaction temperatures, pressure drop, energetics and product composition. Fluid flow module relates the flow rate with pressure drop, while biomass drying is described by mass transfer 1-D diffusion equation coupled with vapour-liquid-equilibrium relation. When chemical equilibrium is used in oxidation zone, the empirically predicted pyrolysis products (volatiles and char) and kinetic modeling approach for reduction zone constitutes an efficient algorithm allowing rapid convergence with adequate fidelity. Predictions for pressure drop and power output (gasifier) are found to be very sensitive, while gas composition or calorific value, temperature profile and gasification efficiency are less sensitive within the encountered range of gas flow rate.

  11. Developing and validating a practical decision support tool (DST) for biomass selection on marginal land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson-Sköld, Y; Bardos, P; Chalot, M; Bert, V; Crutu, G; Phanthavongsa, P; Delplanque, M; Track, T; Cundy, A B

    2014-12-01

    Marginal, often contaminated, sites exist in large areas across the world as a result of historic activities such as industry, transportation and mineral extraction. Remediation, or other improvements, of these sites is typically only considered for sites with high exploitation pressure and those posing the highest risks to human health or the environment. At the same time there is increasing competition for land resources for different needs such as biofuel production. Potentially some of this land requirement could be met by production of biomass on brownfield or other marginal land, thereby improving the land while applying the crop cultivation as part of an integrated management strategy. The design and decision making for such a strategy will be site specific. A decision support framework, the Rejuvenate DST (decision support tool) has been developed with the aim of supporting such site specific decision making. This tool is presented here, and has been tested by applying it to a number of case study sites. The consequent SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis is discussed and evaluated. The DST was found to be systematic, transparent, and applicable for diverse sites in France, Romania and Sweden, in addition to the sites to which it was applied through its development. The DST is regarded as especially useful if applied as a checklist in an iterative way throughout the decision process, from identifying potential crops to identifying knowledge gaps, working/non-working management strategies and potential risks. The DST also provides a structure promoting effective stakeholder engagement. PMID:25014888

  12. Measurement of electrical conductivity for a biomass fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphale, Kgakgamatso; Heron, Mal

    2008-08-01

    A controlled fire burner was constructed where various natural vegetation species could be used as fuel. The burner was equipped with thermocouples to measure fuel surface temperature and used as a cavity for microwaves with a laboratory quality 2-port vector network analyzer to determine electrical conductivity from S-parameters. Electrical conductivity for vegetation material flames is important for numerical prediction of flashover in high voltage power transmission faults research. Vegetation fires that burn under high voltage transmission lines reduce flashover voltage by increasing air electrical conductivity and temperature. Analyzer determined electrical conductivity ranged from 0.0058 - 0.0079 mho/m for a fire with a maximum temperature of 1240 K. PMID:19325812

  13. Measurement of Electrical Conductivity for a Biomass Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mal Heron

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A controlled fire burner was constructed where various natural vegetation species could be used as fuel. The burner was equipped with thermocouples to measure fuel surface temperature and used as a cavity for microwaves with a laboratory quality 2- port vector network analyzer to determine electrical conductivity from S-parameters. Electrical conductivity for vegetation material flames is important for numerical prediction of flashover in high voltage power transmission faults research. Vegetation fires that burn under high voltage transmission lines reduce flashover voltage by increasing air electrical conductivity and temperature. Analyzer determined electrical conductivity ranged from 0.0058 - 0.0079 mho/m for a fire with a maximum temperature of 1240 K.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa

    2003-04-30

    In full-scale boilers, the effect of biomass cofiring on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon (UBC) emissions has been found to be site-specific. Few sets of field data are comparable and no consistent database of information exists upon which cofiring fuel choice or injection system design can be based to assure that NOX emissions will be minimized and UBC be reduced. This report presents the results of a comprehensive project that generated an extensive set of pilot-scale test data that were used to validate a new predictive model for the cofiring of biomass and coal. All testing was performed at the 3.6 MMBtu/hr (1.75 MW{sub t}) Southern Company Services/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility where a variety of burner configurations, coals, biomasses, and biomass injection schemes were utilized to generate a database of consistent, scalable, experimental results (422 separate test conditions). This database was then used to validate a new model for predicting NO{sub x} and UBC emissions from the cofiring of biomass and coal. This model is based on an Advanced Post-Processing (APP) technique that generates an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements from a conventional CFD simulation. The APP reactor network is a computational environment that allows for the incorporation of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and provides a new tool to quantify NOx and UBC emissions for any cofired combination of coal and biomass.

  15. Using multi-frequency radar and discrete-return LiDAR measurements to estimate above-ground biomass and biomass components in a coastal temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Olivier W.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Wulder, Michael A.; Marshall, Peter L.; McCardle, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Height measurements from small-footprint discrete-return LiDAR and backscatter coefficients from C- and L-band radar were used independently and in combination to estimate above-ground component and total biomass for a coniferous temperate forest, located on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Reference biomass data were obtained from plot-level data and used for comparison against the LiDAR and radar-based biomass models. For the LiDAR-only model, height metrics such as mean first return height and percentiles (e.g., 10th and 90th) of first returns correlated best to total above-ground and stem biomass. While percent of first returns above 2 m and percentiles (75th and 90th) of first returns height metrics correlated best to crown biomass. A comparison between above-ground components and total biomass indicate that stem biomass displayed the highest relationship with the LiDAR measurements while crown biomass showed the lowest relationship with relative root mean squared error ranging from 16% to 22%, respectively. Alternatively, the radar-only models indicated that for C-band radar, a combination of HH and VV backscatter demonstrated the most significant correlation with forest biomass compared to coherence based models with a relative root mean squared error of 53%. For L-band radar, a combination of HH and HV backscatter showed the most significant correlation compared to coherence based models with a relative root mean squared error of 44%. Exploring a mixture of C- and L-band backscatter and coherence based models revealed that a combination of C-HV and L-HV coherence magnitudes provided the best radar relationship with forest biomass with a relative root mean squared error of 35%. Also for all radar-based models, L- and C-band backscatter and coherence magnitudes were poorly correlated with individual biomass components when compared to total above-ground biomass. The addition of C- and L-band backscatter and coherence variables to the Li

  16. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Community College Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the development and validation of a survey instrument to measure community college students' satisfaction with their educational experiences. The initial survey included 95 questions addressing community college student experiences. Data were collected from 558 community college students during spring of 2001. An exploratory…

  17. Research Measures for Dyscalculia: A Validity and Reliability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiman, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate a measure of dyscalculia to determine its validity and reliability. It also tested use of the instrument with seventh graders and ascertained where errors attributed to dyscalculia were also present in an average sample of seventh graders. Results varied. (MNS)

  18. Reliability and Validity Testing of the Physical Resilience Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Dorsey, Susan; Scheve, Ann; Gutkin, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test reliability and validity of the Physical Resilience Scale. Methods: A single-group repeated measure design was used and 130 older adults from three different housing sites participated. Participants completed the Physical Resilience Scale, Hardy-Gill Resilience Scale, 14-item Resilience Scale,…

  19. Small scale hybrid concentrated solar power - biomass system. Development, time dependent modelling and validation.

    OpenAIRE

    TORTORA, EILEEN

    2011-01-01

    Proceeding from the sustainable development principle and the current energy issues, in the present work a small-scale fully renewable power plant was designed, modelled in a time-dependent environment and validated. The plant is design in order to produce both thermal and electric power either in on- or off-grid configuration. With respect to the state of the art, the power plant is composed by standard and well-known technologies. The novelties brought with the present study are entailed...

  20. Biomass resources assessment: Measuring family fuelwood consumption in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two surveys are reported: one to test possible economic benefits to low-income urban households of using a charcoal stove for cooking, and the other covering both fuelwood collected and consumed over twelve months, in order to compare fuelwood consumption of households using a 'fuel-saving' mudstove with that of those using the more usual open hearth. The charcoal stove and charcoal as a fuel, although having desirable characteristics, do not offer an appreciable saving to current users of paraffin or most urban wood users. Consumption of paraffin was found to be 0.5 ± 0.21/household/day; of wood 7 ± 2kg/household/day and of charcoal 1.0 ± 0.4kg/household/day. Enquiries on woodfuel cost revealed that prices are influenced more by supply-side than demand-side factors, and that preferred fuel species constitute most (more than 61-91% depending on location) of the wood on sale in the streets of the suburbs surveyed. Rural users of both the mudstove and the open hearth consume about 7.5kg/household/day, although the mudstoves in question were five years old, and near the end of their useful life. Evidence of pressure on fuelwood resources and motivation towards using fuel-saving stoves appeared: only 61% of samples recorded were of preferred fuelwood species, and both collection and use patterns showed adaptations to less easily obtainable supplies. Measurements in both the rural and urban cases showed consumption per household is a more reliable basis for comparison than consumption per head. Simpler tests on recently built mud stoves are recommended and are currently being carried out. (author)

  1. The BETA® nursing measure: Calibrating construct validity with Rasch analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik J. Loubser; Daleen Casteleijn; Judith C. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background: The BETA nursing measure has been introduced as a tool to routinely measure and monitor the outcomes of patients' activities of daily living in a restorative nursing care context. Objectives: To investigate the BETA's construct validity using the Rasch model with specific reference to the BETA's potential to be used as an interval scale providing metric or interval data. Method: A quantitative analytical design was followed using Rasch analyses whereby BETA raw data was coll...

  2. Validating MOSPA questionnaire for measuring physical activity in Pakistani women

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi Rahat; Badruddin Salma; Rafique Ghazala; Iqbal Romaina; Gray-Donald Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Precise measurements of activity at a population level are important for monitoring trends and evaluating health promotion strategies. Few studies have assessed the measurement of physical activity in developing countries. The aim of this study was to validate the MOSPA (Monica Optional Study of Physical Activity) questionnaire which was developed for the WHO-Monitoring trends and determinants of cardiovasculr disease (MONICA) study sites. Methods The MOSPA questionnaire a...

  3. Measuring Stakeholder Participation in Evaluation: An Empirical Validation of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument (PEMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve; Tremblay, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stakeholder participation is an important trend in the field of program evaluation. Although a few measurement instruments have been proposed, they either have not been empirically validated or do not cover the full content of the concept. Objectives: This study consists of a first empirical validation of a measurement instrument that…

  4. Validation of the Dyadic Coping Inventory with Chinese couples: Factorial structure, measurement invariance, and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Hilpert, Peter; Randall, Ashley K; Li, Qiuping; Bodenmann, Guy

    2016-08-01

    The Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI, Bodenmann, 2008) assesses how couples support each other when facing individual (e.g., workload) and common (e.g., parenting) stressors. Specifically, the DCI measures partners' perceptions of their own (Self) and their partners' behaviors (Partner) when facing individual stressors, and partners' common coping behaviors when facing common stressors (Common). To date, the DCI has been validated in 6 different languages from individualistic Western cultures; however, because culture can affect interpersonal interactions, it is unknown whether the DCI is a reliable measure of coping behaviors for couples living in collectivistic Eastern cultures. Based on data from 474 Chinese couples (N = 948 individuals), the current study examined the Chinese version of the DCI's factorial structure, measurement invariance (MI), and construct validity of test scores. Using 3 cultural groups (China, Switzerland, and the United States [U.S.]), confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 5-factor structure regarding Self and Partner and a 2-factor structure regarding Common dyadic coping (DC). Results from analyses of MI indicated that the DCI subscales met the criteria for configural, metric, and full/partial scalar invariance across cultures (Chinese-Swiss and Chinese-U.S.) and genders (Chinese men and women). Results further revealed good construct validity of the DCI test scores. In all, the Chinese version of the DCI can be used for measuring Chinese couples' coping behaviors, and is available for cross-cultural studies examining DC behaviors between Western and Eastern cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27183045

  5. Criterion validation of a stress measure: the Stress Overload Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhan, James H; Urizar, Guido G; Clark, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Validating stress scales poses problems beyond those of other psychological measures. Here, 3 studies were conducted to address those problems and assess the criterion validity of scores from a new theory-derived measure, the Stress Overload Scale (SOS; Amirkhan, 2012). In Study 1, the SOS was tested for its ability to predict postsemester illness in a sample of college students (n = 127). Even with precautions to minimize criterion contamination, scores were found to predict health problems in the month following a final exam on all of 5 different criteria. In Study 2, a community sample (n = 231) was used to test the SOS' ability to differentiate people in stressful circumstances from those in more relaxed contexts. SOS scores demonstrated excellent sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) in this general population application. In Study 3, the SOS was tested for its ability to differentiate salivary cortisol responses to a laboratory stressor in a group of pregnant women (n = 40). High scores were found to be associated with a blunted cortisol response, which is indicative of HPA-axis overload and typical of persons suffering chronic stress and stress-related pathology. Across all 3 studies, despite variations in the stressor, criterion, population, and methods, SOS scores emerged as valid indicators of stress. However, each study also introduced new problems that beg additional corrective steps in future stress-scale validity tests. These strategies, and the SOS' utility as a research and diagnostic tool in varied applications and populations, are discussed. PMID:25642927

  6. Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Oberkampf, William Louis

    2005-08-01

    With the increasing role of computational modeling in engineering design, performance estimation, and safety assessment, improved methods are needed for comparing computational results and experimental measurements. Traditional methods of graphically comparing computational and experimental results, though valuable, are essentially qualitative. Computable measures are needed that can quantitatively compare computational and experimental results over a range of input, or control, variables and sharpen assessment of computational accuracy. This type of measure has been recently referred to as a validation metric. We discuss various features that we believe should be incorporated in a validation metric and also features that should be excluded. We develop a new validation metric that is based on the statistical concept of confidence intervals. Using this fundamental concept, we construct two specific metrics: one that requires interpolation of experimental data and one that requires regression (curve fitting) of experimental data. We apply the metrics to three example problems: thermal decomposition of a polyurethane foam, a turbulent buoyant plume of helium, and compressibility effects on the growth rate of a turbulent free-shear layer. We discuss how the present metrics are easily interpretable for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment.

  7. Recent standardisation work in Sweden related to measurement of biomass fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maansson, Margret [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    Work on Swedish standards for peat and biofuels started close to fifteen years ago. The same technical committee that has the responsibility for peat and solid biofuels is also handling the standardisation work on solid mineral fuels. Its counterpart within the ISO is TC 27 Solid mineral fuels. A number of the Swedish analysis standards are structured such that they define methods for all of the solid fuels in the same standard, with specific requirements for the type of fuel if necessary. By now, twenty Swedish biomass standards have been prepared and adopted, half of them already revised at least once. There are dedicated biofuel standards for terminology, sampling and sample preparation and for determination of parameters such as moisture, ash, size distribution, bulk density and mechanical strength. Solid fuels standards that include biomass and peat in their range of application exist for the determination of volatile matter, sulfur chlorine and calorific value. Solid fuel ash methods have been specifically developed for the determination of unburned material and sulfur content. At the present time, standard methods are being defined for the determination of total amounts of heavy metals in ash, and also methods for measuring the availability (leaching properties) of certain elements in ash, in particular ash from combustion of biomass. Ash methods are of interest because of the focus on the possibilities of returning biomass-origin ash to forest soil as a fertilizer and also to prevent depletion of trace elements caused by the increase in the utilisation of the forest growth

  8. Indentation Measurements to Validate Dynamic Elasticity Imaging Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altahhan, Khaldoon N; Wang, Yue; Sobh, Nahil; Insana, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    We describe macro-indentation techniques for estimating the elastic modulus of soft hydrogels. Our study describes (a) conditions under which quasi-static indentation can validate dynamic shear-wave imaging estimates and (b) how each of these techniques uniquely biases modulus estimates as they couple to the sample geometry. Harmonic shear waves between 25 and 400 Hz were imaged using ultrasonic Doppler and optical coherence tomography methods to estimate shear dispersion. From the shear-wave speed of sound, average elastic moduli of homogeneous samples were estimated. These results are compared directly with macroscopic indentation measurements measured two ways. One set of measurements applied Hertzian theory to the loading phase of the force-displacement curves using samples treated to minimize surface adhesion forces. A second set of measurements applied Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory to the unloading phase of the force-displacement curve when surface adhesions were significant. All measurements were made using gelatin hydrogel samples of different sizes and concentrations. Agreement within 5% among elastic modulus estimates was achieved for a range of experimental conditions. Consequently, a simple quasi-static indentation measurement using a common gel can provide elastic modulus measurements that help validate dynamic shear-wave imaging estimates. PMID:26376923

  9. Non-Contact Respiratory Rate Measurement Validation for Hospitalized Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Droitcour, Amy D.; Seto, Todd B; Park, Byung-Kwon; Yamada, Shuhei; Vergara, Alex; El Hourani, Charles; Shing, Tommy; Yuen, Andrea; Lubecke, Victor M.; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the first clinical results for validating the accuracy of respiratory rate obtained for hospitalized patients using a non-contact, low power 2.4 GHz Doppler radar system. Twenty-four patients were measured in this study. The respiratory rate accuracy was benchmarked against the respiratory rate obtained using Welch Allyn Propaq Encore model 242, the Embla Embletta system with Universal XactTrace respiratory effort sensor and Somnologica for Embletta software, and by counti...

  10. Empirical Validation of Daylight Simulation Tool with Physical Model Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Yaik-Wah Lim; Mohd H. Ahmad; Dilshan R. Ossen

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In recent years, daylighting simulation tools have been increasingly used by many architects, engineers and researchers to evaluate the day lighting performances of building design. Most of these tools employ CIE sky models for simulation. However, the accuracy and applicability of these tools for tropical sky are doubtable. The aim of this study was to validate the computer simulated result with scaled physical model results measured under real tropical...

  11. Optimisation of the biomass measurement of pigmented microorganisms - Case study of the Rhodomonas Salina

    OpenAIRE

    Langot, Léo; Maphosa, Tafadzwa Lucky; Ayida, Solène Foe; Larsen, Daniel Ellehammer

    2016-01-01

    In order to relieve some of the pressure on the world's fish stocks caused by overfishing on certain species, a research group is exploring the possibilities in growing copepods on an industrial scale. To do this a large scale growth of microalgae is required, a process that demands a high level of monitoring. A critical aspect of the monitoring, is keeping the biomass under control, for this the optical density measurement is often used, as a way of monitoring the growth of microorganism...

  12. Combustion and emission formation in a biomass fueled grate furnace - measurements and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of turbulent combustion with special emphasis on the formation of nitrous oxide emissions in a biomass fueled grate furnace has been conducted with the aid of measurements, literature studies and CFD-computations. The literature study covers nitrous oxide formation and the pyrolysis, gasification and combustion of biomass fuel. The measurements were conducted inside the furnace and at the outlet, and temperature and some major species were measured. A tool for the treatment of the bed processes (pyrolysis, gasification and combustion) has been developed. The measurements show significantly higher concentrations of oxygen above the fuel bed than expected. The gas production in the bed was shown to be very unevenly distributed over the width of the furnace. The measured temperatures were relatively low and in the same order as reported from other, similar measurements. The computational results are in good quantitative agreement with the measurements, even for the nitrous oxide emissions. It was necessary to include tar as one of the combustible species to achieve reasonable results. The computations point out that the fuel-NO mechanism is the most important reaction path for the formation of nitrous oxide in biomass combustion in grate furnaces. The thermal NO mechanism is responsible for less than 10% of the total amount of NO-emissions. Although the results are quantitatively in good agreement with the measurements, a sensitivity study showed that the fuel-NO model did not respond to changes in the distribution of secondary air as the measurements indicate. The results from this work have lead to some guidelines on how the furnace should be operated to achieve minimum NO-emissions. Some proposals of smaller changes in the construction are also given. 33 refs, 37 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Status of Validation Program for Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is in its sixth year of operation. This successful research mission, a joint U.S./Japan effort, has become-a key element in the routine monitoring of global precipitation. The package of rain measuring instrumentation, including the first meteorological radar in space, continues to function perfectly, and with the increase in orbital altitude (from 350 km to 400 km) the mission will hopefully continue for a number of years. The validation effort has been a combination of routine use of 1) ground-based radar and raingauge measurements for comparison with the satellite-based estimates, 2) the use of field experiment data for evaluation of the satellite data products and investigation of some of the assumptions in the satellite retrievals, and 3) use of other comparison data sets, including atoll and buoy gauges over ocean and research and operational gauge data sets over land. The status of the program will be described along with "lessons learned". Near term plans for improved validation products and new thrusts related to validation of TRMM-based multi-satellite products that extend into middle latitudes will be outlined.

  14. Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT validation through 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO to the retrievals of CO using observations from the Measurements of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT instrument onboard the Terra satellite are presented. Observations made as part of the NASA INTEX-B and NSF MIRAGE field campaigns during March–May 2006 are used to validate the MOPITT CO retrievals, along with routine samples from 2001 through 2006 from NOAA and the MOZAIC measurements from commercial aircraft. A significant positive bias, around 20% for total column CO, in MOPITT CO was found in the comparison to in situ measurements during 2006. Comparisons to the long-term records of measurements from NOAA and MOZAIC revealed an increasing bias in the V3 MOPITT CO retrievals over time. Possible causes for the drift have been investigated and should be significantly reduced in the next version (V4 of MOPITT retrievals.

  15. Validation of SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2-columns with AMAXDOAS measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Heue, K.-P.; Richter, A; Bruns, M.; J. P. Burrows; Friedeburg, C.; Platt, U.; I. Pundt; Wang, P.; Wagner, T.

    2005-01-01

    Tropospheric NO2 vertical and slant columns from the new satellite instrument SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT are validated by measurements of the Airborne Multi AXis DOAS (AMAXDOAS) instrument on board the DLR Falcon. The results presented here were obtained in February 2003 on a flight over the Alps, the Po-Valley and the Mediterranean. The tropospheric vertical column measured by AMAXDOAS varied between 16.2 and 35.2*1015molec/cm2 over the Po-Valley where SCIAMACHY data resu...

  16. Metacognitive planning: development and validation of an online measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Du, Han; Zhu, Ze; Li, Yi Ming

    2015-03-01

    Planning is the critical first stage of metacognition. Although it has long been emphasized theoretically, it has not been the subject of much empirical study due to the lack of a valid assessment tool. Because planning is a metacognitive process, online methods that collect data during task performance would much better capture it. The present study was conducted to develop an online measure of metacognitive planning. Researchers designed a puzzle task that took the form of the popular game Sokoban, and the ratio between planning time and total time of each item was chosen as the metacognitive planning index. The task was administered to a heterogeneous sample of 440 participants composed of college students as well as 5th-, 7th-, and 10th-grade students. The results showed that valid inference could be made from the time ratio score. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest correlation provided robust evidence of reliability of the time ratio score. Confirmatory factor analysis further confirmed its unidimensionality. Validity evidence also supported the use of the time ratio score. After controlling for demographic variables, intelligence, and motivation, the time ratio score still accounted for a significant proportion of variance of Sokoban performance, the Tower of London performance, and academic achievement. The time ratio score was also found to increase with age. Taken together, the results of the study revealed that the time ratio is a psychometrically sound online measure of metacognitive planning. PMID:25222433

  17. Improved synchronous light scattering method for measuring baker's yeast biomass using thickened suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Guo, Xiangfeng; Jia, Lihua; Ding, Ying

    2013-08-01

    Measuring yeast biomass is important in the processes of microbial fermentations. It has been demonstrated that synchronous light scattering (SLS) signals could be applied for the quantification of model bioparticles such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, an improved synchronous light scattering method was developed for yeast biomass estimation. The settlement of yeast cells during SLS signals measuring process was studied, and hydrolysis anionic polyacrylamide was added into yeast suspensions to increase the stability of the cells in liquid environment. By simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission monochromators of a common spectrofluorometer with same starting excitation and emission wavelength (namely, ∆λ = 0), the SLS intensity was found to be proportional to the yeast concentration in the range from 0 to 4.9 × 10(6) cell/mL (R (2) = 0.9907), the detection limit is 8.1 × 10(3) cell/mL. The developed method exhibited good stability and sensitivity in the recovery test and growth curve drawing process, demonstrating the potential of the method in practical application of biomass estimation. PMID:23529355

  18. Halal Literacy: A Concept Exploration and Measurement Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim consumers have strict commandments which guides their consumption behavior. However, Muslim individuals may have different compliance regarding the commandments. This difference in compliance may be explained by difference in halal literacy. Halal literacy is the ability to differentiate permissible (halal and forbidden (haram goods and services which came from better understanding of Islamic laws (shariah.Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of Halal Literacy as well as to develop and validate an instrument to measure Halal Literacy for Muslim consumers. Halal literacy was measured using two methods. One method using six items of five point Likert self evaluation scale and the other using fifteen true-false test questions with an option to choose doesn’t know. Proportion of correct and incorrect was used as weights in scoring to represent the difficulty of items. Scoring results were then analyzed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA using Weighted Least Square method to test construct validity. Scores were then used to classify cases into high, moderate and low Literacy groups.Self evaluation halal literacy and switching Intentions are compared between groups using ANOVA to determine concurrent validity. Only ten out of fifteen items are considered valid using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. ANOVA showed that grouping of high, moderate and low literacy score can distinguish differences in perceived halal literacy and switching intentions between the groups. Post hoc tests and descriptive statistics revealed interesting non linear relationship between the halal literacy scores; self evaluated halal literacy and intentions to switch from products without halal labels.

  19. Soil Organic Carbon and Below Ground Biomass: Development of New GLOBE Special Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elissa; Haskett, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A scientific consensus is building that changes in the atmospheric concentrations of radiatively active gases are changing the climate (IPCC, 1990). One of these gases CO2 has been increasing in concentration due to additions from anthropogenic sources that are primarily industrial and land use related. The soil contains a very large pool of carbon, estimated at 1550 Gt (Lal 1995) which is larger than the atmospheric and biosphere pools of carbon combined (Greenland, 1995). The flux between the soil and the atmosphere is very large, 60 Pg C/yr (Lal 1997), and is especially important because the soil can act as either a source or a sink for carbon. On any given landscape, as much as 50% of the biomass that provides the major source of carbon can be below ground. In addition, the movement of carbon in and out of the soil is mediated by the living organisms. At present, there is no widespread sampling of soil biomass in any consistent or coordinated manner. Current large scale estimates of soil carbon are limited by the number and widely dispersed nature of the data points available. A measurement of the amount of carbon in the soil would supplement existing carbon data bases as well as provide a benchmark that can be used to determine whether the soil is storing carbon or releasing it to the atmosphere. Information on the below ground biomass would be a valuable addition to our understanding of net primary productivity and standing biomass. The addition of these as special measurements within GLOBE would be unique in terms of areal extent and continuity, and make a real contribution to scientific understanding of carbon dynamics.

  20. Evaporation measurement in the validation drift - part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two evaporation measurement series were carried out during April 3 - April 18, 1990 and May 27 . June 13, 1991 respectively in the validation drift. The first and the second measurement series were performed about one month and 14 months after the excavation, respectively. The results obtained by these measurement series are compared to each other with the aim to know the evaporation rate change during the period between these series. The evaporation rate from the matrix part of the rock mass decreased from the first measurement to the second. The average evaporation rate obtained from the second measurement series was about 1/4 of the first measurement. The frequency distribution of the evaporation rate measured in the second measurement series was more concentrated compared to the distribution of the first measurement series. The frequency distribution obtained by the second measurement seems to be approximated with a normal distribution curve. The evaporation rate from some major fractures did not decrease so much compared to the rate on the matrix part. The average rate obtained in the second measurement series on some fractures was about 80% of that of the first measurement series. The reduction of the evaporation rate may be due to the creation of an unsaturated zone around the drift. As the permeability decreases significantly when the saturation of the rock mass decreases, the evaporation rate or in the other word, the inflow rate must become smaller. An attempt was made to estimate the ratio between the matrix flow and the fracture flow. However, a detailed study is needed on unsaturated flow in rock mass for precise estimation. (au)

  1. Extended biomass allometric equations for large mangrove trees from terrestrial LiDAR data

    OpenAIRE

    Adewole, Olagoke; Proisy, Christophe; Féret, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchard, Elodie; Fromard, François; Mehlig, Ulf; Machado De Menezes, Moirah; dos Santos, Valdenira Ferreira; Berger, Uta

    2016-01-01

    We estimated aboveground biomass of large mangrove trees from terrestrial Lidar measurements. This makes the first attempt to extend mangrove biomass equations validity range to trunk diameter reaching 125 cm. Accurately determining biomass of large trees is crucial for reliable biomass analyses in most tropical forests, but most allometric models calibration are deficient in large trees data. This issue is a major concern for high-biomass mangrove forests, especially when their role in the e...

  2. Validation Testing for Automated Solubility Measurement Equipment Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachut, J. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-11

    Laboratory tests have been completed to test the validity of automated solubility measurement equipment using sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions (see test plan WRPS-1404441, “Validation Testing for Automated Solubility Measurement Equipment”). The sodium nitrate solution results were within 2-3% of the reference values, so the experiment is considered successful using the turbidity meter. The sodium chloride test was done by sight, as the turbidity meter did not work well using sodium chloride. For example, the “clear” turbidity reading was 53 FNU at 80 °C, 107 FNU at 55 °C, and 151 FNU at 20 °C. The sodium chloride did not work because it is granular and large; as the solution was stirred, the granules stayed to the outside of the reactor and just above the stir bar level, having little impact on the turbidity meter readings as the meter was aimed at the center of the solution. Also, the turbidity meter depth has an impact. The salt tends to remain near the stir bar level. If the meter is deeper in the slurry, it will read higher turbidity, and if the meter is raised higher in the slurry, it will read lower turbidity (possibly near zero) because it reads the “clear” part of the slurry. The sodium chloride solution results, as measured by sight rather than by turbidity instrument readings, were within 5-6% of the reference values.

  3. Postmortem validation of MRI cortical volume measurements in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Veronica; Klaver, Roel; Versteeg, Adriaan; Voorn, Pieter; Twisk, Jos W R; Barkhof, Frederik; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Grey matter (GM) atrophy is a prominent aspect of multiple sclerosis pathology and an important outcome in studies. GM atrophy measurement requires accurate GM segmentation. Several methods are used in vivo for measuring GM volumes in MS, but assessing their validity in vivo remains challenging. In this postmortem study, we evaluated the correlation between postmortem MRI cortical volume or thickness and the cortical thickness measured on histological sections. Sixteen MS brains were scanned in situ using 3DT1-weighted MRI and these images were used to measure regional cortical volume using FSL-SIENAX, FreeSurfer, and SPM, and regional cortical thickness using FreeSurfer. Subsequently, cortical thickness was measured histologically in 5 systematically sampled cortical areas. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relation between MRI regional cortical volume or thickness and histological cortical thickness to determine which postprocessing technique was most valid. After correction for multiple comparisons, we observed a significant correlation with the histological cortical thickness for FSL-SIENAX cortical volume with manual editing (std. β = 0.345, adjusted R(2)  = 0.105, P = 0.005), and FreeSurfer cortical volume with manual editing (std. β = 0.379, adjusted R(2)  = 0.129, P = 0.003). In addition, there was a significant correlation between FreeSurfer cortical thickness with manual editing and histological cortical thickness (std. β = 0.381, adjusted R(2)  = 0.130, P = 0.003). The results support the use of FSL-SIENAX and FreeSurfer in cases of severe MS pathology. Interestingly none of the methods were significant in automated mode, which supports the use of manual editing to improve the automated segmentation. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2223-2233, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945922

  4. Development and validation of resource flexibility measures for manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Global competition and ever changing customers demand have made manufacturing organizations to rapidly adjust to complexities, uncertainties, and changes. Therefore, flexibility in manufacturing resources is necessary to respond cost effectively and rapidly to changing production needs and requirements.  Ability of manufacturing resources to dynamically reallocate from one stage of a production process to another in response to shifting bottlenecks is recognized as resource flexibility. This paper aims to develop and validate resource flexibility measures for manufacturing industry that could be used by managers/ practitioners in assessing and improving the status of resource flexibility for the optimum utilization of resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study involves survey carried out in Indian manufacturing industry using a questionnaire to assess the status of various aspects of resource flexibility and their relationships. A questionnaire was specially designed covering various parameters of resource flexibility. Its reliability was checked by finding the value of Cronback alpha (0.8417. Relative weightage of various measures was found out by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation analysis was carried out to find out relationships between various parameters. Findings: From detailed review of literature on resource flexibility, 17 measures of resource flexibility and 47 variables were identified. The questionnaire included questions on all these measures and parameters. ‘Ability of machines to perform diverse set of operations’ and ability of workers to work on different machines’ emerged to be important measures with contributing weightage of 20.19% and 17.58% respectively.  All the measures were found to be significantly correlated with overall resource flexibility except ‘training of workers’, as shown by Pearson’s coefficient of correlation. This indicates that

  5. Biomass characterization by dielectric monitoring of viability and oxygen uptake rate measurements in a novel membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Farshid Pajoum; Heran, Marc; Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Mehrnia, Mohammad Reza; Sarzana, Gabriele; Ghommidh, Charles; Grasmick, Alain

    2013-07-01

    The application of permittivity and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) as biological process control parameters in a wastewater treatment system was evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a novel airlift oxidation ditch membrane bioreactor under different organic loading rates (OLR). Permittivity as representative of activated sludge viability was measured by a capacitive on-line sensor. OUR was also measured as a representative for respirometric activity. Results showed that the biomass concentration increases with OLR and all biomass related measurements and simulators such as MLSS, permittivity, OUR, ASM1 and ASM3 almost follow the same increasing trends. The viability of biomass decreased when the OLR was reduced from 5 to 4 kg COD m(-3)d(-1). During decreasing of OLR, biomass related parameters generally decreased but not in a similar manner. Also, protein concentration in the system during OLR decreasing changed inversely with the activated sludge viability. PMID:23708851

  6. A concise, content valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Ritter, Kelsey-Jo

    2016-07-01

    The authors present a short, valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility that should have a high degree of utility in a variety of research designs, especially those concerned with reducing participant burden such as experience sampling and multiwave longitudinal designs. Given ongoing concerns about the psychometric properties of workplace mistreatment constructs, they validated a 4-item measure of experienced incivility based on series of 3 independent field studies (N = 2,636). In addition to retaining items on the basis of employee rated conceptual alignment (i.e., judgmental criteria) with a standard incivility definition (i.e., ambiguous intent to harm), items were also chosen based on external criteria in terms of their ability to explain incremental variance in outcomes of interest (e.g., role overload, interpersonal deviance). Items with large systematic relationships with other mistreatment constructs (i.e., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining) were excluded. In turn, the authors demonstrated that the 4-item measure is gender invariant, a critical issue that has received limited attention in the literature to date. They also experimentally investigated the effect of recall window (2 weeks, 1 month, 1 year) and found a differential pattern of effect sizes for various outcomes of interest. A fourth independent field study was conducted as a practical application of the measure within a longitudinal framework. An autoregressive model examining experienced incivility and counterproductive work behaviors was tested. Data was collected from a sample of 278 respondents at 3 time points with 1 month between assessments. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26569134

  7. Empirical Validation of Daylight Simulation Tool with Physical Model Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaik-Wah Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years, daylighting simulation tools have been increasingly used by many architects, engineers and researchers to evaluate the day lighting performances of building design. Most of these tools employ CIE sky models for simulation. However, the accuracy and applicability of these tools for tropical sky are doubtable. The aim of this study was to validate the computer simulated result with scaled physical model results measured under real tropical sky. Approach: Daylighting model was constructed using scaled physical model to be tested under real sky measurement. The same model was configured in Desktop Radiance 2.0 to perform day lighting simulation experiments. All the measurements were carried out under intermediate and overcast tropical sky conditions in Malaysia; while related CIE sky conditions were used for simulations. Results: Due to the CIE sky conditions are very dissimilar from the actual tropical sky; simulated absolute value results such as external illuminance, absolute work plane illuminance and surface luminance recorded high mean differences from the measured results, with 81.63; 71.06 and 49.71%, respectively. However, relative ratios such as Daylight Factor (DF yielded mean difference of 26.06% and luminance ratio was 29.75% only. The average mean difference was 44.37%. Conclusion/Recommendations: To compare the performances, relative ratios such as DF and luminance ratio showed better accuracies. For future research, validation on other parameters can be performed such as orientations, angle of the overhang, glazing, window sizes, colors, environment settings and electric lighting.

  8. Validating MOSPA questionnaire for measuring physical activity in Pakistani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Rahat

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise measurements of activity at a population level are important for monitoring trends and evaluating health promotion strategies. Few studies have assessed the measurement of physical activity in developing countries. The aim of this study was to validate the MOSPA (Monica Optional Study of Physical Activity questionnaire which was developed for the WHO-Monitoring trends and determinants of cardiovasculr disease (MONICA study sites. Methods The MOSPA questionnaire assesses energy expendtiture (EE related to physical activity (employment, household work, transportation, and leisure time over a one year period. This questionnaire has been described in the manuscript as the long term (LT questionnaire. An adapted short term (ST 5 day questionnaire was developed to assess convergent validity. Questionnaire data were compared with physical activity EE estimates from a Caltrac accelerometer and with body composition measures (height, weight and bioelectrical impedance in 50 women from the Aga Khan University (AKU hospital antenatal clinics, Pakistan. Other forms of EE i.e. resting EE and thermic effect of food were not assessd in this study. Results Subjects were aged 26 ± 3.8 years and were 16.1 ± 6.7 weeks pregnant. Their average weight was 58.8 ± 10.7 Kg. The average EE/day assessed by the Caltrac accelerometer, was 224 kcal and by MOSPA LT questionnaire it was 404 kcal. The questionnaires and Caltrac data were reasonably well correlated: r = 0.51 and r = 0.60 (P Conclusion The MOSPA questionnaire is useful in assessing physical activity levels in a sedentary population over a one year period.

  9. Optical characteristics of biomass burning aerosols over Southeastern Europe determined from UV-Raman lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Amiridis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of smoke on the aerosol loading in the free troposphere over Thessaloniki, Greece is examined in this paper. Ten cases during 2001–2005 were identified when very high aerosol optical depth values in the free troposphere were observed with a UV-Raman lidar. Particle dispersion modeling (FLEXPART and satellite hot spot fire detection (ATSR showed that these high free tropospheric aerosol optical depths are mainly attributed to the advection of smoke plumes from biomass burning regions over Thessaloniki. The biomass burning regions were found to extend across Russia in the latitudinal belt between 45° N–55° N, as well as in Eastern Europe (Baltic countries, Western Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine. The highest frequency of agricultural fires occurred during the summer season (mainly in August. The data collected allowed the optical characterization of the smoke aerosols that arrived over Greece, where limited information has so far been available. Two-wavelength backscatter lidar measurements showed that the backscatter-related Ångström exponent ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 indicating a variety of particle sizes. UV-Raman lidar measurements showed that for smoke particles the extinction to backscatter ratios varied between 40 sr for small particles to 100 sr for large particles. Dispersion model estimations of the carbon monoxide tracer concentration profiles for smoke particles indicate that the variability of the optical parameters is a function of the age of the smoke plumes.

  10. Validation and variability of ISAMS NO and NO2 measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISAMS is an infrared limb radiometer sounder aboard on the UARS satellite. It is designed to measure temperature, pressure, O3, CO, NO, NO2, N2O5, HNO3, CH4, H2O, N2O and aerosol, NO2 and NO are centered at 5.3 μm and 6.3 μm band, respectively. They are both measured at broad band channel and pressure modulation channel. The difference, therefore, can be used to estimate the aerosol effect. It is well known that NO2 is the critical radical in the NOy ozone chemistry, and, along with NO, directly participates in the catalytic ozone destruction. ISAMS NO and NO2 measurements are not under intense validation studies. This paper will examine the diurnal variation of NO and NO2, the variation of NO/NO2 ration verus local time, polar NO2 distribution, and the intercomparisons between ISAMS, CLAES and HALOE. CLAES and HALOE are the other two instruments detecting NO and NO2 on the UARs satellite

  11. Validation of crowdsourced automatic rain gauge measurements in Amsterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Leijnse, Hidde; Overeem, Aart; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2016-04-01

    over time in most stations showed an underestimation of rainfall compared to the accumulative values found in the corresponding radar pixel of the reference. Special consideration is given to the identification of faulty measurements without the need to obtain additional meta-data, such as setup and surroundings. This validation will show the potential of crowdsourced automatic weather stations for future urban rainfall monitoring.

  12. Ocean Lidar Measurements of Beam Attenuation and a Roadmap to Accurate Phytoplankton Biomass Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongxiang; Behrenfeld, Mike; Hostetler, Chris; Pelon, Jacques; Trepte, Charles; Hair, John; Slade, Wayne; Cetinic, Ivona; Vaughan, Mark; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhai, Pengwang; Weimer, Carl; Winker, David; Verhappen, Carolus C.; Butler, Carolyn; Liu, Zhaoyan; Hunt, Bill; Omar, Ali; Rodier, Sharon; Lifermann, Anne; Josset, Damien; Hou, Weilin; MacDonnell, David; Rhew, Ray

    2016-06-01

    Beam attenuation coefficient, c, provides an important optical index of plankton standing stocks, such as phytoplankton biomass and total particulate carbon concentration. Unfortunately, c has proven difficult to quantify through remote sensing. Here, we introduce an innovative approach for estimating c using lidar depolarization measurements and diffuse attenuation coefficients from ocean color products or lidar measurements of Brillouin scattering. The new approach is based on a theoretical formula established from Monte Carlo simulations that links the depolarization ratio of sea water to the ratio of diffuse attenuation Kd and beam attenuation C (i.e., a multiple scattering factor). On July 17, 2014, the CALIPSO satellite was tilted 30° off-nadir for one nighttime orbit in order to minimize ocean surface backscatter and demonstrate the lidar ocean subsurface measurement concept from space. Depolarization ratios of ocean subsurface backscatter are measured accurately. Beam attenuation coefficients computed from the depolarization ratio measurements compare well with empirical estimates from ocean color measurements. We further verify the beam attenuation coefficient retrievals using aircraft-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) data that are collocated with in-water optical measurements.

