WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass gasification systems

  1. Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the economic effects and the potential for reduced CO2 emissions when biomass gasification applications are introduced in a Swedish district heating (DH) system. The gasification applications included in the study deliver heat to the DH network while producing renewable electricity or biofuels. Gasification applications included are: external superheater for steam from waste incineration (waste boost, WB), gas engine CHP (BIGGE), combined cycle CHP (BIGCC) and production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) for use as transportation fuel. Six scenarios are used, employing two time perspectives - short-term and medium-term - and differing in economic input data, investment options and technical system. To evaluate the economic performance an optimisation model is used to identify the most profitable alternatives regarding investments and plant operation while meeting the DH demand. This study shows that introducing biomass gasification in the DH system will lead to economic benefits for the DH supplier as well as reduce global CO2 emissions. Biomass gasification significantly increases the potential for production of high value products (electricity or SNG) in the DH system. However, which form of investment that is most profitable is shown to be highly dependent on the level of policy instruments for biofuels and renewable electricity. Biomass gasification applications can thus be interesting for DH suppliers in the future, and may be a vital measure to reach the 2020 targets for greenhouse gases and renewable energy, given continued technology development and long-term policy instruments.

  2. Biomass gasification systems for residential application: An integrated simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy policy of the European member States is promoting high-efficiency cogeneration systems by means of the European directive 2012/27/EU. Particular facilitations have been implemented for the small-scale and micro-cogeneration units. Furthermore, the directive 2010/31/EU promotes the improvement of energy performance of buildings and use of energy from renewable sources for the building sector. In this scenario, systems based on gasification are considered a promising technological solution when dealing with biomass and small scale systems. In this paper, an integrated approach has been implemented to assess the energy performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on biomass gasification and installed in residential blocks. The space-heating loads of the considered building configurations have been simulated by means of EnergyPlus. The heat load for domestic hot water demand has been calculated according to the average daily profiles suggested by the Italian and European technical standards. The efficiency of the whole CHP system has been evaluated supplementing the simulation of the gasification stage with the energy balance of the cogeneration set (i.e., internal combustion engine) and implementing the developed routines in the Matlab-Simulink environment. The developed model has been used to evaluate the primary energy saving (PES) of the CHP system compared to a reference case of separate production of heat and power. Economic analyses are performed either with or without subsidizations for the generated electricity. The results highlight the capability of the integrated approach to estimate both energy and economic performances of CHP systems applied to the residential context. Furthermore, the importance of the generated heat valorisation and the proper system sizing have been discussed. - Highlights: • CHP system based on biomass gasification to meet household energy demand is studied. • Influence of CHP size and operation time on

  3. Gasification-based biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  4. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  5. Modeling of biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Optimal conversion of chemical energy of the biomass or other solid fuel into the desired gas depends on proper configuration, sizing, and choice of gasifier operating conditions. Optimum operating conditions are often derived through trials on the unit or by experiments on pilot plants. Simulation, or mathematical modeling, allows the designer or plant engineer to reasonably optimize the operation or the design of the plant. The good mathematical model can: find optimum operating conditions or a design for the gasifier, provide information on extreme operating conditions (high temperature, high pressure) where experiments are difficult to perform, provide information over a much wider range of conditions than one can obtain experimentally, better interpret experimental results and analyze abnormal behavior of a gasifier, if that occurs, assist scale-up of the gasifier from one successfully operating size to another, and from one feedstock to another. The equilibrium model is independent of the gasifier design which can make them more suitable for a system study of the most important process parameters. The use of an equilibrium model assumes that the residence time of the reactants in the gasifier is high enough to reach chemical equilibrium. For established biomass ultimate analysis, temperature of gasification air and temperature of produced gas, combining the mass balance equations with the equations for the equilibrium constants and equation of energy balance, the equivalence ratio (ER) and composition of produced gas can be obtained. A mathematical model for investigation of the influence of temperature of the produced gas and temperature of gasification air on the process parameters was developed. It can be used for estimation and design of gasification equipment. key words: biomass gasification, mathematical modeling, equilibrium model

  6. System studies on Biofuel production via Integrated Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Malek, Laura; Hulteberg, Christian [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ. Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly. The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for fair techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project. Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found. In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell and biomass gasification systems for better efficiency and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colpan, C. Ozgur [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept.; Hamdullahpur, Feridun [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Dept.; Dincer, Ibrahim [Ontario Univ., Oshawa, ON (Canada). Inst. of Technology

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a conventional biomass fueled power production system is compared with a SOFC and biomass gasification system in terms of efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. A heat transfer model of the SOFC and thermodynamic models for the other components of the systems are used to find the performance assessment parameters of the systems. These parameters are taken as electrical and exergetic efficiencies. In addition, specific greenhouse gas emissions are calculated to evaluate the impact of these systems on the environment. The results show that the SOFC and biomass gasification system has higher electrical and exergetic efficiencies and lower greenhouse gas emissions. (orig.)

  8. Design and Optimization of an Integrated Biomass Gasification and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian

    for biomass transportation. Traditional decentralized CHP plants suffer from low net electrical efficiencies compared to central power stations, though. Especially small-scale and dedicated biomass CHP plants have poor electrical power yield. Improving the electrical power yield from small-scale CHP...... plants based on biomass will improve the competitiveness of decentralized CHP production from biomass as well as move the development towards a more sustainable CHP production. The aim of this research is to contribute to enhanced electrical efficiencies and sustainability in future decentralized CHP...... plants. The work deals with the coupling of thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and specific focus is kept on exploring the potential performance of hybrid CHP systems based on the novel two-stage gasification concept and SOFCs. The two-stage gasification concept is developed...

  9. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, V.P.; Seshan, K.; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid biom

  10. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  11. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Soederstroem, Mats [Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised. (author)

  12. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  13. Combined methodology of optimization and life cycle inventory for a biomass gasification based BCHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass gasification based building cooling, heating, and power (BCHP) system is an effective distributed energy system to improve the utilization of biomass resources. This paper proposes a combined methodology of optimization method and life cycle inventory (LCI) for the biomass gasification based BCHP system. The life cycle models including biomass planting, biomass collection-storage-transportation, BCHP plant construction and operation, and BCHP plant demolition and recycle, are constructed to obtain economic cost, energy consumption and CO2 emission in the whole service-life. Then, the optimization model for the biomass BCHP system including variables, objective function and solution method are presented. Finally, a biomass BCHP case in Harbin, China, is optimized under different optimization objectives, the life-cycle performances including cost, energy and CO2 emission are obtained and the grey incidence approach is employed to evaluate their comprehensive performances of the biomass BCHP schemes. The results indicate that the life-cycle cost, energy efficiency and CO2 emission of the biomass BCHP system are about 41.9 $ MWh−1, 41% and 59.60 kg MWh−1 respectively. The optimized biomass BCHP configuration to minimize the life-cycle cost is the best scheme to achieve comprehensive benefit including cost, energy consumption, renewable energy ratio, steel consumption, and CO2 emission. - Highlights: • Propose the combined method of optimization and LCI for biomass BCHP system. • Optimize the biomass BCHP system to minimize the life-cycle cost, energy and emission. • Obtain the optimized life-cycle cost, energy efficiency and CO2 emission. • Select the best biomass BCHP scheme using grey incidence approach

  14. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon that was not...