  13. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  14. Validation of a New Tool to Measure Physiotherapists' Interprofessional Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Kadija; Dionne, Clermont E; Rossignol, Michel; Morin, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is recommended in health systems everywhere, but research on its measurement is needed. This psychometric study assessed the construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the Intensity of Interprofessional Practices Questionnaire for Private-Sector Physiotherapists (IIPQ-PT). A random sample of 303 physiotherapists (PTs) completed the 12-item questionnaire, and a subsample of 103 completed it a second time 2 weeks later. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a one-factor solution for the instrument. IIPQ-PT scores showed respectively fair and moderate relationships with the percentage of low back pain clients for whom PTs reported interactions with other professionals (0.30; 95% CI 0.19-0.40; p<0.001) and perceived degree of interactions (0.58; 95% CI 0.50-0.65; p<0.001). The IIPQ-PT had high internal consistency (Cronbach's a= 0.86; 95% CI 0.83-0.88) and good test-retest reliability (ICC=0.69; 95% CI 0.57-0.78). The minimum detectable difference for a 95% CI was 2.52. Although further study of this instrument is warranted, our results are promising for its future use. The IIPQ-PT may prove useful to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve interprofessional practices and to measure the effects of such practices on service users, providers, and the health system. PMID:26937877

  15. The potential of ground gravity measurements to validate GRACE data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Crossley

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New satellite missions are returning high precision, time-varying, satellite measurements of the Earth’s gravity field. The GRACE mission is now in its calibration/- validation phase and first results of the gravity field solutions are imminent. We consider here the possibility of external validation using data from the superconducting gravimeters in the European sub-array of the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP as ‘ground truth’ for comparison with GRACE. This is a pilot study in which we use 14 months of 1-hour data from the beginning of GGP (1 July 1997 to 30 August 1998, when the Potsdam instrument was relocated to South Africa. There are 7 stations clustered in west central Europe, and one station, Metsahovi in Finland. We remove local tides, polar motion, local and global air pressure, and instrument drift and then decimate to 6-hour samples. We see large variations in the time series of 5–10µgal between even some neighboring stations, but there are also common features that correlate well over the 427-day period. The 8 stations are used to interpolate a minimum curvature (gridded surface that extends over the geographical region. This surface shows time and spatial coherency at the level of 2– 4µgal over the first half of the data and 1–2µgal over the latter half. The mean value of the surface clearly shows a rise in European gravity of about 3µgal over the first 150 days and a fairly constant value for the rest of the data. The accuracy of this mean is estimated at 1µgal, which compares favorably with GRACE predictions for wavelengths of 500 km or less. Preliminary studies of hydrology loading over Western Europe shows the difficulty of correlating the local hydrology, which can be highly variable, with large-scale gravity variations.Key words. GRACE, satellite gravity, superconducting gravimeter, GGP, ground truth

  16. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L.; Sommer, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4) production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) (CH4 NL kg−1 VS) of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05). The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP) was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr) for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%), while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR) varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM) were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC). This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. PMID:25049861

  17. Validation and recommendation of methods to measure biogas production potential of animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, C H; Triolo, J M; Cu, T T T; Pedersen, L; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4) production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) (CH4 NL kg(-1) VS) of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05). The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP) was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr) for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%), while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR) varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM) were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC). This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. PMID:25049861

  18. Envisat MIPAS measurements of CFC-11: retrieval, validation, and climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hoffmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available From July 2002 to March 2004 the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS aboard the European Space Agency's Environmental Satellite (Envisat measured nearly continuously mid infrared limb radiance spectra. These measurements are utilised to retrieve the global distribution of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-11 by applying a new fast forward model for Envisat MIPAS and an accompanying optimal estimation retrieval processor. A detailed analysis shows that the total retrieval errors of the individual CFC-11 volume mixing ratios are typically below 10% and that the systematic components are dominating. Contribution of a priori information to the retrieval results are less than 5 to 10%. The vertical resolution of the observations is about 3 to 4 km. The data are successfully validated by comparison with several other space experiments, an air-borne in-situ instrument, measurements from ground-based networks, and independent Envisat MIPAS analyses. The retrieval results from 425 000 Envisat MIPAS limb scans are compiled to provide a new climatological data set of CFC-11. The climatology shows significantly lower CFC-11 abundances in the lower stratosphere compared with the Reference Atmospheres for MIPAS (RAMstan V3.1 climatology. Depending on the atmospheric conditions the differences between the climatologies are up to 30 to 110 ppt (45 to 150% at 19 to 27 km altitude. Additionally, time series of CFC-11 mean abundance and variability for five latitudinal bands are presented. The observed CFC-11 distributions can be explained by the residual mean circulation and large-scale eddy-transports in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The new CFC-11 data set is well suited for further scientific studies.

  19. Envisat MIPAS measurements of CFC-11: retrieval, validation, and climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hoffmann

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available From July 2002 to March 2004 the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS aboard the European Space Agency's Environmental Satellite (Envisat measured nearly continuously mid infrared limb radiance spectra. These measurements are utilised to retrieve the global distribution of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-11 by applying a new fast forward model for Envisat MIPAS and an accompanying optimal estimation retrieval processor. A detailed analysis shows that the total retrieval errors of the individual CFC-11 volume mixing ratios are typically below 10% in the altitude range 10 to 25 km and that the systematic components dominate. Contribution of a priori information to the retrieval results are less than 5 to 10% and the vertical resolution of the observations is about 3 to 4 km in the same vertical range. The data are successfully validated by comparison with several other space experiments, an air-borne in-situ instrument, measurements from ground-based networks, and independent Envisat MIPAS analyses. The retrieval results from 425 000 Envisat MIPAS limb scans are compiled to provide a new climatological data set of CFC-11. The climatology shows significantly lower CFC-11 abundances in the lower stratosphere compared with the Reference Atmospheres for MIPAS (RAMstan V3.1 climatology. Depending on the atmospheric conditions the differences between the climatologies are up to 30 to 110 ppt (45 to 150% at 19 to 27 km altitude. Additionally, time series of CFC-11 mean abundance and variability for five latitudinal bands are presented. The observed CFC-11 distributions can be explained by the residual mean circulation and large-scale eddy-transports in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The new CFC-11 data set is well suited for further scientific studies.

  20. Towards Validating Risk Indicators Based on Measurement Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Morali, Ayse; Wieringa, Roel

    2010-01-01

    Due to the lack of quantitative information and for cost-efficiency purpose, most risk assessment methods use partially ordered values (e.g. high, medium, low) as risk indicators. In practice it is common to validate risk scales by asking stakeholders whether they make sense. This way of validation is subjective, thus error prone. If the metrics are wrong (not meaningful), then they may lead system owners to distribute security investments inefficiently. Therefore, when validating risk assess...

  1. Deposit Probe Measurements in Large Biomass-Fired Grate Boilers and Pulverized-Fuel Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    build-up increased with the K-content of the fuel ash and fly ash for grate-fired boilers. For suspension-fired boilers, deposition rates are comparatively low for wood-firing and increase with increasing fuel straw shares. Shedding of deposits occurs by melting during straw-firing on a grate at high......A number of full-scale deposit probe measuring campaigns conducted in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers, fired with biomass, have been reviewed and compared. The influence of operational parameters on the chemistry of ash and deposits, on deposit build-up rates, and on shedding behavior has...... been examined. The firing technology and the fuel utilized influence the fly ash and deposit chemical composition. In grate-firing, K, Cl, and S are enriched in the fly ash compared to the fuel ash, while the fly ash in suspension-firing is relatively similar to the fuel ash. The chemical composition...

  2. Deposit Probe Measurements in Danish Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    formation rates. Suspension fired boilers generate more fly ash, while grate boilers form a fly ash with a higher fraction of melt formation (and thereby a higher sticking probability) at similar temperatures. For suspension fired units it is observed that wood with a lower ash content than straw gives rise....... Corresponding samples of fuels, ash deposits and fly ash have provided information on the transformation of inorganics in the boiler. Generally, grate fired boilers provide a fly ash containing high contents of K, Cl and S compared to the fuel ash, while suspension fired boilers fly ash has a composition nearly...... similar to the fuel ash. Inner most biomass deposits are always salt-rich, while thicker deposit layers also contain some Si and Ca. Deposit probe formation rate measurements have been performed in different ways on several boilers. Grate and suspension fired boilers seems to cause similar deposit...

  3. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander W.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Fladung, William A.; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Inertia Measurement (DIM) method uses a ground vibration test setup to determine the mass properties of an object using information from frequency response functions. Most conventional mass properties testing involves using spin tables or pendulum-based swing tests, which for large aerospace vehicles becomes increasingly difficult and time-consuming, and therefore expensive, to perform. The DIM method has been validated on small test articles but has not been successfully proven on large aerospace vehicles. In response, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) conducted mass properties testing on an "iron bird" test article that is comparable in mass and scale to a fighter-type aircraft. The simple two-I-beam design of the "iron bird" was selected to ensure accurate analytical mass properties. Traditional swing testing was also performed to compare the level of effort, amount of resources, and quality of data with the DIM method. The DIM test showed favorable results for the center of gravity and moments of inertia; however, the products of inertia showed disagreement with analytical predictions.

  4. Surface solar irradiance from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Broadband surface solar irradiances (SSI are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric Global Irradiance Code algorithm is used to calculate clear-sky SSI. The SCIAMACHY SSI product is validated against globally distributed BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network measurements and compared with ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Flux Dataset surface shortwave downwelling fluxes (SDF. For one year of data in 2008, the mean difference between the instantaneous SCIAMACHY SSI and the hourly mean BSRN global irradiances is −4 W m−2 (−1 % with a standard deviation of 101 W m−2 (20 %. The mean difference between the globally monthly mean SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF is less than −12 W m−2 (−2 % for every month in 2006 and the standard deviation is 62 W m−2 (12 %. The correlation coefficient is 0.93 between SCIAMACHY SSI and BSRN global irradiances and is greater than 0.96 between SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF. The evaluation results suggest that the SCIAMACHY SSI product achieves similar mean bias error and root mean square error as the surface solar irradiances derived from polar orbiting satellites with higher spatial resolution.

  5. Towards Validating Risk Indicators Based on Measurement Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, Ayse; Wieringa, Roel

    2010-01-01

    Due to the lack of quantitative information and for cost-efficiency purpose, most risk assessment methods use partially ordered values (e.g. high, medium, low) as risk indicators. In practice it is common to validate risk scales by asking stakeholders whether they make sense. This way of validation

  6. Towards Validating Risk Indicators Based on Measurement Theory (Extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, Ayse; Wieringa, Roel

    2010-01-01

    Due to the lack of quantitative information and for cost-efficiency, most risk assessment methods use partially ordered values (e.g. high, medium, low) as risk indicators. In practice it is common to validate risk indicators by asking stakeholders whether they make sense. This way of validation is s

  7. Experimental investigation on NOx reduction by primary measures in biomass combustion: straw, peat, sewage sludge, forest residues and wood pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Øyvind Skreiberg; Ehsan Houshfar; Terese Løvås

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to study the NOx formation and reduction by primary measures for five types of biomass (straw, peat, sewage sludge, forest residues/Grot, and wood pellets) and their mixtures. To minimize the NOx level in biomass-fired boilers, combustion experiments were performed in a laboratory scale multifuel fixed grate reactor using staged air combustion. Flue gas was extracted to measure final levels of CO, CO2, CxHy, O2, NO, NO2, N2O, and other species. Th...

  8. Experimental Investigation on NOx Reduction by Primary Measures in Biomass Combustion: Straw, Peat, Sewage Sludge, Forest Residues and Wood Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Houshfar, Ehsan; Løvås, Terese; Skreiberg, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to study the NOx formation and reduction by primary measures for five types of biomass (straw, peat, sewage sludge, forest residues/Grot, and wood pellets) and their mixtures. To minimize the NOx level in biomass-fired boilers, combustion experiments were performed in a laboratory scale multifuel fixed grate reactor using staged air combustion. Flue gas was extracted to measure final levels of CO, CO2, CxHy, O2, NO, NO2, N2O, and other species. Th...

  9. The method of measurement system software automatic validation using business rules management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    The method of measurement system software automatic validation using business rules management system (BRMS) is discussed in this paper. The article contains a description of the new approach to measurement systems execution validation, a description of the implementation of the system that supports mentioned validation and examples documenting the correctness of the approach. In the new approach BRMS are used for measurement systems execution validation. Such systems have not been used for software execution validation nor for measurement systems. The benefits of using them for the listed purposes are discussed as well.

  10. Validation of self reported smoking by serum cotinine measurement in a community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, E.; Seppala, T; Lillsunde, P; Puska, P

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: The validity of self reported smoking in population surveys remains an important question. An associated question is what would be the value of measuring serum cotinine concentrations in such surveys to obtain validated smoking data.

  11. Validation of EMC near-field scanning amplitude and phase measurement data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Anders P.; Sørensen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    A frequency selection and data validation procedure is presented. It shows that using data from the reference channel it makes possible to estimate the validity of the measured data from an EMC near-field scan with phase on active circuits.......A frequency selection and data validation procedure is presented. It shows that using data from the reference channel it makes possible to estimate the validity of the measured data from an EMC near-field scan with phase on active circuits....

  12. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Petrunoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. Results. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K=0.62, P<0.0001 and a moderate correlation for travel time (ρ=0.75, P<0.0001 reported in the travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K=0.82, P<0.0001 and travel time (ρ=0.83, P<0.0001 between the two travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. Conclusions. The survey question “How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance portion of your journey” is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  13. Development and validation of the Patient Opioid Education Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace LS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lorraine S Wallace,1 Randell K Wexler,1 W Frederick Miser,1 Leon McDougle,1 J David Haddox2,3 1The Ohio State University, Department of Family Medicine, Columbus, OH, 2Purdue Pharma LP, One Stanford Forum, Stanford, CT, 3Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Background: Although there are screening tools to aid clinicians in assessing the risk of opioid misuse, an instrument to assess opioid-related knowledge is not currently available. The purpose of this study was to develop a content-valid, understandable, readable, and reliable Patient Opioid Education Measure (POEM. Methods: Using concept mapping, clinicians caring for patients with chronic pain participated in brainstorming, sorting, and rating need-to-know information for patients prescribed opioids. Concept mapping analyses identified seven clusters addressing knowledge and expectations associated with opioid use, including medicolegal issues, prescribing policies, safe use and handling, expected outcomes, side effects, pharmacology, and warnings. Results: The 49-item POEM was verbally administered to 83 patients (average age 51.3 ± 9.8 years, 77.1% female, 47.1% African American taking opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain. Patients averaged in total 63.9% ± 14.3% (range 23%–91% correct responses on the POEM. The POEM demonstrated substantial test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient 0.87. The POEM had a mean readability Lexile (L score of 805.9 ± 257.3 L (equivalent to approximately a US fifth grade reading level, with individual items ranging from 280 L to 1370 L. Conclusion: The POEM shows promise for rapidly identifying patients' opioid-related knowledge gaps and expectations. Correcting misunderstandings and gaps could result in safer use of opioids in a clinical care setting. Keywords: opioid, knowledge, pain, questionnaire

  14. Method for online measurement of the CHON composition of raw gas from biomass gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Measuring the CHON composition of a raw gas by current methods is challenging. • An alternative method is to burn the raw gas before measuring the CHON composition. • The CHON contents of the raw gas can be accurately measured by the alternative method. • Measuring the CHON contents of the raw gas is now performed in a “one-step” analysis. • The new method is used to evaluate the operation of a dual fluidised bed gasifier. - Abstract: For unattended biomass gasification processes, rapid methods for monitoring the elemental composition (CHON) of the raw gas leaving the gasifier are needed. Conventional methods rely on time-consuming and costly laboratory procedures for analysing the condensable part of the raw gas. An alternative method, presented in this work, assesses the CHON composition of raw gas in a “one step” analysis without the need to previously characterise its chemical species composition. Our method is based on the quantitative conversion of a raw gas of complex chemical composition into CO2, H2O, and N2 in a small combustor. The levels of these simple species can be measured with high accuracy and good time resolution, and the CHON composition of the raw gas can be determined from the mass balance across the combustor. To evaluate this method, an online combustion facility was built and used to analyse the raw gas from the Chalmers 2-MWth dual fluidised bed steam gasifier. Test runs of the developed facility demonstrated complete combustion of the raw gas and the measurements were both fast and reliable. The new method used in combination with zero-dimensional reactor modelling provides valuable data for the operational monitoring of gasification processes, such as the degree of fuel conversion, composition of the char exiting the gasifier, oxygen transport by catalytic bed material, and amount of condensables in raw gas

  15. In situ Measurements of Absorbing Aerosols from Urban Sources, in Maritime Environments and during Biomass Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, C.; Manvendra, D.; Chylek, P.; Arnott, P.

    2006-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols have important but still ill quantified effects on climate, visibility, cloud processes, and air quality. The compilation of aerosol scattering and absorption databases from reliable measurements is essential to reduce uncertainties in these inter-linked research areas. The atmospheric radiative balance for example, is modeled using the aerosol single scattering albedo (ratio of scattering to scattering plus absorption, SSA) as a fundamental input parameter in climate models. Sulfate aerosols with SSA values close to 1 scatter solar radiation resulting in a negative radiative forcing. However aerosol SSA values less than 1 are common when combustion processes are contributing to the aerosol sources. Absorbing aerosols directly heat the atmosphere and reduce the solar radiation at the surface. Currently, the net global anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing is estimated to be around -0.5W m-2 with uncertainty of about 80% largely due to lack of understanding of SSA of sulfate-organic-soot aerosols. We present a rapidly expanding data set of direct in situ aerosol absorption and scattering measurements performed since June 2005 by photoacoustic instrument (at 781 and 870 nm), with integrated a total scattering sensor, during numerous field campaigns. Data have been collected over a wide range of aerosol sources, local environments and anthropogenic activities. Airborne measurements were performed in marine stratus off shore of the California coast and in cumulus clouds and clear air in the Houston, TX area; ground-based measurements have been performed in many locations in Mexico City; while laboratory measurements have been collected during a controlled combustion experiment of many different biomass fuels. The large dynamic range of aerosol types and conditions from these different field campaigns will be integrated to help quantify the SSA values, their variability, and their implications on the radiative forcing of climate.

  16. Geostatistical validation and cross-validation of magnetometric measurements of soil pollution with Potentially Toxic Elements in problematic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    Field magnetometry is fast method that was previously effectively used to assess the potential soil pollution. One of the most popular devices that are used to measure the soil magnetic susceptibility on the soil surface is a MS2D Bartington. Single reading using MS2D device of soil magnetic susceptibility is low time-consuming but often characterized by considerable errors related to the instrument or environmental and lithogenic factors. In this connection, measured values of soil magnetic susceptibility have to be usually validated using more precise, but also much more expensive, chemical measurements. The goal of this study was to analyze validation methods of magnetometric measurements using chemical analyses of a concentration of elements in soil. Additionally, validation of surface measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility was performed using selected parameters of a distribution of magnetic susceptibility in a soil profile. Validation was performed using selected geostatistical measures of cross-correlation. The geostatistical approach was compared with validation performed using the classic statistics. Measurements were performed at selected areas located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Area in Poland, and in the selected parts of Norway. In these areas soil magnetic susceptibility was measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device and in the soil profile using MS2C Bartington device. Additionally, soil samples were taken in order to perform chemical measurements. Acknowledgment The research leading to these results has received funding from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 in the frame of Project IMPACT - Contract No Pol-Nor/199338/45/2013.

  17. The Validation by Measurement Theory of Proposed Object-Oriented Software Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    Moving software development into the engineering arena requires controllability, and to control a process, it must be measurable. Measuring the process does no good if the product is not also measured, i.e., being the best at producing an inferior product does not define a quality process. Also, not every number extracted from software development is a valid measurement. A valid measurement only results when we are able to verify that the number is representative of the attribute that we wish to measure. Many proposed software metrics are used by practitioners without these metrics ever having been validated, leading to costly but often useless calculations. Several researchers have bemoaned the lack of scientific precision in much of the published software measurement work and have called for validation of software metrics by measurement theory. This dissertation applies measurement theory to validate fifty proposed object-oriented software metrics.

  18. The Reliability and Validity of the Computerized Double Inclinometer in Measuring Lumbar Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    MacDermid, Joy Christine; Arumugam, Vanitha; Vincent, Joshua Israel; Carroll, Krista L

    2014-01-01

    Study Design : Repeated measures reliability/validity study. Objectives : To determine the concurrent validity, test-retest, inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of lumbar flexion and extension measurements using the Tracker M.E. computerized dual inclinometer (CDI) in comparison to the modified-modified Schober (MMS) Summary of Background : Numerous studies have evaluated the reliability and validity of the various methods of measuring spinal motion, but the results are inconsistent. Diff...

  19. Concurrent validity of the Work Addiction Risk Test as a measure of workaholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B E

    1996-12-01

    The Work Addiction Risk Test was administered, with a measure of anxiety and two measures of Type A behavior, to 363 undergraduates at a major southern institution to test for concurrent validity. Correlations of scores on the Work Addiction Risk Test with other scores support the scale as a valid measure of workaholism. PMID:9009786

  20. Biomass co-firing under oxy-fuel conditions: A computational fluid dynamics modelling study and experimental validation

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez González, Lucía; Yin, C.; Riaza Benito, Juan; Pevida García, Covadonga; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Rubiera González, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on co-firing olive waste (0, 10%, 20% on mass basis) with two coals in an entrained flow reactor under three oxy-fuel conditions (21%O2/79%CO2, 30%O2/70%CO2 and 35%O2/65%CO2) and air–fuel condition. Co-firing biomass with coal was found to have favourable synergy effects in all the cases: it significantly improves the burnout and remarkably lowers NOx emissions. The reduced peak temperatures during co-firing can also help to mitigate dep...

  1. Development and Validation of a Measure of Organizational Culture in Public Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Tonya M.; Ellett, Alberta J.; Deweaver, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop and explore the validity characteristics of a new measure of organizational culture in public child welfare agencies. Method: Multiple validation methods were used, including expert judgment and criterion-related validity procedures using a statewide sample of 1,033 child welfare caseworkers, supervisors, and administrators.…

  2. Recent Progress and Emerging Issues in Measuring and Modeling Biomass Burning Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Veres, P. R.; Hatch, L. E.; Barsanti, K. C.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Alvarado, M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Akagi, S. K.; McMeeking, G. R.; Stone, E.; Gilman, J.; Warneke, C.; Sedlacek, A. J.; Kleinman, L. I.

    2013-12-01

    Nine recent multi-PI campaigns (6 airborne, 3 laboratory) have quantified biomass burning emissions and the subsequent smoke evolution in unprecedented detail. Among these projects were the Fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4) and the DOE airborne campaign BBOP (Biomass Burning Observation Project). Between 2009 and 2013 a large selection of fuels and ecosystems were probed including: (1) 21 US prescribed fires in pine forests, chaparral, and shrublands; (2) numerous wildfires in the Pacific Northwest of the US; (3) 77 lab fires burning fuels collected from the sites of the prescribed fires; and (4) 158 lab fires burning authentic fuels in traditional cooking fires and advanced stoves; peat from Indonesia, Canada, and North Carolina; savanna grasses from Africa; temperate grasses from the US; crop waste from the US; rice straw from Taiwan, China, Malaysia, and California; temperate and boreal forest fuels collected in Montana and Alaska; chaparral fuels from California; trash; and tires. Instrumentation for gases included: FTIR, PTR-TOF-MS, 2D-GC and whole air sampling. Particle measurements included filter sampling (with IC, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and GC-MS) and numerous real-time measurements such as: HR-AMS (high-resolution aerosol MS), SP-AMS (soot particle AMS), SP2 (single particle soot photometer), SP-MS (single particle MS), ice nuclei, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei), water soluble OC, size distribution, and optical properties in the UV-VIS. New data include: emission factors for over 400 gases, black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), organic aerosol (OA), ions, metals, EC, and OC; and details of particle morphology, mixing state, optical properties, size distributions, and cloud nucleating activity. Large concentrations (several ppm) of monoterpenes were present in fresh smoke. About 30-70% of the initially emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds were semivolatile and could not be identified with current technology

  3. Measurements of CO in an aircraft experiment and their correlation with biomass burning and air mass origin in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boian, C.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    Carbon monoxide (CO) measurements are obtained in an aircraft experiment during 1-7 September 2000, conducted over Central Brazil in a special region of anticyclonic circulation. This is a typical transport regime during the dry season (July-September), when intense biomass burning occurs, and which gives origin to the transport of burning poluents from the source to distant regions. This aircraft experiment included in situ measurements of CO concentrations in three different scenarios: (1) areas of fresh biomass burning air masses, or source areas; (2) areas of aged biomass burning air masses; and (3) areas of clean air or pristine air masses. The largest CO concentrations were of the order of 450 ppbv in the source region near Conceicao do Araguaia (PA), and the smallest value near 100 ppbv, was found in pristine air masses, for example, near the northeast coastline (clean air, or background region). The observed concentrations were compared to the number of fire pixels seen by the AVHRR satellite instrument. Backward isentropic trajectories were used to determine the origin of the air masses at each sampling point. From the association of the observed CO mixing ratios, fire pixels and air mass trajectories, the previous scenarios may be subdivided as follows: (1a) source regions of biomass burning with large CO concentrations; (1b) regions with few local fire pixels and absence of contributions by transport. Areas with these characteristics include the northeast region of Brazil; (1c) regions close to the source region and strongly affected by transport (region of Para and Amazonas); (2) regions that have a consistent convergence of air masses, that have traveled over biomass burning areas during a few days (western part of the Cerrado region); (3a) Pristine air masses with origin from the ocean; (3b) regions with convergent transport that has passed over areas of no biomass burning, such as frontal weather systems in the southern regions.

  4. Improving the Validity of Quantitative Measures in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, James E.; Brown, James Dean; Schoonen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In empirical applied linguistics research it is essential that the key variables are operationalized in a valid and reliable way, and that the scores are treated appropriately, allowing for a proper testing of the hypotheses under investigation. The current article addresses several theoretical and practical issues regarding the use of measurement…

  5. Defining and Measuring College and Career Readiness: A Validation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the intended uses of these college- and career-readiness assessments with the goal of articulating an appropriate validity argument to support such uses. These assessments differ fundamentally from today's state assessments employed for state accountability. Current assessments are used to determine if students have…

  6. Measuring Elementary Student's Mathematics Motivation: A Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a 10-item math motivation scale were empirically validated with an independent sample consisting of 182 elementary-school students. Analysis of the model dimensionality supported a one-factor structure fit. Item parameter estimates from a Classical Test Theory framework revealed that most items were highly…

  7. Intercomparison of Measurement Techniques for Black or Elemental Carbon Under Urban Background Conditions in Wintertime: Influence of Biomass Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Reisinger, Peter; Wonaschutz, Anna; Hitzenberger, Regina; Petzold, Andreas; Bauer, Heidi; Jankowski, Nicole; Puxbaum, Hans; Chi, Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

    2008-01-01

    A generally accepted method to measure black carbon (BC) or elemental carbon (EC) still does not exist. An earlier study in the Vienna area comparing practically all measurement methods in use in Europe gave comparable BC and EC concentrations under summer conditions (Hitzenberger et al., 2006a).Undersummerconditions, Diesel traffic is the major source for EC or BC in Vienna. Under winter conditions, space heating (also with biomass as fuel) is another important source (Caseiro et al., 2007)....

  8. Quantifying Post-Fire Forest Biomass Recovery in Northeastern Siberia using Hierarchical Multi-Sensor Satellite Imagery and Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, L.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Russian forests are the largest vegetation carbon pool outside of the tropics, with larch dominating northeastern Siberia where extreme temperatures, permafrost and wildfire currently limit persistence of other tree species. These ecosystems have experienced rapid climate warming over the past century and model simulations suggest that they will undergo profound changes by the end of the century if warming continues. Understanding the responses of these unique deciduous-conifer ecosystems to current and future climate is important given the potential changes in disturbance regimes and other climate feedbacks. The climate implications of changes in fire severity and return interval, as predicted under a warmer and drier climate, are not well understood given the trade-off between storage of C in forest biomass and post-fire surface albedo. We examined forest biomass recovery across a burn chronosequence near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, in far northeastern Siberia. We used high-quality Landsat imagery to date and map fires that occurred between 1972 and 2009, then complemented this data set using tree ring measurements to map older fires. A three stage approach was taken to map current biomass distribution. First, tree shadows were mapped from 50 cm panchromatic WorldView 1 imagery covering a portion of the region. Secondly, the tree shadow map was aggregated to 30 m resolution and used to train a regression-tree model that ingested mosaiced Landsat data. The model output correlated with allometry-based field estimates of biomass, allowing us to transform the model output to a map of regional aboveground biomass using a regression model. When combined with the fire history data, the new biomass map revealed a chronosequence of forest regrowth and carbon sequestration in aboveground biomass after fire. We discuss the potential for future carbon emissions from fires in northeastern Siberia, as well as carbon sequestration during recovery based on the observed biomass

  9. Spaceborne Applications of P Band Imaging Radars for Measuring Forest Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Rignot, EJ; Zimmermann, R.; van Zyl, JJ

    1995-01-01

    In three sites of boreal and temperate forests, P band HH, HV, and VV polarization data combined estimate total aboveground dry woody biomass within 12 to 27% of the values derived from allometric equations, depending on forest complexity. Biomass estimates derived from HV-polarization data only are 2 to 14% less accurate. When the radar operates at circular polarization, the errors exceed 100% over flooded forests, wet or damaged trees and sparse open tall forests because double-bounce refle...

  10. Development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multi-dimensional constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F.

    2008-01-01

    Atheoretical measure purification may lead to construct deficient measures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretically driven procedure for the development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multi-dimensional constructs. We place particular emphasis on establ...... average variance extracted is particularly critical to reliability in the respecification of multi-indicator measures. In relation to this, the results also reveal possible deficiencies in using Cronbach alpha for establishing reliable and valid measures....

  11. Developing a Valid Patient-Reported Outcome Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Rothrock, NE; Kaiser, KA; Cella, D

    2011-01-01

    Many aspects of patients’ experiences with illness, medication, and health care are best captured from patient-reported outcomes (PROs). In this article, we describe the process for constructing quality PRO instruments, from conceptual model development through instrument validation. We also discuss PROs as clinical trial end points and the potential of PRO data for aiding clinicians and patients in choosing from among multiple therapeutic options. Finally, we provide an overview of some exis...

  12. An Attempt to Validate Scintillometer Measurements: The LITFASS-2009 Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Beyrich, F.; Bange, J.; Hartogensis, O. K.; Raasch, S.; Braam, M.; Dinther, van, A.M.C.; Gräf, D.; Martin, S.; Kroonenberg, van den, A.C.; Moene, A.F.; Kesteren, van, R.E.; Maronga, B.

    2012-01-01

    The turbulent exchange of heat and water vapour are essential land surface – atmosphere interaction processes in the local, regional and global energy and water cycles. Scintillometry can be considered as the only technique presently available for the quasi-operational experimental determination of area-averaged turbulent fluxes at a horizontal scale of a few kilometres needed to validate the fluxes simulated by regional atmospheric models or derived from satellite images. It has thus been in...

  13. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Petrunoff, Nicholas A.; Huilan Xu; Chris Rissel; Li Ming Wen; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2013-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested) reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the ...

  14. Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of lean manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years of research of lean manufacturing many different questionnaires was proposed to check the degree of the use of the concept. The set of the items used changed considerably from one investigation to another one. Until now isn’t appreciate a movement that converge towards the use, by the investigators, of a few instruments whose validity and reliability have been compared in different surroundings. In fact, the majority of investigations are based on ad-hoc questionnaires and a few of them present the questionnaire validation checking only the unidimensionality and -Cronbach. Nevertheless it seems to have a consensus in identifying 5 big constructs that compose the lean manufacturing (TQM, JIT, TPM, supply chain management and high-involvement. Our research has consisted of identifying and summarizing the models that have been published previously to add the items in constructs or sub-scales of constructs. Later we developed an integrating questionnaire, starting off of the items that appeared in previous investigations. Finally we realized the sub-scales and models validation through a confirmatory factorial analysis, using date of a sample of Spanish Sheltered Work Centre’s (N=128. Of all proposed models, the best an adjustment takes place with the first order model with 20 sub-scales. Our investigation contributes to an integrating vision of the published models and the lean manufacturing sub-scales validity and reliability verification raised by other investigators. Due to his confirming approach, it can serve as generalization of studies that had been realized in contexts with different samples to which we have used for the replication.

  15. Investigations of the transportation characteristics of biomass fuel particles in a horizontal pipeline through CFD modelling and experimental measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent national and international emission legislations to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide are forcing power generation industries using coal to look at various alternatives, such as biomass and especially by co-firing techniques. Biomass is transported to the burners either mixed with the primary fuel, in general, coal, or used in dedicated pipelines. In both cases, transportation of biomass is difficult due to its composition, size, shape and physical behaviour in comparison to the transportation of coal. This study considers experimental measurements for biomass particle transportation in a pipeline with a transverse elbow and compares the results with those using computation fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques. Various materials: flour, willow, wood, bark and a mixture of flour and willow, have been considered in the present investigation. The experimental work was performed using the dynamic changes in the electrostatic charges of biomass particles in conjunction with correlation signal processing techniques. The CFD simulations were performed by considering the effects of gravity, non-spherical drag (based on estimated shape factor), detailed information of the particle distribution, particle wall collisions and particle–particle interactions. Good quantitative and qualitative agreement was obtained between the CFD simulations and the experimental data. It is concluded that particle–particle interactions are of less importance if the mass loading ratio of particles to air is less than 0.03. -- Highlights: ► Dispersed biomass particle transportation is studied using experiments and CFD. ► Inclusion of asphericity in the drag model clearly demonstrated the improvements. ► Gravity effects are found to be important for correct particle distribution in pipe lines. ► Inter-particle collisions were less important for mass loading ratios <0.05 kg/kg.

  16. Health care payments in the asia pacific: validation of five survey measures of economic burden

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Sheila R; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Soumerai, Stephen B; Wagner, Anita K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many low and middle-income countries rely on out-of-pocket payments to help finance health care. These payments can pose financial hardships for households; valid measurement of this type of economic burden is therefore critical. This study examines the validity of five survey measures of economic burden caused by health care payments. Methods: We analyzed 2002/03 World Health Survey household-level data from four Asia Pacific countries to assess the construct validity of five m...

  17. Health care payments in the asia pacific: validation of five survey measures of economic burden

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Sheila R; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Soumerai, Stephen B; Wagner, Anita K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many low and middle-income countries rely on out-of-pocket payments to help finance health care. These payments can pose financial hardships for households; valid measurement of this type of economic burden is therefore critical. This study examines the validity of five survey measures of economic burden caused by health care payments. Methods We analyzed 2002/03 World Health Survey household-level data from four Asia Pacific countries to assess the construct validity of five mea...

  18. Development and Initial Validation of Perceived Competence and Satisfaction Measures for Racquet Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Teresita E.; Petrakis, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    The development and initial validation of the Racquet Sports Competence-Satisfaction Scale for measuring perceived competence and satisfaction in badminton, racquetball, and tennis is described. Results of a review panel and two field tests (with 168 and 208 university students) support the validity of the competence and satisfaction measures.…

  19. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  20. Dual photon absorptiometry: Validation of mineral and fat measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photons passing through human tissue undergo attenuation in relation to the specific chemical substances with which they interact. By selecting two appropriate photon energies and recording their attenuation, the investigator can solve simultaneous equations that subdivide body mass into two components: soft tissue and bone mineral ash. The aim of this paper is to describe and to validate the estimates of body composition derived by dual photon systems. The initial studies largely involved dual photon absorptiometers, although the discussion will also include the more recently developed dual energy x-ray absorptiometers. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Validation of theoretical models through measured pavement response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    1999-01-01

    mechanics was quite different from the measured stress, the peak theoretical value being only half of the measured value.On an instrumented pavement structure in the Danish Road Testing Machine, deflections were measured at the surface of the pavement under FWD loading. Different analytical models were then...... used to derive the elastic parameters of the pavement layeres, that would produce deflections matching the measured deflections. Stresses and strains were then calculated at the position of the gauges and compared to the measured values. It was found that all analytical models would predict the tensile...

  2. Validity of Willingness to Pay Measures under Preference Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Carola; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in the marketing literature developed a new method for eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) with an open-ended elicitation format: the Range-WTP method. In contrast to the traditional approach of eliciting WTP as a single value (Point-WTP), Range-WTP explicitly allows for preference uncertainty in responses. The aim of this paper is to apply Range-WTP to the domain of contingent valuation and to test for its theoretical validity and robustness in comparison to the Point-WTP. Using data from two novel large-scale surveys on the perception of solar radiation management (SRM), a little-known technique for counteracting climate change, we compare the performance of both methods in the field. In addition to the theoretical validity (i.e. the degree to which WTP values are consistent with theoretical expectations), we analyse the test-retest reliability and stability of our results over time. Our evidence suggests that the Range-WTP method clearly outperforms the Point-WTP method. PMID:27096163

  3. Estimate of the vertical plankton biomass profile on the basis of measurements of fluorescent characteristics in pelagial of Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Mikhail V.; Sakirko, Maria V.; Usoltseva, Marina V.; Popovskaya, Galina I.; Domysheva, Valentina M.; Shimaraev, Mikhail N.; Zavoruev, Valerii V.; Pestunov, Dmitrii A.

    2014-11-01

    We study the effect of physical, chemical and biological processes on gas exchange of CO2 in the air-water system in Lake Baikal. Photosynthesis of aquatic biota is known to play a crucial role in changing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the water. Fluorescent methods are considered to be of high performance in problems of determining quantitative characteristics of biomass, however they require preliminary calibration directly for a specific type of plankton. In the pelagic zone of Lake Baikal the species composition, quantitative and spatial distribution of phytoplankton are characterized by strong spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, the fluorescent devices calibration on a single reference does not provide acceptable accuracy of quantitative assessment of the biomass. The results discussed in the paper were obtained by shipboard measurements during the Baikal campaign of 2010-2011. Correlation between the biomass in 25-meter water layer and the integral value of the fluorescent signal in this layer was obtained for calibration. The report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the chosen methods and the results of retrieval of the vertical profiles of the biomass for stations in the pelagic zone of Lake Baikal in spring for the 2010-2011 biennium.

  4. The criterion-related validity of personality measures for predicting GPA: a meta-analytic validity competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAbee, Samuel T; Oswald, Frederick L

    2013-06-01

    Interest in the role of personality traits in predicting academic performance outcomes has steadily increased over the last several decades, enough to produce a number of meta-analyses that summarize this research (e.g., Poropat, 2009; Richardson, Abraham, & Bond, 2012). These previous meta-analyses combine a variety of alternative personality measures under the assumption that they all reflect the same personality traits and thus predict outcomes similarly. The current meta-analysis tests this assumption by comparing different personality measures when predicting postsecondary grade point average (GPA). The operational validities (r+) of 5 frequently used measures of the Big Five personality traits were compared: the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992), the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Big Five Inventory (BFI; e.g., Benet-Martínez & John, 1998), Goldberg's (1992) unipolar Big Five Factor Markers (Markers), and the Big Five International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999). A systematic review of the psychological literature from 1992 to 2012 was conducted, identifying 51 studies containing 274 correlations. Conscientiousness demonstrated the strongest criterion-related validity for predicting GPA (r+ = .23), consistent with previous meta-analyses; in addition, this overall validity was found to be robust across measures (r(BFI)(+) = .24, r(IPIP)(+) = .21, r(Markers)(+) = .15, r(NEO-FFI)(+) = .24, r(NEO-PI-R)(+) = .26). Although the criterion-related validities for Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience (Intellect) differed by measure, they were generally low (r+s < .10). Practical implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23397931

  5. Validity and Reliability of Tympanometric Measures for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzon, Roanne G.

    1991-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity of static acoustic admittance (SAA) and tympanometric width (TW) were assessed for 116 pediatric patients. A statistically significant change in SAA was observed in immediate repeat measures. No significant change across the two sequential measures was observed for TW, peak pressure, or the estimate of ear canal volume.…

  6. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Interia Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  7. Recent integral cross section validation measurements at the ASP facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, L.W., E-mail: lee.packer@ccfe.ac.uk [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hughes, S. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Gilbert, M.; Lilley, S.; Pampin, R. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent results of integral cross section measurements at ASP obtained using high purity elemental are detailed. • Details of the data processing tools and method are included which allows to preserve reaction product decay information. • C/E plots for measurements taken for number of reactions and the European Activation File 2010 cross section evaluation. • New integral data included for Ti-46(n,p)Sc-46m. -- Abstract: This work presents new integral data measured at the ASP 14 MeV neutron irradiation facility at Aldermaston in the UK, which has recently become available for fusion-related work through the CCFE materials programme. Measurements of reaction products from activation experiments using elemental foils were carried out using gamma spectrometry in a high efficiency, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and associated digital signal processing hardware. Following irradiation and rapid extraction to the measurement cell, gamma emissions were acquired with both energy and time bins. Integral cross section and half-life data have been derived from these measurements. Selected integral cross section values are presented from the measurement campaigns. Details of the data processing approach and outputs generated are highlighted for measurement of the {sup 186}W(n,2n){sup 185m}W reaction—a selected short-lived reaction resulting from W foil irradiations; C/E results are reported along with the associated uncertainties and compared using the SAFEPAQ-II tool against existing available data.

  8. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The Organicism-Mechanism…

  9. Accredited dose measurements for validation of radiation sterilized products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    for control of radiation sterilization. The accredited services include: 1. 1. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with cobalt-60 gamma rays. 2. 2. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with 10 MeV electrons. 3. 3. Issue of and measurement with calibrated dosimeters. 4. 4. Measurement...

  10. Development of an instrument to measure medical students’ perceptions of the assessment environment: initial validation

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Tong, Wen Ting; Hong, Wei-Han; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Hassan, Hamimah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Assessment environment, synonymous with climate or atmosphere, is multifaceted. Although there are valid and reliable instruments for measuring the educational environment, there is no validated instrument for measuring the assessment environment in medical programs. This study aimed to develop an instrument for measuring students’ perceptions of the assessment environment in an undergraduate medical program and to examine the psychometric properties of the new instrument.Method...

  11. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3- D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion. The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scan/rapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the mold/casting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  12. Validity evidence for the measurement of the strength of motivation for medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Kusurkar, R.A.; Croiset, G.; Kruitwagen, C.; Cate, O. ten

    2010-01-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as the sources of validity evidence. The SMMS questionnaire was filled out by 1,494 medical students in different years of medical curriculum. The valid...

  13. Brief Report: Concurrent Validity of Autism Symptom Severity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2014-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic classifications, according to the DSM-5, include a severity rating. Several screening and/or diagnostic measures, such as the autism diagnostic and observation schedule (ADOS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS) (teacher and parent versions), include an…

  14. A Validation Study of a Measure of Musical Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Studies reliability of the Measures of Creativity in Sound and Music (MCSM), a test developed by Cecilia Wang. Compares the MCSM scores with subjects' academic achievement scores, sex, and age with music and classroom teacher ratings of subjects' creativity. Concludes that research is still needed to define a theory of musical creativity, define…

  15. Fiber-Optic Current Sensor Validation with Triggered Lightning Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    A fiber optic current sensor based on the Faraday Effect is developed that is highly suitable for aircraft installation and can measure total current enclosed in a fiber loop down to DC. Other attributes include being small, light-weight, non-conducting, safe from electromagnetic interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. The Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Measuring the induced light polarization rotation in fiber loops yields the total current enclosed. Two sensor systems were constructed and installed at Camp Blanding, Florida, measuring rocket-triggered lightning. The systems were similar in design but with different laser wavelengths, sensitivities and ranges. Results are compared to a shunt resistor as reference. The 850nm wavelength system tested in summer 2011 showed good result comparison early. However, later results showed gradual amplitude increase with time, attributed to corroded connections affecting the 50-ohm output termination. The 1550nm system also yielded good results in the summer 2012. The successful measurements demonstrate the fiber optic sensor's accuracies in capturing real lightning currents, and represent an important step toward future aircraft installation.

  16. Validation of MTF measurement for digital mammography quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    object test tool need to be publicly validated

  17. Airborne measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guyon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate 2002 campaign, we studied the emission of carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, and aerosol particles from Amazonian deforestation fires using an instrumented aircraft. Emission ratios for aerosol number (CN relative to CO (ERCN/CO fell in the range 14-32 cm-3 ppb-1 in most of the investigated smoke plumes. Particle number emission ratios have to our knowledge not been previously measured in tropical deforestation fires, but our results are in agreement with values usually found from tropical savanna fires. The number of particles emitted per amount biomass burned was found to be dependent on the fire conditions (combustion efficiency. Variability in ERCN/CO between fires was similar to the variability caused by variations in combustion behavior within each individual fire. This was confirmed by observations of CO-to-CO2 emission ratios (ERCO/CO2, which stretched across the same wide range of values for individual fires as for all the fires observed during the sampling campaign, reflecting the fact that flaming and smoldering phases are present simultaneously in deforestation fires. Emission factors (EF for CO and aerosol particles were computed and a correction was applied for the residual smoldering combustion (RSC fraction of emissions that are not sampled by the aircraft, which increased the EF by a factor of 1.5-2.1. Vertical transport of smoke from the boundary layer (BL to the cloud detrainment layer (CDL and the free troposphere (FT was found to be a very common phenomenon. We observed a 20% loss in particle number as a result of this vertical transport and subsequent cloud processing, attributable to in-cloud coagulation. This small loss fraction suggests that this mode of transport is very efficient in terms of particle numbers and occurs mostly via non-precipitating clouds. The detrained aerosol

  18. Late Quaternary biomass changes from 13C measurements in a highland peatbog from Equatorial Africa (Burundi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of total organic matter were measured in two cores collected from the Kashiru peatbog in Burundi, Equatorial Africa. The record, which spans at least the last 40,000 yr, documents the C3-C4 biomass balance in the organic sediment. Among the major modern peat formers, most plants are C3 species and are characterized by δ13C values of -25.5 ± 2.3% (vs PDB). The C4 plants, which are characterized by higher δ13C values (-11.3 ± 0.7%) belong to the Gramineae (Miscanthidium sp.) and Cyperaceae families (Cyperus latifolius, C. papyrus, Pycreus nigricans). In the fossil record, δ13C values of total organic matter vary between -28 and -15% in response to the relative fluxes of C3 and C4 plants. Before 30,000 yr B.P., low δ13C values (-23.5 ± 1.1%) match high arboreal pollen contents. From 30,000 to 15,000 yr B.P., higher δ13C values (-17.6 ± 1.1%) correspond to a significant increase in percentages of grass pollen. During this episode, a short and sharp shift toward lighter carbon isotopic compositions at 21,000 yr B.P. is synchronous with higher input of arboreal pollen. From 15,000 to 12,000 yr B.P., the 13C content decreases (δ13C = -22.9 ± 1.4%). This shift, which cannot be explained by an increase in the arboreal vegetation, could be explained by the spreading of C3 Gramineae or C3 Cyperaceae. The interval from 12,000 to 7000 yr B.P. is poorly documented in these cores due to much lower organic matter accumulation. Low δ13C values (δ13C = -25.2 ± 1.3%) are observed from 7000 to 5000 yr B.P., when the pollen data show development of C3 mountain forest. The Late Holocene is characterized by a mixed C3-C4 organic matter accumulation (δ13C = -20.9 ± 1.6%). This study depicts a change in the dominant photosynthetic pathway among the herbaceous components, notably at the glacial-interglacial transition, when C3 plants were favored by increased water supply and/or higher atmospheric CO2 concentration. (author)

  19. Validation of an Instrument to Measure High School Students' Attitudes toward Fitness Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Kevin; Silverman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to develop an instrument that has scores that are valid and reliable for measuring students' attitudes toward fitness testing. Method: The method involved the following steps: (a) an elicitation study, (b) item development, (c) a pilot study, and (d) a validation study. The pilot study included…

  20. The Reliability and Validity of Discrete and Continuous Measures of Psychopathology: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Chmielewski, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a…

  1. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  2. The Development and Validation of an Instrument That Measures Student Perceptions of Teacher Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapan, Stephen D.

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to collect student judgments regarding their teacher's credibility. Items were developed and evidence of content validity generated. A pilot sample and a final sample of high school students were administered the Source Credibility Measure (SCM) so that actual response data could…

  3. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  4. Development and Validation of Scores from an Instrument Measuring Student Test-Taking Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklof, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Using the expectancy-value model of achievement motivation as a basis, this study's purpose is to develop, apply, and validate scores from a self-report instrument measuring student test-taking motivation. Sampled evidence of construct validity for the present sample indicates that a number of the items in the instrument could be used as an…

  5. Validation and Verification of the Field Programmable Gate Array Based Charge Collection Efficiency Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on field programmable gate array (FPGA), we propose a QA/ QC test procedures to validate and verify the operation and the data obtained from newly developed charge collection efficiency (CCE) measurement system. The QA/ QC test procedures were able to detected by a normal test run whilst the operation of the amplifier; counter; and timer were validated and verified. (author)

  6. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  7. Global Precipitation Measurement, Validation, and Applications Integrated Hydrologic Validation to Improve Physical Precipitation Retrievals for GPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidar, Christa D.; Tian, Yudong; Kenneth, Tian; Harrison, Kenneth; Kumar, Sujay

    2011-01-01

    Land surface modeling and data assimilation can provide dynamic land surface state variables necessary to support physical precipitation retrieval algorithms over land. It is well-known that surface emission, particularly over the range of frequencies to be included in the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM), is sensitive to land surface states, including soil properties, vegetation type and greenness, soil moisture, surface temperature, and snow cover, density, and grain size. In order to investigate the robustness of both the land surface model states and the microwave emissivity and forward radiative transfer models, we have undertaken a multi-site investigation as part of the NASA Precipitation Measurement Missions (PMM) Land Surface Characterization Working Group. Specifically, we will demonstrate the performance of the Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov; Peters-Lidard et aI., 2007; Kumar et al., 2006) coupled to the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA's) Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM; Weng, 2007; van Deist, 2009). The land surface is characterized by complex physical/chemical constituents and creates temporally and spatially heterogeneous surface properties in response to microwave radiation scattering. The uncertainties in surface microwave emission (both surface radiative temperature and emissivity) and very low polarization ratio are linked to difficulties in rainfall detection using low-frequency passive microwave sensors (e.g.,Kummerow et al. 2001). Therefore, addressing these issues is of utmost importance for the GPM mission. There are many approaches to parameterizing land surface emission and radiative transfer, some of which have been customized for snow (e.g., the Helsinki University of Technology or HUT radiative transfer model;) and soil moisture (e.g., the Land Surface Microwave Emission Model or LSMEM).

  8. Surface solar irradiance from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, P.; P. Stammes; Mueller, R.

    2011-01-01

    Broadband surface solar irradiances (SSI) are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from Oxygen A band) SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric ...

  9. Validation of implant stability: A measure of implant permanence

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Mall; B Dhanasekar; I. N. Aparna

    2011-01-01

    Implant stability is a requisite characteristic of osseointegration. Without it, long-term success cannot be achieved. Continuous monitoring in a quantitative and objective manner is important to determine the status of implant stability. Measurement of implant stability is a valuable tool for making decisions pertaining to treatment protocol and also improves dentist-patient communication. Owing to the invasive nature of histological analysis, various others methods have been proposed like r...

  10. Experimental validation of tilt measurement technique with a laser beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen'kii, Mikhail S.; Karis, Stephen J.; Brown, James M.; Fugate, Robert Q.

    1999-09-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated for the first time a method for sensing wavefront tilt with a laser guide star (LGS). The tilt components of wavefronts were measured synchronously from the LGS using a telescope with 0.75 m effective aperture and from Polaris using a 1.5 m telescope. The Rayleigh guide star was formed at the altitude of 6 km and at a corresponding range of 10.5 km by projecting a focused beam at Polaris from the full aperture at the 1.5 m telescope. Both telescope mounts were unpowered and bottled down in place allowing us to substantially reduce the telescope vibration. The maximum value of the measured cross-correlation coefficient between the tilt for Polaris and the LGS is 0.71. The variations of the measured cross- correlation coefficient in the range from 0.22 to 0.71 are caused by turbulence at altitudes above 6 km, which was not sampled by the laser beacon, but affected the tilt for Polaris. It is also caused by the cone effect for turbulence below 6 km, residual mount jitter of the telescopes, and variations of the S/N. The experimental results support our concept of sensing atmospheric tilt by observing a LGS with an auxiliary telescope and indicate that this method is a possible solution for the tip-tilt problem.

  11. The Development, Validation, and Analysis of Measurement Invariance of the Technology Acceptance Measure for Preservice Teachers (TAMPST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development, validation, and measurement invariance of scores from a survey designed to measure preservice teachers' reported acceptance of technology. Drawing from conceptual models in the areas of information systems and technology acceptance, a five-factor Technology Acceptance Measure for Preservice Teachers (TAMPST)…

  12. Airborne measurements of HCN, CO2 and CH4 associated with emissions from boreal biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. B. A.; Le Breton, M.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Gallagher, M. W.; Bacak, A.; Percival, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    High resolution measurements of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) were made over Canada onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft FAAM BAe-146 from 12 July to 4 August 2011. The observations were made as part of the international BORTAS project which aims to quantify the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites. The sorties were aimed at transecting and sampling the outflow from the commonly occurring North American boreal forest fires during the summer months and to investigate and identify the chemical composition and evolution of these plumes. HCN is a distinctive and useful marker for forest fire emissions and it was detected using chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS). The ionisation scheme employed I- ions which form an adduct with HCN and typical sensitivities of 0.6 counts/ppt have been achieved for sampling at 1 Hz. Elevated CO2 and CH4 are also commonly associated with forest fire emissions and they were measured using the Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA) by Los Gatos Research. This near-IR off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy system allowed detection and sampling at 10 Hz. In-flight calibrations revealed a mean accuracy of -0.02 ppmv ± 0.57 ppmv (1σ precision) for CO2 and a mean accuracy of 0.08 ppbv ± 2.31 ppbv (1σ precision) for CH4 for 1Hz observations during the BORTAS campaign. During the 10 flights over the Eastern Canada region (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Ontario and Quebec) several biomass burning plumes were sampled and enhancements in levels of HCN, CO2 and CH4 within these plumes were evident. The observed HCN enhancements inside the plume compared to outside the plume reached up to factor of about 10. For the majority of plumes, a good positive correlation with CO was seen, and in some plumes, CO was observed whilst no HCN was detected, indicating possibly emission sources of anthropogenic activity rather than

  13. Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HNO3 Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Santee, M. L.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Lambert, A.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Read, W. G.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Livesey, N. J.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Cofield, R. E.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Cuddy, D. T.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Daffer, W. H.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Drouin, B. J.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Froidevaux, L.; JPL; Fuller, R. A.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Jarnot, R. F.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Knosp, B. W.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Manney, G. L.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Perun, V. S.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Snyder, W. V.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA

    2007-01-01

    We assess the quality of the version 2.2 (v2.2) HNO3 measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Earth Observing System Aura satellite. The MLS HNO3 product has been greatly improved over that in the previous version (v1.5), with smoother profiles, much more realistic behavior at the lowest retrieval levels, and correction of a high bias caused by an error in one of the spectroscopy files used in v1.5 processing. The v2.2 HNO3 data are scientifically useful over t...

  14. Potential plant biomass estimation through field measurement and vegetation cover mapping using ALOS satellite imagery: Case study of Fujiyoshida City, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is a renewable energy source that is produced from living or recently living biological material. Vegetation type and biomass are considered important components that affect biosphere-atmosphere interactions. The ground assessment of biomass, however, has been found to be insufficient due to the limited spatial extent of surveys. This study aims to integrate field measurements with satellite remote sensing data for regional biomass mapping in Fujiyoshida City, Japan. Fujiyoshida City is situated on the northern slope of Mt. Fuji and includes a large area of forest land, named Onshirin Forest. From 2011 to 2012, a field survey was conducted to calculate the biomass potential in situ as ground-truthed data. After fieldwork, ortho-rectified ALOS data with an AVNIR-2 scene (22 May 2008) was used to map the vegetation cover types. Japanese larch, Japanese red pine, mixed forest, other forest, grass, bare soil and roads, and buildings were identified using supervised classification. The total plant biomass was 163,252 tons. The biomass potential estimate from field measurements was extrapolated to the large forest area in Fujiyoshida City to estimate the potential plant biomass of specific vegetation cover types

  15. The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: method evaluation of volatile organic compound emissions measured by PTR-MS, FTIR, and GC from tropical biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Karl

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile Organic Compound (VOC emissions from fires in tropical forest fuels were quantified using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography (GC coupled to PTRMS (GC-PTR-MS. We investigated VOC emissions from 19 controlled laboratory fires at the USFS (United States Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory and 16 fires during an intensive airborne field campaign during the peak of the burning season in Brazil in 2004. The VOC emissions were dominated by oxygenated VOCs (OVOC (OVOC/NMHC ~4:1, NMHC: non-methane hydrocarbons The specificity of the PTR-MS instrument, which measures the mass to charge ratio of VOCs ionized by H3O+ ions, was validated by gas chromatography and by intercomparing in-situ measurements with those obtained from an open path FTIR instrument. Emission ratios for methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde, acrylonitrile and pyrrole were measured in the field for the first time. Our measurements show a higher contribution of OVOCs than previously assumed for modeling purposes. Comparison of fresh (<15 min and aged (>1 h–1 d smoke suggests altered emission ratios due to gas phase chemistry for acetone but not for acetaldehyde and methanol. Emission ratios for numerous, important, reactive VOCs with respect to acetonitrile (a biomass burning tracer are presented.

  16. The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: method evaluation of volatile organic compound emissions measured by PTR-MS, FTIR, and GC from tropical biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Karl

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile Organic Compound (VOC emissions from fires in tropical forest fuels were quantified using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS, Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography (GC coupled to PTRMS (GC-PTR-MS. We investigated VOC emissions from 19 controlled laboratory fires at the USFS Fire Sciences Laboratory and 16 fires during an intensive airborne field campaign during the peak of the burning season in Brazil in 2004. The VOC emissions were dominated by oxygenated VOCs (OVOC (OVOC/NMHC ~4:1, NMHC: non-methane hydrocarbons The specificity of the PTR-MS instrument, which measures the mass to charge ratio of VOCs ionized by H3O+ ions, was validated by gas chromatography and by intercomparing in-situ measurements with those obtained from an open path FTIR instrument. Emission ratios for methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde, acrylonitrile and pyrrole were measured in the field for the first time. Our measurements show a higher contribution of OVOCs than previously assumed for modeling purposes. Comparison of fresh (<15 min and aged (>1hour-1day smoke suggests altered emission ratios due to gas phase chemistry for acetone but not for acetaldehyde and methanol. Emission ratios for numerous, important, reactive VOCs with respect to acetonitrile (a biomass burning tracer are presented.

  17. Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Maslow's Concept of Self-Actualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1978-01-01

    Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)

  18. Measuring the report card: the validity of pay-for-performance metrics in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Timothy; Freiberg, Andrew A; Mehta, Priyesh; Katz, Jeffrey Neil; Ferris, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    To assess the validity of performance measures used in a nationwide pay-for-performance (P4P) project on hip and knee replacement, we analyzed hospital performance data from a Medicare P4P initiative and compared them to publicly available outcomes data. Overall, the ability to measure hospital quality was poor. A hospital's ranking on the composite score was primarily determined by process measures. A higher composite quality score was not associated with lower rates of complications or mortality. The current Medicare P4P quality measure has limited validity because of poor discrimination, lack of measure balance, and lack of correlation with important clinical outcomes. PMID:19276012

  19. Household Air Pollution from Coal and Biomass Fuels in China: Measurements, Health Impacts, and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junfeng; SMITH, KIRK R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Nearly all China’s rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in the country. Our objective in this review was to help elucidat...

  20. Construct validity of adolescents' self-reported big five personality traits: importance of conceptual breadth and initial validation of a short measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Julien

    2014-10-01

    While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures. PMID:24619971

  1. Measuring the instructional validity of clinical simulation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, E; Gustavson, L P; Levine, H G

    1983-03-01

    Written clinical simulation problems in two formats--forced-choiced and essay--were used to test junior and senior medical students at the conclusion of their pediatric rotations. A comparison was made in the performance of students with varying levels of clinical experience. There seemed to be no consistent pattern of improvement with increased instructional time on the forced-choice management problems. Junior students did show improvement over time on the essay management problems, which also seemed to reflect the increased problem-solving and organizational skills of seniors in comparison to juniors. Correlations across problems and correlations between the clinical problem test and other measurement techniques were very weak, partly due to the low sampling reliability of clinical simulation problems. In this study, clinical simulation problems failed to demonstrate responsiveness to development and maturation in the problem-solving approach to patient care. PMID:10259952

  2. Validation of TERRA-ML with discharge measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Grasselt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the runoff-simulation performance of a water transport model (routing scheme coupled to the Land Surface Parameterization module TERRA-ML of the operational COSMO (Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling weather forecast model. In addition to the successful implemention of the routing scheme, we also included an alternative vertical soil water transport parameterisation in TERRA-ML in order to estimate the uncertainty caused by the component of the LSP central to runoff generation. A combination of two data sets, both operational products by DWD, is used for precipitation input. These are the hourly precipitation data set RADOLAN RW, which is based on radar data and is calibrated by rain gauges, as well as the daily REGNIE data set, which is only based on gauge data. The mesoscale Sieg river catchment located in Western Germany is used as the evaluation testbed. The extended TERRA-ML was run in standalone mode (decoupled from the atmospheric part of the COSMO model with 1 × 1 km spatial resolution from April to September 2005 based on and provided with spatially more detailed descriptions of topography, land use and soil texture. The model was driven by operational COSMO analysis data and two different sources of observed precipitation (gauge and radar measurements. The results are compared to discharge measurements. They indicate a good representation of the observed discharge by the extended TERRA-ML system. The additionally implemented linear vertical soil water parameterization overestimates total discharge less (6 % than the default exponential parameterization (20 % when compared to a gauging station located at the lower reaches of the river Sieg. Suggestions are given on how to further enhance the modelled discharge by improvements in the LSP scheme.

  3. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M.; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image an...

  4. MEASURING BRAND PERSONALITY - CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A SHORT VERSION OF A BRAND PERSONALITY SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Fohl; Simon Elser

    2015-01-01

    Brand personality has gained a lot of attention in marketing research and brand management. For measuring these „human characteristics associated with a brand“ (Aaker, 1997, p. 347), several empirically validated questionnaires have been developed. Due to the high number of items of brand personality scales, their use in studies evaluating many diff erent brands and additional constructs is limited. Therefore the question arises, how brand personality could be measured reliably and validly us...

  5. Canadian Occupational Performance Measure performance scale: Validity and responsiveness in chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Mieke G. Nieuwenhuizen, MSc, PT; Sonja de Groot, PhD; Thomas W. J. Janssen, PhD; Lia C. C. van der Maas, MSc; Heleen Beckerman, PhD

    2014-01-01

    The construct validity and construct responsiveness of the performance scale of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was measured in 87 newly admitted patients with chronic pain attending an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. At admission and after 12 wk, patients completed a COPM interview, the Pain Disability Index (PDI), and the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (RAND-36). We determined the construct validity of the COPM by correlations between the COPM performance scale (COPM-P), ...

  6. CryoSat2 Pre-Launch Validation Measurements on Arctic Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    sea ice and its snow cover will contribute to increasing our understanding of atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction and improve our ability to quantify observed changes. Our validation measurements show that the penetration depth of the radar signal strongly depends on snow cover characteristics...... (seasonality and underlying ice type) and is often not the snow-ice interface, as commonly assumed. Validation transects, using airborne electromagnetic ice-thickness measurements, are shown to be a powerful tool for regional-scale validation experiments during different seasons....

  7. Measuring the Effect of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life: Further Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Janet D.; Sirgy, M. Joseph; Uysal, Muzaffer

    2004-01-01

    lication and extension study provided additional validational support of the original tourism services satisfaction measure in relation to QOL-related measures.Neal, Sirgy and Uysal (1999) developed a model and a measure to capture the effect of tourism services on travelers' quality of life (QOL). They hypothesized that travelers' overall life…

  8. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sciare

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term (5-year measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC and Organic Carbon (OC in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island. A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average to light absorption coefficient (babs measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer. Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March–April and July–September. The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of EC and OC was shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis, although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and showed important seasonal and interannual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45±0.12, suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A.D.<1.5μm showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26±5%.

  9. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sciare

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term (5-yr measurements of Black Carbon (BC and Organic Carbon (OC in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island. A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques was applied for these BC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols have shown to poorly contribute (+17% on a yearly average to light absorption coefficient (babs measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer. Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March–April and July–September. The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of BC and OC has shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis, although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and is expected a high intra and inter annual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the Spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45±0.12, suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A.D.<1.5 μm showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26±5%.

  10. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term (5-year) measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC) and Organic Carbon (OC) in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island). A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques) was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average) to light absorption coefficient (b(abs)) measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer). Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March-April and July-September). The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of EC and OC was shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis), although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and showed important seasonal and inter annual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC) have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/ OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45 ± 0.12), suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A. D.≤ 1.5 μm) showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM) was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26 ± 5%). (authors)

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2002-10-26

    This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. The final biomass co-firing test burn was conducted during this quarter. In this test (Test 14), up to 20% by weight dry switchgrass was comilled with Jim Walters No.7 mine coal and injected through the single-register burner. Jim Walters No.7 coal is a low-volatility, low-sulfur ({approx}0.7% S) Eastern bituminous coal. The results of this test are presented in this quarterly report. Progress has continued to be made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The REI Configurable Fireside Simulator (CFS) is now in regular use. Presently, the CFS is being used to generate CFD calculations for completed tests with Powder River Basin coal and low-volatility (Jim Walters No.7 Mine) coal. Niksa Energy Associates will use the results of these CFD simulations to complete their validation of the NOx/LOI predictive model. Work has started on the project final report.

  12. Validity of parent-reported weight and height of preschool children measured at home or estimated without home measurement: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Bianca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI. Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a difference if the parents measured their children's weight and height at home or whether they simply estimated these values. The aim of this study is to compare the validity of parent-reported height, weight and BMI values of preschool children (3-7 y-old, when measured at home or estimated by parents without actual measurement. Methods The subjects were 297 Belgian preschool children (52.9% male. Participation rate was 73%. A questionnaire including questions about height and weight of the children was completed by the parents. Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures. International age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off values were employed to determine categories of weight status and obesity. Results On the group level, no important differences in accuracy of reported height, weight and BMI were identified between parent-measured or estimated values. However, for all 3 parameters, the correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the group of children whose body dimensions were measured by the parents. Sensitivity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 73% and 47% when parents measured their child's height and weight, and 55% and 47% when parents estimated values without measurement. Specificity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 82% and 97% when parents measured the children, and 75% and 93% with parent estimations. Conclusions Diagnostic measures were more accurate when parents measured their child's weight and height at home than when those dimensions were based on parental judgements. When parent-reported data on an individual level is used, the accuracy could be improved by encouraging the parents to measure weight and height

  13. Feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements to assess physical activity in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerometers are considered to be the most promising tool for measuring physical activity (PA in free-living young children. So far, no studies have examined the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in children under 3 years of age. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in toddlers (1- to 3-year olds. Methods Forty-seven toddlers (25 boys; 20 ± 4 months wore a GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer for 6 consecutive days and parental perceptions of the acceptability of wearing the monitor were assessed to examine feasibility. To investigate the validity of the ActiGraph and the predictive validity of three ActiGraph cut points, accelerometer measurements of 31 toddlers (17 boys; 20 ± 4 months during free play at child care were compared to directly observed PA, using the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P. Validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman correlations and predictive validity using area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC-AUC. Results The feasibility examination indicated that accelerometer measurements of 30 toddlers (63.8% could be included with a mean registration time of 564 ± 62 min during weekdays and 595 ± 83 min during weekend days. According to the parental reports, 83% perceived wearing the accelerometer as 'not unpleasant and not pleasant' and none as 'unpleasant'. The validity evaluation showed that mean ActiGraph activity counts were significantly and positively associated with mean OSRAC-P activity intensity (r = 0.66; p Conclusions The present findings suggest that ActiGraph accelerometer measurements are feasible and valid for quantifying PA in toddlers. However, further research is needed to accurately identify PA intensities in toddlers using accelerometry.

  14. Validation of BWR advanced core and fuel nuclear designs with power reactor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power reactor measurements have been important in validating the reliability, performance characteristics and economics of BWR advanced core and fuel designs. Such measurements go beyond the data obtainable from normal reactor operation and provide detailed benchmark data necessary to verify design and licensing computer design and simulation models. In some cases, such as in the validation of the performance of zirconium barrier pellet-cladding-interaction (PCI) resistant cladding, the BWR power reactor measurements have subjected the advanced fuel design to operating conditions more severe than normal operating conditions, thereby providing nuclear-thermal-mechanical-corrosion performance data for accelerated or extended conditions of operation. In some cases destructive measurements have been carried out on BWR power reactor fuel to provide microscopic and macroscopic data of importance in validating design and licensing analysis methods. There is not uniform agreement among core and fuel designers on the needs for special power reactor core and fuel measurements for validation of advanced designs. The General Electric approach has been to error on the side of extensive, detailed measurements so as to assure reliable performance licensing and economic design and predictive capability. This paper is a summary of some of the validative power reactor measurements that have been carried out on advanced BWR core and fuel designs. Some comparisons of predictions with the data are summarized

  15. Measurement of informal care: an empirical study into the valid measurement of time spent on informal caregiving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Bernard van den; Spauwen, Pol

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of informal care into economic evaluations of health care is troublesome. The debate focuses on the valuation of time spent on informal caregiving, while time measurement, a related and may be even a more important issue, tends to be neglected. Valid time measurement is a necessary

  16. A simple algorithm to retrieve soil moisture and vegetation biomass using passive microwave measurements over crop fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple algorithm to retrieve sail moisture and vegetation water content from passive microwave measurements is analyzed in this study. The approach is based on a zeroth-order solution of the radiative transfer equations in a vegetation layer. In this study, the single scattering albedo accounts for scattering effects and two parameters account for the dependence of the optical thickness on polarization, incidence angle, and frequency. The algorithm requires only ancillary information about crop type and surface temperature. Retrievals of the surface parameters from two radiometric data sets acquired over a soybean and a wheat crop have been attempted. The model parameters have been fitted in order to achieve best match between measured and retrieved surface data. The results of the inversion are analyzed for different configurations of the radiometric observations: one or several look angles, L-band, C-band or (L-band and C-band). Sensitivity of the retrievals to the best fit values of the model parameters has also been investigated. The best configurations, requiring simultaneous measurements at L- and C-band, produce retrievals of soil moisture and biomass with a 15% estimated precision (about 0.06 m3/m3 for soil moisture and 0.3 kg/m2 for biomass) and exhibit a limited sensitivity to the best fit parameters. (author)

  17. Validity and Reliability of a Commercial Fitness Watch for Measuring Running Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Douglas; Pozzi, Federico; Carroll, Anthony; Rombach, Andrew; Zeni, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Validity and reliability study. Background Providing feedback on running mechanics is a common intervention to decrease the risk of injury or to restore running after an injury. Commercially available devices are able to measure running dynamics, such as cadence, ground contact time (GCT), and vertical oscillation (VO), but there is limited evidence on the validity and reliability of these measures. Objective To determine the validity and reliability of measures of cadence, GCT, and VO with a fitness watch compared to a motion-analysis system. Methods Twenty runners ran in 3 conditions: (1) baseline (self-selected speed and cadence), (2) higher cadence, and (3) decreased vertical motion (minimal oscillation). Ten runners also performed an additional baseline running session to measure intrasession reliability. For each condition, the average cadence, GCT, and VO were collected from a watch and from a motion-capture system. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess validity between devices. An analysis of variance with 2 repeated measures was used to determine the ability of the watch and motion analysis to detect change in running dynamics. Results The ICCs between the 2 measuring systems were 0.931, 0.963, and 0.749 for cadence, VO, and GCT, respectively (Prunning dynamics. Conclusion The watch is a valid and reliable tool for detecting changes in cadence, VO, and GCT. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):471-476. Epub 26 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6391. PMID:27117729

  18. Measurement errors in retrospective reports of event histories : a validation study with Finnish register data

    OpenAIRE

    Pyy-Martikainen, Marjo; Rendtel, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    "It is well known that retrospective survey reports of event histories are affected by measurement errors. Yet little is known about the determinants of measurement errors in event history data or their effects on event history analysis. Making use of longitudinal register data linked at person-level with longitudinal survey data, we provide novel evidence about 1. type and magnitude of measurement errors in survey reports of event histories, 2. validity of classical assumptions about measure...

  19. Design and Implementation Content Validity Study: Development of an instrument for measuring Patient-Centered Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The importance of content validity in the instrument psychometric and its relevance with reliability, have made it an essential step in the instrument development. This article attempts to give an overview of the content validity process and to explain the complexity of this process by introducing an example. Methods: We carried out a methodological study conducted to examine the content validity of the patient-centered communication instrument through a two-step process (development and judgment. At the first step, domain determination, sampling (item generation and instrument formation and at the second step, content validity ratio, content validity index and modified kappa statistic was performed. Suggestions of expert panel and item impact scores are used to examine the instrument face validity. Results: From a set of 188 items, content validity process identified seven dimensions includes trust building (eight items, informational support (seven items, emotional support (five items, problem solving (seven items, patient activation (10 items, intimacy/friendship (six items and spirituality strengthening (14 items. Content validity study revealed that this instrument enjoys an appropriate level of content validity. The overall content validity index of the instrument using universal agreement approach was low; however, it can be advocated with respect to the high number of content experts that makes consensus difficult and high value of the S-CVI with the average approach, which was equal to 0.93. Conclusion: This article illustrates acceptable quantities indices for content validity a new instrument and outlines them during design and psychometrics of patient-centered communication measuring instrument.

  20. Reliability and validity of center of pressure measures for balance assessment in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Liang, Yan-Yi; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Jing; Ma, Shao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to assess the reliability and validity of center of pressure-based parameters for balance assessment. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred and forty older adults were evaluated using a force platform and the Berg Balance Scale at 1-week intervals. The intra-class correlation coefficient and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used to test reliability and validity respectively. [Results] The reliability of the 12 selected center of pressure measures was satisfactory (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.75–0.99) and the validity between the parameters and the Berg Balance Scale was moderate to good (r = −0.62 to −0.88). [Conclusion] Center of pressure-based parameters are reliable and valid measures in older adults.

  1. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure University Students' Biotechnology Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Özel, Murat; Uşak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-06-01

    The impact of biotechnologies on peoples' everyday lives continuously increases. Measuring young peoples' attitudes toward biotechnologies is therefore very important and its results are useful not only for science curriculum developers and policy makers, but also for producers and distributors of genetically modified products. Despite of substantial number of instruments which focused on measuring student attitudes toward biotechnology, a majority of them were not rigorously validated. This study deals with the development and validation of an attitude questionnaire toward biotechnology. Detailed information on development and validation process of the instrument is provided. Data gathered from 326 university students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new instrument which consists of 28 attitude items on a five point likert type scale. It is believed that the instrument will serve as a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers in science education to assess students' biotechnology attitudes.

  2. Thermal performance analysis system based on measurement validation for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have needs to develop a performance analysis system that can be used in nuclear power plant turbine cycle to determine whether or not to tune some equipment and when to replace the equipment. We developed NOPAS (Nuclear Operation Performance Analysis System) to aid robust performance analysis. Robustness in the performance analysis is increased by verification and validation of measured input data. We suggest new algorithm in which estimation relations for valid measurements can be obtained using correlation model between measurements and plant state. The estimation model is obtained using design data and initial acceptance measurement data of nuclear power plant. The model consists of finding most correlated state variables and mapping relations based on the model and the current state of power plant. Using this validation scheme and several adaptations from ASME PTC, we can construct more robust performance analysis system for operating nuclear power plant turbine cycle. (author)

  3. Validation of the actuator line/Navier Stokes technique using mexico measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments in Control......This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments...... in Controlled Conditions). The Actuator Line/Navier Stokes (AL/NS) technique developed at DTU is validated against the detailed MEXICO measurements. The AL/NS computations without the DNW wind tunnel with speeds of 10m/s, 15m/s and 24m/s. Comparisons of blade loading between computations and measurements show...

  4. Development and Validation of a Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; King, Kevin M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender expression varies considerably among lesbian and bisexual women and may be related to various stressors and health outcomes. However, no current measure adequately assesses gender expression in this community. Thus, the authors conducted three studies to develop and validate the Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women…

  5. Validation of the Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency among Low-Income Jobseekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and…

  6. The Development, Validity, and Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Measuring Competencies in Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The study of competencies in student affairs began more than 4 decades ago, but no instrument currently exists to measure competencies broadly. This study builds upon previous research by developing an instrument to measure student affairs competencies. Results not only validate the competencies espoused by NASPA and ACPA, but also suggest adding…

  7. Development and validation of an instrument to measure perceived neighbourhood quality in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, M; Shih, C.; Kawachi, I

    2002-01-01

    Study objectives: Social epidemiologists have hypothesised that neighbourhood quality may exert an important contextual influence on mental and physical health. However, validated instruments do not exist for measuring neighbourhood quality in Taiwan. A self reported instrument to measure perceived neighbourhood quality in Taiwan was developed and tested.

  8. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  9. Canadian Occupational Performance Measure performance scale : Validity and responsiveness in chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Mieke G.; de Groot, Sonja; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; van der Maas, Lia C. C.; Beckerman, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    The construct validity and construct responsiveness of the performance scale of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was measured in 87 newly admitted patients with chronic pain attending an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. At admission and after 12 wk, patients completed a COPM int

  10. Validity of Classroom Climate Measures as a Function of the Unit of Analysis and Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladyna, Thomas

    The evidence for the construct validity of classroom climate measures was examined within a theoretical model where several affective measures served as criterion variables. The patterns of social-psychological and management-organization structural dimensions differed when the unit of analysis varied from the individual to the class. The…

  11. Zeroing In on Mindfulness Facets: Similarities, Validity, and Dimensionality across Three Independent Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Siegling, A B; Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    The field of mindfulness has seen a proliferation of psychometric measures, characterised by differences in operationalisation and conceptualisation. To illuminate the scope of, and offer insights into, the diversity apparent in the burgeoning literature, two distinct samples were used to examine the similarities, validity, and dimensionality of mindfulness facets and subscales across three independent measures: the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (...

  12. Ultrasound as an Outcome Measure in Gout. A Validation Process by the OMERACT Ultrasound Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the work performed by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Ultrasound (US) Working Group on the validation of US as a potential outcome measure in gout. METHODS: Based on the lack of definitions, highlighted in a recent literature review on US as an outcome tool in...

  13. The development of a reliable and valid scale to measure aesthetic pleasure in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, J.; Thurgood, C.; Hekkert, P.P.M.; Leder, H.; Whitfield, T.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of consistency regarding the scales used to measure aesthetic pleasure. They are often chosen ad hoc or derived from other research fields but never validated for design. Moreover, those scales often do not measure aesthetic pleasure in isolation, but instead include its determinants

  14. The Development and Validation of an End-User Satisfaction Measure in a Student Laptop Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung; Meng, Juan; Kalinowski, Jon; Shin, Dooyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the development and validation of a measurement model for student user satisfaction in a laptop environment. Using a "quasi Delphi" method in addition to contributions from prior research we used EFA and CFA (LISREL) to identify a five factor (14 item) measurement model that best fit the data. The…

  15. Development and Validation of a Method to Measure Lumbosacral Motion Using Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Coppieters, Michel W; van Dieën, Jaap H; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-05-01

    The study aim was to validate an ultrasound imaging technique to measure sagittal plane lumbosacral motion. Direct and indirect measures of lumbosacral angle change were developed and validated. Lumbosacral angle was estimated by the angle between lines through two landmarks on the sacrum and lowest lumbar vertebrae. Distance measure was made between the sacrum and lumbar vertebrae, and angle was estimated after distance was calibrated to angle. This method was tested in an in vitro spine and an in vivo porcine spine and validated to video and fluoroscopy measures, respectively. R(2), regression coefficients and mean absolute differences between ultrasound measures and validation measures were, respectively: 0.77, 0.982, 0.67° (in vitro, angle); 0.97, 0.992, 0.82° (in vitro, distance); 0.94, 0.995, 2.1° (in vivo, angle); and 0.95, 0.997, 1.7° (in vivo, distance). Lumbosacral motion can be accurately measured with ultrasound. This provides a basis to develop measurements for use in humans. PMID:26895754

  16. Reliability and validity of center of pressure measures for balance assessment in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    LI, ZHEN; Liang, Yan-Yi; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Jing; Ma, Shao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to assess the reliability and validity of center of pressure-based parameters for balance assessment. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred and forty older adults were evaluated using a force platform and the Berg Balance Scale at 1-week intervals. The intra-class correlation coefficient and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used to test reliability and validity respectively. [Results] The reliability of the 12 selected center of pressure measures was sa...

  17. Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Perceptions of Freedom of Choice in Digital Games

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiris Kirginas; Dimitris Gouscos

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire using both the structural characteristics of digital games and students perceptions of the concept of freedom of choice in digital games, (b) to validate items to be used in questionnaire to measure perceived freedom of choice, (c) to identify the factors that underlie freedom of choice in digital games and (d) to generate a model to predict preferred freedom of choice in digital games from gender, age, familiar...

  18. Development and Validation of the Keele Musculoskeletal Patient Reported Outcome Measure (MSK-PROM)

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, JC; Thomas, E.; Hill, S.; Foster, NE; van der Windt, DA

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a patient report outcome measure (PROM) for clinical practice that can monitor health status of patients with a range of musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders. METHODS: Constructs for inclusion in the MSK-PROM were identified from a consensus process involving patients with musculoskeletal conditions, clinicians, purchasers of healthcare services, and primary care researchers. Psychometric properties of the brief tool, including face and construct validity, repeat...

  19. Development and Validation of the Keele Musculoskeletal Patient Reported Outcome Measure (MSK-PROM)

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jonathan C.; Elaine Thomas; Susan Hill; Foster, Nadine E; van der Windt, Danielle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a patient report outcome measure (PROM) for clinical practice that can monitor health status of patients with a range of musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders. Methods Constructs for inclusion in the MSK-PROM were identified from a consensus process involving patients with musculoskeletal conditions, clinicians, purchasers of healthcare services, and primary care researchers. Psychometric properties of the brief tool, including face and construct validity, repeatab...

  20. Methods to measure biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microbiota and their application on illuminated lake sediments. A literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Eva [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology

    2001-06-01

    In the work of finding a place for long time storage of radioactive waste it is of importance to understand the surrounding ecosystems. The storage is supposed to keep the radioactive waste away from humans and nature for some hundreds of thousands of years. It is important to be able to make risk assessments for a hypothetical release and understand by which ways the radionuclides could find their way into the biota. In lakes, released radionuclides would most probably find their way into the biota through heterotrophic bacteria or auto trophic microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to investigate how large the biomass and production of heterotrophic bacteria and photosynthetic organisms in lakes are. This report is an overview of methods that are commonly used today for measuring biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microorganisms in lakes. It elucidates advantages and drawbacks of the different methods. Some results from studies on illuminated lake sediment habitats are given. Biomass of bacteria is commonly measured in microscope after colouring the bacteria with a dye. Dyes commonly used are acridine orange and 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Biomass of photosynthetic microorganisms is also commonly measured in microscope but can also be determined by the amount of chlorophyll 'a' and other pigments. An advantage with measuring the biomass photosynthetic microorganisms in microscope is that a good resolution of the community is achieved. A disadvantage with determining the biomass by measuring the chlorophyll 'a' concentrations is that the concentrations may vary with light climate and nutrients even though the carbon biomass is constant. Methods for measuring bacterial production discussed in this report are the thymidine incorporation method, the leucine incorporation method and the frequency of dividing cell method (FDC). Methods for primary production discussed in this report are the {sup 14}CO{sub 2

  1. Methods to measure biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microbiota and their application on illuminated lake sediments. A literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work of finding a place for long time storage of radioactive waste it is of importance to understand the surrounding ecosystems. The storage is supposed to keep the radioactive waste away from humans and nature for some hundreds of thousands of years. It is important to be able to make risk assessments for a hypothetical release and understand by which ways the radionuclides could find their way into the biota. In lakes, released radionuclides would most probably find their way into the biota through heterotrophic bacteria or auto trophic microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to investigate how large the biomass and production of heterotrophic bacteria and photosynthetic organisms in lakes are. This report is an overview of methods that are commonly used today for measuring biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microorganisms in lakes. It elucidates advantages and drawbacks of the different methods. Some results from studies on illuminated lake sediment habitats are given. Biomass of bacteria is commonly measured in microscope after colouring the bacteria with a dye. Dyes commonly used are acridine orange and 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Biomass of photosynthetic microorganisms is also commonly measured in microscope but can also be determined by the amount of chlorophyll 'a' and other pigments. An advantage with measuring the biomass photosynthetic microorganisms in microscope is that a good resolution of the community is achieved. A disadvantage with determining the biomass by measuring the chlorophyll 'a' concentrations is that the concentrations may vary with light climate and nutrients even though the carbon biomass is constant. Methods for measuring bacterial production discussed in this report are the thymidine incorporation method, the leucine incorporation method and the frequency of dividing cell method (FDC). Methods for primary production discussed in this report are the 14CO2-incorporation method, the O2-production

  2. Validation of Monte Carlo model of HPGe detector for field-station measurement of airborne radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolc, J.; Kovář, P.; Dryák, P.

    2016-03-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) model of a mechanically-cooled High Purity Germanium detection system IDM-200-V™ manufactured by ORTEC® was created, optimized and validated within the scope of the Joint Research Project ENV57 ``Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe''. The validation was performed for a planar source homogeneously distributed on a filter placed on top of the detector end cap and for point sources positioned farther from the detector by comparing simulated full-energy peak (FEP) detection efficiencies with the ones measured with two or three different pieces of the IDM detector. True coincidence summing correction factors were applied to the measured FEP efficiencies. Relative differences of FEP efficiencies laid within 8% that is fully satisfactory for the intended use of the detectors as instruments for airborne radioactivity measurement in field-stations. The validated MC model of the IDM-200-V™ detector is now available for further MC calculations planned in the ENV57 project.

  3. Does the DOG scale measure dogmatism? Another look at construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowson, H Michael

    2009-06-01

    The author addressed the construct validity of B. Altemeyer's (1996) Dogmatism (DOG) scale. Confirmatory factor analyses of the scale provided evidence of unidimensionality, despite apparent method effects related to item wording. DOG scale scores correlated strongly and positively with the belief that knowledge is certain, providing convergent validity evidence for the measure. Scores on the DOG scale appeared empirically distinguishable from measures of need for cognition, need for structure, and need to evaluate. Criterion-related validity evidence came in the form of theoretically predictable relationships between the DOG scale and measures of religious fundamentalism, quest orientation, national identification, conservative ideology, dangerous world beliefs, and reactions to individuals and groups who hold worldview-incongruent beliefs and values. PMID:19537601

  4. An approach for the validation of railway vehicle models based on on-track measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Sönke; Causse, Julien; Coudert, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes an approach for the validation of railway vehicle models based on on-track measurements. The validation of simulation models has gained importance with the introduction of new applications of multi-body simulation in railway vehicle dynamics as the assessment of track geometry defects, the investigation of derailments and the analysis of gauging. These applications are not only interested in qualitative predictions of the vehicle behaviour but also in precise quantitative results of the safety and comfort relevant vehicle responses. The validation process aims at guaranteeing that the simulation model represents the dynamic behaviour of the real vehicle with a sufficient good precision. A misfit function is defined which quantifies the distance between the simulated and the measured vehicle response allowing to evaluate different models at different running conditions. The obtained modelling errors are compared to the measurement uncertainty estimated for one vehicle using repeatability analysis.

  5. Validation of a method for measuring 226Ra in drinking waters by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for measuring 226Ra in drinking waters has been validated and validation parameters are provided. It is based on the measurement by LSC of 222Rn, at equilibrium with 226Ra, which is absorbed into a water immiscible scintillation cocktail (Ultima Gold F) inside the counting vial. The validated application field ranges between the detection limit (2·10−3 Bq/kg) to 150 Bq/kg. The method has proven to be reliable, effective and suitable for wide-range measuring campaigns. A summary of results obtained in recent years is also given. - Highlights: • Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) double-phase technique has been used for 226Ra analysis. • Teflon coated vials and a water immiscible scintillation cocktail (Ultima Gold F) have been used. • The method has been validate under ISO 17025 requirements and validation data reported in the paper. • Repeatability has been evaluated and its contribution has been used in uncertainty calculation. • The method has been widely applied in measuring drinking water in Italy

  6. Validity and reliability of the T-Scan(®) III for measuring force under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna, M; Ferreira, R; Zaror, C; Navarro, P; Sandoval, P

    2015-07-01

    Although measuring bite force is an important indicator of the health of the masticatory system, few commercially available transducers have been validated for routine clinical use. T-Scan(®) III Occlusal Analysis System allows to record the bite force distribution, indicating its relative intensity and occlusal timing. Nevertheless, even fewer studies have evaluated the validity and reliability of the latest generation of the T-Scan(®) occlusal analysis system. To determine the validity and reliability of the T-Scan(®) III system when measuring total absolute bite force under laboratory conditions. Known forces were applied to 18 T-Scan(®) III sensors, which were classified into two groups differentiated by their production series. Both Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to assess the system's reliability and validity. Considering all the sensors studied, a substantial level (Lin's CCC 0·969) and a very good level of reliability (CCI 0·994) were obtained. When evaluating the validity of the system, a poor (Lin's CCC 0·530) and moderate (ICC 0·693) agreement were also obtained. The main factor that negatively influenced the validity of the T-Scan(®) III under these study conditions was the significant difference in the behaviour of the two sensor groups. The T-Scan(®) III showed a high degree of reliability when used to perform consecutive measurements. However, the system showed an insufficient degree of validity for measuring absolute force when estimating total occlusal force under laboratory conditions. PMID:25727489

  7. Development and validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure of Weight (TRIM-Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessard Suzanne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of prescription anti-obesity medication (AOM is becoming increasingly common as treatment options grow and become more accessible. However, AOM may not be without a wide range of potentially negative impacts on patient functioning and well being. The Treatment Related Impact Measure (TRIM-Weight is an obesity treatment-specific patient reported outcomes (PRO measure designed to assess the key impacts of prescription anti-obesity medication. This paper will present the validation findings for the TRIM-Weight. Methods The online validation battery survey was administered in four countries (the U.S., U.K., Australia, and Canada. Eligible subjects were over age eighteen, currently taking a prescription AOM and were currently or had been obese during their life. Validation analyses were conducted according to an a priori statistical analysis plan. Item level psychometric and conceptual criteria were used to refine and reduce the preliminary item pool and factor analysis to identify structural domains was performed. Reliability and validity testing was then performed and the minimally importance difference (MID explored. Results Two hundred and eight subjects completed the survey. Twenty-one of the 43 items were dropped and a five-factor structure was achieved: Daily Life, Weight Management, Treatment Burden, Experience of Side Effects, and Psychological Health. A-priori criteria for internal consistency and test-retest coefficients for the total score and all five subscales were met. All pre-specified hypotheses for convergent and known group validity were also met with the exception of the domain of Daily Life (proven in an ad hoc analysis as well as the 1/2 standard deviation threshold for the MID. Conclusion The development and validation of the TRIM-Weight has been conducted according to well-defined principles for the creation of a PRO measure. Based on the evidence to date, the TRIM-Weight can be considered a brief

  8. Single-Item Measurement of Suicidal Behaviors: Validity and Consequences of Misclassification

    OpenAIRE

    Millner, Alexander J.; Lee, Michael D.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although research has made strides in better defining suicidal behaviors, there has been less focus on accurate measurement. Currently, the widespread use of self-report, single-item questions to assess suicide ideation, plans and attempts may contribute to measurement problems and misclassification. We examined the validity of single-item measurement and the potential for statistical errors. Over 1,500 participants completed an online survey con...