  15. Energy and exergy analyses of an integrated CCHP system with biomass air gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Propose a biomass-gasification CCHP system. • A heat pipe heat exchanger is used to recover waste heat from product gas. • Present the energy and exergy analyses of the biomass CCHP system. • Analyze the annual off-design performances. - Abstract: Biomass-fueled combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is a sustainable distributed energy system to reduce fossil energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission. This study proposes a biomass CCHP system that contains a biomass gasifier, a heat pipe heat exchanger for recovering waste heat from product gas, an internal combustion engine to produce electricity, an absorption chiller/heater for cooling and heating, and a heat exchanger to produce domestic hot water. Operational flows are presented in three work conditions: summer, winter, and the transitional seasons. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for different operational flows. The case demonstrated that the energy efficiencies in the three work conditions are 50.00%, 37.77%, and 36.95%, whereas the exergy efficiencies are 6.23%, 12.51%, and 13.79%, respectively. Destruction analyses of energy and exergy indicate that the largest destruction occurs in the gasification system, which accounts for more than 70% of the total energy and exergy losses. Annual performance shows that the proposed biomass-fueled CCHP system reduces biomass consumption by 4% compared with the non-use of a heat recovery system for high-temperature product gas

  16. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. PMID:26826573

  17. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  18. Assessment of integration of different biomass gasification alternatives in a district-heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, E.; Ahlgren, E.O. [Department of Energy and Environment, Energy Systems Technology, Division of Energy Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    With increasingly stringent CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets, incentives for efficient use of limited biomass resources increase. Technologies for gasification of biomass may then play a key role given their potential for high electrical efficiency and multiple outputs; not only electricity but also bio transport fuels and district heat. The aim of this study is to assess the economic consequences and the potential for CO{sub 2} reduction of integration of a biomass gasification plant into a district-heating (DH) system. The study focuses on co-location with an existing natural gas combined cycle heat and power plant in the municipal DH system of Goeteborg, Sweden. The analysis is carried out using a systems modelling approach. The so-called MARTES model is used. MARTES is a simulating, DH systems supply model with a detailed time slice division. The economic robustness of different solutions is investigated by using different sets of parameters for electricity price, fuel prices and policy tools. In this study, it is assumed that not only tradable green certificates for electricity but also tradable green certificates for transport fuels exist. The economic results show strong dependence on the technical solutions and scenario assumptions but in most cases a stand-alone SNG-polygeneration plant with district-heat delivery is the cost-optimal solution. Its profitability is strongly dependent on policy tools and the price relation between biomass and fossil fuels. Finally, the results show that operation of the biomass gasification plants reduces the (DH) system's net emissions of CO{sub 2}. (author)

  19. Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Shahid Shaukat, S.), s. 39-62 ISBN 978-953-307-491-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : thermal plasma * plasma gasification * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/thermal-plasma-gasification-of-biomass

  20. Performance evaluation of an integrated small-scale SOFC-biomass gasification power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchanapai, Suranat; Iwai, Hiroshi; Saito, Motohiro; Yoshida, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The combination of biomass gasification and high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offers great potential as a future sustainable power generation system. In order to provide insights into an integrated small-scale SOFC-biomass gasification power generation system, system simulation was performed under diverse operating conditions. A detailed anode-supported planar SOFC model under co-flow operation and a thermodynamic equilibrium for biomass gasification model were developed and verified by reliable experimental and simulation data. The other peripheral components include three gas-to-gas heat exchangers (HXs), heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), burner, fuel and air compressors. To determine safe operating conditions with high system efficiency, energy and exergy analysis was performed to investigate the influence through detailed sensitivity analysis of four key parameters, e.g. steam-to-biomass ratio (STBR), SOFC inlet stream temperatures, fuel utilization factor (Uf) and anode off-gas recycle ratio (AGR) on system performance. Due to the fact that SOFC stack is accounted for the most expensive part of the initial investment cost, the number of cells required for SOFC stack is economically optimized as well. Through the detailed sensitivity analysis, it shows that the increase of STBR positively affects SOFC while gasifier performance drops. The most preferable operating STBR is 1.5 when the highest system efficiencies and the smallest number of cells. The increase in SOFC inlet temperature shows negative impact on system and gasifier performances while SOFC efficiencies are slightly increased. The number of cells required for SOFC is reduced with the increase of SOFC inlet temperature. The system performance is optimized for Uf of 0.75 while SOFC and system efficiencies are the highest with the smallest number of cells. The result also shows the optimal anode off-gas recycle ratio of 0.6. Regarding with the increase of anode off-gas recycle ratio

  1. Large-scale production of Fischer-Tropsch diesel from biomass. Optimal gasification and gas cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is presented in the form of copies of overhead sheets. The contents concern definitions, an overview of Integrated biomass gasification and Fischer Tropsch (FT) systems (state-of-the-art, gas cleaning and biosyngas production, experimental demonstration and conclusions), some aspects of large-scale systems (motivation, biomass import) and an outlook

  2. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    This thesis presents the development of energy system for simulation, techno-economic optimization and design of a quad-generation energy system based on biomass gasification. An efficient way of reducing CO2 emission from the environment is by increasing the use of biomass in the energy sector...... possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system....... Different biomass resources are used to generate heat and electricity, to produce gas fuel like bio-SNG (synthesis natural gas) and also to produce liquid fuels, such as ethanol, and biodiesel. Due to the fact that the trend of establishing new and modern plants for handling and processing biomass, it...

  3. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Improving the performance of fluidized bed biomass/waste gasifiers for distributed electricity: A new three-stage gasification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods to increase the conversion of char and tar in fluidized bed gasifiers (FBG) are discussed, with the focus on small to medium-size biomass/waste gasifiers for power production (from 0.5 to 10 MWe). Optimization of such systems aims at (i) maximizing energy utilization of the fuel (maximizing char conversion), (ii) minimizing secondary treatment of the gas (by avoiding complex tar cleaning), and (iii) application in small biomass-to-electricity gasification plants. The efficiency of various measures to increase tar and char conversion within a gasification reactor (primary methods) is discussed. The optimization of FBG by using in-bed catalysts, by addition of steam and enriched air as gasification agent, and by secondary-air injection, although improving the process, is shown to be insufficient to attain the gas purity required for burning the gas in an engine to produce electricity. Staged gasification is identified as the only method capable of reaching the targets mentioned above with reasonable simplicity and cost, so it is ideal for power production. A promising new stage gasification process is presented. It is based on three stages: FB devolatilization, non-catalytic air/steam reforming of the gas coming from the devolatilizer, and chemical filtering of the gas and gasification of the char in a moving bed supplied with the char generated in the devolatilizer. Design considerations and comparison with one-stage FBG are discussed. - Highlights: ► Optimization of fluidized bed biomass gasifiers is reviewed. ► The effectiveness of primary measures for tar and char conversion for small/medium scale units are discussed. ► Feasible measures for adjusting operation of fluidized bed gasifiers are assessed. ► A new three-staged-fluidized-bed gasification system for biomasses and wastes is proposed.

  5. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  6. Process performance improvement in a co-current, fixed bed biomass gasification facility by control system modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Software algorithms for biomass gasification process improvement have been developed. • Advanced control solution has been proposed for on-line process control. • Different process variables have been controlled simultaneously. • Different process improvement cases have been analysed. • Data for system development has been extracted from co-current, fixed bed gasifier. - Abstract: Advanced control solutions are a developing technology which represent a promising approach to tackle problems related to efficiency and environmental aspects of biomass gasification process in a cost effective way. In this paper the potential of advanced control concept to improve gasification process efficiency and to reduce negative environmental effects of the process has been analysed. Advanced control solution, based on feedforward–feedback control approach has been developed using collected operation data and the effects of control concept on gasification process have been analysed using developed artificial neural network based prediction model. Measurement data for the controller and simulation model development has been extracted from a 75 MWth co-current, fixed bed biomass gasification plant operated by Technical University Dresden. The effects of 6 different process improvement goals for controller algorithms development have been analysed during 20 h of plant operation. The analysis has shown that with introduction of advanced control solutions process efficiency could be improved up to 20%, together with reduction of negative environmental aspects of the process

  7. A review on gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirubakaran, V. [Rural Technology Centre, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302, Tamil Nadu (India); Sivaramakrishnan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saranathan College of Engineering, Tiruchirapalli 620012, Tamil Nadu (India); Nalini, R. [Department of Renewable Energy, Periyar Maniyammai College of Technology for Women, Vallam 613403, Tamil Nadu (India); Sekar, T. [Department of Petrochemical Technology, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (India); Premalatha, M.; Subramanian, P. [Centre for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (CEESAT), National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirapalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-01-15

    Studies on the effect of size, structure, environment, temperature, heating rate, composition of biomass and ash are reviewed. Based on the observations reported so far, auto-gasification of biomass by the bio-oxygen and the catalytic ash would be feasible. The auto-gasification may be explained in terms of heterogeneous catalytic reaction. Better understanding of auto-gasification is possible by further studies carrying out on the effect of heating rate on auto-gasification. (author)

  8. A polygeneration system for the methanol production and the power generation with the solar–biomass thermal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new polygeneration system is proposed to generate methanol and power. • Endothermic reactions of the biomass gasification are driven by solar energy. • The thermodynamic properties of the system are numerically investigated. • The sensitivity of the economic performance of the system is evaluated. • The superiorities of the proposed system is demonstrated. - Abstract: A polygeneration system of generating methanol and power with the solar thermal gasification of the biomass is proposed in this work. The endothermic reactions of the biomass gasification are driven by the concentrated solar thermal energy in a range of 1000–1500 K. The syngas from the biomass gasification is used to produce the methanol via a synthesis reactor. The un-reacted gas is used for the power generation via a combined cycle power unit. The thermodynamic and economic performances of the polygeneration system are investigated. A portion of the concentrated solar thermal energy can be chemically stored into the syngas, and thus the energy level of the solar thermal energy is improved. Numerical simulations are implemented to evaluate the thermal performances of the proposed polygeneration system. The results indicate that H2/CO molar ratio of the syngas reaches 1.43–1.89, which satisfies the requirements of the methanol synthesis. The highest energy efficiency and the exergy efficiency of the polygeneration system approximately are 56.09% and 54.86%, respectively. The proposed polygeneration system can achieve the stable utilization of the solar energy and the mitigation of CO2 emission, and thus a promising approach is introduced for the efficient utilization of the abundant solar and biomass resources in the Western China

  9. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm3 y−1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  10. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  11. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  12. Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A system level modelling study of three combined heat and power systems based on biomass gasification is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first system, in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the second system and in a combined SOFC–MGT arrangement in the third...... University of Denmark. The SOFC converts the syngas more efficiently than the MGT, which is reflected by the energetic electrical efficiency of the gasifier and MGT system in opposition to the gasifier and SOFC configuration – η_el = 28.1% versus η_el = 36.4%. By combining the SOFC and MGT, the unconverted...... syngas from the SOFC is utilised in the MGT to produce more power and the SOFC is pressurised, which improves the efficiency to as much as η_el = 50.3%. Variation of the different operating conditions reveals an optimum for the chosen pressure ratio with respect to the resulting electrical efficiency...

  13. Thermodynamics second law efficiency analysis for high temperature biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key challenge for biomass-based system is to develop efficient conversion technologies to reduce impact of ecological drawbacks. The development of efficient technologies for biomass gasification requires correct use of thermodynamics. This paper addresses gasifier performance analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics to quantify irreversibilities in biomass gasification process at high temperatures in the range 800K-1400K. The analysis is based on exegetic model that account for the quality of energy by means of irreversibilities. (author)

  14. Biomass Gasification and High Temperature Gas Cleaning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejdová, Petra; Solich, M.; Vosecký, Martin; Malecha, J.; Koutský, B.; Punčochář, Miroslav; Skoblia, Sergej

    -: -, 2005, s. 221-224. ISBN 80-8073-382-1. [New Trends in Technology Systems Operation'05. Prešov (SK), 20.11.2005-21.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biomass and waste * gasification * hot gas cleaning Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. Biomass gasification: A demonstration in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass Integrated Gasification-Gas Turbine (BIG-GT) cycles offer considerable opportunities for improved efficiency in biomass power systems. As a result of international collaboration, a full-scale plant in Brazil will be the first commercial scale demonstration plant to utilise this system. The project, if successful, will lead to the commercial development of highly efficient, relatively easily installed biomass energy plants. The global implications could be significant, with biomass possibly contributing to power supplies in a scale similar to nuclear and hydro by the mid 21st century. It could provide a basis for rural development and employment in developing countries, and utilization of excess crop land in the industrial world

  16. A review of biomass gasification technologies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    laboratory scale projects to big scale plants is given. The report ends with an overview of future gasification projects as well as potential experience exchanges that could occur between the countries. We regard biomass gasification as one of the key technologies in future renewable energy systems....

  17. Char-recirculation biomass gasification system--a site-specific feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A site-specific feasibility study was conducted for a char-recirculation biomass gasification plant which would dispose of the chippable solid residues of the area sawmills. The plant would receive green hardwood chips and convert them into active charcoal while producing process steam and electrical power. An economic analysis was performed on the basis of not-for-profit operation, marketing crushed active charcoal to a broker at a discounted price, and displacing purchased electric power. Given a market for the active charcoal, the plant was judged to be economically viable

  18. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H2. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H2. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  19. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been further enhanced in recent years and special attention has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing interest in biomass gasification, several models have been proposed in order to explain and understand this complex process, and the...... design, simulation, optimisation and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This paper presents and analyses several gasification models based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural networks. The thermodynamic models are found to be a useful tool for preliminary...

  20. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  1. Modelling of a Biomass Gasification Plant Feeding a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    A system level modelling study on two combined heat and power (CHP) systems both based on biomass gasification. One system converts the product gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the other in a combined SOFC and micro gas turbine (MGT) arrangement. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has...... been developed and calibrated against published data from Topsoe Fuel Cells A/S (TOFC) and Risø National Laboratory. The modelled gasifier is based on an up scaled version of the demonstrated low tar gasifier, Viking, situated at the Technical University of Denmark. The MGT utilizes the unconverted...

  2. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  3. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  4. Performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system: Hydrogen and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is expected to play a significant role in next-generation energy systems. Because most hydrogen that is used as a fuel for PEMFCs is derived from the reforming of natural gas, the use of renewable energy sources such as biomass to produce this hydrogen offers a promising alternative. This study is focused on the performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC system. The combined heat and power generation output of this integrated system is designed for residential applications, taking into account thermal and electrical demands. A flowsheet model of the integrated PEMFC system is developed and employed to analyze its performance with respect to various key operating parameters. A purification process consisting of a water–gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor is also necessary in order to reduce the concentration of CO in the synthesis gas to below 10 ppm for subsequent use in the PEMFC. The effect of load level on the performance of the PEMFC system is investigated. Based on an electrical load of 5 kW, it is found that the electrical efficiency of the PEMFC integrated system is 22%, and, when waste heat recovery is considered, the total efficiency of the PEMFC system is 51%. - Highlights: • Performance of a biomass gasification and PEMFC integrated system is analyzed. • A flowsheet model of the PEMFC integrated system is developed. • Effect of biomass sources and key parameters on hydrogen and power generation is presented. • The PEMFC integrated system is designed for small-scale power demand. • Effect of load changes on the performance of PEMFC is investigated

  5. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of a two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and a micro gas turbine was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant represents a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...... CHP plants. A clean product gas was produced by the demonstrated two-stage gasifier, thus only simple gas conditioning was necessary prior to the SOFC stack. The plant was investigated by thermodynamic modeling combining zero-dimensional component models into complete system-level models. Energy and...