  9. An Examination of the Predictive Validity of Early Literacy Measures for Korean English Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Jeanie Eunjoo

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the predictive validity of early literacy measures with Korean English language learners (ELLs) representing varying levels of English language proficiency. First-grade Korean ELLs (N = 102) were screened in the winter using measures of Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF), and Word Identification Fluency (WIF). Spring reading criterion measures included Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests (W...

  10. Measurement of optimal learning environments: Validation of the parents’ attitudes towards self-regulated learning scale

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Steinbach; Heidrun Stoeger

    2015-01-01

    Parents’ attitudes towards self-regulated learning and their influence on children’s learning behav-ior have been a rather neglected area of research. One reason for this is very likely the lack of a suitable measurement instrument. We adapted a measurement instrument designed to assess prima-ry teachers’ attitudes towards self-regulated learning for use with parents and validated it on a sample of 664 parents and their primary-school children. The instrument measures parents’ attitudes towar...

  11. Validation of six years of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide observations using MOZAIC CO profile measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Laat, A.T.J. de; R. Dijkstra; H. Schrijver; Nédélec, P.; Aben, I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm using vertically integrated profile aircraft measurements obtained within the MOZAIC project for the six year time period of 2003–2008.

    Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and airborne measurements for both mean values &ndash...

  12. Validation of the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) in a sample of 731 Greek residents

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsogiannou, Persa; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D. K.; Mavridis, Dimitris; Bellos, Stefanos; Karathanos, Vassilis; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    Background The Greek version of the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) was evaluated to determine its psychometric properties, i.e., validity, internal consistency, sensitivity and responsiveness to be used for measuring the learning environment in Greek hospitals. Methods The PHEEM was administered to Greek hospital residents. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach’s alpha. Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was used to evaluate the fit of St...

  13. Design, validation, and reliability of survey to measure female athlete triad knowledge among coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian E. Frideres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and to test the validity and reliability of an instrument to evaluate coaches' knowledge about the female athlete triad syndrome and their confidence in this knowledge. The instrument collects information regarding: knowledge of the syndrome, components, prevention and intervention; confidence of the coaches in their answers; and coach's characteristics (gender, degree held, years of experience in coaching females, continuing education participation specific to the syndrome and its components, and sport coached. The process of designing the questionnaire and testing the validity and reliability of it was done in four phases: a design and development of the instrument, b content validity, c instrument reliability, and d concurrent validity. The results show that the instrument is suitable for measuring coaches' female athlete triad knowledge. The instrument can contribute to assessing the coaches' knowledge level in relation to this topic.

  14. Biomass boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Nahodil, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor’s thesis deals with the use of biomass for heating houses and apartment houses. The first part is dedicated to biomass. Here are mentioned the possibility of energy recovery, treatment and transformation of biomass into a form suitable for burning, its properties and combustion process itself. The second part is devoted to biomass boilers, their separation and description. The last section compares the specific biomass boiler with a boiler to natural gas, particularly from an economi...

  15. Aircraft-Measured Indirect Cloud Effects from Biomass Burning Smoke in the Arctic and Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, L. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200-300% over the next 50-100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were approx. 40- 60% smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (N(liq)/ and various biomass burning tracers (BBt/ across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) x dln(N(liq))/dln(BBt)) to be approx. 0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content (0.02 gm/cu m and very high aerosol concentrations (2000- 3000/ cu cm in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W/sq m or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic.We lastly explore evidence suggesting that numerous northern

  16. Airborne measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guyon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate 2002 campaign, we studied the emission of carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, and aerosol particles from Amazonian deforestation fires using an instrumented aircraft. Emission ratios for aerosol number (CN relative to CO (ERCN/CO fell in the range 14–32 cm-3 ppb-1 for most of the time, in agreement with values usually found from tropical savanna fires. The number of particles emitted per amount biomass burned was found to be dependant on the fire condition (combustion efficiency. Variability in the ERCN/CO between fires was similar to the variability caused by variations in combustion behavior within each individual fire. This was confirmed by observations of CO-to-CO2 emission ratios (ERCO/CO2, which stretched across the same wide range of values for individual fires as for all the fires observed during the sampling campaign, indicating that flaming and smoldering phases are present simultaneously in deforestation fires. Emission factors (EF for CO and aerosol particles were computed and a correction was applied for the residual smoldering combustion (RSC fraction of emissions that are not sampled by the aircraft. The correction, previously unpublished for tropical deforestation fires, suggested an EF about one and a half to twice as large for these species. Vertical transport of biomass-burning plumes from the boundary layer (BL to the cloud detrainment layer (CDL and the free troposphere (FT was found to be a very common phenomenon. We observed a 20% loss in particle number as a result of this vertical transport and subsequent cloud processing, attributable to in-cloud coagulation. This small loss fraction suggests that this mode of transport is very efficient in terms of particle numbers and occurs mostly via non

  17. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, L. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200-300 % over the next 50-100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were ˜ 40-60 % smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq) and various biomass burning tracers (BBt) across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) × dln(Nliq)/dln(BBt)) to be ˜ 0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content ( ˜ 0.02 g m-3) and very high aerosol concentrations (2000-3000 cm-3) in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W m-2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic. We lastly explore evidence suggesting that numerous northern

  18. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Lauren M.; Kahn, Ralph; Cubison, Michael J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Yutaka; McFarquhar, Greg; Nenes, Athanasios; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, Armin; Zelenyuk, Alla; Ziemba, L. D.

    2016-01-21

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North 24 America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200-300% over the next 50-100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud 1 microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were ~50% smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq) and various biomass burning tracers (BBt) across the multi campaign dataset, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol cloud interactions (ACI, where ACI = (1/3)* d ln(Nliq)/d ln(BBt)) to be ~0.12 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content (~0.02 g m-3) and very high aerosol concentrations (2000-3000 cm-3) in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.06. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of CCN strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease shortwave radiative flux by 2-4 W m-2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic. We lastly show evidence to suggest that numerous northern latitude background Aitken particles can interact with combustion particles

  19. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In October–November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC, US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR systems and whole air sampling (WAS into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4–27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3, aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13–195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The SC

  20. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In October–November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC, US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR systems and whole air sampling (WAS into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4–27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs and ~ 21% of organic aerosol (mass basis suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3, aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in the first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13–195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~ 20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The

  1. Validity and repeatability of the EPIC physical activity questionnaire: a validation study using accelerometers as an objective measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Ploeg Hidde P

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A primary aim of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort study is to examine the association between total physical activity levels (comprising occupational, household and recreational activity and the incidence of cancer. We examined the validity and long-term repeatability of total physical activity measurements estimated from the past-year recall EPIC questionnaire, using accelerometers as an objective reference measure. Methods Participants included 100 men and 82 women aged 50–65 years. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the physical activity estimates from the EPIC questionnaire with total activity estimated from the average of three separate 7-day accelerometer periods during the same (past-year period. Long-term repeatability of the EPIC questionnaire was assessed by comparing the responses from the baseline and 10-month administrations. Past-year EPIC estimates were also compared with the Friedenreich Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire to examine whether recent activity reflected lifetime activity. Results Accelerometer total metabolic equivalent (MET-hours/week were positively associated with a total physical activity index (Spearman rank correlation ρ = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.15, 0.42 and with non-occupational activity estimated in MET-hours/week (ρ = 0.21, 95% CI 0.07, 0.35. Stratified analyses suggested stronger correlations for non-occupational activity for participants who were male, had a lower BMI, were younger, or were not full-time workers, although the differences in correlations between groups were not statistically significant. The weighted kappa coefficient for repeatability of the total physical activity index was 0.62 (95% CI 0.53, 0.71. Spearman correlations for repeatability of components of activity were 0.65 (95% CI 0.55, 0.72 for total non-occupational, 0.58 (95% CI 0.48, 0.67 for recreational and 0.73 (95% CI 0.66, 0

  2. Validation of a brief measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: the Distressing Event Questionnaire (DEQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubany, E S; Leisen, M B; Kaplan, A S; Kelly, M P

    2000-06-01

    The Distressing Event Questionnaire (DEQ) is a brief instrument for assessing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to criteria provided in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). The DEQ possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term temporal stability in studies with Vietnam War combat veterans and battered women. In a sample of Vietnam War veterans and 4 separate samples of abused women (with histories of incest, rape, intimate partner abuse, or prostitution and abuse), the DEQ exhibited very good discriminative validity when judged against structured interview assessment of PTSD. The DEQ exhibited strong convergent validity with other PTSD measures and other indexes of adjustment and also exhibited strong convergent validity as a measure of PTSD across ethnic groups in both the veteran sample and the combined women's sample. PMID:10887766

  3. Initial Psychometric Properties of the Experiences Questionnaire: Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Decentering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Segal, Zindel V.; Ma, S. Helen; Teasdale, John D.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings as temporary, objective events in the mind, as opposed to reflections of the self that are necessarily true. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) was designed to measure both decentering and rumination but has not been empirically validated. The current study investigated…

  4. Validity Evidence for the Measurement of the Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-01-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…

  5. The Development of a Valid and Reliable Instrument for Measuring Instructional Coaching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee Anton; Dudek, Marged Howley; Rittenberg, Rebekah; Larson, William

    2014-01-01

    This research used data from educators and teacher candidates in Ohio (a state in the Midwestern United States) to produce a valid and reliable instrument for measuring instructional coaching skills. The research involved three pilot tests with large samples of respondents. Initial items came from the extant literature on instructional coaching,…

  6. Developing and Validating a New Instrument to Measure the Self-Efficacy of Elementary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Jennifer Richardson

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the development and validation of an instrument to measure the self-efficacy of elementary mathematics teachers. Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest (1989) provided insight…

  7. Is the Maternal Q-Set a Valid Measure of Preschool Child Attachment Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cyr, Chantal; Dubois-Comtois, Karine

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine preschool-age correlates of the maternal version of the Attachment Q-Set (AQS) (Waters & Deane, 1985) in order to provide validity data. Concurrent associations between the Attachment Q-Set and measures of separation-reunion attachment classifications (Cassidy & Marvin, 1992), quality of mother-child…

  8. Validation of an Endoscopic Fibre-Optic Pressure Sensor for Noninvasive Measurement of Variceal Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bin; Kong, De-Run; Li, Su-Wen; Yu, Dong-Feng; Wang, Ging-Jing; Yu, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors have developed endoscopic fibre-optic pressure sensor to detect variceal pressure and presented the validation of in vivo and in vitro studies, because the HVPG requires catheterization of hepatic veins, which is invasive and inconvenient. Compared with HVPG, it is better to measure directly the variceal pressure without puncturing the varices in a noninvasive way. PMID:27314010

  9. Validation of SPAMM tagged MRI based measurement of 3D soft tissue deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Moerman; A.M.J. Sprengers; C.K. Simms; R.M. Lamerichs; J. Stoker; A.J. Nederveen

    2011-01-01

    This study presents and validates a novel (non-ECG-triggered) MRI sequence based on spatial modulation of the magnetization (SPAMM) to noninvasively measure 3D (quasistatic) soft tissue deformations using only six acquisitions (three static and three indentations). In the current SPAMM tagged MRI ap

  10. Can Stereotype Threat Be Measured? A Validation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale (SIAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picho, Katherine; Brown, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study reported the development and validation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale (SIAS), a stereotype threat susceptibility measure. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted with college students indicate that the scale possesses strong psychometric properties. The SIAS explained 65% of the variance in the items…

  11. Measuring Practitioner Attitudes toward Evidence-Based Treatments: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Rindee G. P.; Foster, Sharon L.; Lowery, Amy E.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of clinicians' attitudes toward evidence-based treatments (EBT) will presumably enhance the transfer of EBTs for substance-abusing adolescents from research to clinical application. The reliability and validity of two measures of therapist attitudes toward EBT were examined: the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale…

  12. Reproducibility and validity of video screen measurements of gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grunt; P.J. van Kampen; M.M. van der Krogt; M.A. Brehm; C.A.M. Doorenbosch; J.G. Becher

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the reproducibility and validity of video screen measurement (VSM) of sagittal plane joint angles during gait. METHODS: 17 children with spastic cerebral palsy walked on a 10m walkway. Videos were recorded and 3d-instrumented gait analysis was performed. Two investigators measu

  13. Validation of a New Measure of the Concept of Good Death among Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Ching; Lai, Sih-yi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to measure dimensions of the concept of a good death held by Taiwanese children. The sample consisted of 1,698 Taiwanese children, approximately 12-14 years of age. Participants completed the self-administered Good Death Concept Scale (GDCS), which consists of 30 statements…

  14. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  15. Development and Validation of a Principal Implementation Practices Measure: The Principal Implementation Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Stephen M.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of principal implementation behaviors has proved difficult to researchers in educational leadership due to a lack of consensus on the operational definitions of leadership constructs. The Principal Implementation Questionnaire (PIQ) was developed and validated with the intention of providing clarity in the assessment of principal…

  16. Understanding and Measuring Evaluation Capacity: A Model and Instrument Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Garcia-Iriarte, Edurne; Henry, David B.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Evaluation Capacity Assessment Instrument (ECAI), a measure designed to assess evaluation capacity among staff of nonprofit organizations that is based on a synthesis model of evaluation capacity. One hundred and sixty-nine staff of nonprofit organizations completed the ECAI. The 68-item…

  17. Assessing College Student-Athletes' Life Stress: Initial Measurement Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Cheen, Jang-Rong; Kao, Kuei-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    College student-athletes have unique life stress that warrants close attention. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement assessing college student-athletes' life stress. In Study 1, a focus group discussion and Delphi method produced a questionnaire draft, termed the College Student-Athletes' Life Stress Scale. In…

  18. Validation of the instrument IMAQE-Food to measure effectiveness of food quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Boer, de W.J.; Luning, P.A.; Ziggers, G.W.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to show that manufacturers use several quality assurance systems to assure quality. This paper aims to describe the validation of IMAQE-Food - an instrument that measures effectiveness of food quality systems. Design/methodology/approach - Generalisability, rel

  19. Decay heat measurement on fusion reactor materials and validation of calculation code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro; Wada, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Decay heat rates for 32 fusion reactor relevant materials irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons were measured for the cooling time period between 1 minute and 400 days. With using the experimental data base, validity of decay heat calculation systems for fusion reactors were investigated. (author)

  20. Validation of the actuator line method using near wake measurements of the MEXICO rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to validate the capability of the actuator line method to compute vortex structures in the near wake behind the MEXICO experimental wind turbine rotor. In the MEXICO project/MexNext Annex, particle image velocimetry measurements have made it possible to determine...

  1. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  2. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  3. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  4. Assessing anger regulation in middle childhood: development and validation of a behavioral observation measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lara Rohlf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An observational measure of anger regulation in middle childhood was developed that facilitated the in situ assessment of five maladaptive regulation strategies in response to an anger-eliciting task. 599 children aged 6-10 years (M = 8.12, SD = 0.92 participated in the study. Construct validity of the measure was examined through correlations with parent- and self-reports of anger regulation and anger reactivity. Criterion validity was established through links with teacher-rated aggression and social rejection measured by parent-, teacher-, and self-reports. The observational measure correlated significantly with parent- and self-reports of anger reactivity, whereas it was unrelated to parent- and self-reports of anger regulation. It also made a unique contribution to predicting aggression and social rejection.

  5. Assessing anger regulation in middle childhood: development and validation of a behavioral observation measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Helena L; Krahé, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    An observational measure of anger regulation in middle childhood was developed that facilitated the in situ assessment of five maladaptive regulation strategies in response to an anger-eliciting task. 599 children aged 6-10 years (M = 8.12, SD = 0.92) participated in the study. Construct validity of the measure was examined through correlations with parent- and self-reports of anger regulation and anger reactivity. Criterion validity was established through links with teacher-rated aggression and social rejection measured by parent-, teacher-, and self-reports. The observational measure correlated significantly with parent- and self-reports of anger reactivity, whereas it was unrelated to parent- and self-reports of anger regulation. It also made a unique contribution to predicting aggression and social rejection. PMID:25964767

  6. Identification of validated questionnaires to measure adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Escamilla B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Pérez-Escamilla,1 Lucía Franco-Trigo,1 Joanna C Moullin,2 Fernando Martínez-Martínez,1 José P García-Corpas1 1Academic Centre in Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Graduate School of Health, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Low adherence to pharmacological treatments is one of the factors associated with poor blood pressure control. Questionnaires are an indirect measurement method that is both economic and easy to use. However, questionnaires should meet specific criteria, to minimize error and ensure reproducibility of results. Numerous studies have been conducted to design questionnaires that quantify adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether questionnaires fulfil the minimum requirements of validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to compile validated questionnaires measuring adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments that had at least one measure of validity and one measure of reliability. Methods: A literature search was undertaken in PubMed, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [LILACS]. References from included articles were hand-searched. The included papers were all that were published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish from the beginning of the database’s indexing until July 8, 2013, where a validation of a questionnaire (at least one demonstration of the validity and at least one of reliability was performed to measure adherence to antihypertensive pharmacological treatments. Results: A total of 234 potential papers were identified in the electronic database search; of these, 12 met the eligibility criteria. Within these 12 papers, six questionnaires were validated: the Morisky

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Addiction Measure for Video Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction. PMID:26720761

  8. Measurement and prediction of the emission of pollutants from the combustion of coal and biomass in a fixed bed furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, A.B.; Jones, J.M.; Chaiklangmuang, S.; Pourkashanian, M.; Williams, A.; Kubica, K.; Andersson, J.T.; Kerst, M.; Danihelka, P.; Bartle, K.D. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    2002-03-01

    The effect of co-combustion of coal and biomass has been studied for a fixed bed appliance originally designed for coal and in widespread use in many parts of the world especially Eastern Europe. Organic, inorganic and gaseous emissions have been measured. Organic compounds have been determined for a range of fuel combinations. These include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH, alkyl PAH, a range of oxygenated compounds (including phenols, aldehydes, and ketones, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PAC) and dioxins), polycyclic aromatic sulphur hydrocarbons (PASH), nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PAC) and common volatile organic compounds (VOC). Inorganic species include trace heavy metals, as well as the gases, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x} and NOx. The concentration of the trace metals in the ash and fly ash have been compared to equilibrium calculations of the emission profiles during co-combustion. 18 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Observed Parenting Behavior with Teens: Measurement Invariance and Predictive Validity Across Race

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Martie L; MacKenzie, Elizabeth P.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hill, Karl G.; Roberson, Kendra C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of observed parenting; and predictive validity of teen self-reports of antisocial behaviors and beliefs using a sample of 163 African American and 168 Eur...

  10. Improving the science of health informatics by using validated instruments and outcome measures

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Philip; Brown, Angela W.; Friedman, Charles P; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Georgiou, Andrew; Eisenstein, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Health informatics does not have well-established instruments and outcome variables to measure efficacy and effectiveness. We report on a structured literature review of measurement practice in the evaluation of clinical decision support systems. A series of brief presentations introduces a workshop session about how to influence methodological practice in the field. We aim to elicit and elaborate suggestions for how to achieve the validation of at least a core set of health informatics measu...

  11. Validation of Nonlinear Bipolar Transistor Model by Small-Signal Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Vidkjær, Jens; Porra, V.; Zhu, J.; Huttunen, T.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the validity analysis of nonlinear transistor models is presented based on DC-and small-signal S-parameter measurements and realistic consideration of the measurement and de-embedding errors and singularities of the small-signal equivalent circuit. As an example, some analysis results for an extended Gummel Poon model are presented in the case of a UHF bipolar power transistor.

  12. Validation of SPAMM Tagged MRI Based Measurement of 3D Soft Tissue Deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin M. Moerman; Sprengers, Andre M. J.; Ciaran K. Simms; Lamerichs, Rolf M.; Stoker, Jaap; Aart J. Nederveen

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and validates a novel (non-ECG-triggered) MRI sequence based on SPAtial Modulation of the Magnetization (SPAMM) to non-invasively measure 3D (quasi-static) soft tissue deformations using only six acquisitions (three static and three indentations). In current SPAMM tagged MRI approaches data is typically constructed from many repeated motion cycles. This has so far restricted its application to the measurement of highly repeatable and periodic movements (e.g. cardiac deform...

  13. Validating a model to measure the brand loyalty of fast moving consumer goods

    OpenAIRE

    Moolla, Ahmed I.; Christo A. Bisschoff

    2012-01-01

    A model to measure the brand loyalty of Fast-moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) was developed by researching historical brand loyalty models, by identifying brand loyalty influences, by validating the measurement criteria and, ultimately, by constructing a structural equation model. Twelve brand loyalty influences were included in the model, two of which further possess sub-influence qualities. The model shows good fit indices with the Comparative Fit Index (0.815), while the secondary ...

  14. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, Daniel B.; Eli Lucus Stoll; Sonam Dolker Kindy; Hillary Leah Merry; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mi...

  15. Validation of Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography for Measuring Tidal Volume in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhenbo; Oto, Jun; Wang, Jingwen; Kimball, William R; Chenelle, Christopher T; Kacmarek, Robert M.; King, David R.; Jiang, Yandong; Duggan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Measuring tidal volume (VT) in nonintubated swine or swine with leaking breathing circuits is challenging. The aim of this study was to validate respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) for measuring VT in swine that are comparable in size to adult humans. To determine calibration curves, VT and RIP readings were obtained from anesthetized swine (n = 8; weight, 46–50 kg) during positive-pressure (mechanical) ventilation and spontaneous breathing. For positive-pressure ventilation, 6 pigs ...

  16. Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Battery based on Electric Vehicle Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    SIMIC Dragan; DVORAK Dominique; LACHER Hannes; KUEHNELT Helmut; PAFFUMI Elena; DE GENNARO MICHELE

    2013-01-01

    This contribution deals with the development, modeling and validation of multi-physical battery-models using the description language Modelica. The battery model can be used in any scenario where a simulation of the electric, thermal or aging behavior of a lithium-ion battery is of interest. Furthermore a concept is provided, which allows extracting the open circuit voltage of the battery directly from the raw measurement data. On the basis of the measurements, a data set which can be used...

  17. Acquiring Knowledge and Learning from Failure : Theory, Measurement, and Validation of Two Learning Goals

    OpenAIRE

    NIIYA, Yu; Crocker, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We report the development and validation of a measure that distinguished knowledge goals focused on acquiring knowledge and information from learning from failure goals focused on using failure as an opportunity to learn. In Study 1, the scale demonstrated a robust factor structure and adequate internal consistencies, and the two learning goals differently correlated with measures of ego-involved achievement goals. In Study 2, the goal to learn from failure interacted with academically contin...

  18. Validation of Nonlinear Bipolar Transistor Model by Small-Signal Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Jens; Porra, V.; Zhu, J.;

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the validity analysis of nonlinear transistor models is presented based on DC-and small-signal S-parameter measurements and realistic consideration of the measurement and de-embedding errors and singularities of the small-signal equivalent circuit. As an example, some analysis...... results for an extended Gummel Poon model are presented in the case of a UHF bipolar power transistor....

  19. Reliability and Validity of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density Measurements by DXA

    OpenAIRE

    Zack, Melissa Kareen

    2002-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been well established in both clinical and research settings for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), and is becoming more widely utilized for assessment of body composition. Reliability and validity are essential factors in both applications of this technique; however, neither have been confirmed for the QDR-4500A DXA at Virginia Tech. Therefore, measurements of the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (TPF) and total for...

  20. Experimental Investigation on NOx Reduction by Primary Measures in Biomass Combustion: Straw, Peat, Sewage Sludge, Forest Residues and Wood Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Skreiberg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was carried out to study the NOx formation and reduction by primary measures for five types of biomass (straw, peat, sewage sludge, forest residues/Grot, and wood pellets and their mixtures. To minimize the NOx level in biomass-fired boilers, combustion experiments were performed in a laboratory scale multifuel fixed grate reactor using staged air combustion. Flue gas was extracted to measure final levels of CO, CO2, CxHy, O2, NO, NO2, N2O, and other species. The fuel gas compositions between the first and second stage were also monitored. The experiments showed good combustion quality with very low concentrations of unburnt species in the flue gas. Under optimum conditions, a NOx reduction of 50–80% was achieved, where the highest reduction represents the case with the highest fuel-N content. The NOx emission levels were very sensitive to the primary excess air ratio and an optimum value for primary excess air ratio was seen at about 0.9. Conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx showed great dependency on the initial fuel-N content, where the blend with the highest nitrogen content had lowest conversion rate. Between 1–25% of the fuel-N content is converted to NOx depending on the fuel blend and excess air ratio. Sewage sludge is suggested as a favorable fuel to be blended with straw. It resulted in a higher NOx reduction and low fuel-N conversion to NOx. Tops and branches did not show desirable NOx reduction and made the combustion also more unstable. N2O emissions were very low, typically below 5 ppm at 11% O2 in the dry flue gas, except for mixtures with high nitrogen content, where values up to 20 ppm were observed. The presented results are part of a larger study on problematic fuels, also considering ash content and corrosive compounds which have been discussed elsewhere.

  1. Method for Pre-Conditioning a Measured Surface Height Map for Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This software allows one to up-sample or down-sample a measured surface map for model validation, not only without introducing any re-sampling errors, but also eliminating the existing measurement noise and measurement errors. Because the re-sampling of a surface map is accomplished based on the analytical expressions of Zernike-polynomials and a power spectral density model, such re-sampling does not introduce any aliasing and interpolation errors as is done by the conventional interpolation and FFT-based (fast-Fourier-transform-based) spatial-filtering method. Also, this new method automatically eliminates the measurement noise and other measurement errors such as artificial discontinuity. The developmental cycle of an optical system, such as a space telescope, includes, but is not limited to, the following two steps: (1) deriving requirements or specs on the optical quality of individual optics before they are fabricated through optical modeling and simulations, and (2) validating the optical model using the measured surface height maps after all optics are fabricated. There are a number of computational issues related to model validation, one of which is the "pre-conditioning" or pre-processing of the measured surface maps before using them in a model validation software tool. This software addresses the following issues: (1) up- or down-sampling a measured surface map to match it with the gridded data format of a model validation tool, and (2) eliminating the surface measurement noise or measurement errors such that the resulted surface height map is continuous or smoothly-varying. So far, the preferred method used for re-sampling a surface map is two-dimensional interpolation. The main problem of this method is that the same pixel can take different values when the method of interpolation is changed among the different methods such as the "nearest," "linear," "cubic," and "spline" fitting in Matlab. The conventional, FFT-based spatial filtering method used to

  2. The Servant Leadership Survey: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Nuijten, Inge

    2011-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of a multi-dimensional instrument to measure servant leadership. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Based on an extensive literature review and expert judgment, 99 items were formulated. In three steps, using eight samples totaling 1571 persons from The Netherlands and the UK with a diverse occupational background, a combined exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis approach was used. This was followed by an analysis of the criterion-related validity. FINDINGS: The final result is an eight-dimensional measure of 30 items: the eight dimensions being: standing back, forgiveness, courage, empowerment, accountability, authenticity, humility, and stewardship. The internal consistency of the subscales is good. The results show that the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) has convergent validity with other leadership measures, and also adds unique elements to the leadership field. Evidence for criterion-related validity came from studies relating the eight dimensions to well-being and performance. IMPLICATIONS: With this survey, a valid and reliable instrument to measure the essential elements of servant leadership has been introduced. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The SLS is the first measure where the underlying factor structure was developed and confirmed across several field studies in two countries. It can be used in future studies to test the underlying premises of servant leadership theory. The SLS provides a clear picture of the key servant leadership qualities and shows where improvements can be made on the individual and organizational level; as such, it may also offer a valuable starting point for training and leadership development. PMID:21949466

  3. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  4. Performance of STICS model to predict rainfed corn evapotranspiration and biomass evaluated for 6 years between 1995 and 2006 using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes and ancillary measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Jégo, Guillaume; Bourgeois, Gaétan

    2010-05-01

    Verifying the performance of process-based crop growth models to predict evapotranspiration and crop biomass is a key component of the adaptation of agricultural crop production to climate variations. STICS, developed by INRA, was part of the models selected by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to be implemented for environmental assessment studies on climate variations, because of its built-in ability to assimilate biophysical descriptors such as LAI derived from satellite imagery and its open architecture. The model prediction of shoot biomass was calibrated using destructive biomass measurements over one season, by adjusting six cultivar parameters and three generic plant parameters to define two grain corn cultivars adapted to the 1000-km long Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Its performance was then evaluated using a database of 40 years-sites of corn destructive biomass and yield. In this study we evaluate the temporal response of STICS evapotranspiration and biomass accumulation predictions against estimates using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes. The flux tower was located in an experimental farm south of Ottawa and measurements carried out over corn fields in 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002 and 2006. Daytime and nighttime fluxes were QC/QA and gap-filled separately. Soil respiration was partitioned to calculate the corn net daily CO2 uptake, which was converted into dry biomass. Out of the six growing seasons, three (1995, 1998, 2002) had water stress periods during corn grain filling. Year 2000 was cool and wet, while 1996 had heat and rainfall distributed evenly over the season and 2006 had a wet spring. STICS can predict evapotranspiration using either crop coefficients, when wind speed and air moisture are not available, or resistance. The first approach provided higher prediction for all the years than the resistance approach and the flux measurements. The dynamic of evapotranspiration prediction of STICS was very good for the growing seasons without

  5. Gross Gamma Dose Rate Measurements for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuel Burnup Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross gamma-ray dose rates from six spent TRIGA fuel elements were measured and compared to calculated values as a means to validate the reported element burnups. A newly installed and functional gamma-ray detection subsystem of the In-Cell Examination System was used to perform the measurements and is described in some detail. The analytical methodology used to calculate the corresponding dose rates is presented along with the calculated values. Comparison of the measured and calculated dose rates for the TRIGA fuel elements indicates good agreement (less than a factor of 2 difference). The intent of the subsystem is to measure the gross gamma dose rate and correlate the measurement to a calculated dose rate based on the element s known burnup and other pertinent spent fuel information. Although validation of the TRIGA elements' burnup is of primary concern in this paper, the measurement and calculational techniques can be used to either validate an element's reported burnup or provide a burnup estimate for an element with an unknown burnup. (authors)

  6. Comparing the Validity of Non-Invasive Methods in Measuring Thoracic Kyphosis and Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousefi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the purpose of this article is to study the validity of each of the non-invasive methods (flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and processing the image versus the one through-Ray radiation (the basic method and comparing them with each other.Materials and Methods: for evaluating the validity of each of these non-invasive methods, the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle of 20 students of Birjand University (age mean and standard deviation: 26±2, weight: 72±2.5 kg, height: 169±5.5 cm through fours methods of flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing and X-ray.Results: the results indicated that the validity of the methods including flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing in measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle respectively have an adherence of 0.81, 0.87, 0.73, 0.76, 0.83, 0.89 (p>0.05. As a result, regarding the gained validity against the golden method of X-ray, it could be stated that the three mentioned non-invasive methods have adequate validity. In addition, the one-way analysis of variance test indicated that there existed a meaningful relationship between the three methods of measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis, and with respect to the Tukey’s test result, the image processing method is the most precise one.Conclusion as a result, this method could be used along with other non-invasive methods as a valid measuring method.

  7. Analysis of the Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    , substantive, and generalizability aspects of validity for the CDSE-SF in a sample of 534 Australian high school students aged between 14 and 19 years. The results showed clear evidence of multidimensionality for the CDSE-SF. Furthermore, there was strong support for the content, structural, and substantive...... aspects of validity when using the five subscales individually. Evidence of measurement invariance was found across grade levels; however, there were individual items that exhibited differential item functioning across gender, achievement level, and age groups. The implications for career counseling and...

  8. Reliable and valid NEWS for Chinese seniors: measuring perceived neighborhood attributes related to walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Lok-chun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of the built environment on walking in seniors have not been studied in an Asian context. To examine these effects, valid and reliable measures are needed. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire of perceived neighborhood characteristics related to walking appropriate for Chinese seniors (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Chinese Seniors, NEWS-CS. It was based on the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale - Abbreviated (NEWS-A, a validated measure of perceived built environment developed in the USA for adults. A secondary study aim was to establish the generalizability of the NEWS-A to an Asian high-density urban context and a different age group. Methods A multidisciplinary panel of experts adapted the original NEWS-A to reflect the built environment of Hong Kong and needs of seniors. The translated instrument was pre-tested on a sample of 50 Chinese-speaking senior residents (65+ years. The final version of the NEWS-CS was interviewer-administered to 484 seniors residing in four selected Hong Kong districts varying in walkability and socio-economic status. Ninety-two participants completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions, 2-3 weeks apart. Test-rest reliability indices were estimated for each item and subscale of the NEWS-CS. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to develop the measurement model of the NEWS-CS and cross-validate that of the NEWS-A. Results The final version of the NEWS-CS consisted of 14 subscales and four single items (76 items. Test-retest reliability was moderate to good (ICC > 50 or % agreement > 60 except for four items measuring distance to destinations. The originally-proposed measurement models of the NEWS-A and NEWS-CS required 2-3 theoretically-justifiable modifications to fit the data well. Conclusions The NEWS-CS possesses sufficient levels of reliability and factorial validity to be used for measuring perceived neighborhood

  9. Development and validation of system for measuring poling forces during Nordic walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, the popularity of Nordic walking (NW has been rising steadily. Many scientific studies researched the promising and beneficial effects of this form of physical activity. However, only a few studies provided data about the forces acting on the poles. We did not find a commercially available system that enables the measurement of the poling forces. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to develop and validate a system for measuring the poling forces during NW. METHODS: Strain gauge force tranducers were mounted below the grips of standard NW poles. The transducer signals were amplified and converted to digital form for transmitting to a personal computer. Special software was developed for processing the measured data and the calculation method of output variables was described. Validation of the system was performed using a Kistler force plate. Poling cycles with peak force of about 150 N were imitated by pressing the pole over a force plate. RESULTS: A function sample of the measurement system was constructed. Validation yielded the mean absolute error of 1.1 N in case of poling cycles without pole impacts or 3.0 N in case of poling cycles with impacts. CONCLUSIONS: The validation result of our system is comparable to the results of similar systems used for measurements during cross-country skiing. The system enables independent measurement of the poling forces on both poles and the duration of measurement can be up to one hour. The system provides a tool that can be used to answer a number of questions that researches raise about NW. Understanding of the biomechanical and physiological aspects of poling action can constitute a scientific basis for promoting, teaching and training of NW.

  10. Towards validation of ammonia (NH3 measurements from the IASI satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Damme

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of ammonia (NH3 observations is currently a barrier for effective monitoring of the nitrogen cycle. It prevents a full understanding of the atmospheric processes in which this trace gas is involved and therefore impedes determining its related budgets. Since the end of 2007, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI satellite has been observing NH3 from space at a high spatiotemporal resolution. This valuable data set, already used by models, still needs validation. We present here a first attempt to validate IASI-NH3 measurements using existing independent ground-based and airborne data sets. The yearly distributions reveal similar patterns between ground-based and space-borne observations and highlight the scarcity of local NH3 measurements as well as their spatial heterogeneity and lack of representativity. By comparison with monthly resolved data sets in Europe, China and Africa, we show that IASI-NH3 observations are in fair agreement but that they are characterized by a smaller variation in concentrations. The use of hourly and airborne data sets to compare with IASI individual observations allows to investigate the impact of averaging as well as the representativity of independent observations for the satellite footprint. The importance of considering the latter and the added value of densely located airborne measurements at various altitudes to validate IASI-NH3 columns are discussed. Perspectives and guidelines for future validation work on NH3 satellite observations are presented.

  11. Validation of an instrument to measure older adults' expectations regarding movement (ERM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Dahodwala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many individuals with Parkinson's disease are not diagnosed and treated. Attitudes about aging and related help-seeking may affect the timely diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Our objectives were to develop measures of older adults' expectations regarding movement with aging, specifically related to parkinsonism, and their beliefs about seeking healthcare for the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism. METHODS: We established content and face validity from interviews with experts, review of the literature, and pre-testing with key informants. Two 9-item instruments resulted: Expectations Regarding Movement (ERM and Healthcare Seeking Beliefs for parkinsonism (HSB. These instruments were administered to 210 older adults at senior centers to investigate internal consistency and construct validity. RESULTS: 192 (91% of the older adults completed more than 90% of the survey. The mean age was 76; 17 (9% reported parkinsonism. Both scales demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.90. Factor analysis supported construct validity of the ERM and HSB scores. Older age, lower education, worse self-reported health and African American race each were associated with lower ERM scores, but not HSB scores. CONCLUSION: The ERM, a brief measure of expectations regarding movement with aging, shows reliability and validity. This scale may be useful in identifying older adults at increased risk for under-identification of Parkinson's disease. Further work is needed to measure healthcare seeking for parkinsonism.

  12. Validation of a Brief Questionnaire Measuring Positive Mindset in Patients With Uveitis

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    John A. Barry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AimIllness may impact the positivity of a person’s mindset. However, patients with visual impairment, such as uveitis, may struggle to complete questionnaires. The aim of this study was to validate a brief and simple measure of positive mindset in people with uveitis.MethodThis study was a cross-sectional survey of 200 people with uveitis. The Positive Mindset Index (PMI questionnaire uses six items to measure a patient’s happiness, confidence, sense of being in control, stability, motivation, and optimism. ResultsExploratory factor analysis revealed a well-fitting unidimensional factor structure (KMO = .898, with strong factor loadings (from .616 to .721 and excellent internal reliability (Cronbach’s α = .926. The PMI showed strong concurrent validity with the mental health subscale of the SF-36 (r = .789 and good construct validity relative to the physical health subscale of the SF-36 (r = .468. Excellent test-retest reliability was seen (r = .806. Patients taking 10 mg or more corticosteroid daily had significantly lower PMI scores than those on a lower dose or no dose (t (170 = 2.298, p < .023.ConclusionThe PMI has good face validity and sound psychometric properties. It is a very brief and simple measure, thus user-friendly for patients with visual impairment, as well as researchers and others using the scale.

  13. Development and validation of a new tool to measure Iranian pregnant women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, N S; Taghipour, A; Roudsari, R Latifnejad; Keramat, A

    2016-12-01

    Empowering pregnant women improves their health and reduces maternal mortality, but there is a lack of suitable tools to measure women's empowerment in some cultures. This study aimed to design and validate a questionnaire for measuring the dimensions of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. After a literature review, and face and content validity testing, a 38-item questionnaire was developed and tested on a sample of 161 pregnant women. Factor analysis grouped the items into 3 subscales: educational empowerment (e.g. prenatal training), autonomy (e.g. financial independency and mental ability) and sociopolitical empowerment (e.g. involvement in social and political activities). Criterion validity testing showed a strong positive correlation of the total scale and subscales scores with the Kameda and the Spritzer empowerment scales. Cronbach alpha was 0.92 for total empowerment. A total of 32 items remained in the Self-Structured Pregnancy Empowerment Questionnaire, which is a valid new tool to measure the dimensions of pregnant women's empowerment. PMID:26996363

  14. Validation of the historical adulthood physical activity questionnaire (HAPAQ against objective measurements of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Christopher J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifetime physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE is an important determinant of risk for many chronic diseases but remains challenging to measure. Previously reported historical physical activity (PA questionnaires appear to be reliable, but their validity is less well established. Methods We sought to design and validate an historical adulthood PA questionnaire (HAPAQ against objective PA measurements from the same individuals. We recruited from a population-based cohort in Cambridgeshire, UK, (Medical Research Council Ely Study in whom PA measurements, using individually calibrated heart rate monitoring, had been obtained in the past, once between 1994 and 1996 and once between 2000 and 2002. 100 individuals from this cohort attended for interview. Historical PA within the domains of home, work, transport, sport and exercise was recalled using the questionnaire by asking closed questions repeated for several discrete time periods from the age of 20 years old to their current age. The average PAEE from the 2 periods of objective measurements was compared to the self-reported data from the corresponding time periods in the questionnaire. Results Significant correlations were observed between HAPAQ-derived and objectively measured total PAEE for both time periods (Spearman r = 0.44; P Conclusions HAPAQ demonstrates convergent validity for total PAEE and vigorous PA. This instrument will be useful for ranking individuals according to their past PA in studies of chronic disease aetiology, where activity may be an important underlying factor contributing to disease pathogenesis.

  15. Convergent and discriminant validity of measures of parenting efficacy and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, M C; Verda, M R; Hays, C E

    1997-12-01

    Examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the Parent Attribution Test (PAT; Bugental, Blue, & Cruzcosa, 1989), the Parental Locus of Control Scale (PLOC; Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986), and the Parenting Sense of Competence-Efficacy Scale (PSOC-Efficacy; Johnston & Mash, 1989) in 3 samples of community mothers. In the 1st 2 samples, mothers also completed measures of negative affect and social desirability. In the 3rd sample, the PAT and PSOC-Efficacy scales were administered with measures of adult attachment style and child behavior problems. There was weak support for the convergent validity of the measures. Moreover, the discriminant validity of the measures was not adequately demonstrated. Our results suggest that PLOC and PSOC-Efficacy scores may reflect distress and response style as well as beliefs about parenting. Scores on the PAT, although less influenced by response style and distress, appear to reflect a different dimension of efficacy than that assessed by other self-report measures. PMID:9418175

  16. Validation of ISS Floating Potential Measurement Unit Electron Densities and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda N.; Bui, Them; Wright, Kenneth, Jr.; Koontz, Steven L.; Schneider, T.; Vaughn, J.; Craven, P.

    2007-01-01

    Validation of the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) electron density and temperature measurements is an important step in the process of evaluating International Space Station spacecraft charging issues .including vehicle arcing and hazards to crew during extravehicular activities. The highest potentials observed on Space Station are due to the combined VxB effects on a large spacecraft and the collection of ionospheric electron and ion currents by the 160 V US solar array modules. Ionospheric electron environments are needed for input to the ISS spacecraft charging models used to predict the severity and frequency of occurrence of ISS charging hazards. Validation of these charging models requires comparing their predictions with measured FPMU values. Of course, the FPMU measurements themselves must also be validated independently for use in manned flight safety work. This presentation compares electron density and temperatures derived from the FPMU Langmuir probes and Plasma Impedance Probe against the independent density and temperature measurements from ultraviolet imagers, ground based incoherent scatter radar, and ionosonde sites.