  6. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  7. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere

  8. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  9. Corrosion during gasification of biomass and waste

    OpenAIRE

    Källström, Rikard

    1993-01-01

    The gasification of biomass and waste results in severe atmospheric corrosion conditions. The problems arise because of the low oxygen content which prevents the metal forming stable and protective oxide surface layer. Consequently it is possible for the aggressive sulphur and chlorine present in the gas to attack the metal. In the Studsvik CFB gasification pilot plant, which uses RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel), the performance of 20 metallic and ceramic materials has been studied. Materials teste...

  10. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of a two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and a micro gas turbine was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant represents a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized CHP plants. A clean product gas was produced by the demonstrated two-stage gasifier, thus only simple gas conditioning was necessary prior to the SOFC stack. The plant was investigated by thermodynamic modeling combining zero-dimensional component models into complete system-level models. Energy and exergy analyses were applied. Focus in this optimization study was heat management, and the optimization efforts resulted in a substantial gain of approximately 6% in the electrical efficiency of the plant. The optimized hybrid plant produced approximately 290 kWe at an electrical efficiency of 58.2% based on lower heating value (LHV). -- Highlights: → Combined two-stage gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and gas turbine technology. → Hybrid plant for efficient decentralized power and heat production from biomass. → Through modeling, energy and exergy analyses reveal inefficiencies. → Optimization efforts for increased plant efficiency. → Electrical efficiency reached 58% (LHV) producing 290 kW electricity.

  11. Experimental investigations on a 20 kWe, solid biomass gasification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Avdhesh Kr. [Mechanical Engg. Department, D.C.R. University of Science and Technology, Murthal (Sonepat)-131039 (India)

    2011-01-15

    When the objective is to generate motive or electric power via I.C. engine, the overall pressure drop through the suction gasification system in addition to gas quality has become a sensitive issue. This work, therefore, presents an experimental study on a suction gasifier (downdraft) arrangement operating on kiker wood or Acacia nilotica (L). Studies were conducted to investigate the influence of fluid flow rate on pressure drop through the gasifier system for ambient isothermal airflow and ignited mode, pumping power, and air-fuel ratio, gas composition and gasification efficiency. Results of pressure drop, temperature profile, gas composition or calorific value are found to be sensitive with fluid flow rate. Ignited gasifier gives much higher pressure drop when compared against newly charged gasifier bed with isothermal ambient airflow. Higher reaction temperatures in gasifier tends to enhance gasifier performance, while, overall pressure drop and thus pumping power through the system increases. Both ash accumulated gasifier bed and sand bed filters with tar laden quartz particles also show much higher pressure drops. (author)

  12. Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hitofumi [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Katayama, Akio [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Sah, Bhuwneshwar P. [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Pasco Corporation, Tokyo 153-0043 (Japan); Toriu, Tsuyoshi [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo 107-0052 (Japan); Samy, Sat; Pheach, Phon [Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Adams, Mark A. [School of Biological Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grierson, Pauline F. [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have sufficient land available for tree planting for electricity generation based on a requirement of 0.02 ha per household. Among 8008 villages with sufficient land, we assumed that those villages that had greater than 10% of households owning a television (powered by a battery or a generator) would have both a high electricity demand and a capacity to pay for electricity generation. Those 6418 villages were considered appropriate candidates for mini-grid installation by biomass gasification. This study demonstrated that while agricultural residues such as rice husks or cashew nut shells may have high energy potential, only tree farming or plantations would provide sufficient sustainable resources to supply a biomass gasification system. Cost per unit electricity generation by biomass gasification is less than diesel generation when the plant capacity factor exceeds 13%. In order to ensure long-term ecological sustainability as well as appropriate tree-farming technology for farmers, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying biomass production across multiple rotations and with different species across Cambodia. (author)

  13. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  14. Biomass gasification with preheated air: Energy and exergy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarkovic Rade M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the irreversibilities that occur during biomass gasification, gasifiers are usually the least efficient units in the systems for production of heat, electricity, or other biofuels. Internal thermal energy exchange is responsible for a part of these irreversibilities and can be reduced by the use of preheated air as a gasifying medium. The focus of the paper is biomass gasification in the whole range of gasification temperatures by the use of air preheated with product gas sensible heat. The energetic and exergetic analyses are carried with a typical ash-free biomass feed represented by CH1.4O0.59N0.0017 at 1 and 10 bar pressure. The tool for the analyses is already validated model extended with a heat exchanger model. For every 200 K of air preheating, the average decrease of the amount of air required for complete biomass gasification is 1.3% of the amount required for its stoichiometric combustion. The air preheated to the gasification temperature on the average increases the lower heating value of the product gas by 13.6%, as well as energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the process. The optimal air preheating temperature is the one that causes gasification to take place at the point where all carbon is consumed. It exists only if the amount of preheated air is less than the amount of air at ambient temperature required for complete gasification at a given pressure. Exergy losses in the heat exchanger, where the product gas preheats air could be reduced by two-stage preheating.

  15. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  16. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Adlhoch, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  17. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  18. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  19. Gasification of biomass in thermal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Vol. 2. Brno: University of Technology Brno, 2007 - (Aubrecht, V.; Bartlová, M.), s. 7-16 ISBN 978-80-214-3369-4. [Symposium on Physics of Switching Arc/17th./. Brno (CZ), 10.09.2007-13.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Biomass * gasification * thermal plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. Plasma pyrolysis and gasification of biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Beijing: Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, CAS, 2008. s. 33-33. [Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology APCPST 9/9th./. 08.11.2008-11.11.2008, Huangshan] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  1. Plasma gasification of waste organics and biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Brno: Masaryk University, 2008. s. 42-43. ISBN N. [Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry/2nd./. 31.08.2008-04.09.2008, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  2. Pyrolysis pretreatment of biomass for entrained-flow gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomass for entrained-flow gasification needs to be pretreated to significantly increase its heating value and to make it more readily transportable. The pyrolysis pretreatment was conducted in a lab scale fixed-bed reactor; the reactor was heated to elevate the temperature at 5 °C/min before holding at the desired pyrolysis temperature for 1.5 h a fixed time. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the yield, composition and heating value of the gaseous, liquid and solid products were determined. The pyrolysis removed most oxygenated constituents of rice straw while significantly increased its energy density. Meantime, it changes the physical properties of biomass powders. The results show that the angle of repose, the angle of internal friction of semi-char decrease obviously; the bulk density of semi-char is bigger than that of biomass. This could favor the feeding of biomass. Considering yield and heating value of the solid semi-char product and the feeding problem, the best pyrolysis temperature was 400 °C. The results of this study have confirmed the feasibility of employing pyrolyzed biomass for entrained-flow gasification; they are useful for the additional studies that will be necessary for designing an efficient biomass entrained-flow gasification system.

  3. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  4. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  5. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  6. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  7. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  8. Main routes for the thermo-conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Part 2: Gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasification as a thermo-chemical process is defined and limited to combustion and pyrolysis. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, which results in a high production of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash. The solid phase usually presents a carbon content higher than 76%, which makes it possible to use it directly for industrial purposes. The gaseous products can be burned to generate heat or electricity, or they can potentially be used in the synthesis of liquid transportation fuels, H2, or chemicals. On the other hand, the liquid phase can be used as fuel in boilers, gas turbines or diesel engines, both for heat or electric power generation. However, the main purpose of biomass gasification is the production of low- or medium heating value gas which can be used as fuel gas in an internal combustion engine for power production. In addition to limiting applications and often compounding environmental problems, these technologies are an inefficient source of usable energy.

  9. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  10. Biomass gasification and fuel cells: system with PEM fuel cell; Gaseificacao de biomassa e celula a combustivel: sistema com celula tipo PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordi, Alexandre; Lobkov, Dmitri D.; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Rodrigues, Jean Robert Pereira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: asordi@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: lobkov@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: danielg@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: jrobert@fem.unicamp.br; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin], e-mail: Lh2ennio@ifi.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the operation flow diagram of an electricity generation system based on the biomass integrated gasification fuel cell of the type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). The integration between the gasification and a fuel cell of this type consists of the gas methane (CH4) reforming contained in the synthesis gas, the conversion of the carbon monoxide (CO), and the cleaning of the gaseous flow through a PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) system. A preliminary analysis was carried out to estimate the efficiency of the system with and without methane gas reforming. The performance was also analyzed for different gasification gas compositions, for larger molar fractions of hydrogen and methane. The system electrical efficiency was 29% respective to the lower heating value of the gasification gas. The larger the molar fraction of hydrogen at the shift reactor exit, the better the PSA exergetic performance. Comparative analysis with small gas turbines exhibited the superiority of the PEMFC system. (author)

  11. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw. PMID:26289326

  12. Investigations about co-firing of herbaceous biomass in an integrated gasification combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations about co-firing of herbaceous biomass in an integrated gasification combined cycle were discussed in this presentation. The approach was presented, with particular reference to geographic information system analysis; gasification experiments with grass as fuel; and combustion experiments with product gas-natural mixtures. Specific topics that were discussed included carbon dioxide mitigation via co-firing of biomass; fuel quality requirements for gas turbines; optically accessible combustion test rig; and results for flame speed and nitrogen oxide emissions. It was concluded that grass is an available fuel for gasification. The gasification experiments proved that stable operation is possible at certain conditions. tabs., figs.

  13. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-30

    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  14. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs

  16. A simulation study on the torrefied biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model for raw and torrefied biomass with thermodynamic analysis. • Experimental pyrolysis yields including tar as inputs to the model. • Equivalence ratio had the most pronounced effect on the model outcomes. • Torrefied biomass gave higher H2 and CO contents and energy and exergy efficiencies. • Torrefaction mass yields affect the gasification process efficiency. - Abstract: Many studies have evaluated biomass behavior in a gasification process. Similar studies with torrefied biomass are needed to evaluate the improvements in biomass properties with torrefaction. This forms the basis of this study. A two-stage biomass gasification model is presented by using Aspen Plus as the simulation and modeling tool. The model included the minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the produced gas to achieve chemical equilibrium in the process, constrained by mass and energy balances for the system. Air and steam were used as the oxidizing agent in the process that uses both untreated and torrefied biomass as feedstocks. Three process parameters, equivalence ratio (ER), Gibbs reactor temperature and steam-to-biomass ratio (SBR), were studied. 27 cases were included in the analysis by operating the system below the carbon deposition boundary with all carbon in gaseous form in the product gas. Product gas composition in the form of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrogen (N2) was analyzed together with cold gas energy and exergy efficiencies for all the cases. Overall, mole fractions of H2, CO, CO2 and N2 were between 0.23–0.40, 0.22–0.42, 0.01–0.09 and 0.14–0.36 for torrefied wood and 0.21–0.40, 0.17–0.34, 0.03–0.09 and 0.15–0.37 for untreated wood, respectively. Similarly, cold gas energy and exergy efficiencies were between 76.1–97.9% and 68.3–85.8% for torrefied wood and 67.9–91.0% and 60.7–79.4% for untreated wood, respectively. Torrefied biomass has higher H2 and CO

  17. Biomass gasification systems in electric energy generation for isolated communities; Sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa na geracao de energia eletrica para comunidades isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortine Gonzales; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Basaglia, Fernando [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: omartins@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sandra@iee.usp.br, e-mail: basaglia@iee.usp.br; Ushima, Ademar Hakuo [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adidas@ipt.br

    2004-07-01

    The project 'Comparison Among Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification', agreement FINEP/CT-ENERG 23.01.0695.00, is a partnership between CENBIO - The Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass, BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil, IPT - Technology Research Institute and UA - Amazon University. The main objective of this project is to study a biomass gasifier system and its implantation, using a sustainable way, at isolated communities in the North Region, offering an alternative to replace fossil fuel. The system is composed by a gasifier from Indian Institute of Science - IISc, that can generate 20 kW of output energy, a generator (internal combustion engine), an ashes extractor, a water cooler and treatment system, a dryer and a control panel. The project, developed at IPT, intends to evaluate the operation conditions of the gasification system: gas cleaning, electric power generation and the technology transfer to Brazil, allowing the formation of human resources in the Brazilian North region and collaborating with the national institutions from this area. (author)

  18. Biomass char as an in-situ catalyst for tar removal in gasification systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu El-Rub, Ziad Yousef Kamel

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of biomass to the world’s energy supply is presently estimated to be around 10 to 14 %. The European Union set a firm target of cutting 20% of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 - the EU will be willing to put this goal up to 30% if the US, China and India make similar commit

  19. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas......Wh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214$/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity...

  20. Gasification of fuel blends from biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Arne [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    2000-04-01

    Pressurized air-blown fluidized-bed gasification of biomass and biomass-based fuel blends were carried out at LTH. The operation was stable and smooth. The fluidized-bed functioned well in keeping a stable gasification and homogeneous conditions along the reactor. Parameters, such as the equivalent ratio, the bed temperature and the freeboard temperature were studied. It was found that the equivalent ratio was the dominant factor when the carbon conversion was complete. The energy content of the fuel gas, the fuel gas production, and the amount of tar and LHCs increased with decreasing equivalent ratio. Low freeboard and bed temperatures can lead to low carbon conversion and low gasification efficiency. Below 100% carbon conversion, the fuel-N conversion to ammonia increased with increasing reactor temperature. The tendency was similar for the carbon conversion to gas, but it was more pronounced. A high reactor temperature helped to reduce the amount of LHCs and tar in the fuel gas. Fuel blends with plastic or carton waste in biomass were successfully gasified. A waste fraction of 20% was found practical. Higher ratio may cause blocking in the feeding system for carton and demand special care to control the equivalent ratio for plastics. No melting problem was observed for plastics. The product gas quality was not much affected by adding the wastes. No clear increase of the chlorine content in the fuel gas was observed. However mixing of plastics greatly increased the amounts of LHCs and tar in the fuel gas. In general, introducing a small amount of plastic and carton wastes into biomass gasification will not require much change in the gasification system. This gives rise to the possibility of co-gasifying wastes in an ordinary biomass gasifier. From lab-scale experiments, a model for ammonia decomposition was proposed. A Ni-based catalyst was chosen to be applied for the fuel gas from the gasifier. At 800-900 deg C, and 3-sec space-time, 65-95% ammonia removal and

  1. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Chong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass

  2. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  3. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC36-03GO13175) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. The primary objectives of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time gas analyses to suitably conditioned syngas streams. A review was conducted of sampling options, available analysis technologies, and commercially available analyzers, that could be successfully applied to the challenging task of on-line syngas characterization. The majority of thermochemical process streams comprise multicomponent gas mixtures that, prior to crucial, sequential cleanup procedures, include high concentrations of condensable species, multiple contaminants, and are often produced at high temperatures and pressures. Consequently, GTI engaged in a concurrent effort under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175 to develop the means to deliver suitably prepared, continuous streams of extracted syngas to a variety of on-line gas analyzers. The review of candidate analysis technology

  4. Gasification of biomass - principles and technical alternatives; Vergasung von Biomassen - Prinzipien und technische Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The technical principles of gasification are outlined, and a number of biomass gasification processes are presented and compared with the coal gasification process. On the basis of the knowledge gained in coal gasification, it will be easy to carry out the development work still required on small-scale biomass gasification systems in cooperation with the gas users. (orig) [Deutsch] Das technische Prinzip derVergasung und verschiedene Verfahrensweisen bei der Vergasung von Biomasse werden vorgestellt und mit der Kohlevergasung verglichen. Auf der Grundlage der technischen Erkenntnisse bei der Kohlevergasung einschliesslich der vor- und nachgeschalteten Prozessstufen sind die noch notwendigen verfahrens- und apparatetechnischen Entwicklungsarbeiten fuer vorwiegend kleine Anlagen in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gasnutzern durchfuehrbar. (orig)

  5. Biomass gasification: the understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly alternatives to conventional petrochemical fuels for the production of electricity, hydrogen, synthetic transportation biofuels and other chemicals. The product gas normally contains the major compon...