  17. Self-report measures of prospective memory are reliable but not valid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Kibreab, Mekale

    2011-03-01

    Are self-report measures of prospective memory (ProM) reliable and valid? To examine this question, 240 undergraduate student volunteers completed several widely used self-report measures of ProM including the Prospective Memory Questionnaire (PMQ), the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire, self-reports of retrospective memory (RetM), objective measures of ProM and RetM, and measures of involvement in activities and events, memory strategies and aids use, personality and verbal intelligence. The results showed that both convergent and divergent validity of ProM self-reports are poor, even though we assessed ProM using a newly developed, reliable continuous measure. Further analyses showed that a substantial proportion of variability in ProM self-report scores was due to verbal intelligence, personality (conscientiousness, neuroticism), activities and event involvement (busyness), and use of memory strategies and aids. ProM self-reports have adequate reliability, but poor validity and should not be interpreted as reflecting ProM ability. PMID:21443331

  18. Validation of coupled codes in VALCO W P1 using measured WWER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection of measured data from transients in WWER type NPPs has been used for the validation of coupled thermal hydraulics / neutron kinetics codes in the previous PHARE project SRRI/95 and continuing now in the Work Package 1 of the VALCO project with new types of transients and new data. Firstly, a collection of five transients was made, then two transients; 'Drop of control rod at nominal power at Bohunice-3' for WWER-440 reactors, were used in code validation. Eight institutes participated with ten calculations for the code validation with five different combinations of coupled codes. Used thermal hydraulic codes were ATHLET, SMABRE and RELAP5 and the neutron kinetic codes DYN3D, HEXTRAN, KIKO3D and BIPR8 (Authors)

  19. Universally valid reformulation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle on noise and disturbance in measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Ozawa, M

    2003-01-01

    The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that the product of the noise in a position measurement and the momentum disturbance caused by that measurement should be no less than the limit set by Planck's constant, hbar/2, as demonstrated by Heisenberg's thought experiment using a gamma-ray microscope. Here I show that this common assumption is false: a universally valid trade-off relation between the noise and the disturbance has an additional correlation term, which is redundant when the intervention brought by the measurement is independent of the measured object, but which allows the noise-disturbance product much below Planck's constant when the intervention is dependent. A model of measuring interaction with dependent intervention shows that Heisenberg's lower bound for the noise-disturbance product is violated even by a nearly nondisturbing, precise position measuring instrument. An experimental implementation is also proposed to realize the above model in the context of optical quadrature measurement ...

  20. Measuring metacognition in cancer: validation of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30.

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    Sharon A Cook

    Full Text Available The Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 assesses metacognitive beliefs and processes which are central to the metacognitive model of emotional disorder. As recent studies have begun to explore the utility of this model for understanding emotional distress after cancer diagnosis, it is important also to assess the validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 for use in cancer populations.229 patients with primary breast or prostate cancer completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale pre-treatment and again 12 months later. The structure and validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 were assessed using factor analyses and structural equation modelling.Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provided evidence supporting the validity of the previously published 5-factor structure of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30. Specifically, both pre-treatment and 12 months later, this solution provided the best fit to the data and all items loaded on their expected factors. Structural equation modelling indicated that two dimensions of metacognition (positive and negative beliefs about worry were significantly associated with anxiety and depression as predicted, providing further evidence of validity.These findings provide initial evidence that the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 is a valid measure for use in cancer populations.

  1. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13)

    OpenAIRE

    Rademakers Jany; Nijman Jessica; van der Hoek Lucas; Heijmans Monique; Rijken Mieke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer) self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one’s health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. Methods The translation was done according to WHO guidelines...

  2. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  3. Skin-electrode impedance measurement during ECG acquisition: method’s validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Leonardo; La Mura, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Skm-electrode impedance measurement can provide valuable information prior. dunng and post electrocardiographic (ECG) or electroencephalographs (EEG) acquisitions. In this work we validate a method for skm-electrode impedance measurement using test circuits with known resistance and capacitor values, at different frequencies for injected excitation current. Finally the method is successfully used for impedance measurement during ECG acquisition on a subject usmg 125 Hz and 6 nA square wave excitation signal at instrumentation amplifier mput. The method can be used for many electrodes configuration.

  4. A comparison of measurements and calculations for the Stripa validation drift inflow experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data presents a comparison of measurements and predictions for groundwater flow to the validation drift and remaining portions of the D-holes in the Site Characterisation and Validation (SCV) block. The comparison was carried out of behalf of the Stripa task force on fracture flow modelling. The paper summarises the characterisation data and their preliminary interpretation, and reviews the fracture flow modelling approaches and predictions made by teams from AEA Technology/Fracflow, Golder Associated and Lawrence Berkely Laboratory. The predictions are compared with the inflow measurements on the basis of the validation process and criteria defined by the Task Force. The results of all three modelling groups meet the validation criteria, with the predictions of the inflow being of the same order of magnitude as the observations. Also the AEA/Fracflow and Golder approaches allow the inflow pattern to be predicted and this too is reproduced with reasonable accuracy. The successful completion of this project demonstrates the feasibility of discrete fracture flow modelling, and in particular the ability to collect and analyse all the necessary characterization data in a timely and economic manner. (32 refs.) (au)

  5. Validation of the Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS instrument: a computerized telephonic measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brief screening tests have been developed to measure cognitive performance and dementia, yet they measure limited cognitive domains and often lack construct validity. Neuropsychological assessments, while comprehensive, are too costly and time-consuming for epidemiological studies. This study's aim was to develop a psychometrically valid telephone administered test of cognitive function in aging. Methods Using a sequential hierarchical strategy, each stage of test development did not proceed until specified criteria were met. The 30 minute Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS measure and a 2.5 hour in-person neuropsychological assessment were conducted with a randomly selected sample of 211 participants 65 years and older that included equivalent distributions of men and women from ethnically diverse populations. Results Overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the CALLS test was 0.81. A principal component analysis of the CALLS tests yielded five components. The CALLS total score was significantly correlated with four neuropsychological assessment components. Older age and having a high school education or less was significantly correlated with lower CALLS total scores. Females scored better overall than males. There were no score differences based on race. Conclusion The CALLS test is a valid measure that provides a unique opportunity to reliably and efficiently study cognitive function in large populations.

  6. Concurrent validity of the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v2 for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Elham; Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a study to evaluate the concurrent validity of the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v2 for measuring the spatiotemporal parameters of gait. Twenty healthy adults performed several sequences of walks across a GAITRite mat under three different conditions: usual pace, fast pace, and dual task. Each walking sequence was simultaneously captured with two Kinect for Windows v2 and the GAITRite system. An automated algorithm was employed to extract various spatiotemporal features including stance time, step length, step time and gait velocity from the recorded Kinect v2 sequences. Accuracy in terms of reliability, concurrent validity and limits of agreement was examined for each gait feature under different walking conditions. The 95% Bland-Altman limits of agreement were narrow enough for the Kinect v2 to be a valid tool for measuring all reported spatiotemporal parameters of gait in all three conditions. An excellent intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2, 1) ranging from 0.9 to 0.98 was observed for all gait measures across different walking conditions. The inter trial reliability of all gait parameters were shown to be strong for all walking types (ICC3, 1 > 0.73). The results of this study suggest that the Kinect for Windows v2 has the capacity to measure selected spatiotemporal gait parameters for healthy adults. PMID:27387901

  7. Assessing Workplace Emotional Intelligence: Development and Validation of an Ability-based Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Sukumarakurup; Hopkins, Kay; Szmerekovsky, Joseph G; Robinson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Existing measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), defined as the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions for productive purposes, have displayed limitations in predicting workplace outcomes, likely in part because they do not target this context. Such considerations led to the development of an ability EI measure with work-related scenarios in which respondents infer the likely emotions (perception) and combinations of emotion (understanding) that would occur to protagonists while rating the effectiveness of ways of responding (management). Study 1 (n = 290 undergraduates) used item-total correlations to select scenarios from a larger pool and Study 2 (n = 578) reduced the measure-termed the NEAT-to 30 scenarios on the basis of structural equation modeling. Study 3 (n = 96) then showed that the NEAT had expected correlations with personality and cognitive ability and Study 4 (n = 85) demonstrated convergent validity with other ability EI measures. Last, study 5 (n = 91) established that the NEAT had predictive validity with respect to job satisfaction, job stress, and job performance. The findings affirm the importance of EI in the workplace in the context of a valid new instrument for assessing relevant skills. PMID:26176668

  8. Caught in the struggle with food craving: Development and validation of a new cognitive fusion measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia; Silva, Bárbara

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive fusion has been related to the development and maintenance of a series of mental health difficulties. Specifically, growing research on eating psychopathology has been demonstrating the important role of cognitive fusion related to body image in these disorders. Nonetheless, cognitive fusion specifically focused on eating remained to be investigated. The current study aimed at developing and validating the Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire-Food Craving, a measure assessing the extent to which an individual is fused with food-craving undesirable and disturbing thoughts and urges. This study was conducted with distinct samples comprising men and women from the student and general population. A principal component analysis was conducted to assess the scale's structure, which was further examined in a confirmatory factor analysis. The scale's reliability and validities were also analysed. Results indicated that the CFQ-FC presented a one-dimensional structure with 7 items, accounting for 66.14% of the variance. A CFA confirmed the plausibility of the measurement model, which was found to be invariant in both sexes. The CFQ-FC also revealed very good internal consistency, construct reliability, temporal stability, and convergent and divergent validity, being positively associated with similar constructs and with indicators of eating and general psychopathology. CFQ-FC also discriminated individuals with clinically significant symptoms of binge eating from participants with no symptoms. Finally, the CFQ-FC presents incremental validity over a global measure of cognitive fusion in predicting eating psychopathology, namely binge eating. The CFQ-FC is a psychometrically sound measure that allows for a brief and reliable assessment of eating-related cognitive fusion. This is a novel measure that may significantly contribute for the assessment of this specific dimension of cognitive fusion and for the understanding of its role in eating psychopathology. PMID:26946280

  9. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MEASURES IN GREEK HIGH SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Avgerinos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of 3 physical activity questionnaires in Greek high school children. Forty children participated in the study aged M = 13.73 (SD 0.8 years. The validation study was conducted by comparing an accelerometer (MTI/CSA Model 7164 to 3 questionnaires: a Three-day Physical Activity Record (3DPAR, b Four by One-Day Recall Physical Activity Questionnaire (4BY1RPAQ and c Physical Activity and Life Style Questionnaire (PALQ. Validity of the 3 self-report questionnaires was assessed against the MTI/CSA accelerometer by comparing the scores obtained by each instrument on the first week of measurement. Reliability was assessed with two consecutive measurements performed two weeks apart. The measures of reliability were assessed by Intra Class Correlation, Typical Error and Limits of Agreement. A two-way ANOVA for repeated measures was performed. Repeated measures were week and day; in order to determine differences between the two scores obtained with the two measurements for MTI/CSA, 3DPAR and 4BY1RPAQ. A paired Student's t-test was performed for the two scores obtained with the PALQ. Post-hoc multiple comparisons were performed using the Bonferroni test. Significance for all parts of the analysis was determined at an alpha level of p < 0.05. A paired Student's t-test was performed for the two scores obtained with the PALQ. Results of this study indicated that reliability measured by intra class correlations (ICC were for MTI/CSA (ICC = 0.52, p < 0.05, 3DPAR (ICC = 0.97, p < 0.01, 4BY1RPAQ (ICC = 0.70, p < 0.01, and PALQ (ICC = 0.52, p < 0.01. Significant Pearson product moment correlation coefficients (r were observed between MTI/CSA and the other instruments, as a measure of validity: 3DPAR (r = 0.63, p < 0.01, 4BY1RPAQ (r = 0.62, p < 0.01, and PALQ (r = 0.53, p < 0.01. The reliability of the four instruments used in this study was acceptable. Validity correlations were also significant

  10. Measurement and validation of measures for impulsive food choice across obese and healthy-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B; Lawyer, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    The present study established a brief measure of delay discounting for food, the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), and compared it to another more established measure of food discounting that uses the adjusting amount (AA) procedure. One hundred forty-four undergraduate participants completed either two measures of hypothetical food discounting (a computerized food AA procedure or the FCQ) or two measures of hypothetical money discounting [a computerized monetary AA procedure or the Monetary Choice questionnaire (MCQ)]. The money condition was used as a replication of previous work. Results indicated that the FCQ yielded consistent data that strongly correlated with the AA food discounting task. Moreover, a magnitude effect was found with the FCQ, such that smaller amounts of food were discounted more steeply than larger amounts. In addition, individuals with higher percent body fat (PBF) discounted food more steeply than individuals with lower PBF. The MCQ, which also produced a magnitude effect, and the monetary adjusting amount procedure yielded data that were orderly, consistent, and correlated strongly with one another, replicating previous literature. This study is the first to show that a novel measure of food discounting (the FCQ) yields consistent data strongly correlated with an established measure of food discounting and is sensitive to PBF. Moreover, the FCQ is easier and quicker to administer than the AA procedure, which may interest researchers who use discounting tasks in food-related research. PMID:25796210

  11. Diaphragm breathing movement measurement using ultrasound and radiographic imaging: a concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Dong K; Lee, Jae J; You, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    Recent ultrasound imaging evidence asserts that the diaphragm is an important multifunctional muscle to control breathing as well as stabilize the core and posture in humans. However, the validity and accuracy of ultrasound for the measurement of dynamic diaphragm movements during breathing and functional core activities have not been determined. The specific aim of this study was to validate the accuracy of ultrasound imaging measurements of diaphragm movements by concurrently comparing these measurements to the gold standard of radiographic imaging measurements. A total of 14 asymptomatic adults (9 males, 5 females; mean age =28.4 ± 3.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Ultrasound and radiographic images were used concurrently to determine diaphragm movement (inspiration, expiration, and excursion) during tidal breathing. Pearson correlation analysis showed strong correlations, ranging from r=0.78 to r=0.83, between ultrasound and radiographic imaging measurements of the diaphragm during inhalation, exhalation, and excursion. These findings suggest that ultrasound imaging measurement is useful to accurately evaluate diaphragm movements during tidal breathing. Clinically, ultrasound imaging measurements can be used to diagnose and treat diaphragm movement impairments in individuals with neuromuscular disorders including spinal cord injuries, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. PMID:24211983

  12. Measuring walking within and outside the neighborhood in Chinese elders: reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerin Ester

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is a preferred, prevalent and recommended activity for aging populations and is influenced by the neighborhood built environment. To study this influence it is necessary to differentiate whether walking occurs within or outside of the neighborhood. The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ collects information on setting-specific physical activity, including walking, inside and outside one's neighborhood. While the NPAQ has shown to be a reliable measure in adults, its reliability in older adults is unknown. Additionally its validity and the influence of type of neighborhood on reliability and validity have yet to be explored. Methods The NPAQ walking component was adapted for Chinese speaking elders (NWQ-CS. Ninety-six Chinese elders, stratified by social economic status and neighborhood walkability, wore an accelerometer and completed a log of walks for 7 days. Following the collection of valid data the NWQ-CS was interviewer-administered. Fourteen to 20 days (average of 17 days later the NWQ-CS was re-administered. Test-retest reliability and validity of the NWQ-CS were assessed. Results Reliability and validity estimates did not differ with type of neighborhood. NWQ-CS measures of walking showed moderate to excellent reliability. Reliability was generally higher for estimates of weekly frequency than minutes of walking. Total weekly minutes of walking were moderately related to all accelerometry measures. Moderate-to-strong associations were found between the NWQ-CS and log-of-walks variables. The NWQ-CS yielded statistically significantly lower mean values of total walking, weekly minutes of walking for transportation and weekly frequency of walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than the log-of-walks. Conclusions The NWQ-CS showed measurement invariance across types of neighborhoods. It is a valid measure of walking for recreation and frequency of walking for transport. However, it may

  13. Validation of Land Surface Temperature Products and Site Characterisation with Ground Based Radiometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettsche, Frank; Olesen, Folke; Bork-Unkelbach, Annika

    2013-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important quantity for the energy and water exchange between the earth's surface and the atmosphere and, therefore, an important parameter of many environmental models. LST is derived operationally from several space-borne sensors, e.g. the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-Terra and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) and AVHRR onboard NOAA and EPS satellites. Ground based validation of LST and Land Surface Emissivity (LSE) is largely complicated by the spatial scale mismatch between satellite sensors and ground based sensors: areas observed by ground radiometers usually cover about 10 m2, whereas satellite measurements in the thermal infra-red typically cover between 1 km2 and 100 km2. Therefore, validation sites have to be carefully selected and need to be characterised on the spatial scale of the ground radiometer as well as on the scale of the satellite pixel. The permanent validation station near Gobabeb, Namibia, is one of KIT's four dedicated LST validation stations. Gobabeb is located on vast and flat gravel plains (several 100 km2), which are mainly covered by coarse gravel, sand, and desiccated grass. The plains are highly homogeneous in space and time, which makes them an ideal site for validating a broad range of satellite-derived products. However, for reliable product validation the effect of the small scale variation of surface materials (e.g. dry grass, rock outcrops) and topography needs to be closely characterised. Using a mobile radiometer system, several field experiments were performed during which the radiometer was driven along tracks of 20 km to 40 km length through the gravel plains. The results show a high level of homogeneity and a stable relationship between station LST and LST determined along the tracks from the mobile measurements with a small bias of about 0.4°C. LSEs of the dominant surface cover types at

  14. Development and validation of the Spanish version of the Team Climate Inventory: a measurement invariance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Antino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the psychometric properties and the validity of the Spanish version of the Team Climate Inventory (TCI. The TCI is a measure of climate for innovation within groups at work and is based on the four-factor theory of climate for innovation (West, 1990. Cronbach's alpha and omega indexes revealed satisfactory reliabilities and exploratory factor analysis extracted the four original factors with the fifth factor as reported in other studies. Confirmatory factorial analysis confirmed that the five-factor solution presented the best fit to our data. Two samples (Spanish health care teams and Latin American software development teams for a total of 1099 participants were compared, showing metric measurement invariance. Evidences for validity based on team performance and team satisfaction prediction are offered.

  15. Validation of the Brazilian version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Riberto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III specifically assesses individuals with spinal cord injuries. Objective : To translate and validate the Brazilian version of SCIM III. Method : SCIM III was translated, back-translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. Two interviewers assessed 83 subjects with spinal cord injuries in each one of seven collaborating rehabilitation centers. Functional Independence Measure (FIM™ and ASIA motor and sensory indices were also used. After six months, subjects were re-evaluated with the same instruments. Results : Examiners clearly understood the Brazilian version of SCIM III. Inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.918, and test-retest ICC was 0.991. After six months, the variation of gains in the FIM™ positively correlated with gains in SCIM III. Conclusion : The Brazilian version of the SCIM III is easy to understand, has good psychometric properties, and is valid.

  16. Developing and validating an instrument for measuring mobile computing self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Wang, Hsiu-Yuan

    2008-08-01

    IT-related self-efficacy has been found to have a critical influence on system use. However, traditional measures of computer self-efficacy and Internet-related self-efficacy are perceived to be inapplicable in the context of mobile computing and commerce because they are targeted primarily at either desktop computer or wire-based technology contexts. Based on previous research, this study develops and validates a multidimensional instrument for measuring mobile computing self-efficacy (MCSE). This empirically validated instrument will be useful to researchers in developing and testing the theories of mobile user behavior, and to practitioners in assessing the mobile computing self-efficacy of users and promoting the use of mobile commerce systems. PMID:18721088

  17. Validation of Cs-137 measurement in food samples using gamma spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cs-137 was found to be one of major radionuclide contaminant present in foods consumed by human. In some countries, regulations required consumption foods moving in international trade to be scanned for caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) to ensure it does not exceeding the maximum permissible level. This is to ensure that the intake of such foods will not accumulate radionuclide until the significant level inside the human body. Gamma Spectrometry System was used to perform the measurement of caesium isotopes, because it was one of the easiest methods to be performed. This measuring method must be validated for several parameters include specificity, precision (repeatability), bias (accuracy), linearity, range, detection limit, robustness and ruggedness in order to ensure it is fit for the purpose. This paper would summarise how these parameters were fulfilled for this analytical method using several types certified reference materials. The same validated method would be considered workable on Cs-134 as well. (Author)

  18. Validation of subject-specific cardiovascular system models from porcine measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revie, James A; Stevenson, David J; Chase, J Geoffrey; Hann, Christopher E; Lambermont, Bernard C; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Kolh, Philippe; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Heldmann, Stefan; Desaive, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    A previously validated mathematical model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) is made subject-specific using an iterative, proportional gain-based identification method. Prior works utilised a complete set of experimentally measured data that is not clinically typical or applicable. In this paper, parameters are identified using proportional gain-based control and a minimal, clinically available set of measurements. The new method makes use of several intermediary steps through identification of smaller compartmental models of CVS to reduce the number of parameters identified simultaneously and increase the convergence stability of the method. This new, clinically relevant, minimal measurement approach is validated using a porcine model of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Trials were performed on five pigs, each inserted with three autologous blood clots of decreasing size over a period of four to five hours. All experiments were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty at the University of Liege, Belgium. Continuous aortic and pulmonary artery pressures (P(ao), P(pa)) were measured along with left and right ventricle pressure and volume waveforms. Subject-specific CVS models were identified from global end diastolic volume (GEDV), stroke volume (SV), P(ao), and P(pa) measurements, with the mean volumes and maximum pressures of the left and right ventricles used to verify the accuracy of the fitted models. The inputs (GEDV, SV, P(ao), P(pa)) used in the identification process were matched by the CVS model to errors <0.5%. Prediction of the mean ventricular volumes and maximum ventricular pressures not used to fit the model compared experimental measurements to median absolute errors of 4.3% and 4.4%, which are equivalent to the measurement errors of currently used monitoring devices in the ICU (∼5-10%). These results validate the potential for implementing this approach in the intensive care unit. PMID:22126892

  19. The challenging measurement of protein in complex biomass-derived samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, M.O.; Jørgensen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the protein content in samples from production of lignocellulosic bioethanol is an important tool when studying the adsorption of cellulases. Several methods have been used for this, and after reviewing the literature, we concluded that one of the most promising assays for simple and...... fast protein measurement on this type of samples was the ninhydrin assay. This method has also been used widely for this purpose, but with two different methods for protein hydrolysis prior to the assay - alkaline or acidic hydrolysis. In samples containing glucose or ethanol, there was significant...... interference from these compounds when using acid hydrolysis, which was not the case when using the alkaline hydrolysis. We evaluated the interference from glucose, cellulose, xylose, xylan, lignin and ethanol on protein determination of BSA, Accellerase® 1500 and Cellic® CTec2. The experiments demonstrated...

  20. Development of a Thermal Desorption Tube Sampler and Cryo-GC-MS Method for the Measurement of VOCs in Biomass Burning Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, C.; Angelevska, A.; Jaffe, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are commonly used to distinguish regional biomass burning emissions from those that have undergone long-range transport. This study focuses on acetonitrile, which is a robust tracer for biomass burning due to its relatively long atmospheric lifetime (weeks to months). By quantifying this tracer in atmospheric samples, we can not only identify biomass burning emission sources over varying spatial scales but also determine the effect of biomass burning on pollution events, such as the production of ozone, in remote or urban areas. We use PoraPak N as a collection medium for both background and elevated levels of acetonitrile and other VOCs in discrete atmospheric samples. Thermal desorption tubes are inserted into a multi-tube active sampler, where each tube is capable of sampling between approximately 5 and 30 liters of ambient air over the course of 2-8 hours. After collection, we analyze these samples using thermal desorption into a cryofocusing trap with subsequent gas chromatography (GC) for separation and detection by a mass spectrometer (MS). To test the field deployment of this technique, we collected samples of both background ambient air and air that was impacted by biomass burning plumes at the Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in central Oregon during summer and fall 2015. Based on previous studies by Wang et al. (2007) and others cited therein, we expect to see ambient concentrations at MBO between 0.1 and 10 ppb of acetonitrile. Long-term active sampling by multiple thermal desorption tubes along with analysis of these samples via Cryo-GC-MS provides a portable, low-maintenance method of measuring biomass burning tracers in remote or urban areas. With this technique, we can further investigate the relative impacts of regionally and long-range transported biomass burning emissions on air quality during high pollution events.

  1. A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Granada; Julia Armesto; Joaquín Collazo; Pablo Eguía; Belén Riveiro; Jacobo Porteiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. ...

  2. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes......, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. "Biomass Recalcitrance" is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology....

  3. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rademakers Jany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one’s health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. Methods The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD in April 2010 (study A and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973 in June 2010 (study B. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. Results The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88 and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3 is comparable to the American (61.9 and lower than the Danish (64.2. The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. Conclusions The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  4. A Consumer Values Orientation for Materialism and Its Measurement: Scale Development and Validation.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha L. Richins; Dawson, Scott

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the construct and measurement of materialism and concludes that materialism is appropriately conceptualized as a consumer value. The development of a values-oriented materialism scale with three components--acquisition centrality, acquisition as the pursuit of happiness, and possession-defined success--is described. In validation tests high scorers (compared with low scores) desired a higher level of income, place greater emphasis on financial security and less on interpe...

  5. Turbocharger blade vibration: Measurement and validation through laser tip-timing

    OpenAIRE

    Allport, John; Jupp, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) of turbine blades is a major cause of failure in turbochargers. In order to validate changes to blades intended to reduce fatigue failure, accurate measurement of blade dynamics is necessary. Strain gauging has limitations, so an alternative method is investigated. A description of the tip-timing method is given, applied to turbocharger testing. The advantages and disadvantages of laser probes are assessed. Examples of output data and interpretation are presented and ...

  6. Recent Progress Validating the HADES Model of LLNL's HEAF MicroCT Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bond, K. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lennox, K. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Aufderheide, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Seetho, I. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberson, G. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-17

    This report compares recent HADES calculations of x-ray linear attenuation coefficients to previous MicroCT measurements made at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s High Energy Applications Facility (HEAF). The chief objective is to investigate what impact recent changes in HADES modeling have on validation results. We find that these changes have no obvious effect on the overall accuracy of the model. Detailed comparisons between recent and previous results are presented.

  7. Development and Validation of a Principal Implementation Practices Measure: The Principal Implementation Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Nettles, Stephen M.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of principal implementation behaviors has proved difficult to researchers in educational leadership due to a lack of consensus on the operational definitions of leadership constructs. The Principal Implementation Questionnaire (PIQ) was developed and validated with the intention of providing clarity in the assessment of principal leadership behaviors in the implementation of effective reading programs. Constructs were operationally defined within the context of the population of i...

  8. Validation and quality assurance applied to goat milk chemical composition: minerals and trace elements measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Trancoso, Inês; Roseiro, Luísa; Martins, António P. L.; Trancoso, Maria Ascensão

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, quality assurance programmes were implemented to validate and control the analytical methodologies used for the characterization of minerals and trace elements in goat milk from Portuguese breeds. With the exception of chloride that was determined by potentiometric titration, all the other elements were determined by spectroscopic techniques after different sample decomposition: P was measured by ultraviolet-visible molecular absorption spectrometry, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N...

  9. Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB)

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Yragui, Nanette L.; Todd E Bodner; Hanson, Ginger C.

    2009-01-01

    Due to growing work-family demands, supervisors need to effectively exhibit family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB). Drawing on social support theory and using data from two samples of lower wage workers, the authors develop and validate a measure of FSSB, defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of families. FSSB is conceptualized as a multidimensional superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeli...

  10. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement in Predicting Fat-Free Mass of Chinese Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material/Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz...

  11. Validation of a Monte Carlo Based Depletion Methodology Using HFIR Post-Irradiation Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    Post-irradiation uranium isotopic atomic densities within the core of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) were calculated and compared to uranium mass spectrographic data measured in the late 1960s and early 70s [1]. This study was performed in order to validate a Monte Carlo based depletion methodology for calculating the burn-up dependent nuclide inventory, specifically the post-irradiation uranium

  12. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L; Sommer, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journal...

  13. Validation and measurement uncertainty estimation in food microbiology: differences between quantitative and qualitative methods

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Režić Dereani; Marijana Matek Sarić

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe quality control procedures, procedures for validation and measurement uncertainty (MU) determination as an important element of quality assurance in food microbiology laboratory for qualitative and quantitative type of analysis. Accreditation is conducted according to the standard ISO 17025:2007. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, which guarantees the compliance with standard operating procedures and the tec...

  14. Development and Validation of the Keele Musculoskeletal Patient Reported Outcome Measure (MSK-PROM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Hill

    Full Text Available To develop and validate a patient report outcome measure (PROM for clinical practice that can monitor health status of patients with a range of musculoskeletal (MSK disorders.Constructs for inclusion in the MSK-PROM were identified from a consensus process involving patients with musculoskeletal conditions, clinicians, purchasers of healthcare services, and primary care researchers. Psychometric properties of the brief tool, including face and construct validity, repeatability and responsiveness were assessed in a sample of patients with musculoskeletal pain consulting physiotherapy services in the United Kingdom (n=425.The consensus process identified 10 prioritised domains for monitoring musculoskeletal health status: pain intensity, quality of life, physical capacity, interference with social/leisure activities, emotional well-being, severity of most difficult thing, activities and roles, understanding independence, and overall impact. As the EuroQol (EQ-5D-5L is a widely adopted PROMs tool and covers the first four domains listed, to reduce patient burden to a minimum the MSK-PROM was designed to capture the remaining six prioritised domains which are not measured by the EQ-5D-5L. The tool demonstrated excellent reliability, construct validity, responsiveness and acceptability to patients and clinicians for use in clinical practice.We have validated a brief patient reported outcome measure (MSK-PROM for use in clinical practice to measure musculoskeletal health status and monitor outcomes over time using domains that are meaningful to patients and sensitive to change. Further work will establish whether the MSK-PROM is useful in other musculoskeletal healthcare settings.

  15. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Barrett; Haddad, D.E.; Rockwell, T.K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Madugo, C.; Zielke, O.; Scharer, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter-scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator’s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  16. Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.

  17. Canadian Occupational Performance Measure performance scale: Validity and responsiveness in chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke G. Nieuwenhuizen, MSc, PT

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The construct validity and construct responsiveness of the performance scale of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM was measured in 87 newly admitted patients with chronic pain attending an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. At admission and after 12 wk, patients completed a COPM interview, the Pain Disability Index (PDI, and the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (RAND-36. We determined the construct validity of the COPM by correlations between the COPM performance scale (COPM-P, the PDI, and the RAND-36 at admission. Construct responsiveness was assessed by calculating the correlations between the change scores (n = 57. The COPM-P did not significantly correlate with the PDI (r = −0.260 or with any subscale of the RAND-36 (r = −0.007 to 0.248. Only a moderate correlation was found between change scores of the COPM-P and PDI (r = −0.380 and weak to moderate correlations were found between change scores of the COPM-P and the RAND-36 (r = −0.031 to 0.388, with the higher correlations for the physical functioning, social functioning, and role limitations (physical subscales. In patients with chronic pain attending our rehabilitation program, the COPM-P measures something different than the RAND-36 or PDI. Therefore, construct validity of the COPM-P was not confirmed by our data. We were not able to find support for the COPM-P to detect changes in occupational performance.

  18. Professional Decision-Making in Research (PDR): The Validity of a New Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, James M; Chibnall, John T; Tait, Raymond C; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Baldwin, Kari A; Antes, Alison L; Mumford, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the development and validity of the Professional Decision-Making in Research (PDR) measure, a vignette-based test that examines decision-making strategies used by investigators when confronted with challenging situations in the context of empirical research. The PDR was administered online with a battery of validity measures to a group of NIH-funded researchers and research trainees who were diverse in terms of age, years of experience, types of research, and race. The PDR demonstrated adequate reliability (alpha = .84) and parallel form correlation (r = .70). As hypothesized, the PDR was significantly negatively correlated with narcissism, cynicism, moral disengagement, and compliance disengagement; it was not correlated with socially desirable responding. In regression analysis, the strongest predictors of higher PDR scores were low compliance disengagement, speaking English as a native language, conducting clinical research with human subjects, and low levels of narcissism. Given that the PDR was written at an eighth grade reading level to be suitable for use with English as a second language participants and that only one-fourth of items focused on clinical research, further research into the possible roles of culture and research ethics training across specialties is warranted. This initial validity study demonstrates the potential usefulness of the PDR as an educational outcome assessment measure and a research instrument for studies on professionalism and integrity in research. PMID:26071940

  19. Measurement development and validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B; Ernst Kossek, Ellen; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori

    2013-07-01

    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees' family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine whether the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803

  20. Evaluation of TRMM Ground-Validation Radar-Rain Errors Using Rain Gauge Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxin; Wolff, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-validation (GV) radar-rain products are often utilized for validation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spaced-based rain estimates, and hence, quantitative evaluation of the GV radar-rain product error characteristics is vital. This study uses quality-controlled gauge data to compare with TRMM GV radar rain rates in an effort to provide such error characteristics. The results show that significant differences of concurrent radar-gauge rain rates exist at various time scales ranging from 5 min to 1 day, despite lower overall long-term bias. However, the differences between the radar area-averaged rain rates and gauge point rain rates cannot be explained as due to radar error only. The error variance separation method is adapted to partition the variance of radar-gauge differences into the gauge area-point error variance and radar rain estimation error variance. The results provide relatively reliable quantitative uncertainty evaluation of TRMM GV radar rain estimates at various times scales, and are helpful to better understand the differences between measured radar and gauge rain rates. It is envisaged that this study will contribute to better utilization of GV radar rain products to validate versatile spaced-based rain estimates from TRMM, as well as the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement, and other satellites.

  1. Does the Over-Claiming Questionnaire measure overclaiming? Absent convergent validity in a large community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeke, Steven G; Makransky, Guido

    2016-06-01

    The Over-Claiming Questionnaire (OCQ) aims to provide a practical and cost-effective method of assessing individual differences in the tendency to misrepresent oneself in self-reports. OCQ bias measures have strong theoretical appeal but limited empirical demonstrations of validity. Using a sample of 704 adult community members, we found minimal support for the OCQ as an assessment of misrepresentation. We assessed misrepresentation by comparing self-reports of personality and cognitive ability against other criterion indicators of these trait levels (peer reports of personality and performance on a cognitive ability measure). OCQ bias measures bore no relationship with either of these self-criterion discrepancy measures, and were also unassociated with self-deceptive enhancement scores. One OCQ index bore a modest relationship to narcissism. OCQ bias measures were instead consistently and sometimes even highly related to measures of careless responding. However, statistically controlling for careless responding only minimally improved the convergent validity of OCQ bias indices. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372263

  2. Measurement of craniovertebral angle with Electronic Head Posture Instrument: Criterion validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Mun Cheung Lau, PgD, MPhil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the criterion-related validity of the Electronic Head Posture Instrument (EHPI in measuring the craniovertebral (CV angle by correlating the measurements of CV angle with anterior head translation (AHT in lateral cervical radiographs. It also investigated the correlation of AHT and CV angle with the Chinese version of the Northwick Park Questionnaire (NPQ and Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS. Thirty patients with diagnosis of mechanical neck pain for at least 3 months without referred symptoms were recruited in an outpatient physiotherapy clinic. The results showed that AHT measured with X-ray correlated negatively with CV angle measured with EHPI (r = -0.71, p < 0.001. CV angle also correlated negatively with NPQ (r = -0.67, p < 0.001 and NPRS (r = -0.70, p < 0.001, while AHT positively correlated with NPQ (r = 0.390, p = 0.033 and NPRS (r = 0.49, p = 0.006. We found a negative correlation between CV angle measured with the EHPI and AHT measured with the X-ray lateral film as well as with NPQ and NPRS in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain. EHPI is a valid tool in clinically assessing and evaluating cervical posture of patients with chronic mechanical neck pain.

  3. Validation of Accelerometer Thresholds and Inclinometry for Measurement of Sedentary Behavior in Young Adult University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Neil E; Sirard, John R; Kulbok, Pamela A; DeBoer, Mark D; Erickson, Jeanne M

    2015-12-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) is a major contributor to obesity and significant morbidity and mortality in adolescence and adulthood, yet measurement of SB is still evolving. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of construct validity of the inclinometer function and single-axis and vector magnitude accelerometry metrics of the ActiGraph GT3X+ in objectively measuring SB and physical activity in 28 young adult university students who performed nine semi-structured activities, each for five minutes: lying, sitting, reading, seated video gaming, video watching, seated conversation, standing, stationary biking, and treadmill walking. Inclinometry and four output metrics from the ActiGraph were analyzed in comparison to direct observation by a researcher recorded each minute. For overall accuracy in measuring both SB and physical activity, all four accelerometer metrics (94.7-97.8%) outperformed the inclinometer function (70.9%). Vector magnitude accelerometry with a threshold of 150 counts per minute as the cut point for sedentary behavior was superior to other methods. While accelerometry was more accurate overall at detecting the behaviors tested, inclinometry had some advantages over accelerometry methods at detecting walking, biking, and standing. The findings support use of accelerometry as a valid objective measure of body movement, while use of inclinometry as a sole measure is not recommended. Additional research would be beneficial to improve the calibration of the inclinometer and explore ways of combining this with accelerometer data for objectively measuring SB and physical activity. PMID:26444969

  4. A Quantitative Measurement and Validation of Granularity in Service Oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha J.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prominent principle of designing service in Service Oriented Architecture is service granularity. The granularity is a crucial design decision. The service should be neither too coarse nor too fine grained. Therefore it should be evaluated at the design phase itself to measure its level of appropriateness. This paper proposes a suite of metrics for measuring service granularity quantitatively. Although many metrics have already been defined to measure service granularity, their attention in measuring service interface granularity is very less which affects the other design principles coupling and re usability. This paper proposes a metric for measuring granularity of a service by considering its composite level, functional richness and its interface granularity. The paper also validates the proposed metrics theoretically and a case study is performed to analyze the proposed metrics.

  5. A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Granada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  6. Predicting Extreme Droughts in Savannah Africa: A Comparison of Proxy and Direct Measures in Detecting Biomass Fluctuations, Trends and Their Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, David; Mose, Victor N; Worden, Jeffrey; Maitumo, David

    2015-01-01

    We monitored pasture biomass on 20 permanent plots over 35 years to gauge the reliability of rainfall and NDVI as proxy measures of forage shortfalls in a savannah ecosystem. Both proxies are reliable indicators of pasture biomass at the onset of dry periods but fail to predict shortfalls in prolonged dry spells. In contrast, grazing pressure predicts pasture deficits with a high degree of accuracy. Large herbivores play a primary role in determining the severity of pasture deficits and variation across habitats. Grazing pressure also explains oscillations in plant biomass unrelated to rainfall. Plant biomass has declined steadily and biomass per unit of rainfall has fallen by a third, corresponding to a doubling in grazing intensity over the study period. The rising probability of forage deficits fits local pastoral perceptions of an increasing frequency of extreme shortfalls. The decline in forage is linked to sedentarization, range loss and herbivore compression into drought refuges, rather than climate change. The results show that the decline in rangeland productivity and increasing frequency of pasture shortfalls can be ameliorated by better husbandry practices and reinforces the need for ground monitoring to complement remote sensing in forecasting pasture shortfalls. PMID:26317512

  7. Site characterization and validation - monitoring of saline tracer transport by borehole radar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this experiment was to map tracer transport in fractured crystalline rock through a combination of radar difference tomography and measurements of tracer concentration in boreholes and the validation drift. The experiment was performed twice, first the D-boreholes were used as a sink and then they were replaced by the validation drift and the experiment repeated. In both experiments saline tracer (200 ml/min, 2% salinity) was injected into fracture zone H about 25 m from the validation drift. The experiment revealed an inhomogeneous transmissivity distribution in Zone H. A significant portion of the tracer is transported upwards along Zone H and towards boreholes T1, T2, and W1. The breakthrough data from both experiments indicate that there are two major transport paths from borehole C2 to the D-boreholes/validation drift. One slow and diluted path to the bottom of the drift which carries the bulk of the mass and one fast path to the crown of the drift with high tracer concentration. The radar difference tomograms show that some tracer is lost through Zone S which intersects Zone H and is nearly perpendicular to it. The intersection between the two zones seems to constitute a preferred flow path. The breakthrough data and the radar difference tomograms have also been used to estimate flow porosity. The estimate obtained area of the same order approximately 10-4. (au) (28 refs.)

  8. Use of the color trails test as an embedded measure of performance validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, George K; Algina, James

    2013-01-01

    One hundred personal injury litigants and disability claimants referred for a forensic neuropsychological evaluation were administered both portions of the Color Trails Test (CTT) as part of a more comprehensive battery of standardized tests. Subjects who failed two or more free-standing tests of cognitive performance validity formed the Failed Performance Validity (FPV) group, while subjects who passed all free-standing performance validity measures were assigned to the Passed Performance Validity (PPV) group. A cutscore of ≥45 seconds to complete Color Trails 1 (CT1) was associated with a classification accuracy of 78%, good sensitivity (66%) and high specificity (90%), while a cutscore of ≥84 seconds to complete Color Trails 2 (CT2) was associated with a classification accuracy of 82%, good sensitivity (74%) and high specificity (90%). A CT1 cutscore of ≥58 seconds, and a CT2 cutscore ≥100 seconds was associated with 100% positive predictive power at base rates from 20 to 50%. PMID:23581577

  9. Validation of SPAMM Tagged MRI Based Measurement of 3D Soft Tissue Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and validates a novel (non-ECG-triggered) MRI sequence based on SPAtial Modulation of the Magnetization (SPAMM) to non-invasively measure 3D (quasi-static) soft tissue deformations using only six acquisitions (three static and three indentations). In current SPAMM tagged MRI approaches data is typically constructed from many repeated motion cycles. This has so far restricted its application to the measurement of highly repeatable and periodic movements (e.g. cardiac deformation). In biomechanical applications where soft tissue deformation is artificially induced, often by indentation, significant repeatability constraints exist and, for clinical applications, discomfort and health issues generally preclude a large number of repetitions.

  10. The SF-36 health survey: a valid measure of changes in health status after injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Kopjar, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the criterion validity and responsiveness to changes over time of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) measure. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 775 patients 16 to 78 years treated for an unintentional injury at the hospital or emergency clinic in Drammen, Norway was selected for the study. Data about activity restrictions and health status measured by SF-36 were obtained by a postal questionnaire 6-10 weeks after the injury. A f...

  11. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Ozone by ozonesonde and lidar measurements

    OpenAIRE

    B. Jiang, Y.; L. Froidevaux; Lambert, A.; J. Livesey, N.; G. Read, W.; W. Waters, J.; Bojkov, B.; T. Leblanc; S. Mcdermid, I.; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; J. Filipiak, M.; S. Harwood, R.; Fuller, R. A.; H. Daffer, W.; J. Drouin, B.

    2007-01-01

    We present validation studies of MLS version 2.2 upper tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profiles using ozonesonde and lidar data as well as climatological data. Ozone measurements from over 60 ozonesonde stations worldwide and three lidar stations are compared with coincident MLS data. The MLS ozone stratospheric data between 150 and 3 hPa agree well with ozonesonde measurements, within 8% for the global average. MLS values at 215 hPa are biased high compared to ozonesondes by Å`20% at mi...

  12. Validation of SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2-columns with AMAXDOAS measurements

    OpenAIRE

    I. Pundt; Platt, U.; Lee, W. D.; C. v. Friedeburg; J. P. Burrows; Bruns, M.; Wagner, T.; Richter, A; K.-P. Heue; Wang, P.

    2004-01-01

    International audience Vertical and slant tropospheric NO2-columns from the new satellite instrument SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT are validated by measurements of the Airborne Multi AXis DOAS (AMAXDOAS) instrument on board the DLR Falcon. The results presented here were obtained in February 2003 on a flight over the Alps, the Po-Valley and the Mediterranean. The tropospheric vertical column measured by AMAXDOAS varied between 12.8 and 27.2*1015 molec/cm2 over the Po-Valley where SCIAMACHY data res...