  6. Comparative evaluation of power generation systems with integrated gasification of biomass; Vergleich von Systemen zur Stromerzeugung mit integrierter Biomassevergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Gasification of biomass followed by power generation from the lean product gas can make a significant contribution to power generation without affecting the climate or environment. It is made even more interesting by the high efficiencies and promising pollution ratings that can be achieved. To make full use of this technology, some technical problems still require solving, and some non-technical obstacles need to be removed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zusammenfassend kann festgehalten werden, dass die Biomassevergasung mit anschliessender Verstromung des Schwachgases einen nennenswerten Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energiebereitstellung in Europa leisten kann. Dies gilt insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund der erreichbaren hohen Stromwirkungsgrade und der vielversprechenden Umweltkenngroessen, durch die diese Technik gekennzeichnet ist. Um die Vorteile der Biomassevergasung realisieren zu koennen, muessen jedoch noch verschiedene technische Probleme geloest und nicht technische Hindernisse aus dem Weg geraeumt werden. (orig./SR)

  7. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-03GO13175 and DE-FC36-02GO12024) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. This multi-year effort to develop methods to effectively monitor gaseous species produced in thermochemical process streams resulted in a sampling and analysis approach that is continuous, sensitive, comprehensive, accurate, reliable, economical, and safe. The improved approach for sampling thermochemical processes that GTI developed and demonstrated in its series of field demonstrations successfully provides continuous transport of vapor-phase syngas streams extracted from the main gasification process stream to multiple, commercially available analyzers. The syngas stream is carefully managed through multiple steps to successfully convey it to the analyzers, while at the same time bringing the stream to temperature and pressure conditions that are compatible with the analyzers. The primary principle that guides the sample transport is that throughout the entire sampling train, the temperature of the syngas stream is maintained above the maximum condensation temperature

  8. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120 kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then utilized to feed the anode side of the SOFC stacks. A thermal efficiency of 0.424 LHV (lower heating value) for the plant is found to use 89.4 kg/h of feedstock to produce the above mentioned electricity. Thermoeconomic analysis shows that the production price of electricity is 0.1204 $/kWh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214 $/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity at a cost that is competitive with the corresponding renewable systems of the same size. - Highlights: • A 120 kWe integrated gasification SOFC–Stirling CHP is presented. • Effect of important parameters on plant characteristic and economy are studied. • A modest thermal efficiency of 0.41 is found after thermoeconomic optimization. • Reducing stack numbers cuts cost of electricity at expense of thermal efficiency. • The plant cost is estimated to be about 3433 $/kW when disposal costs are neglected

  9. Characterization of Residual Particulates from Biomass Entrained Flow Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Fæster, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Biomass gasification experiments were carried out in a bench scale entrained flow reactor, and the produced solid particles were collected by a cyclone and a metal filter for subsequent characterization. During wood gasification, the major part of the solid material collected in the filter is soot...

  10. High-temperature entrained flow gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2012-01-01

    Biomass (wood and straw) gasification has been studied in a laboratory scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of reaction temperature, steam/carbon molar ratio, excess air ratio, and biomass type on the solid, liquid and gas products were investigated. The biomass was completely...

  11. Biomass/coal steam co-gasification integrated with in-situ CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addressing recent environmental regulations on fossil fuel power systems and both biomass fuel supply and coal greenhouse gas issues, biomass/coal co-gasification could provide a feasible transition solution for power plants. In the quest for an even more sustainable process, steam co-gasification of switchgrass and coal was integrated with in-situ CO2 capture, with limestone as the bed material and sorbent. Five gasification/carbonation (at <700 °C) and calcination (at >850 °C) cycles were performed in an atmospheric pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. Hydrogen production was enhanced significantly (∼22%) due to partial adsorption of CO2 by the CaO sorbent, shifting the gasification reactions forward, consistent with Le Châtelier's principle. Tar yield measurements showed that reducing the gasification temperature could be achieved without experiencing higher tar yield, indicating that the lime has a catalytic effect. The sorbent particles decayed and lost their calcium utilization efficiency in the course of cycling due to sintering. The co-existence of three types of solids (biomass, coal, lime) with different particle properties led to bed segregation. An equilibrium model was found to be useful in design of lime-enhanced gasification systems. - Highlights: • Biomass/coal steam co-gasification was integrated with in-situ CO2 capture. • 5 gasification/carbonation (<700 °C) and calcination (>850 °C) cycles were performed. • Lime-enhanced co-gasification enhanced hydrogen production significantly (∼22%). • CaO decayed as an absorbent of CO2 due to sintering and some was lost by attrition. • Equilibrium models are useful in design of lime-enhanced gasification systems

  12. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  13. Evaluation of biomass gasification in a ternary diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper addresses the development of an alternative approach to illustrate biomass gasification in a ternary diagram which is constructed using data from thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of air-blown atmospheric wood gasification. It allows the location of operation domains of slagging entrained-flow, fluidized-bed/dry-ash entrained-flow and fixed/moving-bed gasification systems depending on technical limitations mainly due to ash melting behavior. Performance parameters, e.g. cold gas efficiency or specific syngas production, and process parameters such as temperature and carbon conversion are displayed in the diagram depending on the three independent mass flows representing (1) the gasifying agent, (2) the dry biomass and (3) the moisture content of the biomass. The graphical approach indicates the existence of maxima for cold gas efficiency (84.9%), syngas yield (1.35 m3 (H2 + CO STP)/kg (waf)) and conversion of carbon to CO (81.1%) under dry air-blown conditions. The fluidized-bed/dry-ash entrained-flow processes have the potential to reach these global maxima since they can operate in the identified temperature range from 700 to 950 °C. Although using air as a gasifying agent, the same temperature range posses a potential of H2/CO ratios up to 2.0 at specific syngas productions of 1.15 m3 (H2 + CO STP)/kg (waf). Fixed/moving-bed and fluidized-bed systems can approach a dry product gas LHV from 3.0 to 5.5 MJ/m3 (dry STP). The ternary diagram was also used to study the increase of gasifying agent oxygen fraction from 21 to 99 vol.%. While the dry gas LHV can be increased significantly, the maxima of cold gas efficiency (+6.5%) and syngas yield (+7.4%) are elevated only slightly. - Highlights: • Novel graphical approach for comprehensive assessment of biomass gasification. • Parameters fields for temperature, conversion, cold gas efficiency, syngas yield etc. • Identification of operation ranges for entrained, fluid and moving