  13. Unexpected but Most Welcome: Mixed Methods for the Validation and Revision of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Although combining methods is nothing new, more contributions about why and how to mix methods for validation purposes are needed. This article presents a case of validating the inferences drawn from the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument, an instrument that purports to measure stakeholder participation in evaluation. Although the…

  14. Reliability and Validity of Selected PROMIS Measures in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Bartlett

    Full Text Available To evaluate the reliability and validity of 11 PROMIS measures to assess symptoms and impacts identified as important by people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Consecutive patients (N = 177 in an observational study completed PROMIS computer adapted tests (CATs and a short form (SF assessing pain, fatigue, physical function, mood, sleep, and participation. We assessed test-test reliability and internal consistency using correlation and Cronbach's alpha. We assessed convergent validity by examining Pearson correlations between PROMIS measures and existing measures of similar domains and known groups validity by comparing scores across disease activity levels using ANOVA.Participants were mostly female (82% and white (83% with mean (SD age of 56 (13 years; 24% had ≤ high school, 29% had RA ≤ 5 years with 13% ≤ 2 years, and 22% were disabled. PROMIS Physical Function, Pain Interference and Fatigue instruments correlated moderately to strongly (rho's ≥ 0.68 with corresponding PROs. Test-retest reliability ranged from .725-.883, and Cronbach's alpha from .906-.991. A dose-response relationship with disease activity was evident in Physical Function with similar trends in other scales except Anger.These data provide preliminary evidence of reliability and construct validity of PROMIS CATs to assess RA symptoms and impacts, and feasibility of use in clinical care. PROMIS instruments captured the experiences of RA patients across the broad continuum of RA symptoms and function, especially at low disease activity levels. Future research is needed to evaluate performance in relevant subgroups, assess responsiveness and identify clinically meaningful changes.

  15. Ionosonde measurements in Bayesian statistical ionospheric tomography with incoherent scatter radar validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Norberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We validate two-dimensional ionospheric tomography reconstructions against EISCAT incoherent scatter radar measurements. Our tomography method is based on Bayesian statistical inversion with prior distribution given by its mean and covariance. We employ ionosonde measurements for the choice of the prior mean and covariance parameters, and use the Gaussian Markov random fields as a sparse matrix approximation for the numerical computations. This results in a computationally efficient and statistically clear inversion algorithm for tomography. We demonstrate how this method works with simultaneous beacon satellite and ionosonde measurements obtained in northern Scandinavia. The performance is compared with results obtained with a zero mean prior and with the prior mean taken from the International Reference Ionosphere 2007 model. In validating the results, we use EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar measurements as the ground truth for the ionization profile shape. We find that ionosonde measurements improve the reconstruction by adding accurate information about the absolute value and the height distribution of electron density, and outperforms the alternative prior information sources. With an ionosonde at continuous disposal, the presented method enhances stand-alone near real-time ionospheric tomography for the given conditions significantly.

  16. Development and initial validation of the ibadan knee/hip osteoarthritis outcome measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Akinpelu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Development of outcome measures remains a focus of health research in the 21st century. Outcome measures originally developed for the Nigerian environment are very rare. The aims of this study were to develop an outcome measure for management of hip and knee arthritic conditions, and to investigate the validity and responsiveness of it. Methods: The Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Measure (IKHOAMwas developed from other measures found in literature, as well as complaints of attending patients. Forty nine patients with pain from knee and/or hip osteoarthritis, the OA group (OAG and 49 individuals without knee or hip pain, the pain-free group (PFG were assessed, using the IKHOAM. The OAG was assessed on IKHOAM and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS before and after a 6-week physiotherapy programme. Results: Significant differences between IKHOAM scores of the OAG and PFG and between IKHOAM scores of OAG pre and post 6-week physiotherapy programme, as well as the significant negative correlations between changes in IKHOAM and VAS scores of OAG before and after the 6-week physiotherapy programme were demonstrated. Conclusion: IKHOAM demonstrated initial criteria towards validity and responsiveness and may be used in a Nigerian population of OA knee/hip individuals and similar environments.

  17. Ionosonde measurements in Bayesian statistical ionospheric tomography with incoherent scatter radar validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, J.; Virtanen, I. I.; Roininen, L.; Vierinen, J.; Orispää, M.; Kauristie, K.; Lehtinen, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    We validate two-dimensional ionospheric tomography reconstructions against EISCAT incoherent scatter radar measurements. Our tomography method is based on Bayesian statistical inversion with prior distribution given by its mean and covariance. We employ ionosonde measurements for the choice of the prior mean and covariance parameters, and use the Gaussian Markov random fields as a sparse matrix approximation for the numerical computations. This results in a computationally efficient and statistically clear inversion algorithm for tomography. We demonstrate how this method works with simultaneous beacon satellite and ionosonde measurements obtained in northern Scandinavia. The performance is compared with results obtained with a zero mean prior and with the prior mean taken from the International Reference Ionosphere 2007 model. In validating the results, we use EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar measurements as the ground truth for the ionization profile shape. We find that ionosonde measurements improve the reconstruction by adding accurate information about the absolute value and the height distribution of electron density, and outperforms the alternative prior information sources. With an ionosonde at continuous disposal, the presented method enhances stand-alone near real-time ionospheric tomography for the given conditions significantly.

  18. Validation of six years of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide observations using MOZAIC CO profile measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. J. de Laat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM algorithm using vertically integrated profile aircraft measurements obtained within the MOZAIC project for the six year time period of 2003–2008.

    Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and airborne measurements for both mean values – also on a year-to-year basis – as well as seasonal variations. Several locations show large biases that are attributed to local effects like orography and proximity of large emission sources. Differences were detected for individual years: 2003, 2004 and 2006 have larger biases than 2005, 2007 and 2008, which appear to be related to SCIAMACHY instrumental issues but require more research. Results from this study are consistent with, and complementary to, findings from a previous validation study using ground-based measurements (de Laat et al., 2010. Despite the presence of some biases, this study provides additional confidence that SCIAMACHY, if individual measurements are of sufficient quality – good signal-to-noise – can be used to determine the spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of CO total columns.

  19. Validation of six years of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide observations using MOZAIC CO profile measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. J. de Laat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM algorithm using vertically integrated profile aircraft measurements obtained within the MOZAIC project for the six year time period of 2003–2008.

    Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and airborne measurements for both mean values – also on a year-to-year basis – as well as seasonal variations. Several locations show large biases that are attributed to local effects like orography and proximity of large emission sources. Differences were detected for individual years: 2003, 2004 and 2006 have larger biases than 2005, 2007 and 2008, which appear to be related to SCIAMACHY instrumental issues but require more research. Results from this study are consistent with, and complementary to, findings from a previous validation study using ground-based measurements (de Laat et al., 2010b. According to this study, the SCIAMACHY data, if individual measurements are of sufficient quality – good signal-to-noise, can be used to determine the spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of CO total columns over clean areas. Biases found over areas with strong emissions (Africa, China could be explained by low sensitivity of the instrument in the boundary layer and users are recommended to avoid using the SCIAMACHY data while trying to quantify CO burden and/or retrieve CO emissions in such areas.

  20. Validation and retrieval of IASI measurements with IASI-balloon correlative measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, Sébastien; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Pondrom, Marc; Té, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Bureau, Jérôme; Pépin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Because of the increase of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and pollutants in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times and their impact on the environment (ozone hole, air quality, acid rains, greenhouse effect), in situ and remote-sensing measurements of atmospheric composition are carried out by a wide variety of instruments, using different measurement principles and different platforms (ground, aircrafts, balloons, satellites). The IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) instrument, consisting of a nadir-looking thermal infrared Fourier transform spectrometer, which was launched onboard the MetOp-A platform on 19th October 2006, is dedicated to operational meteorology. However, IASI spectra have demonstrated a huge potential for retrieving trace gases such as ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and many others. In this framework the LPMAA (Laboratoire de Physique Moléculaire pour l'Atmosphère et l'Astrophysique) developed a balloon-borne Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer called IASI-balloon to record high resolution (0.1 cm-1 apodised) spectra of the atmosphere / surface system in the nadir looking geometry. Several flight of this balloon experiments have been performed allowing to provided a large number of thermal emission nadir looking FTIR spectra in the 650 - 3000 cm-1 region, recorded from float at about 35 km altitude. We retrieved profiles and/or columns of H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO and CH4. For a flight performed from Teresina, Brazil, the spectra recorded during the balloon flight are in good coincidence with IASI-MetOp measurements. We used this set of data to test the impact on the retrieval of a new cloud simulation module in our retrieval algorithm LARA (LPMA retrieval Atmospheric Algorithm). The results will be presented here.

  1. Role of the biomass burning emission on the total peroxy nitrates measured during the BORTAS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruffo, Eleonora; Biancofiore, Fabio; Di Carlo, Piero; Busilacchio, Marcella; Verdecchia, Marco; Tomassetti, Barbara; Dari Salisburgo, Cesare; Giammaria, Franco; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Hopkins, James; Punjabi, Shalini; Andrews, Stephen; Lewis, Alistair C.; Palmer, Paul P.; Hyer, Edward; Breton, Michael L.; Percival, Carl

    2016-04-01

    During the BORTAS (BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) campaign, carried out in the Eastern Canada during the summer 2011, the total peroxy nitrates (∑PNs) concentrations have been measured using the TD-LIF (Thermal Dissociation - Laser Induced Fluorescence) instrument (Di Carlo et al., 2013) developed at the University of L'Aquila (Italy). In our analysis, we observed a strong correlation between the CO, a well-known BB tracer, and the ∑PNs suggesting the possibility to use also the ∑PNs as BB tracer for the identification of a BB plume. Moreover, Alvarado et al. (2010) demonstrated that, in the first few hours after the emissions by fires, the 40% of the NOx emitted is converted into PAN, confirming that the ∑PNs are strongly produced by BB. We used different methods for the identification of a BB plume using the ∑PNs as a tracer. Moreover, we will show the comparison between our results and the results obtained using other methods available in literature. We will illustrate in detail two case studies in which the ∑PNs and the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) measurements help for a more specific identification of a BB plume. Our results have been confirmed using an artificial neural network model (Biancofiore et al., 2015). References Alvarado, M. J., Logan, J. A., Mao, J., Apel E, Riemer, D., Blake, D., Cohen, R. C., Min, K.-E., Perring, A. E., Browne, E.C., Wooldridge, P. J., Diskin, G. S., Sachse, G.W., Fuelberg, H., Sessions, W. R., Harrigan, D. L., Huey, G., Liao, J., Case-Hanks, A., Jimenez, J. L., Cubison, M. J., Vay, S. A., Weinheimer, A. J., Knapp, D. J., Montzka, D. D., Flocke, F. M., Pollack, I. B., Wennberg, P. O., Kurten, A., Crounse, J., St. Clair, J. M., Wisthaler, A., Mikoviny, T., Yantosca, R. M., Carouge, C. C., and Le Sager, P.: Nitrogen oxides and PAN in plumes from boreal fires during ARCTAS-B and their impact on ozone: an integrated analysis of aircraft and satellite observations

  2. In situ measurements and modeling of reactive trace gases in a small biomass burning plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Anderson, B.; Beyersdorf, A.; Crawford, J. H.; Diskin, G.; Eichler, P.; Fried, A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Mikoviny, T.; Thornhill, K. L.; Walega, J. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Yang, M.; Yokelson, R.; Wisthaler, A.

    2015-11-01

    An instrumented NASA P-3B aircraft was used for airborne sampling of trace gases in a plume that had emanated from a small forest understory fire in Georgia, USA. The plume was sampled at its origin for deriving emission factors and followed ~ 13.6 km downwind for observing chemical changes during the first hour of atmospheric aging. The P-3B payload included a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), which measured non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) at unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution (10 m/0.1 s). Quantitative emission data are reported for CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3 and 16 NMOGs (formaldehyde, methanol, acetonitrile, propene, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetone plus its isomer propanal, acetic acid plus its isomer glycolaldehyde, furan, isoprene plus isomeric pentadienes and cyclopentene, methyl vinyl ketone plus its isomers crotonaldehyde and methacrolein, methylglyoxal, hydroxy acetone plus its isomers methyl acetate and propionic acid, benzene, 2,3-butandione and 2-furfural) with molar emission ratios relative to CO larger than 1 ppbV ppmV-1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 2-furfural and methanol dominated NMOG emissions. No NMOGs with more than 10 carbon atoms were observed at mixing ratios larger than 50 ppbV ppmV-1 CO emitted. Downwind plume chemistry was investigated using the observations and a 0-D photochemical box model simulation. The model was run on a near-explicit chemical mechanism (MCM v3.3) and initialized with measured emission data. Ozone formation during the first hour of atmospheric aging was well captured by the model, with carbonyls (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, methylglyoxal, 2-furfural) in addition to CO and CH4 being the main drivers of peroxy radical chemistry. The model also accurately reproduced the sequestration of NOx into PAN and the OH-initiated degradation of furan and 2-furfural at an average OH concentration of 7.45 ± 1.07 × 106 cm-3 in the plume. Formaldehyde, acetone

  3. In situ measurements and modeling of reactive trace gases in a small biomass burning plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus; Anderson, Bruce E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Crawford, James H.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Eichler, Philipp; Fried, Alan; Keutsch, Frank N.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Walega, James G.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Yang, Melissa; Yokelson, Robert J.; Wisthaler, Armin

    2016-03-01

    An instrumented NASA P-3B aircraft was used for airborne sampling of trace gases in a plume that had emanated from a small forest understory fire in Georgia, USA. The plume was sampled at its origin to derive emission factors and followed ˜ 13.6 km downwind to observe chemical changes during the first hour of atmospheric aging. The P-3B payload included a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), which measured non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) at unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution (10 m spatial/0.1 s temporal). Quantitative emission data are reported for CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, and 16 NMOGs (formaldehyde, methanol, acetonitrile, propene, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetone plus its isomer propanal, acetic acid plus its isomer glycolaldehyde, furan, isoprene plus isomeric pentadienes and cyclopentene, methyl vinyl ketone plus its isomers crotonaldehyde and methacrolein, methylglyoxal, hydroxy acetone plus its isomers methyl acetate and propionic acid, benzene, 2,3-butanedione, and 2-furfural) with molar emission ratios relative to CO larger than 1 ppbV ppmV-1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 2-furfural, and methanol dominated NMOG emissions. No NMOGs with more than 10 carbon atoms were observed at mixing ratios larger than 50 pptV ppmV-1 CO. Downwind plume chemistry was investigated using the observations and a 0-D photochemical box model simulation. The model was run on a nearly explicit chemical mechanism (MCM v3.3) and initialized with measured emission data. Ozone formation during the first hour of atmospheric aging was well captured by the model, with carbonyls (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, methylglyoxal, 2-furfural) in addition to CO and CH4 being the main drivers of peroxy radical chemistry. The model also accurately reproduced the sequestration of NOx into peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and the OH-initiated degradation of furan and 2-furfural at an average OH concentration of 7.45 ± 1.07 × 106 cm-3 in the

  4. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniuk, J. R.; Wang, J.; Root, T. W.; Scott, C. T.; Klingenberg, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained using torque rheometry agree with those obtained using other rheometric methods, but torque rheometry can be used at much larger solids concentration (weight fractions of insoluble solids greater than 0.2). Yield stresses decrease with severity of hydrolysis, decrease when water-soluble polymers are added (for nonhydrolyzed biomass), and increase with particle length. Experimental results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained from particle-level simulations.

  5. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC), US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4-27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) and ~ 21% of organic aerosol (mass basis) suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3), aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in the first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13-195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~ 20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The SC results also

  6. Application of microbial biomass and activity measures to assess in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating the effectiveness of chlorinated solvent remediation in the subsurface can be a significant problem given uncertainties in estimating the total mass of contaminants present. If the remediation technique is a biological activity, information on the progress and success of the remediation may be gained by monitoring changes in the mass and activities of microbial populations. The in situ bioremediation demonstration at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to test the effectiveness of methane injection for the stimulation of in sediments. Past studies have shown the potential for degradation by native microbial populations. The design and implementation of the SRS Integrated Demonstration is described in this volume. A control phase without treatment was followed by a phase withdrawing air. The next phase included vacuum extraction plus air injection into the lower horizontal well located below the water table. The next period included the injection of 1% methane in air followed by injection of 4% methane in air. Based on the literature, it was hypothesized that the injection of methane would stimulate methanotrophic populations and thus accelerate biological degradation of TCE. Measuring the success of bioremediation is a complex effort that includes monitoring of changes in microbial populations associated with TCE degradation. These monitoring efforts are described in this paper and in related papers in this volume

  7. Direct measurements of the effect of biomass burning over the Amazon on the atmospheric temperature profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Remer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols suspended in the atmosphere interact with solar radiation and clouds, thus change the radiation energy fluxes in the atmospheric column. In this paper we measure changes in the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of the smoke loading and the cloudiness, over the Amazon basin, during the dry seasons (August and September of 2005–2008. We show that as the aerosol optical depth (AOD increases from 0.02 to a value of ~0.6, there is a decrease of ~4°C at 1000 hPa, and an increase of ~1.5°C at 850 hPa. The warming of the aerosol layer at 850 hPa is likely due to aerosol absorption when the particles are exposed to direct illumination by the sun. The large values of cooling in the lower layers could be explained by a combination of aerosol extinction of the solar flux in the layers aloft together with an aerosol-induced increase of cloud cover which shade the lower atmosphere. We estimate that the increase in cloud fraction due to aerosol contributes about half of the observed cooling in the lower layers.

  8. Electrophysiological validation of total atrial conduction time measurement by tissue doppler echocardiography according to age and sex in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Fatma Hizal; Erdem, Alim; Özlü, Fatih; Ozturk, Serkan; Ayhan, Suzi Selim; ÇAĞLAR, Sabri Onur; Mehmet YAZICI

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to validate total atrial conduction time (TACT) measurement via tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) by comparing the electrophysiological study (EPS) measurements of healthy subjects, according to age and sex. Methods Eighty patients with normal EPS results were included. TACT was measured by EPS and TDI. For validation, the results of TDI were compared with those of EPS. TACT was assessed by measuring the time interval between the beginning of the P-wave on the surface ECG, and...

  9. Development and validation of the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences (MIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradies Yin C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent decades there has been increasing evidence of a relationship between self-reported racism and health. Although a plethora of instruments to measure racism have been developed, very few have been described conceptually or psychometrically Furthermore, this research field has been limited by a dearth of instruments that examine reactions/responses to racism and by a restricted focus on African American populations. Methods In response to these limitations, the 31-item Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences (MIRE was developed to assess self-reported racism for Indigenous Australians. This paper describes the development of the MIRE together with an opportunistic examination of its content, construct and convergent validity in a population health study involving 312 Indigenous Australians. Results Focus group research supported the content validity of the MIRE, and inter-item/scale correlations suggested good construct validity. A good fit with a priori conceptual dimensions was demonstrated in factor analysis, and convergence with a separate item on discrimination was satisfactory. Conclusion The MIRE has considerable utility as an instrument that can assess multiple facets of racism together with responses/reactions to racism among indigenous populations and, potentially, among other ethnic/racial groups.

  10. Measuring Food Brand Awareness in Australian Children: Development and Validation of a New Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children’s exposure to food marketing is one environmental determinant of childhood obesity. Measuring the extent to which children are aware of food brands may be one way to estimate relative prior exposures to food marketing. This study aimed to develop and validate an Australian Brand Awareness Instrument (ABAI) to estimate children’s food brand awareness. Methods The ABAI incorporated 30 flashcards depicting food/drink logos and their corresponding products. An abbreviated version was also created using 12 flashcards (ABAI-a). The ABAI was presented to 60 primary school aged children (7-11yrs) attending two Australian after-school centres. A week later, the full-version was repeated on approximately half the sample (n=27) and the abbreviated-version was presented to the remaining half (n=30). The test-retest reliability of the ABAI was analysed using Intra-class correlation coefficients. The concordance of the ABAI-a and full-version was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. The ‘nomological’ validity of the full tool was investigated by comparing children’s brand awareness with food marketing-related variables (e.g. television habits, intake of heavily promoted foods). Results Brand awareness increased with age (pbrand awareness. It was shown to be a valid and reliable tool and may allow quantification of brand awareness as a proxy measure for children’s prior food marketing exposure. PMID:26222624

  11. Development and validation of a measure of workplace climate for healthy weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliter, Katherine A

    2013-07-01

    Due to the obesity epidemic, an increasing amount of research is being conducted to better understand the antecedents and consequences of excess employee weight. One construct often of interest to researchers in this area is organizational climate. Unfortunately, a viable measure of climate, as related to employee weight, does not exist. The purpose of this study was to remedy this by developing and validating a concise, psychometrically sound measure of climate for healthy weight. An item pool was developed based on surveys of full-time employees, and a sorting task was used to eliminate ambiguous items. Items were pilot tested by a sample of 338 full-time employees, and the item pool was reduced through item response theory (IRT) and reliability analyses. Finally, the retained 14 items, comprising 3 subscales, were completed by a sample of 360 full-time employees, representing 26 different organizations from across the United States. Multilevel modeling indicated that sufficient variance was explained by group membership to support aggregation, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the hypothesized model of 3 subscale factors and an overall climate factor. Nine hypotheses specific to construct validation were tested. Scores on the new scale correlated significantly with individual-level reports of psychological constructs (e.g., health motivation, general leadership support for health) and physiological phenomena (e.g., body mass index [BMI], physical health problems) to which they should theoretically relate, supporting construct validity. Implications for the use of this scale in both applied and research settings are discussed. PMID:23834449

  12. Assessing personal initiative among vocational training students: development and validation of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Ulacia, Imanol

    2014-01-01

    Personal initiative characterizes people who are proactive, persistent and self-starting when facing the difficulties that arise in achieving goals. Despite its importance in the educational field there is a scarcity of measures to assess students' personal initiative. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess this variable in the academic environment and to validate it for adolescents and young adults. The sample comprised 244 vocational training students. The questionnaire showed a factor structure including three factors (Proactivity-Prosocial behavior, Persistence and Self-Starting) with acceptable indices of internal consistency (ranging between α = .57 and α =.73) and good convergent validity with respect to the Self-Reported Initiative scale. Evidence of external validity was also obtained based on the relationships between personal initiative and variables such as self-efficacy, enterprising attitude, responsibility and control aspirations, conscientiousness, and academic achievement. The results indicate that this new measure is very useful for assessing personal initiative among vocational training students. PMID:26054416

  13. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  14. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  15. Validation of a technique of measurement in vivo of 131I in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Total Body Counter (TBC) Laboratory of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, following the institutional initiative of quality assurance in its measurement techniques, has been involved in an accreditation process based on the ISO/IEC 17205:2005 norm. In vivo measurement of 131I in thyroid has been selected as the first technique in this process, and it is described in this paper. The TBC Laboratory uses for this technique a gamma spectrometry system with a NaI(Tl) detector, calibrated with a neck simulator of the IRD and a certified plane source of 131I with thyroid form. It has been carried out a validation plan that has permitted the characterization of the 131I measurement technique, and its uncertainty evaluation. Measurement parameters that affect the uncertainty are discussed and recommendations for the technique optimization are proposed. (authors)

  16. Are there valid proxy measures of clinical behaviour? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaner Eileen FS

    2009-07-01

    measures failed to meet our validity criteria. The accuracy of patient report and chart review as proxy measures varied considerably across a wide range of clinical actions. The evidence for clinician self-report was inconclusive. Conclusion Valid measures of clinical behaviour are of fundamental importance to accurately identify gaps in care delivery, improve quality of care, and ultimately to improve patient care. However, the evidence base for three commonly used proxy measures of clinicians' behaviour is very limited. Further research is needed to better establish the methods of development, application, and analysis for a range of both direct and proxy measures of behaviour.

  17. Development of an instrument to measure medical students’ perceptions of the assessment environment: initial validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Hiong Sim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assessment environment, synonymous with climate or atmosphere, is multifaceted. Although there are valid and reliable instruments for measuring the educational environment, there is no validated instrument for measuring the assessment environment in medical programs. This study aimed to develop an instrument for measuring students’ perceptions of the assessment environment in an undergraduate medical program and to examine the psychometric properties of the new instrument. Method: The Assessment Environment Questionnaire (AEQ, a 40-item, four-point (1=Strongly Disagree to 4=Strongly Agree Likert scale instrument designed by the authors, was administered to medical undergraduates from the authors’ institution. The response rate was 626/794 (78.84%. To establish construct validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA with principal component analysis and varimax rotation was conducted. To examine the internal consistency reliability of the instrument, Cronbach's α was computed. Mean scores for the entire AEQ and for each factor/subscale were calculated. Mean AEQ scores of students from different academic years and sex were examined. Results: Six hundred and eleven completed questionnaires were analysed. EFA extracted four factors: feedback mechanism (seven items, learning and performance (five items, information on assessment (five items, and assessment system/procedure (three items, which together explained 56.72% of the variance. Based on the four extracted factors/subscales, the AEQ was reduced to 20 items. Cronbach's α for the 20-item AEQ was 0.89, whereas Cronbach's α for the four factors/subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.87. Mean score for the AEQ was 2.68/4.00. The factor/subscale of ‘feedback mechanism’ recorded the lowest mean (2.39/4.00, whereas the factor/subscale of ‘assessment system/procedure’ scored the highest mean (2.92/4.00. Significant differences were found among the AEQ scores of students from different

  18. Validation of Large-Scale Geophysical Estimates Using In Situ Measurements with Representativeness Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, A. G.; Gruber, A.; Mccoll, K. A.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Entekhabi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Validating large-scale estimates of geophysical variables by comparing them to in situ measurements neglects the fact that these in situ measurements are not generally representative of the larger area. That is, in situ measurements contain some `representativeness error'. They also have their own sensor errors. The naïve approach of characterizing the errors of a remote sensing or modeling dataset by comparison to in situ measurements thus leads to error estimates that are spuriously inflated by the representativeness and other errors in the in situ measurements. Nevertheless, this naïve approach is still very common in the literature. In this work, we introduce an alternative estimator of the large-scale dataset error that explicitly takes into account the fact that the in situ measurements have some unknown error. The performance of the two estimators is then compared in the context of soil moisture datasets under different conditions for the true soil moisture climatology and dataset biases. The new estimator is shown to lead to a more accurate characterization of the dataset errors under the most common conditions. If a third dataset is available, the principles of the triple collocation method can be used to determine the errors of both the large-scale estimates and in situ measurements. However, triple collocation requires that the errors in all datasets are uncorrelated with each other and with the truth. We show that even when the assumptions of triple collocation are violated, a triple collocation-based validation approach may still be more accurate than a naïve comparison to in situ measurements that neglects representativeness errors.

  19. The Ca(2+)-EDTA chelation as standard reaction to validate Isothermal Titration Calorimeter measurements (ITC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Barbas, Rafael; Prohens, Rafel

    2016-07-01

    A study about the suitability of the chelation reaction of Ca(2+)with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a validation standard for Isothermal Titration Calorimeter measurements has been performed exploring the common experimental variables (buffer, pH, ionic strength and temperature). Results obtained in a variety of experimental conditions have been amended according to the side reactions involved in the main process and to the experimental ionic strength and, finally, validated by contrast with the potentiometric reference values. It is demonstrated that the chelation reaction performed in acetate buffer 0.1M and 25°C shows accurate and precise results and it is robust enough to be adopted as a standard calibration process. PMID:27154686

  20. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Taiwanese Elementary Students' Attitudes toward Their Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna

    2010-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the attitudes toward science class of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs-science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to science class experiences. A total of 265 elementary school students in Taiwan responded to the instrument developed. Data analysis indicated that the instrument exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability with the Taiwan population used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the entire instrument indicating a satisfactory level of internal consistency. However, both principal component analysis and parallel analysis showed that the three attitude scales were not unique and should be combined and used as a general "attitudes toward science class" scale. The analysis also showed that there were no gender or grade-level differences in students' overall attitudes toward science class.

  1. "How fatigued do you currently feel?" Convergent and discriminant validity of a single-item fatigue measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J; Taris, Toon W

    2007-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of a single-item measure of daily fatigue ("How fatigued do you currently feel?") in a daily diary context. Convergent validity of our measure was examined by relating it to a validated multiple-item measure of fatigue (Profile of Mood States; McNair, Lorr, & Droppelman, 1971) and to other daily (work-home interference, sleep complaints, work-related effort) and global (fatigue, health complaints, work-home interference, job pressure) measures that are conceptually related to fatigue. Discriminant validity was assessed by relating the single-item fatigue measure to daily (work pleasure) and global (job control, social support, motivation to learn) measures that are conceptually distinct from fatigue. Data were collected among 120 academic staff members, who completed a general questionnaire (tapping the global measures under study) and who took part in a 9-d daily diary study (3 measurements daily). Correlation patterns and multilevel analyses revealed strong and significant associations between the single-item fatigue measure and the variables incorporated to assess convergent validity (especially with the POMS: r=0.80), thus supporting the convergent validity of our measure. Relations with variables included to examine discriminant validity were weak or insignificant, supporting the discriminant validity of the single-item fatigue measure. Despite this study's limitations (i.e., exclusive use of self-reporting, specific sample) we conclude that this single-item fatigue measure offers a valid way to assess daily fatigue. PMID:17575403

  2. Forest biomass estimation by the use of airborne laser scanning data and in situ FieldMap measurements in a spruce forest stand

    OpenAIRE

    Petrila, Marius; Apostol, Bogdan; Lorenţ, Adrian; Gancz, Vladimir; Silaghi, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the possibility of stand biomass evaluation based on biometric measurements from airborne laser scanning data in a spruce forest test area. Data fusion of airborne laser scanning, and aerial orthoimagery (0.5 m spatial resolution), as well as the use of FieldMap equipment in the measurement of reference data in sampling plots makes it possible to estimate different stand parameters. An important stage of height evaluation in the spruce test a...

  3. The Ecosystems SAR (EcoSAR) an Airborne P-band Polarimetric InSAR for the Measurement of Vegetation Structure, Biomass and Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Ranson, K. Jon; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Sun, Guoqing; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Perrine, Martin L.; Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Bonds, Quenton; Beck, Jaclyn; Lu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    EcoSAR is a new synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument being developed at the NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the polarimetric and interferometric measurements of ecosystem structure and biomass. The instrument uses a phased-array beamforming architecture and supports full polarimetric measurements and single pass interferometry. This Instrument development is part of NASA's Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program (ESTO IIP).

  4. Observed parenting behavior with teens: measurement invariance and predictive validity across race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Martie L; Mackenzie, Elizabeth P; Haggerty, Kevin P; Hill, Karl G; Roberson, Kendra C

    2011-07-01

    Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of observed parenting; and predictive validity of teen self-reports of antisocial behaviors and beliefs using a sample of 163 African American and 168 European American families. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses supported measurement invariance across ethnic groups for four measures of observed parenting behavior: prosocial rewards, psychological costs, antisocial rewards, and problem solving. Some mean-level differences were found: African American parents exhibited lower levels of prosocial rewards, higher levels of psychological costs, and lower problem solving when compared to European Americans. No significant mean difference was found in rewards for antisocial behavior. Multigroup structural equation models suggested comparable relationships across race (predictive validity) between parenting constructs and youth antisocial constructs (i.e., drug initiation, positive drug attitudes, antisocial attitudes, problem behaviors) in all but one of the tested relationships. This study adds to existing evidence that family-based interventions targeting parenting behaviors can be generalized to African American families. PMID:21787057

  5. Observed Parenting Behavior with Teens: Measurement Invariance and Predictive Validity Across Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Martie L.; MacKenzie, Elizabeth P.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hill, Karl G.; Roberson, Kendra C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of observed parenting; and predictive validity of teen self-reports of antisocial behaviors and beliefs using a sample of 163 African American and 168 European American families. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses supported measurement invariance across ethnic groups for 4 measures of observed parenting behavior: prosocial rewards, psychological costs, antisocial rewards, and problem solving. Some mean-level differences were found: African American parents exhibited lower levels of prosocial rewards, higher levels of psychological costs, and lower problem solving when compared to European Americans. No significant mean difference was found in rewards for antisocial behavior. Multigroup structural equation models suggested comparable relationships across race (predictive validity) between parenting constructs and youth antisocial constructs (i.e., drug initiation, positive drug attitudes, antisocial attitudes, problem behaviors) in all but one of the tested relationships. This study adds to existing evidence that family-based interventions targeting parenting behaviors can be generalized to African American families. PMID:21787057

  6. Development and validation of a new self-report measure of pain behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karon F; Keefe, Francis; Jensen, Mark P; Roddey, Toni S; Callahan, Leigh F; Revicki, Dennis; Bamer, Alyssa M; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Salem, Rana; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Pain behaviors that are maintained beyond the acute stage after injury can contribute to subsequent psychosocial and physical disability. Critical to the study of pain behaviors is the availability of psychometrically sound pain behavior measures. In this study we developed a self-report measure of pain behaviors, the Pain Behaviors Self Report (PaB-SR). PaB-SR scores were developed using item response theory and evaluated using a rigorous, multiple-witness approach to validity testing. Participants included 661 survey participants with chronic pain and with multiple sclerosis, back pain, or arthritis; 618 survey participants who were significant others of a chronic pain participant; and 86 participants in a videotaped pain behavior observation protocol. Scores on the PaB-SR were found to be measurement invariant with respect to clinical condition. PaB-SR scores, observer reports, and the videotaped protocol yielded distinct, but convergent views of pain behavior, supporting the validity of the new measure. The PaB-SR is expected to be of substantial utility to researchers wishing to explore the relationship between pain behaviors and constructs such as pain intensity, pain interference, and disability. PMID:23994451

  7. Development and Validation of a Measure of Self-Critical Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Laura M; Peters, Jessica R; Baer, Ruth A

    2016-06-01

    Self-criticism is a form of negative self-evaluation that has strong associations with many forms of psychopathology. Rumination is a maladaptive form of repetitive thinking that is associated with many psychological disorders. Although measures of several different types of rumination (e.g., general rumination, depressive rumination, anger rumination) have been developed, none focuses specifically on self-critical rumination. An initial pool of items addressing self-critical rumination was developed by adapting items from existing rumination measures and through a writing task administered to both student and clinical samples. Following an evaluation of content validity, 24 items were administered to a large sample of undergraduates along with measures of related constructs. The final 10-item version of the Self-Critical Rumination Scale showed excellent internal consistency, a clear single-factor structure, convergent relationships with related constructs, and incremental validity over other measures of self-criticism and rumination in predicting both general distress and features of borderline personality disorder. PMID:25712674

  8. Measuring Resource Utilization: A Systematic Review of Validated Self-Reported Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Laura E; Khadaroo, Rachel G; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Hanson, Heather; Wagg, Adrian; Padwal, Raj; Clement, Fiona

    2016-03-01

    A variety of methods may be used to obtain costing data. Although administrative data are most commonly used, the data available in these datasets are often limited. An alternative method of obtaining costing is through self-reported questionnaires. Currently, there are no systematic reviews that summarize self-reported resource utilization instruments from the published literature.The aim of the study was to identify validated self-report healthcare resource use instruments and to map their attributes.A systematic review was conducted. The search identified articles using terms like "healthcare utilization" and "questionnaire." All abstracts and full texts were considered in duplicate. For inclusion, studies had to assess the validity of a self-reported resource use questionnaire, to report original data, include adult populations, and the questionnaire had to be publically available. Data such as type of resource utilization assessed by each questionnaire, and validation findings were extracted from each study.In all, 2343 unique citations were retrieved; 2297 were excluded during abstract review. Forty-six studies were reviewed in full text, and 15 studies were included in this systematic review. Six assessed resource utilization of patients with chronic conditions; 5 assessed mental health service utilization; 3 assessed resource utilization by a general population; and 1 assessed utilization in older populations. The most frequently measured resources included visits to general practitioners and inpatient stays; nonmedical resources were least frequently measured. Self-reported questionnaires on resource utilization had good agreement with administrative data, although, visits to general practitioners, outpatient days, and nurse visits had poorer agreement.Self-reported questionnaires are a valid method of collecting data on healthcare resource utilization. PMID:26962773

  9. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg

  10. A Combination of Plant NDVI and LiDAR Measurements Improve the Estimation of Pasture Biomass in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea var. Fletcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Schaefer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The total biomass of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea var. Fletcher pasture was assessed by using a vehicle mounted light detection and ranging (LiDAR unit to derive canopy height and an active optical reflectance sensor to determine the spectro-optical reflectance index, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. In a random plot design, measurements of NDVI and pasture height were combined to estimate biomass with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP equal to ±455.28 kg green dry matter (GDM/ha, over a range of 286 kg to 3933 kg GDM/ha. The combination of NDVI and height measurements were observed to be more accurate in assessing total biomass than just the NDVI (RMSEP ± 846.51 kg/ha and height (RMSEP ± 708.13 kg/ha. Based on the results of the study it was concluded the use of combined LiDAR and active optical reflectance sensors can help unlock the complex interrelationship between green fraction and biomass in swards containing both green and senescent material.

  11. The validity of the Shona version of the EQ-5D, of life measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Jelsma

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The EQ-5D, a generic health related quality of life measure developed in Europe, has been recently translated into Shona, the language of the majority of Zimbabweans. Although the reliability of the Shona version of the EQ-5D has been established within a community setting, the reliability and validity of the measure within a group of Shona speaking people with disabilities has not been examined.Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the reliability and concurrent validity of the Shona version of the EQ-5D, within the context of a house-to-house survey of disability in a high-density area of Harare, Zimbabwe.Methods: As part of a house-to-house survey of disability in a high-density area in Zimbabwe, 588 Shona speaking subjects with disability/morbidity or their proxies were asked to respond to the Shona version of the EQ-5D questionnaire. Those who were able to understand the concept filled in the visual analogue scale.  A testretest was done to determine the reliability of the EQ-5D.  Timed walking was used to investigate the validity of thedomain of mobility and the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap Beta Draft  (ICIDH2 was used as the gold standard for usual activities and self care. The concurrent validity of the anxiety/depression domain was determined against the Shona Symptom Questionnaire, which is a validated screen for depression in the Zimbabwe population. No measure of pain could be found which had been validated in Zimbabwe.Data analysis: The Intraclass-correlation  (ICC and Pearson’s correlation co-efficient were used to determine the test re-test reliability of the descriptor section and visual analogue scale of the EQ-5D respectively. The t-test, ANOVA, and post-hoc Scheffe test were used to compare the EQ-5D with the measures of function.Results:Each domain of the Shona EQ-5D demonstrated reliability on the test re-test (ICC ranging from .58 for self care to .85 for

  12. A Measure of Market Orientation: Development and Validation in a Different Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Ospina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, researchers and marketing practitioners have proclaimed that the adoption of a consumer-oriented philosophy is the key to developing and maintaining a sustainable competitive advantage for a business operating in a highly competitive environment. The interest shown has not been sufficient to dispel certain concerns about the construct’s domain, and the methodology followed for measuring it in different cultural contexts. This paper examines the reliability and validity of three scales for measuring market orientation in a Spanish-speaking international context. The results confirm those obtained from previous research efforts. The study of the three scales, when combined, suggests the existence of six dimensions that are measurable with eighteen items.

  13. Validation of Continuously Tagged MRI for the Measurement of Dynamic 3D Skeletal Muscle Tissue Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    A SPAMM tagged MRI methodology is presented allowing continuous (3.3-3.6 Hz) sampling of 3D dynamic soft tissue deformation using non-segmented 3D acquisitions. The 3D deformation is reconstructed by the combination of 3 mutually orthogonal tagging directions, thus requiring only 3 repeated motion cycles. In addition a fully automatic post-processing framework is presented employing Gabor scale-space and filter-bank analysis for tag extrema segmentation and triangulated surface fitting aided by Gabor filter bank derived surface normals. Deformation is derived following tracking of tag surface triplet triangle intersections. The dynamic deformation measurements were validated using indentation tests (~20 mm deep at 12 mm/s) on a silicone gel soft tissue phantom containing contrasting markers which provide a reference measure of deformation. In addition, the techniques were evaluated in-vivo for dynamic skeletal muscle tissue deformation measurement during indentation of the biceps region of the upper arm in a ...

  14. Validation of a simple isotopic technique for the measurement of global and separated renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel and Gates described an isotopic method for the measurement of global and separated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) based on the determination by scintillation camera of the fraction of the injected dose (99mTc-DTPA-[131I]hippuran) present in the kidneys 1-3 min after its administration. This method requires counting of the injected dose and attenuation correction, but no blood or urine sampling. We validated this technique by the simultaneous infusion of inulin and para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) in patients with various levels of renal function (anuric to normal). To better define individual renal function we studied 9 kidneys in patients either nephrectomized or with a nephrostomy enabling separated function measurement. A good correlation between inulin, PAH clearance, and isotopic GFR-ERPF measurement for both global and separate renal function was observed

  15. Parents' and Adolescents' Perspectives on Parenting: Evaluating Conceptual Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Criterion Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Annelies; Goossens, Luc; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2015-08-01

    Uncertainty persists regarding adequate measurement of parenting behavior during early adolescence. The present study aimed to clarify the conceptual structure of parenting by evaluating three different models that include support, psychological control, and various types of behavioral control (i.e., proactive, punitive, and harsh punitive control). Furthermore, we examined measurement invariance of parenting ratings by 1,111 Flemish adolescents from Grade 7 till 9, their mother, and father. Finally, criterion validity of parenting ratings was estimated in relation to adolescent problem behavior. Results supported a five-factor parenting model indicating multiple aspects of behavioral control, with punitive and harsh punitive control as more intrusive forms and proactive control as a more supportive form. Similar constructs were measured for adolescents, mothers, and fathers (i.e., configural and metric invariance), however on a different scale (i.e., scalar noninvariance). Future research and clinical practices should acknowledge these findings in order to fully grasp the parenting process. PMID:25225229

  16. Fast pedestal, SOL and divertor measurements from DIII-D to validate BOUT++ nonlinear ELM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M.E., E-mail: fenstermacher@fusion.gat.com [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Xu, X.Q.; Joseph, I.; Lanctot, M.J.; Lasnier, C.J.; Meyer, W.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Tobias, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Zeng, L. [University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7099 (United States); Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    This paper documents first work toward validation of BOUT++ nonlinear edge localized mode (ELM) simulations in X-point geometry, at experimental pedestal collisionality, against multiple diagnostic measurements of a well-characterized ELM event in DIII-D. The key to the BOUT++ simulations is the use of a hyper-resistivity model that effectively spreads the very thin current sheets that form in low collisionality nonlinear simulations, and allows for ELM driven magnetic reconnection at finite current density. Experimental ELM characterization includes multiple fast line-integrated diagnostic measurements revealing in–out divertor asymmetric response to ELMs, IRTV imaging at the divertor targets, visible emission in the divertor volume to test the extension of BOUT++ to X-point geometry, and forward modeling of new electron cyclotron emission imaging to test predictions of ELM filaments in the edge pedestal. Initial comparisons suggest optimized BOUT boundary conditions and model parameters, and show similarities between initial BOUT++ results and several measurements.

  17. Comparative validation of the radiographic and tomographic measurement of patellar height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Schueda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and validate the radiographic measurement of patellar height with computerized tomography scans. METHODS: Measured the patellar height through the lateral radiographic image supported by one foot and sagittal tomographic view of the knee in extension, flexion of 20°, and quadriceps contraction of 40 patients (80 knees, asymptomatic and no history of knee injuries using Insall-Salvati index. There were 20 adult females and 20 adult males. RESULTS: The height patellar index was higher in women of all images taken, in proportion. There was no statistical difference of patellar height index between the radiographics and tomographics images. CONCLUSION: The Insall-Salvati index in females was higher in all cases evaluated. Furthermore, it is possible to measure the patellar height index during tomographic study without distorting the results obtained, using to define the presence of patella alta or patella baja.

  18. Validation of an instrument to measure students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Background:Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose:The present study is to validate an instrument for assessing senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning. Sample:A total of 1822 Taiwanese senior high school students (1020 males and 802 females) responded to the newly developed instrument. Design and method:The Motivation and Self-regulation towards Technology Learning (MSRTL) instrument was developed based on the previous instruments measuring students' motivation and self-regulation towards science learning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were utilized to investigate the structure of the items. Cronbach's alpha was applied for measuring the internal consistency of each scale. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine gender differences. Results:Seven scales, including 'Technology learning self-efficacy,' 'Technology learning value,' 'Technology active learning strategies,' 'Technology learning environment stimulation,' 'Technology learning goal-orientation,' 'Technology learning self-regulation-triggering,' and 'Technology learning self-regulation-implementing' were confirmed for the MSRTL instrument. Moreover, the results also showed that male and female students did not present the same degree of preference in all of the scales. Conclusions:The MSRTL instrument composed of seven scales corresponding to 39 items was shown to be valid based on validity and reliability analyses. While male students tended to express more positive and active performance in the motivation scales, no gender differences were found in the self-regulation scales.

  19. Reactive Strength Index Modified Is a Valid Measure of Explosiveness in Collegiate Female Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kristof; Kiely, Michael T; Geiser, Christopher F

    2016-05-01

    Kipp, K, Kiely, MT, and Geiser, CF. Reactive strength index modified is a valid measure of explosiveness in collegiate female volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1341-1347, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the reactive strength index modified (RSImod) as a measure of lower body explosiveness. Fifteen female, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I volleyball players performed vertical countermovement jumps (CMJs) while standing on a force plate. Each player performed 3 CMJs. The vertical ground reaction forces collected during each jump were used to calculate jump height, time to take-off, time to peak force, peak force, peak rate of force development, and peak power; the latter 3 variables were all normalized to body mass. Reactive strength index modified was calculated as the ratio between jump height and time to take-off. All variables, except for jump height, were then entered a factor analysis, which reduced the input data into 2 factors: a force factor and a speed factor. Although RSImod loaded more strongly onto the force factor, further analysis showed that RSImod loaded positively onto both force and speed factors. Visual analysis of the Cartesian coordinates also showed that RSImod loaded into the quadrant of greater force and speed abilities. These results indicate that the construct of RSImod, as derived from CMJ force-time data, captures a combination of speed-force factors that can be interpreted as lower body explosiveness during the CMJ. Reactive strength index modified therefore seems to be a valid measure to study lower body explosiveness. PMID:26439787

  20. Validation of Airborne FMCW Radar Measurements of Snow Thickness Over Sea Ice in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galin, Natalia; Worby, Anthony; Markus, Thorsten; Leuschen, Carl; Gogineni, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic sea ice and its snow cover are integral components of the global climate system, yet many aspects of their vertical dimensions are poorly understood, making their representation in global climate models poor. Remote sensing is the key to monitoring the dynamic nature of sea ice and its snow cover. Reliable and accurate snow thickness data are currently a highly sought after data product. Remotely sensed snow thickness measurements can provide an indication of precipitation levels, predicted to increase with effects of climate change in the polar regions. Airborne techniques provide a means for regional-scale estimation of snow depth and distribution. Accurate regional-scale snow thickness data will also facilitate an increase in the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite altimeter freeboard estimates. The airborne data sets are easier to validate with in situ measurements and are better suited to validating satellite algorithms when compared with in situ techniques. This is primarily due to two factors: better chance of getting coincident in situ and airborne data sets and the tractability of comparison between an in situ data set and the airborne data set averaged over the footprint of the antennas. A 28-GHz frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar loaned by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets to the Australian Antarctic Division is used to measure snow thickness over sea ice in East Antarctica. Provided with the radar design parameters, the expected performance parameters of the radar are summarized. The necessary conditions for unambiguous identification of the airsnow and snowice layers for the radar are presented. Roughnesses of the snow and ice surfaces are found to be dominant determinants in the effectiveness of layer identification for this radar. Finally, this paper presents the first in situ validated snow thickness estimates over sea ice in Antarctica derived from an FMCW radar on a helicopterborne platform.

  1. Single-Item Measurement of Suicidal Behaviors: Validity and Consequences of Misclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Alexander J; Lee, Michael D; Nock, Matthew K

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although research has made strides in better defining suicidal behaviors, there has been less focus on accurate measurement. Currently, the widespread use of self-report, single-item questions to assess suicide ideation, plans and attempts may contribute to measurement problems and misclassification. We examined the validity of single-item measurement and the potential for statistical errors. Over 1,500 participants completed an online survey containing single-item questions regarding a history of suicidal behaviors, followed by questions with more precise language, multiple response options and narrative responses to examine the validity of single-item questions. We also conducted simulations to test whether common statistical tests are robust against the degree of misclassification produced by the use of single-items. We found that 11.3% of participants that endorsed a single-item suicide attempt measure engaged in behavior that would not meet the standard definition of a suicide attempt. Similarly, 8.8% of those who endorsed a single-item measure of suicide ideation endorsed thoughts that would not meet standard definitions of suicide ideation. Statistical simulations revealed that this level of misclassification substantially decreases statistical power and increases the likelihood of false conclusions from statistical tests. Providing a wider range of response options for each item reduced the misclassification rate by approximately half. Overall, the use of single-item, self-report questions to assess the presence of suicidal behaviors leads to misclassification, increasing the likelihood of statistical decision errors. Improving the measurement of suicidal behaviors is critical to increase understanding and prevention of suicide. PMID:26496707

  2. Single-Item Measurement of Suicidal Behaviors: Validity and Consequences of Misclassification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Millner

    Full Text Available Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although research has made strides in better defining suicidal behaviors, there has been less focus on accurate measurement. Currently, the widespread use of self-report, single-item questions to assess suicide ideation, plans and attempts may contribute to measurement problems and misclassification. We examined the validity of single-item measurement and the potential for statistical errors. Over 1,500 participants completed an online survey containing single-item questions regarding a history of suicidal behaviors, followed by questions with more precise language, multiple response options and narrative responses to examine the validity of single-item questions. We also conducted simulations to test whether common statistical tests are robust against the degree of misclassification produced by the use of single-items. We found that 11.3% of participants that endorsed a single-item suicide attempt measure engaged in behavior that would not meet the standard definition of a suicide attempt. Similarly, 8.8% of those who endorsed a single-item measure of suicide ideation endorsed thoughts that would not meet standard definitions of suicide ideation. Statistical simulations revealed that this level of misclassification substantially decreases statistical power and increases the likelihood of false conclusions from statistical tests. Providing a wider range of response options for each item reduced the misclassification rate by approximately half. Overall, the use of single-item, self-report questions to assess the presence of suicidal behaviors leads to misclassification, increasing the likelihood of statistical decision errors. Improving the measurement of suicidal behaviors is critical to increase understanding and prevention of suicide.

  3. Performance and validation of COMPUCEA 2nd generation for uranium measurements in physical inventory verifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to somewhat alleviate the kind of logistical problems encountered in the in-field measurements with the current COMPUCEA equipment (COMbined Product for Uranium Content and Enrichment Assay), and with the expected benefits of saving some time and costs for the missions in mind, ITU is presently developing a 2nd generation of the COMPUCEA device. This new development also forms a task in the support programme of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission to the IAEA. To validate the in-field performance of the newly developed 2nd generation COMPUCEA, a prototype has been tested together with the 1st generation equipment during physical inventory verification (PIV) measurements in different uranium fuel fabrication plants in Europe. In this paper we will present the prototype of COMPUCEA 2nd generation, its hardware as well as the software developed for the evaluation of the U content and 235U enrichment. We will show a comparison of the performance of the 2nd generation with the 1st generation on a larger number of uranium samples measured during the in-field PIVs. The observed excellent performance of the new COMPUCEA represents an important step in the validation of this new instrument. (author)

  4. Validation of a new radiographic measurement of acetabular version: the transverse axis distance (TAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, Ashley [University of Colorado School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Lambert, Jeffery R. [University of Colorado, Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO (United States); Glueck, Deborah H. [University of Colorado, Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Jesse, Mary Kristen; Strickland, Colin [University of Colorado School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology and Orthopaedics, Aurora, CO (United States); Mei-Dan, Omer [University of Colorado School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Division of Sports Medicine and Hip Preservation, Department of Orthopaedics, Aurora, CO (United States); Petersen, Brian [University of Colorado School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology and Orthopaedics, Aurora, CO (United States); Inland Imaging, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    This study has three aims: (1) validate a new radiographic measure of acetabular version, the transverse axis distance (TAD) by showing equivalent TAD accuracy in predicting CT equatorial acetabular version when compared to a previously validated, but more cumbersome, radiographic measure, the p/a ratio; (2) establish predictive equations of CT acetabular version from TAD; (3) calculate a sensitive and specific cut point for predicting excessive CT acetabular anteversion using TAD. A 14-month retrospective review was performed of patients who had undergone a dedicated MSK CT pelvis study and who also had a technically adequate AP pelvis radiograph. Two trained observers measured the radiographic p/a ratio, TAD, and CT acetabular equatorial version for 110 hips on a PACS workstation. Mixed model analysis was used to find prediction equations, and ROC analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of p/a ratio and TAD. CT equatorial acetabular version can accurately be predicted from either p/a ratio (p < 0.001) or TAD (p < 0.001). The diagnostic accuracies of p/a ratio and TAD are comparable (p =0.46). Patients whose TAD is higher than 17 mm may have excessive acetabular anteversion. For that cutpoint, the sensitivity of TAD is 0.73, with specificity of 0.82. TAD is an accurate radiographic predictor of CT acetabular anteversion and provides an easy-to-use and intuitive point-of-care assessment of acetabular version in patients with hip pain. (orig.)

  5. Validation of a new radiographic measurement of acetabular version: the transverse axis distance (TAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has three aims: (1) validate a new radiographic measure of acetabular version, the transverse axis distance (TAD) by showing equivalent TAD accuracy in predicting CT equatorial acetabular version when compared to a previously validated, but more cumbersome, radiographic measure, the p/a ratio; (2) establish predictive equations of CT acetabular version from TAD; (3) calculate a sensitive and specific cut point for predicting excessive CT acetabular anteversion using TAD. A 14-month retrospective review was performed of patients who had undergone a dedicated MSK CT pelvis study and who also had a technically adequate AP pelvis radiograph. Two trained observers measured the radiographic p/a ratio, TAD, and CT acetabular equatorial version for 110 hips on a PACS workstation. Mixed model analysis was used to find prediction equations, and ROC analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of p/a ratio and TAD. CT equatorial acetabular version can accurately be predicted from either p/a ratio (p < 0.001) or TAD (p < 0.001). The diagnostic accuracies of p/a ratio and TAD are comparable (p =0.46). Patients whose TAD is higher than 17 mm may have excessive acetabular anteversion. For that cutpoint, the sensitivity of TAD is 0.73, with specificity of 0.82. TAD is an accurate radiographic predictor of CT acetabular anteversion and provides an easy-to-use and intuitive point-of-care assessment of acetabular version in patients with hip pain. (orig.)

  6. Validity Study of Vertebral Rotation Measurement Using 3-D Ultrasound in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Meng; Lou, Edmond H M; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Cheng, Jack C Y; Wong, Man-Sang

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity of 3-D ultrasound measurements on the vertebral rotation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) under clinical settings. Thirty curves (mean Cobb angle: 21.7° ± 15.9°) from 16 patients with AIS were recruited. 3-D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at the supine position. Each of the two raters measured the apical vertebral rotation using the center of laminae (COL) method in the 3-D ultrasound images and the Aaro-Dahlborn method in the magnetic resonance images. The intra- and inter-reliability of the COL method was demonstrated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) (both [2, K] >0.9, p correlation was found (r > 0.9, p < 0.05). These results validated the proposed 3-D ultrasound method in the measurements of vertebral rotation in the patients with AIS. PMID:27083978

  7. Inference of Human Affective States from Psychophysiological Measurements Extracted under Ecologically Valid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eBetella

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to standard laboratory protocols, the measurement of psychophysiological signals in real world experiments poses technical and methodological challenges due to external factors that cannot be directly controlled. To address this problem, we propose a hybrid approach based on an immersive and human accessible space called the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM, that incorporates the advantages of a laboratory within a life-like setting. The XIM integrates unobtrusive wearable sensors for the acquisition of psychophysiological signals suitable for ambulatory emotion research. In this paper, we present results from two different studies conducted to validate the XIM as a general-purpose sensing infrastructure for the study of human affective states under ecologically valid conditions. In the first investigation, we recorded and classified signals from subjects exposed to pictorial stimuli corresponding to a range of arousal levels, while they were free to walk and gesticulate. In the second study, we designed an experiment that follows the classical conditioning paradigm, a well-known procedure in the behavioral sciences, with the additional feature that participants were free to move in the physical space, as opposed to similar studies measuring physiological signals in constrained laboratory settings. Our results indicate that, by using our sensing infrastructure, it is indeed possible to infer human event-elicited affective states through measurements of psychophysiological signals under ecological conditions.

  8. Measuring the quality of Patients’ goals and action plans: development and validation of a novel tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teal Cayla R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to develop and test reliability, validity, and utility of the Goal-Setting Evaluation Tool for Diabetes (GET-D. The effectiveness of diabetes self-management is predicated on goal-setting and action planning strategies. Evaluation of self-management interventions is hampered by the absence of tools to assess quality of goals and action plans. To address this gap, we developed the GET-D, a criteria-based, observer rating scale that measures the quality of patients’ diabetes goals and action plans. Methods We conducted 3-stage development of GET-D, including identification of criteria for observer ratings of goals and action plans, rater training and pilot testing; and then performed psychometric testing of the GET-D. Results Trained raters could effectively rate the quality of patient-generated goals and action plans using the GET-D. Ratings performed by trained evaluators demonstrated good raw agreement (94.4% and inter-rater reliability (Kappa = 0.66. Scores on the GET-D correlated well with measures theoretically associated with goal-setting, including patient activation (r=.252, P Conclusions The GET-D can reliably and validly rate the quality of goals and action plans. It holds promise as a measure of intervention fidelity for clinical interventions that promote diabetes self-management behaviors to improve clinical outcomes. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00481286

  9. Experimental methods to validate measures of emotional state and readiness for duty in critical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent report on criticality accidents in nuclear facilities indicates that human error played a major role in a significant number of incidents with serious consequences and that some of these human errors may be related to the emotional state of the individual. A pre-shift test to detect a deleterious emotional state could reduce the occurrence of such errors in critical operations. The effectiveness of pre-shift testing is a challenge because of the need to gather predictive data in a relatively short test period and the potential occurrence of learning effects due to a requirement for frequent testing. This report reviews the different types of reliability and validity methods and testing and statistical analysis procedures to validate measures of emotional state. The ultimate value of a validation study depends upon the percentage of human errors in critical operations that are due to the emotional state of the individual. A review of the literature to identify the most promising predictors of emotional state for this application is highly recommended

  10. Measuring fluctuations in paranoia: Validity and psychometric properties of brief state versions of the Paranoia Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Moritz, Steffen; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-07-30

    Research increasingly assesses momentary changes in paranoia in order to elucidate causal mechanisms. Observed or manipulated changes in postulated causal factors should result in fluctuations in state paranoid ideation. Previous studies often employed a state-adapted Paranoia Checklist (Freeman et al., 2005) to measure state paranoia. This study examined whether the Paranoia Checklist or subsets of its items are appropriate for this purpose. Thirteen studies (N=860) were subjected to meta-analyses of each Paranoia Checklist item. We selected items based on (1) whether they showed pre-to-post change in the expected direction and (2) whether this effect was larger in experimental vs. control conditions. All resulting item selections were cross-validated on a hold-out sample (n=1893). Finally, we explored how much variation in paranoia was captured by the state-adapted version in a brief ambulatory assessment study (N=32). A thirteen item State Paranoia Checklist as well as a five item and a three item Brief State Paranoia Checklist were extracted. Cross validation revealed better model fit and increased sensitivity to change. Multilevel analysis indicated 25-30% of the variance in the Brief State Paranoia Checklists to be due to intra-individual daily fluctuations in paranoia. Our analyses produced reliable and valid revised scales. Increases in change sensitivity indicate that future assessment of state paranoia in experimental and ambulatory assessment studies can be optimized by using the revised scales. PMID:27227702

  11. Experimental methods to validate measures of emotional state and readiness for duty in critical operations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, Louise Marie

    2007-09-01

    A recent report on criticality accidents in nuclear facilities indicates that human error played a major role in a significant number of incidents with serious consequences and that some of these human errors may be related to the emotional state of the individual. A pre-shift test to detect a deleterious emotional state could reduce the occurrence of such errors in critical operations. The effectiveness of pre-shift testing is a challenge because of the need to gather predictive data in a relatively short test period and the potential occurrence of learning effects due to a requirement for frequent testing. This report reviews the different types of reliability and validity methods and testing and statistical analysis procedures to validate measures of emotional state. The ultimate value of a validation study depends upon the percentage of human errors in critical operations that are due to the emotional state of the individual. A review of the literature to identify the most promising predictors of emotional state for this application is highly recommended.

  12. Clinical validation of dialysable calcium in relation to other methods of serum calcium measurement.

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, R. L.; Langton, S R

    1985-01-01

    Dialysable calcium (CaD) values were measured by a simple technique not interfered with by protein bound calcium and validation attempted by comparison with concentrations of ionised calcium (CaI) and clinical categorisation. CaD values were also compared with total calcium (CaT) and albumin adjusted calcium (CaA) concentrations. The normal ranges for CaD, CaT, CaA, and CaI were calculated from the results in healthy blood donors. In 50 normal subjects CaD was more highly correlated with CaI ...

  13. Performance and validation of COMPUCEA 2nd generation for uranium measurements in physical inventory verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new instrumental version of COMPUCEA has been developed with the aim to provide a simplified and more practical instrumentation for in-field use. The main design goals were to eliminate the radioactive sources and the liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detectors used in the 1st generation of COMPUCEA. This paper describes the major technical features of the 2nd generation of equipment together with typical performance data. The performance tests carried out during first in-field measurements in the course of physical inventory verification campaigns represent an important step in the validation of this new instrument. (author)

  14. Validation of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication under Six outcome measure

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas-Stonell, Nancy; Oddson, Bruce; Robertson, Bernadette; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to establish the construct validity of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS©),a tool designed to measure changes in communication skills in preschool children. Method Participating families' children (n=97; 68 males, 29 females; mean age 2y 8mo; SD 1.04y, range 10mo–4y 11mo) were recruited through eight Canadian organizations. The children were on a waiting list for speech and language intervention. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Que...

  15. Development of Tools for Simulation Systems in a Distribution Network and Validated by Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn; Bindner, Henrik W.

    single-diode four-parameter model based on data sheet values and a VRB system model based on the efficiency of different components and the power losses. The models were implemented first in MATLAB/Simulink and the results have been compared with the data sheet values and with the characteristics of the...... units. Moreover to point out the strong dependency on ambient conditions and its influence on array operation and to validate simulation results with measured data a complex model has also been developed. A PV inverter model and a VRB inverter model, using the same equations and parameters as in MATLAB...

  16. Validity issues in the evaluation of a measure of science and mathematics teacher knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Robert M., III

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the reliability and validity of an instrument designed to measure science and mathematics teachers' strategic knowledge . Strategic knowledge is conceptualized as a construct that is related to pedagogical knowledge and is comprised of two dimensions: Flexible Application (FA) and Student Centered Instruction (SCI). The FA dimension describes how a science teacher invokes, applies and modifies her instructional repertoire in a given teaching context. The SCI dimension describes how a science teacher conceives of a given situation as an opportunity for active engagement with the students. The Flexible Application of Student-Centered Instruction (FASCI) survey instrument was designed to measure science teachers' strategic knowledge by eliciting open-ended responses to scenario-based items. This study addresses the following overarching question: What are some potential issues pertaining to the validity of measures of science and mathematics teacher knowledge? Using a validity argument framework, different sources of evidence are identified, collected, and evaluated to examine support for a set or propositions related to the intended score interpretation and instrument use: FASCI scores can be used to compare and distinguish the strategic knowledge of novice science and mathematics teachers in the evaluation of teacher education programs. Three separate but related studies are presented and discussed. These studies focus on the reliability of FASCI scores, the effect of adding specific science content to the scenario-based items, and the observation of strategic knowledge in teaching practice. Serious issues were found with the reliability of scores from the FASCI instrument. It was also found that adding science content to the scenario-based items has an effect on FASCI scores, but not for the reason hypothesized. Finally, it was found that more evidence is needed to make stronger claims about the relationship between FASCI scores and novice

  17. Field-scale validation of an automated soil nitrate extraction and measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Sibley, K.J.; Astatkie, T.; Brewster, G.; Struik, P.C.; Adsett, J.F.; Pruski, K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the many gaps that needs to be solved by precision agriculture technologies is the availability of an economic, automated, on-the-go mapping system that can be used to obtain intensive and accurate ‘real-time’ data on the levels of nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) in the soil. A soil nitrate mapping system (SNMS) has been developed to provide a way to collect such data. This study was done to provide extensive field-scale validation testing of the system’s nitrate extraction and measurement su...

  18. Field validation of an EIA kit for progesterone measurement in milk and blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An EIA kit for the measurement of progesterone in blood plasma and skim milk was validated and compared with the FAO/IAEA RIA kit at the FAO/IAEA Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf and 9 other laboratories in developed and developing countries. The EIA kit performed well at the FAO/IAEA Laboratory. In the other laboratories high intra-assay variations and poor colour development were observed. The RIA kit performed satisfactory in all participating laboratories. It was concluded that the EIA kit should not be routinely supplied to FAO/IAEA counterpart staff. Some recommendations for further development of the EIA kit were given. (author). 3 refs, 5 tabs

  19. Determination of Al in cake mix: Method validation and estimation of measurement uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, G.; Rocha, O.; Junqueira, R.

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method for the determination of Al in cake mix was developed. Acceptable values were obtained for the following parameters: linearity, detection limit - LOD (5.00 mg-kg-1) quantification limit - LOQ (12.5 mg-kg-1), the recovery assays values (between 91 and 102%), the relative standard deviation under repeatability and within-reproducibility conditions (<20.0%) and measurement uncertainty tests (<10.0%) The results of the validation process showed that the proposed method is fitness for purpose.

  20. Validation of ACE-FTS satellite data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hegglin, M. I.; Bernath, P. F.; C. D. Boone; W. H. Daffer; Hoor, P.; Manney, G. L.; Schiller, C.; Strong, K.; K. A. Walker

    2008-01-01

    CO, O3, and H2O data in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) measured by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on Canada's SCISAT-1 satellite are validated using aircraft and ozonesonde measurements. In the UTLS, validation of chemical trace gas measurements is a challenging task due to small-scale variability in the tracer fields, strong gradients of the tracers across the tropopause, and sc...

  1. Using the bootstrap to establish statistical significance for relative validity comparisons among patient-reported outcome measures

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Nina; Allison, Jeroan J; Fang, Hua Julia; Ash, Arlene S.; Ware, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Relative validity (RV), a ratio of ANOVA F-statistics, is often used to compare the validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. We used the bootstrap to establish the statistical significance of the RV and to identify key factors affecting its significance. Methods Based on responses from 453 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to 16 CKD-specific and generic PRO measures, RVs were computed to determine how well each measure discriminated across clinically-defined groups ...

  2. Ozonesonde profiles from the West Pacific Warm Pool: measurements and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R.; Vaughan, G.; Ricketts, H. M. A.; Pan, L. L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Chemel, C.

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of ozonesonde profiles measured from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, during February 2014, with new insights on the calibration of ozonesondes for measurements in the tropical troposphere. The experiment formed a part of a wider airborne campaign involving three aircraft based in Guam, to characterise the atmospheric composition above the tropical West Pacific in unprecedented detail. Thirty-nine ozonesondes were launched between 2 and 25 February of which 34 gave good ozone profiles. Particular attention was paid to evaluating the background current of the ozonesondes, as this can amount to half the measured signal in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). An unexpected contamination event affected the measurements and required a departure from standard operating procedures for the ozonesondes. The most significant departure was not exposing the sondes to ozone during preparation, which meant that the background current remained stable before launch. Comparison with aircraft measurements allows validation of the measured ozone profiles and confirms that for well-characterized sondes (background current ˜ 50 nA) a constant background current could be assumed throughout the profile, equal to the minimum value measured during preparation just before launch. From this set of 34 ozonesondes, the minimum reproducible ozone concentration measured in the TTL was 12-13 ppbv; no examples of ozone concentrations < 5 ppbv, as reported by other recent papers, were measured. The lowest ozone concentrations coincided with outflow from extensive deep convection to the east of Manus, consistent with uplift of ozone-poor air from the boundary layer. However, these minima were lower than the ozone concentration measured through most of the boundary layer, and were matched only by measurements at the surface in Manus.

  3. Derivation and Cross-Validation of Cutoff Scores for Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders on WAIS-IV Digit Span-Based Performance Validity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M; Toofanian Ross, Parnian; Kinney, Dominique I; Nitch, Stephen R

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify and cross-validate cutoff scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Digit Span-based embedded performance validity (PV) measures for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In Study 1, normative scores were identified on Digit Span-embedded PV measures among a sample of patients (n = 84) with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses who had no known incentive to perform poorly and who put forth valid effort on external PV tests. Previously identified cutoff scores resulted in unacceptable false positive rates and lower cutoff scores were adopted to maintain specificity levels ≥90%. In Study 2, the revised cutoff scores were cross-validated within a sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 96) committed as incompetent to stand trial. Performance on Digit Span PV measures was significantly related to Full Scale IQ in both studies, indicating the need to consider the intellectual functioning of examinees with psychotic spectrum disorders when interpreting scores on Digit Span PV measures. PMID:25997434

  4. Construct validity of instruments measuring impairments in body structures and function in rheumatic disorders: which constructs are selected for validation? A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, R.A.H.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Swinkels-Meewisse, I.J.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Vet, H.C.W. de

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This paper focuses on the construct validity of instruments measuring impairments in body structures and function in rheumatic disorders. The objective is: 1) to make an inventory of constructs, based on the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health

  5. Construct validity of instruments measuring impairments in body structures and function in rheumatic disorders: Which constructs are selected for validation? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, R.A.H.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Swinkels-Meewisse, I.J.C.M.; Dijkstra, P.U.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. This paper focuses on the construct validity of instruments measuring impairments in body structures and function in rheumatic disorders. The objective is: 1) to make an inventory of constructs, based on the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health

  6. Responsiveness and validity of three dexterous function measures in stroke rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-wei Hsieh, MS

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the responsiveness and validity of the Box and Block Test (BBT, the Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT, and the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT. We randomized 59 patients with stroke into one of three rehabilitation treatments for 3 weeks. We administered six outcome measures (BBT, NHPT, ARAT, Fugl-Meyer Assessment [FMA], Motor Activity Log [MAL], and Stroke Impact Scale [SIS] hand function domain pretreatment and posttreatment. We used the standardized response mean (SRM to examine responsiveness and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho to examine concurrent validity. The BBT, NHPT, and ARAT were moderately responsive to change and not significantly different (SRM = 0.64-0.79. The correlations within the BBT, NHPT, and ARAT were moderate to good at pretreatment (rho = -0.55 to -0.80 and posttreatment (rho = -0.57 to -0.71. The BBT and ARAT showed fair to moderate correlations with the FMA, MAL, and SIS hand function domain at pretreatment and posttreatment (rho = 0.31-0.59, whereas the NHPT demonstrated low to fair correlations with the FMA and MAL (rho = -0.16 to -0.33 and moderate correlations with the SIS hand function domain (rho = -0.58 to -0.66. Our results indicate that the BBT, NHPT, and ARAT are suitable to detect changes over time. While simultaneously considering the responsiveness and validity attributes, the BBT and ARAT can be considered more appropriate for evaluating dexterous function than the NHPT. Further studies with larger samples are needed to validate these findings.

  7. Using Raman-lidar-based regularized microphysical retrievals and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer measurements for the characterization of biomass burning aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Stefanos; Nicolae, Doina; Böckmann, Christine; Vasilescu, Jeni; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Labzovskii, Lev; Toanca, Florica; Papayannis, Alexandros

    2015-10-01

    In this work we extract the microphysical properties of aerosols for a collection of measurement cases with low volume depolarization ratio originating from fire sources captured by the Raman lidar located at the National Institute of Optoelectronics (INOE) in Bucharest. Our algorithm was tested not only for pure smoke but also for mixed smoke and urban aerosols of variable age and growth. Applying a sensitivity analysis on initial parameter settings of our retrieval code was proved vital for producing semi-automatized retrievals with a hybrid regularization method developed at the Institute of Mathematics of Potsdam University. A direct quantitative comparison of the retrieved microphysical properties with measurements from a Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (CToF-AMS) is used to validate our algorithm. Microphysical retrievals performed with sun photometer data are also used to explore our results. Focusing on the fine mode we observed remarkable similarities between the retrieved size distribution and the one measured by the AMS. More complicated atmospheric structures and the factor of absorption appear to depend more on particle radius being subject to variation. A good correlation was found between the aerosol effective radius and particle age, using the ratio of lidar ratios (LR: aerosol extinction to backscatter ratios) as an indicator for the latter. Finally, the dependence on relative humidity of aerosol effective radii measured on the ground and within the layers aloft show similar patterns.

  8. Rapid directional change degrades GPS distance measurement validity during intermittent intensity running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Rawstorn

    Full Text Available Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS for quantifying athletic performance is common in many team sports. The effect of running velocity on measurement validity is well established, but the influence of rapid directional change is not well understood in team sport applications. This effect was systematically evaluated using multidirectional and curvilinear adaptations of a validated soccer simulation protocol that maintained identical velocity profiles. Team sport athletes completed 90 min trials of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle-running Test movement pattern on curvilinear, and multidirectional shuttle running tracks while wearing a 5 Hz (with interpolated 15 Hz output GPS device. Reference total distance (13 200 m was systematically over- and underestimated during curvilinear (2.61±0.80% and shuttle (-3.17±2.46% trials, respectively. Within-epoch measurement uncertainty dispersion was widest during the shuttle trial, particularly during the jog and run phases. Relative measurement reliability was excellent during both trials (Curvilinear r = 1.00, slope = 1.03, ICC = 1.00; Shuttle r = 0.99, slope = 0.97, ICC = 0.99. Absolute measurement reliability was superior during the curvilinear trial (Curvilinear SEM = 0 m, CV = 2.16%, LOA ± 223 m; Shuttle SEM = 119 m, CV = 2.44%, LOA ± 453 m. Rapid directional change degrades the accuracy and absolute reliability of GPS distance measurement, and caution is recommended when using GPS to quantify rapid multidirectional movement patterns.

  9. The oceanic shipboard precipitation measurement network for surface validation - OceanRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Systematic high quality oceanic in-situ precipitation measurements are requested on an international science level and are essential for improved understanding and validation of hydrological processes in satellite, re-analysis and model data. OceanRAIN, the shipboard "Ocean Rainfall And Ice-phase precipitation measurement Network" for surface validation is, to date, the only systematic long-term disdrometer-based oceanic shipboard precipitation data collection effort to establish a comprehensive statistical basis of precipitation for all climate related hotspots over the global oceans. OceanRAIN utilizes automated disdrometer systems (ODM470) capable of measuring precipitation occurrence, intensity and accumulation and discriminates for rain, snow and mixed-phase precipitation through minute-based particle size distributions. The ODM470 was especially designed for shipboard operation under high and frequently varying wind speeds and rough sea states. This paper provides an overview on the OceanRAIN project, the instrumentation, algorithms, methodology, and data products. The procedure of the data processing chain is outlined, including calibration, shipboard operation, data ingest and quality control. The selected research ships do not circumvent high impact weather, allowing for a collection of the full precipitation spectrum including extremes. By October 2014 the fast growing OceanRAIN database comprised more than 3.7 million minutes of precipitation measurements (including true zeros) since its start in 2010. OceanRAIN aims at increasing knowledge about oceanic precipitation, improving error characterization of GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) era precipitation retrievals, adding to the continual improvement of the satellite retrieval algorithms, as well as benchmarking existing satellite-based climatologies, re-analysis and model data. The accumulating data volume can be utilized for statistical and process study applications on different temporal and

  10. Development and Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Mentalizing: The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Luyten, Patrick; Moulton-Perkins, Alesia; Lee, Ya-Wen; Warren, Fiona; Howard, Susan; Ghinai, Rosanna; Fearon, Pasco; Lowyck, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Reflective functioning or mentalizing is the capacity to interpret both the self and others in terms of internal mental states such as feelings, wishes, goals, desires, and attitudes. This paper is part of a series of papers outlining the development and psychometric features of a new self-report measure, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ), designed to provide an easy to administer self-report measure of mentalizing. We describe the development and initial validation of the RFQ in three studies. Study 1 focuses on the development of the RFQ, its factor structure and construct validity in a sample of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Eating Disorder (ED) (n = 108) and normal controls (n = 295). Study 2 aims to replicate these findings in a fresh sample of 129 patients with personality disorder and 281 normal controls. Study 3 addresses the relationship between the RFQ, parental reflective functioning and infant attachment status as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. In both Study 1 and 2, confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors assessing Certainty (RFQ_C) and Uncertainty (RFQ_U) about the mental states of self and others. These two factors were relatively distinct, invariant across clinical and non-clinical samples, had satisfactory internal consistency and test–retest stability, and were largely unrelated to demographic features. The scales discriminated between patients and controls, and were significantly and in theoretically predicted ways correlated with measures of empathy, mindfulness and perspective-taking, and with both self-reported and clinician-reported measures of borderline personality features and other indices of maladaptive personality functioning. Furthermore, the RFQ scales were associated with levels of parental reflective functioning, which in turn predicted infant attachment status in the SSP. Overall, this study lends

  11. Development and validation of an instrument to measure factors related to colorectal cancer screening adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S W; Myers, R E; Tilley, B C

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the development and refinement of a set of scales for use in research on predictors of colorectal cancer screening adherence. The study population included 2693 of 4490 eligible white male automotive employees who answered a mailed questionnaire (60% response rate) on beliefs and attitudes related to colorectal cancer and screening. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and multitrait scaling analysis were used to evaluate the construct validity of a priori scales developed to measure salience and coherence, perceived susceptibility, worries about screening, screening efficacy, social influence, and intention. Analyses supported the construct validity of scales for salience and coherence, perceived susceptibility, and worries about screening. Four items originally assigned to the salience and coherence construct loaded on a separate factor that appeared to measure self-efficacy. There was no empirical support for scales measuring screening efficacy and social influence, and there was limited empirical support for a scale measuring intention. Confirmatory factor analysis of the scales measuring salience and coherence, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, and worries about screening showed a similar factor structure in white men with and without a personal history of polyps, indicating that the scales may be useful for studies of both colorectal cancer screening and surveillance. Multitrait scaling analysis showed some support for internal consistency reliability of those scales in women (n = 42) and in African-American men (n = 56), and there was some support for the factor structure in those two subgroups. Future studies should evaluate the psychometric properties of these and similar scales in diverse population subgroups. PMID:9332766

  12. Radiological findings for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity. Validation of digital and manual measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engesaeter, Ingvild Oevsteboe [University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bergen (Norway); Laborie, Lene Bjerke; Rosendahl, Karen [University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Lehmann, Trude Gundersen; Fevang, Jonas; Engesaeter, Lars Birger [University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bergen (Norway); Sera, Francesco [University College London Institute of Child Health, Medical Research Council Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Pedersen, Douglas; Morcuende, Jose [University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA (United States); Lie, Stein Atle [Uni Health, Uni Research, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    To report on intra-observer, inter-observer, and inter-method reliability and agreement for radiological measurements used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, as obtained by a manual and a digital measurement technique. Pelvic radiographs from 95 participants (56 females) in a follow-up hip study of 18- to 19-year-old patients were included. Eleven radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia (Sharp's, Wiberg's, and Ogata's angles; acetabular roof angle of Toennis; articulo-trochanteric distance; acetabular depth-width ratio; femoral head extrusion index; maximum teardrop width; and the joint space width in three different locations) were validated. Three observers measured the radiographs using both a digital measurement program and manually in AgfaWeb1000. Inter-method and inter- and intra-observer agreement were analyzed using the mean differences between the readings/readers, establishing the 95% limits of agreement. We also calculated the minimum detectable change and the intra-class correlation coefficient. Large variations among different radiological measurements were demonstrated. However, the variation was not related to the use of either the manual or digital measurement technique. For measurements with greater absolute values (Sharp's angle, femoral head extrusion index, and acetabular depth-width ratio) the inter- and intra-observer and inter-method agreements were better as compared to measurements with lower absolute values (acetabular roof angle, teardrop and joint space width). The inter- and intra-observer variation differs notably across different radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, a fact that should be taken into account in clinical practice. The agreement between the manual and digital methods is good. (orig.)

  13. Radiological findings for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity. Validation of digital and manual measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report on intra-observer, inter-observer, and inter-method reliability and agreement for radiological measurements used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, as obtained by a manual and a digital measurement technique. Pelvic radiographs from 95 participants (56 females) in a follow-up hip study of 18- to 19-year-old patients were included. Eleven radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia (Sharp's, Wiberg's, and Ogata's angles; acetabular roof angle of Toennis; articulo-trochanteric distance; acetabular depth-width ratio; femoral head extrusion index; maximum teardrop width; and the joint space width in three different locations) were validated. Three observers measured the radiographs using both a digital measurement program and manually in AgfaWeb1000. Inter-method and inter- and intra-observer agreement were analyzed using the mean differences between the readings/readers, establishing the 95% limits of agreement. We also calculated the minimum detectable change and the intra-class correlation coefficient. Large variations among different radiological measurements were demonstrated. However, the variation was not related to the use of either the manual or digital measurement technique. For measurements with greater absolute values (Sharp's angle, femoral head extrusion index, and acetabular depth-width ratio) the inter- and intra-observer and inter-method agreements were better as compared to measurements with lower absolute values (acetabular roof angle, teardrop and joint space width). The inter- and intra-observer variation differs notably across different radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, a fact that should be taken into account in clinical practice. The agreement between the manual and digital methods is good. (orig.)

  14. Experimental validation of atomic force microscopy-based cell elasticity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew R.; Charras, G. T.

    2011-08-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used for measuring the elasticity of living cells yielding values ranging from 100 Pa to 100 kPa, much larger than those obtained using bead-tracking microrheology or micropipette aspiration (100-500 Pa). AFM elasticity measurements appear dependent on tip geometry with pyramidal tips yielding elasticities 2-3 fold larger than spherical tips, an effect generally attributed to the larger contact area of spherical tips. In AFM elasticity measurements, experimental force-indentation curves are analyzed using contact mechanics models that infer the tip-cell contact area from the tip geometry and indentation depth. The validity of these assumptions has never been verified. Here we utilize combined AFM-confocal microscopy of epithelial cells expressing a GFP-tagged membrane marker to directly characterize the indentation geometry and measure the indentation depth. Comparison with data derived from AFM force-indentation curves showed that the experimentally measured contact area for spherical tips agrees well with predicted values, whereas for pyramidal tips, the contact area can be grossly underestimated at forces larger than ~ 0.2 nN leading to a greater than two-fold overestimation of elasticity. These data suggest that a re-examination of absolute cellular elasticities reported in the literature may be necessary and we suggest guidelines for avoiding elasticity measurement artefacts introduced by extraneous cantilever-cell contact.

  15. Experimental validation of atomic force microscopy-based cell elasticity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Andrew R; Charras, G T, E-mail: g.charras@ucl.ac.uk [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-26

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used for measuring the elasticity of living cells yielding values ranging from 100 Pa to 100 kPa, much larger than those obtained using bead-tracking microrheology or micropipette aspiration (100-500 Pa). AFM elasticity measurements appear dependent on tip geometry with pyramidal tips yielding elasticities 2-3 fold larger than spherical tips, an effect generally attributed to the larger contact area of spherical tips. In AFM elasticity measurements, experimental force-indentation curves are analyzed using contact mechanics models that infer the tip-cell contact area from the tip geometry and indentation depth. The validity of these assumptions has never been verified. Here we utilize combined AFM-confocal microscopy of epithelial cells expressing a GFP-tagged membrane marker to directly characterize the indentation geometry and measure the indentation depth. Comparison with data derived from AFM force-indentation curves showed that the experimentally measured contact area for spherical tips agrees well with predicted values, whereas for pyramidal tips, the contact area can be grossly underestimated at forces larger than {approx} 0.2 nN leading to a greater than two-fold overestimation of elasticity. These data suggest that a re-examination of absolute cellular elasticities reported in the literature may be necessary and we suggest guidelines for avoiding elasticity measurement artefacts introduced by extraneous cantilever-cell contact.

  16. Validation of the deuterium oxide method for measuring average daily milk intake in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deuterium oxide elimination method for measuring average daily milk intake was validated against measured formula intake in 16 studies of 11 infants in a metabolic ward. Deuterium oxide (approximately 0.10 g/kg body wt) was given orally. Deuterium enrichment was measured in urine samples collected predose, as available for 6-h postdose for TBW determination, and at 24 h and 5-10 d postdose for HDO elimination calculated according to the two-point method. Urine samples were vacuum distilled, water was reduced to hydrogen gas, and deuterium enrichment was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Milk intake was measured throughout the elimination period from prefeeding and postfeeding bottle weights (n = 12) or volumes (n = 4). Without corrections for atmospheric water influx, milk intake was overestimated by 76 g/d (6%). With corrections for estimated metabolic water production, isotopic fractionation, and atmospheric water influx, deuterium measured 98% +/- 3% or 1300 g milk intake/d compared with actual milk intake of 1329 +/- 206 g/d

  17. Validations of CFD against detailed velocity and pressure measurements in water turbine runner flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, H.; Davidson, L.

    2003-03-01

    This work compares CFD results with experimental results of the flow in two different kinds of water turbine runners. The runners studied are the GAMM Francis runner and the Hölleforsen Kaplan runner. The GAMM Francis runner was used as a test case in the 1989 GAMM Workshop on 3D Computation of Incompressible Internal Flows where the geometry and detailed best efficiency measurements were made available. In addition to the best efficiency measurements, four off-design operating condition measurements are used for the comparisons in this work. The Hölleforsen Kaplan runner was used at the 1999 Turbine 99 and 2001 Turbine 99 - II workshops on draft tube flow, where detailed measurements made after the runner were used as inlet boundary conditions for the draft tube computations. The measurements are used here to validate computations of the flow in the runner.The computations are made in a single runner blade passage where the inlet boundary conditions are obtained from an extrapolation of detailed measurements (GAMM) or from separate guide vane computations (Hölleforsen). The steady flow in a rotating co-ordinate system is computed. The effects of turbulence are modelled by a low-Reynolds number k- turbulence model, which removes some of the assumptions of the commonly used wall function approach and brings the computations one step further.

  18. Validation of measurements of ventilation-to-perfusion ratio inequality in the lung from expired gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J B.; West, John B.; Reed, James W.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of the gas in a single expirate has long been used to estimate the degree of ventilation-perfusion (Va/Q) inequality in the lung. To further validate this estimate, we examined three measures of Va/Q inhomogeneity calculated from a single full exhalation in nine anesthetized mongrel dogs under control conditions and after exposure to aerosolized methacholine. These measurements were then compared with arterial blood gases and with measurements of Va/Q inhomogeneity obtained using the multiple inert gas elimination technique. The slope of the instantaneous respiratory exchange ratio (R slope) vs. expired volume was poorly correlated with independent measures, probably because of the curvilinear nature of the relationship due to continuing gas exchange. When R was converted to the intrabreath Va/Q (iV/Q), the best index was the slope of iV/Q vs. volume over phase III (iV/Q slope). This was strongly correlated with independent measures, especially those relating to inhomogeneity of perfusion. The correlations for iV/Q slope and R slope considerably improved when only the first half of phase III was considered. We conclude that a useful noninvasive measurement of Va/Q inhomogeneity can be derived from the intrabreath respiratory exchange ratio.