  14. Wind Generator & Biomass No-draft Gasification Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthew R.

    The premise of this research is that underutilized but vast intermittent renewable energy resources, such as wind, can become more market competitive by coupling with storable renewable energy sources, like biomass; thereby creating a firm capacity resource. Specifically, the Midwest state of South Dakota has immense wind energy potential that is not used because of economic and logistic barriers of electrical transmission or storage. Coupling the state's intermittent wind resource with another of the state's energy resources, cellulosic non-food biomass, by using a wind generator and no-draft biomass gasification hybrid system will result in a energy source that is both firm and storable. The average energy content of common biomass feedstock was determined, 14.8 MJ/kg (7.153 Btu/lb), along with the assumed typical biomass conversion efficiency of the no-draft gasifier, 65%, so that an average electrical energy round trip efficiency (RTE) of 214% can be expected (i.e. One unit of wind electrical energy can produce 2.14 kWh of electrical energy stored as syngas.) from a wind generator and no-draft biomass gasification system. Wind characteristics are site specific so this analysis utilizes a synthetic wind resource to represent a statistically sound gross representation of South Dakota's wind regime based on data from the Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN) locations. A synthetic wind turbine generated from common wind turbine power curves and scaled to 1-MW rated capacity was utilized for this analysis in order to remove equipment bias from the results. A standard 8,760-hour BIN Analysis model was constructed within HOMER, powerful simulation software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to model the performance of renewable power systems. It was found that the optimum configuration on a per-megawatt-transmitted basis required a wind generator (wind farm) rated capacity of 3-MW with an anticipated annual biomass feedstock of 26,132 GJ

  15. Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Tony

    2011-12-15

    Technology for thermal gasification of biomass is one of the key elements to make the vision of an energy system without fossil fuels a reality. Gasification technology can enhance the flexibility needed to maintain a future energy system with a large share of wind power. Furthermore, gasification has advantages in terms of ash recycling and utilisation of vast but challenging biomass residues. Danish companies are globally well advanced with this technology and the market for gasification technology is great in both Denmark and abroad. There is a clear need for targeted technology RD and D in order to reach the last stretch to a commercial breakthrough. The project ''Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark'' is the Danish industrys contribution to the development of biomass gasification and goes into detail with the RD and D needs. The project has been conducted by FORCE Technology for DI Bioenergy with funding from EUDP, Energinet.dk, DI Bioenergy and FORCE Technology and five stakeholder companies. (LN)

  16. Electric power generation using biomass gasification systems in nature in isolated communities of the Amazon region: project GASEIBRAS; Geracao de eletricidade utilizando sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa in natura em comunidades isoladas da regiao amazonica: projeto GASEIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortini Goncalves; Santos, Sandra M. Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, sandra@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper will present the pioneering project of electric energy generation from renewable sources 'GASEIBRAS - Nationalization of the Biomass Gasification Technology and Formation of Human Resources in the Amazon Region', recently approved by the National Advice of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and for the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The GASEIBRAS project intends to use the experience previously acquired in the project GASEIFAMAZ - Comparison between Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification in Brazil and Exterior and Formation of Human Resources in the North Region, sponsored by FINEP/CTENERG, to develop and construct a 20 kWe biomass gasification system, with total national technology, easy to operate and to maintain, and fed with local available biomass residues. Apart from contributing for the development of the national technology, this project will provide the sustainable development of the isolated communities in the Amazon region. The ongoing development of this project will enable to consolidate the national biomass gasification technology for electricity generation. The implemented prototype will allow the response of this project in other regions of the country, due its tailor made characteristic to attend to small isolated communities, thus supplying decentralized energy from renewable sources, to Amazon region. (author)

  17. Feasibility study on combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to increase the production of biomethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification are integrated. • The novel concept can produce much more biomethane. • The novel concept can improve the exergy efficiency. • The novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. - Abstract: There is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. A new concept is proposed to combine anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to produce biomethane. H2 is separated from the syngas generated by biomass gasification in a membrane system, and then is used to upgrade raw biogas from anaerobic digestion. Simulations have been conducted based on the real operation data of one full scale biogas plant and one full scale biomass gasification plant in order to investigate the feasibility of the new concept. Results show that although less power and heat are generated compared to the gasification plant, which results in a lower overall efficiency, much more biomethane can be produced than the biogas plant; and the new concept can achieve a higher exergy efficiency. Due to the increasing price of biomethane, the novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. For example, at a biomethane price of 12.74SEK/kg, the annual income can be increased by 5.3% compared to the total income of the biogas and gasification plant

  18. Evaluation of supercritical water gasification and biomethanation for wet biomass utilization in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Two wet biomass gasification processes, supercritical water gasification and biomethanation, were evaluated from energy, environmental, and economic aspects. Gasification of 1 dry-t/d of water hyacinth was taken as a model case. Assumptions were made that system should be energetically independent, that no environmentally harmful material should be released, and that carbon dioxide should be removed from the product gas. Energy efficiency, carbon dioxide payback time, and price of the product gas were chosen as indices for energy, environmental, and economic evaluations, respectively. Under the conditions assumed here, supercritical water gasifications is evaluated to be more advantageous over biomethanation, but the cost of the product gas is still 1.86 times more expensive than city gas in Tokyo. To improve efficiency of supercritical water gasification, improvement of heat exchanger efficiency is effective. Utilization of fermentation sludge will make biomethanation much more advantageous. (Author)

  19. Biomass gasification project WKK2013 Unterpremstaetten; Biomassevergasungsprojekt WKK2013 Unterpremstaetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiler, Erwin [oeCompany - Renewable Energy Consulting Dr. Greiler, Graz (Austria)

    2013-10-01

    The biomass gasification project WKK1013 Unterpremstaetten consists of two biomass gasification plants working with the principle of downdraft gasification. These include two combined heat and power (CHP) plants for energetic wood gas usage. Those produce, with the aid of woodchips as biomass, solid fuel in a very ecofriendly way. From an economical aspect 100% of the heat requirement(eco-heat) and around 60 to 70% of the power demand (eco-power) of an in 2012/2013 constructed low-energy housing estate within the market town Unterpremstaetten near Graz is being produced. (Styria/Austria). The complete heat loss of the thermal power stations is being saved with two hot water tanks with a capacity of 5.000 l each. The housing area was build by the low-energy house standards and are among other things equipped with an electric vehicle charging station. (orig.)

  20. Development of an optimized conceptual plant design for supercritical water gasification of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Magdeldin Abdelwahed, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification, SCWG as a mean for hydrothermal processing of biomass, has illustrated the potential to counter technical barriers that continue to face the wide deployment of biomass based energy systems. The advantageous varying chemical and physical properties of water around the pseudo critical point allow for energetic efficient recovery of the organic constituents in solid biomass. This research provides a systematic approach to fill the knowledge gap for upscaling the...

  1. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  2. JV Task 46 - Development and Testing of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Hutton; Nikhil Patel; Kyle Martin; Devinder Singh

    2008-02-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has designed a biomass power system using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermally integrated with a downdraft gasifier. In this system, the high-temperature effluent from the SOFC enables the operation of a substoichiometric air downdraft gasifier at an elevated temperature (1000 C). At this temperature, moisture in the biomass acts as an essential carbon-gasifying medium, reducing the equivalence ratio at which the gasifier can operate with complete carbon conversion. Calculations show gross conversion efficiencies up to 45% (higher heating value) for biomass moisture levels up to 40% (wt basis). Experimental work on a bench-scale gasifier demonstrated increased tar cracking within the gasifier and increased energy density of the resultant syngas. A series of experiments on wood chips demonstrated tar output in the range of 9.9 and 234 mg/m{sup 3}. Both button cells and a 100-watt stack was tested on syngas from the gasifier. Both achieved steady-state operation with a 22% and 15% drop in performance, respectively, relative to pure hydrogen. In addition, tar tolerance testing on button cells demonstrated an upper limit of tar tolerance of approximately 1%, well above the tar output of the gasifier. The predicted system efficiency was revised down to 33% gross and 27% net system efficiency because of the results of the gasifier and fuel cell experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of thermally integrating a gasifier and a high-temperature fuel cell in small distributed power systems.