  19. Validity and Reliability of a Self-Reported Measure of Antihypertensive Medication Adherence in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasasira, Benson; Muiru, Anthony Ndichu Wa; Muyingo, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background The Morisky Medication Adherence scale (MMAS-8) is a widely used self-reported measure of adherence to antihypertensive medications that has not been validated in hypertensive patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study to examine psychometric properties of a translated MMAS-8 (MMAS-U) in a tertiary care hypertension clinic in Uganda. We administered the MMAS-U to consecutively selected hypertensive adults and used principal factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha to determine its validity and internal consistency respectively. Then we randomly selected one-sixth of participants for a 2-week test-retest telephone interview. Lastly, we used ordinal logistic regression modeling to explore factors associated with levels of medication adherence. Results Of the 329 participants, 228 (69%) were females, median age of 55 years [Interquartile range (IQR) (46–66)], and median duration of hypertension of 4 years [IQR (2–8)]. The adherence levels were low (MMAS-U score ≤ 5) in 85%, moderate (MMAS-U score 6–7) in 12% and high (MMAS-U score ≥8) in 3%. The factor analysis of construct validity was good (overall Kaiser’s measure of sampling adequacy for residuals of 0.72) and identified unidimensionality of MMAS-U. The internal consistency of MMAS-U was moderate (Cronbach α = 0.65), and test-retest reliability was low (weighted kappa = 0.36; 95% CI -0.01, 0.73). Age of 40 years or greater was associated with low medication adherence (p = 0.02) whereas a family member buying medication for participants (p = 0.02) and purchasing medication from a private clinic (p = 0.02) were associated with high adherence. Conclusion The Ugandan version of the MMAS-8 (MMAS-U) is a valid and reliable measure of adherence to antihypertensive medication among Ugandan outpatients receiving care at a public tertiary facility. Though the limited supply of medication affected adherence, this easy to use tool can be adapted to assess medication

  20. Measuring Food Brand Awareness in Australian Children: Development and Validation of a New Instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Turner

    Full Text Available Children's exposure to food marketing is one environmental determinant of childhood obesity. Measuring the extent to which children are aware of food brands may be one way to estimate relative prior exposures to food marketing. This study aimed to develop and validate an Australian Brand Awareness Instrument (ABAI to estimate children's food brand awareness.The ABAI incorporated 30 flashcards depicting food/drink logos and their corresponding products. An abbreviated version was also created using 12 flashcards (ABAI-a. The ABAI was presented to 60 primary school aged children (7-11 yrs attending two Australian after-school centres. A week later, the full-version was repeated on approximately half the sample (n=27 and the abbreviated-version was presented to the remaining half (n=30. The test-retest reliability of the ABAI was analysed using Intra-class correlation coefficients. The concordance of the ABAI-a and full-version was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. The 'nomological' validity of the full tool was investigated by comparing children's brand awareness with food marketing-related variables (e.g. television habits, intake of heavily promoted foods.Brand awareness increased with age (p<0.01 but was not significantly correlated with other variables. Bland-Altman analyses showed good agreement between the ABAI and ABAI-a. Reliability analyses revealed excellent agreement between the two administrations of the full-ABAI.The ABAI was able to differentiate children's varying levels of brand awareness. It was shown to be a valid and reliable tool and may allow quantification of brand awareness as a proxy measure for children's prior food marketing exposure.

  1. Rasch Validation of a Measure of Reform-Oriented Science Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hye Sun

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence from recent curriculum documents and previous research suggests that reform-oriented science teaching practices promote students' conceptual understanding, levels of achievement, and motivation to learn, especially when students are actively engaged in constructing their ideas through scientific inquiries. However, it is difficult to identify to what extent science teachers engage students in reform-oriented teaching practices (RTPs) in their science classrooms. In order to exactly diagnose the current status of science teachers' implementation of the RTPs, a valid and reliable instrument tool is needed. The principles of validity and reliability are fundamental cornerstones in developing a robust measurement tool. As such, this study was motivated by the desire to point out the limitations of the existing statistical and psychometric analyses and to further examine the validation of the RTP survey instrument. This paper thus aims at calibrating the items of the RTPs for science teachers using the Rasch model. The survey instrument scale was adapted from the 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education (NSSME) data. A total of 3701 science teachers from 1403 schools from across the USA participated in the NSSME survey. After calibrating the RTP items and persons on the same scale, the RTP instrument well represented the population of US science teachers. Model-data fit determined by Infit and Outfit statistics was within an appropriate range (0.5-1.5), supporting the unidimensional structure of the RTPs. The ordered category thresholds and the probability of the thresholds showed that the five-point rating scale functioned well. The results of this study support the use of the RTP measure from the 2012 NSSME in assessing usage of RTPs.

  2. Validity and repeatability of three in-shoe pressure measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Carina; Parker, Daniel; Nester, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    In-shoe pressure measurement devices are used in research and clinic to quantify plantar foot pressures. Various devices are available, differing in size, sensor number and type; therefore accuracy and repeatability. Three devices (Medilogic, Tekscan and Pedar) were examined in a 2 day×3 trial design, quantifying insole response to regional and whole insole loading. The whole insole protocol applied an even pressure (50-600kPa) to the insole surface for 0-30s in the Novel TruBlue™ device. The regional protocol utilised cylinders with contact surfaces of 3.14 and 15.9cm(2) to apply pressures of 50 and 200kPa. The validity (% difference and Root Mean Square Error: RMSE) and repeatability (Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient: ICC) of the applied pressures (whole insole) and contact area (regional) were outcome variables. Validity of the Pedar system was highest (RMSE 2.6kPa; difference 3.9%), with the Medilogic (RMSE 27.0kPa; difference 13.4%) and Tekscan (RMSE 27.0kPa; difference 5.9%) systems displaying reduced validity. The average and peak pressures demonstrated high between-day repeatability for all three systems and each insole size (ICC≥0.859). The regional contact area % difference ranged from -97 to +249%, but the ICC demonstrated medium to high between-day repeatability (ICC≥0.797). Due to the varying responses of the systems, the choice of an appropriate pressure measurement device must be based on the loading characteristics and the outcome variables sought. Medilogic and Tekscan were most effective between 200 and 300kPa; Pedar performed well across all pressures. Contact area was less precise, but relatively repeatable for all systems. PMID:27131180

  3. Rasch Validation of a Measure of Reform-Oriented Science Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hye Sun

    2016-04-01

    Growing evidence from recent curriculum documents and previous research suggests that reform-oriented science teaching practices promote students' conceptual understanding, levels of achievement, and motivation to learn, especially when students are actively engaged in constructing their ideas through scientific inquiries. However, it is difficult to identify to what extent science teachers engage students in reform-oriented teaching practices (RTPs) in their science classrooms. In order to exactly diagnose the current status of science teachers' implementation of the RTPs, a valid and reliable instrument tool is needed. The principles of validity and reliability are fundamental cornerstones in developing a robust measurement tool. As such, this study was motivated by the desire to point out the limitations of the existing statistical and psychometric analyses and to further examine the validation of the RTP survey instrument. This paper thus aims at calibrating the items of the RTPs for science teachers using the Rasch model. The survey instrument scale was adapted from the 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education (NSSME) data. A total of 3701 science teachers from 1403 schools from across the USA participated in the NSSME survey. After calibrating the RTP items and persons on the same scale, the RTP instrument well represented the population of US science teachers. Model-data fit determined by Infit and Outfit statistics was within an appropriate range (0.5-1.5), supporting the unidimensional structure of the RTPs. The ordered category thresholds and the probability of the thresholds showed that the five-point rating scale functioned well. The results of this study support the use of the RTP measure from the 2012 NSSME in assessing usage of RTPs.

  4. An international validation study of two achievement goal measures in a pharmacy education context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrakaf S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saleh Alrakaf,1 Ahmed Abdelmageed,2 Mary Kiersma,2 Sion A Coulman,3 Dai N John,3 June Tordoff,4 Claire Anderson,5 Ayman Noreddin,6 Erica Sainsbury,1 Grenville Rose,7 Lorraine Smith11Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Manchester University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 6School of Pharmacy, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 7Aftercare, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor's Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ and Elliot and Murayama's revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R are widely used to assess students' achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA.Methods: In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit.Results: In contrast to the scale developers' findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study.Conclusion: Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and

  5. Measuring teacher regulating activities concerning student learning in secondary education classrooms : Reliability and validity of student perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, J. A.; de Jong, F. P. C. M.; Wubbels, Th.; Minnaert, A. E. M. G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the use and validation of the Pedagogical Practices Inventory, which uses student perceptions arranged into five subscales to measure teacher activities concerning the regulation of student learning in secondary education. To determine the reliability and validity of the instr

  6. Development and validation of a method for measuring depth of understanding in constructivist learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Lucia Falsetti

    A method for measuring depth of understanding of students in the middle-level science classroom was developed and validated. A common theme in the literature on constructivism in science education is that constructivist pedagogy, as opposed to objectivist pedagogy, results in a greater depth of understanding. Since few instruments measuring this construct exist at the present time, the development of such a tool to measure this construct was a significant contribution to the current body of assessment technologies in science education. The author's Depth of Understanding Assessment (DUA) evolved from a writing measure originally designed as a history assessment. The study involved 230 eighth grade science students studying a chemical change unit. The main research questions were: (1) What is the relationship between the DUA and each of the following independent variables: recall, application, and questioning modalities as measured by the Cognitive Preference Test; deep, surface, achieving, and deep-achieving approaches as measured by the Learning Process Questionnaire; achievement as measured by the Chemical Change Quiz, and teacher perception of student ability to conceptualize science content? (2) Is there a difference in depth of understanding, as measured by the DUA, between students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy and students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy favoring the constructivist group? (3) Is there a gender difference in depth of understanding as measured by the DUA? (4) Do students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy perceive their learning environment as more constructivist than students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy? Six out of nine hypothesis tests supported the validity of the DUA. The results of the qualitative component of this study which consisted of student interviews substantiated the quantitative results by providing additional information and insights. There was a significant difference in depth of

  7. Cultural consensus modeling to measure transactional sex in Swaziland: Scale building and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Hadley, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV and gender based violence in southern Africa and around the world. However the typical quantitative operationalization, "the exchange of gifts or money for sex," can be at odds with a wide array of relationship types and motivations described in qualitative explorations. To build on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research streams, we used cultural consensus models to identify distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland. The process allowed us to build and validate emic scales of transactional sex, while identifying key informants for qualitative interviews within each model to contextualize women's experiences and risk perceptions. We used logistic and multinomial logistic regression models to measure associations with condom use and social status outcomes. Fieldwork was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014 in the Hhohho and Manzini regions. We identified three distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland based on 124 Swazi women's emic valuation of what they hoped to receive in exchange for sex with their partners. In a clinic-based survey (n = 406), consensus model scales were more sensitive to condom use than the etic definition. Model consonance had distinct effects on social status for the three different models. Transactional sex is better measured as an emic spectrum of expectations within a relationship, rather than an etic binary relationship type. Cultural consensus models allowed us to blend qualitative and quantitative approaches to create an emicly valid quantitative scale grounded in qualitative context. PMID:26647365

  8. COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT OF CLOTHING FASHION DESIGN: RASCH MEASUREMENT MODEL FOR CONSTRUCT VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arasinah Kamis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Clothing Fashion Design (CFaD assessment instrument was used to measure the level of competence among instructors in Skills Training Institute (STI. This study was conducted to select items that are valid, fair, and of quality. The CFaD instrument consists of 97 Likert scale items with six constructs of designing, pattern drafting, computer, sewing, creative, and trade/entrepreneurship. The instrument was administered for the first stage of testing to 95 instructors in STI who teach in the field of fashion and clothing. The Rasch measurement model was used to obtain the reliability, validity, relevance of person items and unidimensionality of items. Therefore, Winsteps software version 3.72.3 was used to analyze the data. The findings showed that the items in the six constructs of skill competency have high reliability, from 0.63 to 0.96 for the Likert scale items. Meanwhile, the reliability of the respondents was estimated between 0.93-0.98. The analysis also indicate that 11 out of the 97 items were misfit while 32 items need to be repaired prior to the decision of dropping some of them due to lack of unidimensionality and differing levels of difficulty. Decisions to remove or repair were made so that the instrument is more fair and equitable to all respondents, and reliable.

  9. Will DNA damage measurements ever be sensitive enough to validate models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question posed by the title requires that measurement techniques be developed to the point that they can detect DNA lesions under the following constraints: a) with adequate specificity for those lesions that are likely to cause the effect of interest, b) with good rejection of irrelevant lesions, c) at usefully low dose levels, say down to 1 gray or less, even after some repair has been allowed to take place, d) with a well quantified response relationship. DNA double-strand breaks are known to be the most important lesions yet none of the present techniques for their detection adequately satisfies all of the above requirements. However, much recent progress has been made, including useful intercomparisons of the different techniques, suggesting that future developments will give the needed improvements. Validation of models then requires the application of such methods to see whether, for example, factors influencing the repair, or misrepair, of a particular lesion correlate with their action on the ultimate cellular response. Any correlations found do not prove that a model is valid, but rather show that it may be. Perhaps a more important role of such studies is to disprove and eliminate inappropriate models. Numerous methods have been developed to measure DNA strand breaks, and those most widely used in studies related to models of response are discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. The creation and validation of an instrument to measure school STEM Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher

    Although current research exists on school culture, there is a gap in the literature on specialized aspects of culture such as STEM Culture defined as the beliefs, values, practices, resources, and challenges in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) within a school. The objective of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument, the STEM Culture Assessment Tool (STEM-CAT), that measures this cultural aspect based on a survey of stakeholder groups within the school community and use empirical data to support the use of this instrument to measure STEM Culture. Items were created and face validity was determined through a focus group and expert review before a pilot study was conducted to determine reliability of the items. Once items were determined reliable, the survey was given to eight high schools and results were correlated to the percentage of seniors who self-reported whether they intend to pursue STEM fields upon graduation. The results of this study indicate further need for research to determine how the STEM-CAT correlates to STEM culture due to some inconsistencies with the dependent variable in this study. Future research could be done correlating the results of the STEM-CAT with participation in Advanced Placement science and mathematics, SAT/ACT scores in science and mathematics or the number of students who actually pursue STEM fields rather than a prediction halfway through the 12th grade.

  11. Validity and reliability of a questionnaire for measuring child oral-health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokovic, A; Locker, D; Stephens, M; Kenny, D; Tompson, B; Guyatt, G

    2002-07-01

    Oral-health-related quality of life measures that exist are designed for adults. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the CPQ(11-14), a self-report measure of the impact of oral and oro-facial conditions on 11- to 14-year-old children. An item pool was generated with the use of a literature review and interviews with health professionals, parents, and child patients. The 36 items rated the most frequent and bothersome by 83 children were selected for the CPQ(11-14). Validity testing involved a new sample of 123 children. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a subgroup of these children (n = 65). Mean CPQ(11-14) scores were highest for oro-facial (31.4), lower for orthodontic (24.3), and lowest for pedodontic (23.3) patients. There were significant associations between the CPQ(11-14) score and global ratings of oral health (p < 0.05) and overall well-being (p < 0.01). The Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient for the CPQ(11-14) were 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. These results suggest that the CPQ(11-14) is valid and reliable. PMID:12161456

  12. Validation of stratospheric water vapour measurements from the airborne microwave radiometer AMSOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Müller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the validation of a water vapour dataset obtained by the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System AMSOS, a passive microwave radiometer operating at 183 GHz. Vertical profiles are retrieved from spectra by an optimal estimation method. The useful vertical range lies in the upper troposphere up to the mesosphere with an altitude resolution of 8 to 16 km and a horizontal resolution of about 57 km. Flight campaigns were performed once a year from 1998 to 2006 measuring the latitudinal distribution of water vapour from the tropics to the polar regions. The obtained profiles show clearly the main features of stratospheric water vapour in all latitudinal regions. Data are validated against a set of instruments comprising satellite, ground-based, airborne remote sensing and in-situ instruments. It appears that AMSOS profiles have a dry bias of 3–20%, when compared to satellite experiments. A good agreement with a difference of 3.3% was found between AMSOS and in-situ hygrosondes FISH and FLASH and an excellent matching of the lidar measurements from the DIAL instrument in the short overlap region in the upper troposphere.

  13. Development of a reliable and construct valid measure of nutritional literacy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamond James J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into the relation of literacy to health status has not included measures of nutritional literacy. This may be a critical area in the study of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, which can both relate to obesity and nutrition. This paper details the development and psychometric characteristics of the Nutritional Literacy Scale (NLS, offered as a measure of adults' ability to comprehend nutritional information. Methods In order to assess the internal consistency and construct validity of the NLS, demographic data, readability statistics, NLS scores and scores on the Reading Comprehension Section of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA were collected in a cross-sectional study of 341 patients from two primary care practices. Results The NLS score showed acceptable internal consistency of 0.84 by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The Pearson correlation between the NLS and the S-TOFHLA was 0.61, supporting evidence for construct validity. Conclusion Given the importance of proper weight and nutrition in the health of the public, as well as the absence of research on literacy skills as related to nutritional concepts, the NLS has the potential to add to the national research agenda in these areas.

  14. Validation of SCIAMACHY limb NO2 profiles using solar occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bovensmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amounts of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere necessitate accurate global measurements of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Over the past decade, the SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY instrument on ENVISAT (European Environmental Satellite has been providing global coverage of stratospheric NO2 every 6 days. In this study, the vertical distributions of NO2 retrieved from SCIAMACHY limb measurements of the scattered solar light are validated by comparison with NO2 products from three different satellite instruments (SAGE II, HALOE and ACE-FTS. The retrieval algorithm based on the information operator approach is discussed, and the sensitivity of the SCIAMACHY NO2 limb retrievals is investigated. The photochemical corrections needed to make this validation feasible, and the chosen collocation criteria are described. For each instrument, a time period of two years is analyzed with several hundreds of collocation pairs for each year. As NO2 is highly variable, the comparisons are performed for five latitudinal bins and four seasons. In the 20 to 40 km altitude range, mean relative differences between SCIAMACHY and other instruments are found to be typically within 20 to 30%. The mean partial NO2 columns in this altitude range agree typically within 15% (both global monthly and zonal annual means. Larger differences are seen for SAGE II comparisons, which is consistent with the results presented by other authors. For SAGE II and ACE-FTS, the observed differences can be partially attributed to the diurnal effect error.

  15. Validating CERES Radiative Fluxes in the Arctic with Airborne Radiative Flux Measurements from the ARISE Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J.; Bucholtz, A.; Kato, S.; Rose, F. G.; Smith, W. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on board NASA's Terra, Aqua, and Soumi-NPP satellites provide the only measurements of reflected solar shortwave and emitted longwave radiative flux over the Arctic. Various methods have shown the uncertainty of CERES fluxes over sea ice to be higher than other scene types. However validation against an independent radiative flux measurement has never been attempted. We present here an attempt to better quantify the uncertainty of time-and-space averaged CERES flux measurements using airborne measurements from the Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea Ice Experiment (ARISE). The ARISE campaign took place during September of 2014 based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, with most of the measurements taken in the vicinity of the sea ice edge between 125°W and 150°W, and 71°N to 77°N. For six of the flights, measurements were taken in a lawnmower type pattern over either 100 x 200 km box regions at a constant altitude of >6 km, or 100 x 100 km box regions at an altitude of between 200 m to 500 m. They were designed to resemble the CERES Level 3 spatial averaging grids, and were located and timed to coincide with a high number of CERES overpasses. On board the aircraft were a set of upward and downward facing shortwave and longwave broadband radiometers (BBR), along with other instruments measuring meteorological conditions and cloud properties. We have compared the broadband radiative fluxes from BBR with those from CERES for the three days where the aircraft was flying the high altitude pattern. We use the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model to account for differences in the measurement altitude between BBR and CERES. We will present results of the comparisons between the computed fluxes and the measured longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes.

  16. The development and validation of a job crafting measure for use with blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Job crafting describes a set of proactive behaviours in which employees may engage to shape their work in order to minimize hindering job demands and maximize resources and challenging demands. Such behaviours may be particularly important among blue-collar workers whose jobs are...... characterized by poor working conditions and low well-being. We present the development and adaptation of a job crafting measure that may be used among blue-collar workers, based on an existing scale by Tims, Bakker, and Derks (2012) that was not specifically developed for blue-collar workers. We test the...... validity and reliability of the measure in a longitudinal study based on multiple source information from mail delivery workers in Denmark (N=362 at Time 1; N=408 at Time 2). Results indicate the presence of five job crafting dimensions: increasing challenging demands, decreasing social job demands...

  17. Validation of a method to measure plutonium levels in marine sediments in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this research was to develop and to validate a method of radiochemical separation of plutonium, suitable from the economic and practical point of view, in Cuba conditions. This method allowed to determine plutonium activity levels in the marine sediments from Cienfuegos Bay. The selected method of radiochemical separation was that of anionic chromatography and the measure technique was the quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The method was applied to a certified reference material, six repetitions were carried out and a good correspondence between the average measured value and the average certified value of plutonium was achieved, so the trueness of the method was demonstrated. It was also proven the precision of the method, since it was obtained a variation coefficient of 11% at 95% confidence level. The obtained results show that the presence of plutonium in the analyzed marine sediment samples is only due to the global radioactive fallout. (author)

  18. Characterization and Validation of Requirements Management Measures Using Correlation and Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arun Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Requirements engineering is one of the challenging and crucial phase in the development of softwareproducts. One of the key reasons found in literature survey the failure of software projects due to poorproject management and requirement management activity. This paper mainly addresses 1. Formulate amixed organization structure of both traditional approaches and agile approaches, to apply KMpractices for both the approaches to achieve requirements issues such as missing and inconsistency ofrequirements and improve the project management activities in a global software developmentenvironment. 2. Propose requirements metrics to measure and manage software process during thedevelopment of information systems. The major contribution of this paper is well-founded methods tomanage the project and effective requirements management metrics to measure changing requirementswhile giving particular attention to the requirements engineering issues such as completeness andconsistency. Two hypotheses have been formulated and tested this problem through statistical techniquesand validate the same.

  19. Perceived parental reactions to adolescent distress: development and validation of a brief measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Baptiste; Heinz, Sasha L; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescence is a time of individuation with increased reliance on peers, research indicates that, despite a deliberate distancing from parents, adolescents continue to seek the support and console of parental attachment figures in times of distress. The Perceived Parental Reactions to Adolescent Distress (PRAD) is a brief self-report measure developed to examine adolescents' perception of parental response under conditions of distress as measured by four conceptually and empirically distinct parental reactions to distress: Comfort, Self-Focus, Avoidance and Harshness. Across two studies involving a total of 738 high school students, we developed the PRAD and substantiated its robust psychometric properties, including evidence for reliability as well as internal and criterion validity. Sources of individual differences in the test-scores were also explored. Empirical as well as practical importance of assessing parental reactions to adolescent distress is discussed with regard to both the attachment and adolescent development literature. PMID:23777451

  20. Validation of Mobility Simulations via Measurement Drive Tests in an Operational Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Barbera, Simone; Polignano, Michele;

    2015-01-01

    be provided as inputs to the simulators. It is therefore crucial to perform a thorough validation process of the models used for generating results. The objective of this paper is to compare real and simulated mobility performance results with the purpose of understanding whether simulation models...... are close to reality. The presented study is based on drive tests measurements and explicit simulations of an operator network in the city of Aalborg (Denmark) – modelling a real 3D environment and using a commonly accepted dynamic system level simulation methodology. In short, the presented results...... show that simulated handover rate, location of handovers, radio link failures, and signal/interference level statistics match well with measurements, giving confidence that the simulations produce realistic performance results....

  1. Measurement of optimal learning environments: Validation of the parents’ attitudes towards self-regulated learning scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Steinbach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parents’ attitudes towards self-regulated learning and their influence on children’s learning behav-ior have been a rather neglected area of research. One reason for this is very likely the lack of a suitable measurement instrument. We adapted a measurement instrument designed to assess prima-ry teachers’ attitudes towards self-regulated learning for use with parents and validated it on a sample of 664 parents and their primary-school children. The instrument measures parents’ attitudes towards various cognitive and metacognitive strategies that have been shown to be particularly effective in self-regulated learning processes of primary-school children. In a first step, the factor structure and the theoretical appropriateness of the instrument was verified via a confirmatory factor analysis. In a second step, the validity of the scale was tested with a structural equation model. Parents’ attitudes towards self-regulated learning predicted how they facilitated the learning environment of their children; we measured parents’ learning-environment facilitation with two scales: parental autonomy support during learning and setting up children’s homework workspaces. The path between attitudes towards self-regulated learning and learning-environment facilitation was mediated by parents’ self-efficacy regarding learning support. The criterion variable, parents’ learning-environment facilitation, then, in turn, predicted students’ school achievement as assessed with grades and a standardized test. These initial results suggest that the adapted instrument is useful for assessing parents’ attitudes towards self-regulated learning and that these attitudes seem to influence the kind of learning environment parents create.

  2. Validation of a new spectrometer for noninvasive measurement of cardiac output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylene is a blood-soluble gas and for many years its uptake rate during rebreathing tests has been used to calculate the flow rate of blood through the lungs (normally equal to cardiac output) as well as the volume of lung tissue. A new, portable, noninvasive instrument for cardiac output determination using the acetylene uptake method is described. The analyzer relies on nondispersive IR absorption spectroscopy as its principle of operation and is configured for extractive (side-stream) sampling. The instrument affords exceptionally fast (30 ms, 10%-90%, 90%-10%, at 500 mL min-1 flow rates), interference-free, simultaneous measurement of acetylene, sulfur hexafluoride (an insoluble reference gas used in the cardiac output calculation), and carbon dioxide (to determine alveolar ventilation), with good (typically ±2% full-scale) signal-to-noise ratios. Comparison tests with a mass spectrometer using serially diluted calibration gas samples gave excellent (R2>0.99) correlation for all three gases, validating the IR system's linearity and accuracy. A similar level of agreement between the devices also was observed during human subject C2H2 uptake tests (at rest and under incremental levels of exercise), with the instruments sampling a common extracted gas stream. Cardiac output measurements by both instruments were statistically equivalent from rest to 90% of maximal oxygen consumption; the physiological validity of the measurements was confirmed by the expected linear relationship between cardiac output and oxygen consumption, with both the slope and intercept in the published range. These results indicate that the portable, low-cost, rugged prototype analyzer discussed here is suitable for measuring cardiac output noninvasively in a point-of-care setting

  3. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adie Sam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodology study assessing the validity and reliability of one method ('Marker Method' which uses a skin marker over the greater trochanter and another method ('Line of Femur Method' which requires estimation of the line of femur. Setting: Radiology and orthopaedic departments of two teaching hospitals. Participants: 31 volunteers (13 arthritic and 18 healthy subjects. Knee range of motion was measured radiographically and photographically using a goniometer. Three assessors were assessed for reliability and validity. Main outcomes: Agreement between methods and within raters was assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCCs. Agreement between raters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs. 95% limits of agreement for the mean difference for all paired comparisons were computed. Results Validity (referenced to radiographs: Each method for all 3 raters yielded very high CCCs for flexion (0.975 to 0.988, and moderate to substantial CCCs for extension angles (0.478 to 0.678. The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were narrower for flexion than they were for extension. Intra-rater reliability: For flexion and extension, very high CCCs were attained for all 3 raters for both methods with slightly greater CCCs seen for flexion (CCCs varied from 0.981 to 0.998. Inter-rater reliability: For both methods, very high ICCs (min to max: 0.891 to 0.995 were obtained for flexion and extension. Slightly higher coefficients were obtained

  4. Reliability, construct validity and measurement potential of the ICF comprehensive core set for osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtaiş Yeşim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the reliability and construct validity of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF Comprehensive Core Set for osteoarthritis (OA in order to test its possible use as a measuring tool for functioning. Methods 100 patients with OA (84 F, 16 M; mean age 63 yr completed forms including demographic and clinical information besides the Short Form (36 Health Survey (SF-36® and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis (WOMAC. The ICF Comprehensive Core Set for OA was filled by health professionals. The internal construct validities of "Body Functions-Body structures" (BF-BS, "Activity" (A, "Participation" (P and "Environmental Factors" (EF domains were tested by Rasch analysis and reliability by internal consistency and person separation index (PSI. External construct validity was evaluated by correlating the Rasch transformed scores with SF-36 and WOMAC. Results In each scale, some items showing disordered thresholds were rescored, testlets were created to overcome the problem of local dependency and items that did not fit to the Rasch model were deleted. The internal construct validity of the four scales (BF-BS 16 items, A 8 items, P 7 items, EF 13 items were good [mean item fit (SD 0.138 (0.921, 0.216 (1.237, 0.759 (0.986 and -0.079 (2.200; person item fit (SD -0.147 (0.652, -0.241 (0.894, -0.310 (1.187 and -0.491 (1.173 respectively], indicating a single underlying construct for each scale. The scales were free of differential item functioning (DIF for age, gender, years of education and duration of disease. Reliabilities of the BF-BS, A, P, and EF scales were good with Cronbach's alphas of 0.79, 0.86, 0.88, and 0.83 and PSI's of 0.76, 0.86, 0.87, and 0.71, respectively. Rasch scores of BF-BS, A, and P showed moderate correlations with SF-36 and WOMAC scores where the EF had significant but weak correlations only with SF36-Social

  5. Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (Mohave, Mohave II): Results Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Iain S.; McGee, Thomas G.; Twigg, Laurence W.; Sumnicht, Grant K.; Whiteman, David N.; Rush, Kurt D.; Cadirola, Martin P.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Connell, R.; Demoz, Belay B.; Vomel, Holger; Miloshevich, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Measurements of Humidity in the Atmosphere and Validation Experiments (MOHAVE, MOHAVE-II) inter-comparison campaigns took place at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.5(sup o)N) in October 2006 and 2007 respectively. Both campaigns aimed at evaluating the capability of three Raman lidars for the measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). During each campaign, more than 200 hours of lidar measurements were compared to balloon borne measurements obtained from 10 Cryogenic Frost-point Hygrometer (CFH) flights and over 50 Vaisala RS92 radiosonde flights. During MOHAVE, fluorescence in all three lidar receivers was identified, causing a significant wet bias above 10-12 km in the lidar profiles as compared to the CFH. All three lidars were reconfigured after MOHAVE, and no such bias was observed during the MOHAVE-II campaign. The lidar profiles agreed very well with the CFH up to 13-17 km altitude, where the lidar measurements become noise limited. The results from MOHAVE-II have shown that the water vapor Raman lidar will be an appropriate technique for the long-term monitoring of water vapor in the UT/LS given a slight increase in its power-aperture, as well as careful calibration.

  6. Testing the retention of attachments for implant overdentures - validation of an original force measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromentin, O; Lassauzay, C; Abi Nader, S; Feine, J; de Albuquerque Junior, R F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an original portable device to measure attachment retention of implant overdentures both in the lab and in clinical settings. The device was built with a digital force measurement gauge (Imada) secured to a vertical wheel stand associated with a customized support to hold and position the denture in adjustable angulations. Sixteen matrix and patrix cylindrical stud attachments (Locator) were randomly assigned as in vitro test specimens. Attachment abutments were secured in an implant analogue hung to the digital force gauge or to the load cell of a traction machine used as the gold standard (Instron Universal Testing Machine). Matrices were secured in a denture duplicate attached to the customized support, permitting reproducibility of their position on both pulling devices. Attachment retention in the axial direction was evaluated by measuring maximum dislodging force or peak load during five consecutive linear dislodgments of each attachment on both devices. After a wear simulation, retention was measured again at several time periods. The peak load measurements with the customized Imada device were similar to those obtained with the gold standard Instron machine. These findings suggest that the proposed portable device can provide accurate information on the retentive properties of attachment systems for removable dental prostheses. PMID:19912482

  7. Validity and repeatability of a depth camera-based surface imaging system for thigh volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullas, Alice M; Choppin, Simon; Heller, Ben; Wheat, Jon

    2016-10-01

    Complex anthropometrics such as area and volume, can identify changes in body size and shape that are not detectable with traditional anthropometrics of lengths, breadths, skinfolds and girths. However, taking these complex with manual techniques (tape measurement and water displacement) is often unsuitable. Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging systems are quick and accurate alternatives to manual techniques but their use is restricted by cost, complexity and limited access. We have developed a novel low-cost, accessible and portable 3D surface imaging system based on consumer depth cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and repeatability of the system in the measurement of thigh volume. The thigh volumes of 36 participants were measured with the depth camera system and a high precision commercially available 3D surface imaging system (3dMD). The depth camera system used within this study is highly repeatable (technical error of measurement (TEM) of volume when compared to the 3dMD system. This suggests poor agreement yet a close relationship, which once corrected can yield a usable thigh volume measurement. PMID:26928458

  8. Tropospheric O3 over Indonesia during biomass burning events measured with GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and compared with trajectory analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wittrock, F.; Richter, A; J. Meyer-Arnek; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A.; Burrows, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone columns of up to 50 DU were observed by GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) above Indonesia in September 1997, while only background amounts were measured in September 1998. The Traj.x trajectory model along with BRemen's Atmospheric PHOtochemical model (BRAPHO) were used to investigate the higher than average ozone columns above Indonesia. The transport analysis reveals that biomass burning over central Africa and northern Australia does not significantly influence o...

  9. The Low Earth Orbit validation of a dynamic and anisotropic trapped radiation model through ISS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.

    2011-10-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides the proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the experimental validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport code algorithms and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the Space Transportation System (STS; Shuttle) have provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code development by requiring dynamic models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Previous studies using Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of the evolving ISS configurations with Thermo-Luminescent Detector (TLD) area monitors, demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate non-isotropic as well as dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) description of ISS trajectory and orientation. It is imperative that we understand ISS exposures dynamically for crew career planning, and insure that the regulatory requirements of keeping exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) are adequately implemented. This is especially true as ISS nears some form of completion with increasing complexity, resulting in a larger drag coefficient, and requiring operation at higher altitudes with increased exposure rates. In this paper ISS environmental model is configured for 11A (circa mid 2005), and uses non-isotropic and dynamic geomagnetic transmission and trapped proton models. ISS 11A and LEO model validations are important steps in preparation for the design and validation for the next generation manned vehicles. While the described cutoff rigidity, trapped proton and electron formalisms as coded in a package named GEORAD (GEOmagnetic RADiation) and a web interface named OLTARIS (On-line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space) are applicable to the LEO, Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and

  10. Measuring Children's Environmental Attitudes and Values in Northwest Mexico: Validating a Modified Version of Measures to Test the Model of Ecological Values (2-MEV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, A. J.; Johnson, B.; Bogner, F. X.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the validation process of measuring children's attitudes and values toward the environment within a Mexican sample. We applied the Model of Ecological Values (2-MEV), which has been shown to be valid and reliable in 20 countries, including one Spanish speaking culture. Items were initially modified to fit the regional…

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Three additional biomass co-firing test burns have been conducted. In the first test (Test 3), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and dry switchgrass was injected through the center of the burner. In the second test (Test 4), 100% Pratt seam coal was burned in a repeat of the initial test condition of Test 1, to reconcile irregularities in the data from the first test. In the third test (Test 5), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and dry switchgrass was injected through an external pipe directed toward the exit of the burner. Progress has continued in developing a modeling approach to synthesize the reaction time and temperature distributions that will be produced by computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace and the char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics that will predict NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Additional results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments. Finally, a presentation was made at a Biomass Cofiring Project Review Meeting held at the NETL in Pittsburgh, PA on June 20-21

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2001-07-17

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Three additional biomass co-firing test burns have been conducted. In the first test (Test 3), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and dry switchgrass was injected through the center of the burner. In the second test (Test 4), 100% Pratt seam coal was burned in a repeat of the initial test condition of Test 1, to reconcile irregularities in the data from the first test. In the third test (Test 5), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and dry switchgrass was injected through an external pipe directed toward the exit of the burner. Progress has continued in developing a modeling approach to synthesize the reaction time and temperature distributions that will be produced by computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace and the char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics that will predict NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Additional results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments. Finally, a presentation was made at a Biomass Cofiring Project Review Meeting held at the NETL in Pittsburgh, PA on June 20-21.

  13. Validating and calibrating the Nintendo Wii balance board to derive reliable center of pressure measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Julia M; Mancini, Martina; Peterka, Robert J; Hayes, Tamara L; Horak, Fay B

    2014-01-01

    The Nintendo Wii balance board (WBB) has generated significant interest in its application as a postural control measurement device in both the clinical and (basic, clinical, and rehabilitation) research domains. Although the WBB has been proposed as an alternative to the "gold standard" laboratory-grade force plate, additional research is necessary before the WBB can be considered a valid and reliable center of pressure (CoP) measurement device. In this study, we used the WBB and a laboratory-grade AMTI force plate (AFP) to simultaneously measure the CoP displacement of a controlled dynamic load, which has not been done before. A one-dimensional inverted pendulum was displaced at several different displacement angles and load heights to simulate a variety of postural sway amplitudes and frequencies (<1 Hz). Twelve WBBs were tested to address the issue of inter-device variability. There was a significant effect of sway amplitude, frequency, and direction on the WBB's CoP measurement error, with an increase in error as both sway amplitude and frequency increased and a significantly greater error in the mediolateral (ML) (compared to the anteroposterior (AP)) sway direction. There was no difference in error across the 12 WBB's, supporting low inter-device variability. A linear calibration procedure was then implemented to correct the WBB's CoP signals and reduce measurement error. There was a significant effect of calibration on the WBB's CoP signal accuracy, with a significant reduction in CoP measurement error (quantified by root-mean-squared error) from 2-6 mm (before calibration) to 0.5-2 mm (after calibration). WBB-based CoP signal calibration also significantly reduced the percent error in derived (time-domain) CoP sway measures, from -10.5% (before calibration) to -0.05% (after calibration) (percent errors averaged across all sway measures and in both sway directions). In this study, we characterized the WBB's CoP measurement error under controlled, dynamic

  14. Biomass burning impact on PM 2.5 over the southeastern US during 2007: integrating chemically speciated FRM filter measurements, MODIS fire counts and PMF analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Weber

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Archived Federal Reference Method (FRM Teflon filters used by state regulatory agencies for measuring PM2.5 mass were acquired from 15 sites throughout the southeastern US and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, water-soluble ions and carbohydrates to investigate biomass burning contributions to fine aerosol mass. Based on over 900 filters that spanned all of 2007, levoglucosan and K+ were studied in conjunction with MODIS Aqua fire count data to compare their performances as biomass burning tracers. Levoglucosan concentrations exhibited a distinct seasonal variation with large enhancement in winter and spring and a minimum in summer, and were well correlated with fire counts, except in winter when residential wood burning contributions were significant. In contrast, K+ concentrations had no apparent seasonal trend and poor correlation with fire counts. Levoglucosan and K+ only correlated well in winter (r2=0.59 when biomass burning emissions were highest, whereas in other seasons they were not correlated due to the presence of other K+ sources. Levoglucosan also exhibited larger spatial variability than K+. Both species were higher in urban than rural sites (mean 44% higher for levoglucosan and 86% for K+. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was applied to analyze PM2.5 sources and four factors were resolved: biomass burning, refractory material, secondary light absorbing WSOC and secondary sulfate/WSOC. The biomass burning source contributed 13% to PM2.5 mass annually, 27% in winter, and less than 2% in summer, consistent with other souce apportionment studies based on levoglucosan, but lower in summer compared to studies based on K+.

  15. Biomass burning impact on PM2.5 over the southeastern US during 2007: integrating chemically speciated FRM filter measurements, MODIS fire counts and PMF analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Weber

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Archived Federal Reference Method (FRM Teflon filters used by state regulatory agencies for measuring PM2.5 mass were acquired from 15 sites throughout the southeastern US and analyzed for Water-Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC, water-soluble ions and carbohydrates to investigate biomass burning contributions to fine aerosol mass. Based on over 900 filters that spanned all of 2007, levoglucosan and K+ were studied in conjunction with MODIS Aqua fire count data to compare their performances as biomass burning tracers. Levoglucosan concentrations exhibited a distinct seasonal variation with large enhancement in winter and spring and a minimum in summer, and were well correlated with fire counts, except in winter when residential wood burning contributions were significant. In contrast, K+ concentrations had no apparent seasonal trend and poor correlation with fire counts. Levoglucosan and K+ only correlated well in winter (r2=0.59 when biomass burning emissions were highest, whereas in other seasons they were not correlated due to the presence of other K+ sources. Levoglucosan also exhibited larger spatial variability than K+. Both species were higher in urban than rural sites (mean 44% higher for levoglucosan and 86% for K+. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was applied to analyze PM2.5 sources and four factors were resolved: biomass burning, refractory material, secondary light absorbing WSOC and secondary sulfate/WSOC. The biomass burning source contributed 13% to PM2.5 mass annually, 27% in winter, and less than 2% in summer, consistent with other souce apportionment studies based on levoglucosan, but lower in summer compared to studies based on K+.

  16. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  17. The dispositional flow scale-2 as a measure of autotelic personality: an examination of criterion-related validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jarrod A; Keiser, Heidi N; Skarin, Evan M; Ross, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    The Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2; Jackson & Eklund, 2002) may be one of the most promising measures for assessing Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) construct of "autotelic personality." Despite strong internal validity, external validity of the DFS-2 remains open. We used 2 methods to provide evidence for external validity: (1) multiple-time assessments of experience sampling (1,856 entries generated over 7 days) to derive aggregate indices of criterion validity; and (2) single-time assessments of flow and personality for additional criterion-related validity. For single-time assessments of flow, we used a modified version of the Flow Questionnaire (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1984). To assess personality, we included a measure of the Five-factor traits using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). A path model of NEO domains, DFS-2 global scores, and experience sampling aggregates fit the data well. PMID:24624959

  18. Validity and practical utility of accelerometry for the measurement of in-hand physical activity in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, R.; Sutton, D.G.M.; Ramsoy, C.; Hunter-Blair, N.; Carnwath, J.; Horsfield, E.; Yam, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accelerometers are valid, practical and reliable tools for the measurement of habitual physical activity (PA). Quantification of PA in horses is desirable for use in research and clinical settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate a triaxial accelerometer for objective measurement of PA in the horse by assessment of their practical utility and validity. Horses were recruited to establish both the optimal site of accelerometer attachment and questionnaire designed...

  19. Testing elementary and secondary school students' ability to perform historical perspective taking: the constructing of valid and reliable measure instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Huijgen,T.; Boxtel, van, C.; Grift, van de, Wim J.C.M.; Holthuis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Historical reasoning competencies play an important role in history education. However, valid and reliable large-scale measurement instruments to assess these competencies are scarce. This study considers two instruments for measuring students’ ability to perform historical perspective taking (HPT) as a historical reasoning competency. The instruments have been tested for validity and reliability among 1,270 Dutch upper elementary and secondary school students, ranging in age from 10 to 17 ye...

  20. Development and Validation of a Space Suit Helmet Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdash, O.; Norcross, J.; Meginnis, I.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Korona, F. A.; Abercromby, A. F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Providing adequate washout of carbon dioxide (CO2) from within a space suit helmet is essential to maintaining a safe operating environment for astronauts using space suits. A valid and reliable method for quantification of inspired CO2 inside space suits is required to ensure the health and performance of suited crewmembers. With this objective, several different methods for measuring the concentration of CO2 in a space suit helmet were evaluated. A nasal cannula was compared with respirator style masks worn by suited test subjects, with air drawn into gas analyzers to measure the concentration of CO2 in the immediate vicinity of the mouth and nose. The respirator style masks, some being commercially available products and some novel designs, did not provide repeatable results based on initial pilot testing in three subjects. Based on the analysis of those studies, the decision was made to down-select to a commercially available nasal cannula as the primary sampling device to be used in follow-on testing in the MKIII (n = 8) and Z2 (n = 6) prototype space suits, with five subjects performing tests in both suits allowing for repeated measures comparisons. Subjects were tasked with achieving target metabolic rates of 293, 586, and 879 Watts (1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/h) and at air supply flow rates of 3.4, 6.8, and 10.2 Am(sup 3)/hr. (2, 4, and 6 ACFM). Each test condition was performed twice; once with subjects instructed to breathe however they felt comfortable, and once with subjects instructed to breathe only through their nose. Inspired CO2 values were determined by the lowest points, or troughs, within each breath of the respiratory trace. This method provides multiple inspired CO2 samples at known metabolic rates for each test condition and provides a larger data set for analysis than possible through gross averaging of the minimum inspired CO2. Results indicate that reliable measures are achievable under both breathing conditions but that restricting subjects