  3. Use of farm waste biomass in the process of gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechocki, J. [Warmia and Mazury Univ., Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The process of gasification of waste biomass from farm production was examined along with the energy balance of the process. A newly developed biomass gasification technology that uses manure from poultry farms as the input material was shown to meet all environmental requirements. The gas was purified in a membrane process to increase its calorific value. The gas was then used in an internal combustion engine powering a current generating system to produce electricity and heat in a combined heat and power system (CHP).

  4. Production of electricity through biomass gasification system downdraft and generator group with a capacity of 50 kVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízio Luiz Figueiredo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests performed with an internal combustion engine adapted to MWM Otto cycle, coupled to an electricity generator with a capacity of 50 kVA, fed exclusively with synthesis gas from a biomass gasifier downdraft, using wood eucalyptus. Also featured are the characteristics and efficiency of the generator set, in order to assess the feasibility of applying the system in remote locations, where biomass is available and the system of conventional electric power transmission is hampered by distance. The synthesis gas generated showed the average composition of 16,9% H2, 20% CO, 10,9% CO2, CH4, 2% and 50,1% N2. The performance of the span was monitored by applying loads of 0, 7, 13, 20,1 and 26,4 kW, the generator, keeping the average voltage of 222 V and currents of 0, 18,5, 33, 51, 84 and 67 A.

  5. Improvement of biomass char-CO2 gasification reactivity using microwave irradiation and natural catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study microwave-induced gasification of EFB ash-loaded biomass char with CO2. • Synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst resulted in CO2 conversion of 93%. • Gasification of pristine char using conventional heating gives CO2 conversion of 58%. • Ea of 74 and 247 kJ/mol were obtained for microwave and conventional CO2 gasification. - Abstract: In char-CO2 gasification, the highly endothermic nature of the Boudouard reaction (CO2 (g) + C (s) ↔ 2CO (g)) dictates use of very high temperatures to shift the equilibrium towards CO production. In this study, such high temperature (750–900 °C) was provided by microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to perform the gasification tests by passing CO2 through a packed bed of oil palm shell (OPS) char. In order to speed up the microwave-induced CO2 gasification, ash of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was used as natural catalyst (rich in potassium) and incorporated into the skeleton of the OPS char. The synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst concluded to very encouraging results, where a CO2 conversion of 93% was achieved at 900 °C, within 60 min microwave gasification. In comparison, CO2 conversion in thermal gasification (conventional heating) of pristine OPS char was only 58% under the same operating condition

  6. Improvement of biomass char-CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity using microwave irradiation and natural catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahijani, Pooya, E-mail: pooya.lahijani@gmail.com [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohammadi, Maedeh, E-mail: m.mohammadi@nit.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, 47148 Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin, E-mail: mezainal@eng.usm.my [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, E-mail: chrahman@usm.my [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • We study microwave-induced gasification of EFB ash-loaded biomass char with CO{sub 2}. • Synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst resulted in CO{sub 2} conversion of 93%. • Gasification of pristine char using conventional heating gives CO{sub 2} conversion of 58%. • E{sub a} of 74 and 247 kJ/mol were obtained for microwave and conventional CO{sub 2} gasification. - Abstract: In char-CO{sub 2} gasification, the highly endothermic nature of the Boudouard reaction (CO{sub 2} (g) + C (s) ↔ 2CO (g)) dictates use of very high temperatures to shift the equilibrium towards CO production. In this study, such high temperature (750–900 °C) was provided by microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to perform the gasification tests by passing CO{sub 2} through a packed bed of oil palm shell (OPS) char. In order to speed up the microwave-induced CO{sub 2} gasification, ash of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was used as natural catalyst (rich in potassium) and incorporated into the skeleton of the OPS char. The synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst concluded to very encouraging results, where a CO{sub 2} conversion of 93% was achieved at 900 °C, within 60 min microwave gasification. In comparison, CO{sub 2} conversion in thermal gasification (conventional heating) of pristine OPS char was only 58% under the same operating condition.

  7. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  8. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of biomass gasification with CO2 recycle for synthesis gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cold gas efficiency does not take system energy into account, another factor is proposed. • Recycled CO2 improves efficiency and CO2 per syngas production at some operating conditions. • Optimum CO2/C is around 0.1–0.2 for pressurized and low temperature gasification. - Abstract: Thermodynamic analysis of biomass gasification with recycled CO2 was investigated in this work to determine optimum operation mode and CO2/C ratio. Gasification System Efficiency (GSE), which takes into account the energy demand in the system, and CO2 emission per syngas production (CO2/Sg) were calculated to evaluate the performance of the gasification system. Considering the production of syngas at a H2/CO ratio of 1.5, it was revealed that indirect gasification using biomass as fuel is the most efficient and environmental-friendly operation mode. The recycled CO2 proves to increase syngas production. However, when considering the additional energy demand required for processing the CO2 recycle, it was demonstrated that there are only some ranges of operating conditions (high pressure and low temperature) which offer the benefit of the CO2 recycle. The optimum CO2/C was reported to be around 0.1–0.2 for pressurized and low temperature gasification

  10. Pretreatment and Feeding of Biomass for Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Hartman, Miloslav; Martinec, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2009), s. 629-635. ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720701 Grant ostatní: RFCS(XE) CT/2007/00005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biomass * feeding * gasification Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2009

  11. Power generation from biomass (with special emphasis on gasification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological, social, economic and environmental aspects of power generation from biomass (through gasification process) are discussed with special reference to India. Resource base for biomass is mainly formed of agricultural residues, agro-industrial residues and energy plantations. It is shown that in India power generation potential of biomass will be of the order of 61 x 109 kilowatt-hours/yr i.e. more than 10,000 MW of installed capacity of thermal power plants by the year 2000. Aerobic digestion, combustion and gasification technologies are used for biomass conversion. Out of these, gasification is of special relevance to a country like India, because it has a wide range of applications and can be used on decentralised small scale level as well as on centralised large scale level. Cost of power from biomass for irrigation pumpsets, village electrification and captive power units for industries is given. Finally social benefits and positive environmental impacts of power from biomass are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  12. Hydrogen production from marine biomass by hydrothermal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Supercritical water gasification of Posidonia oceanica was studied. • The output was mainly composed of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide. • Maximum hydrogen yield was obtained with biomass loading of 0.08 (g/mL) at 600 °C. • Maximum hydrogen and methane yields were 10.37 and 6.34 mol/kg, respectively. • The results propose an alternative solution to the landfill of marine biomass. - Abstract: The hydrothermal gasification of Posidonia oceanica was investigated in a batch reactor without adding any catalysts. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 300–600 °C with different biomass loading ranges of 0.04–0.12 (g/mL) in the reaction time of 1 h. The product gas was composed of hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and a small amount of C2–C4 compounds. The results showed that the formation of gaseous products, gasification efficiency and yield distribution of produced gases were intensively affected by biomass loading and temperature. The yields of hydrogen (10.37 mol/kg) and methane (6.34 mol/kg) were attained at 600 °C using biomass loading of 0.08 (g/mL). The results are very promising in terms of deployment of the utilization of marine biomass for hydrogen and/or methane production to industrial scale applications, thereby proposing an alternative solution to the landfill of P. oceanica residues

  13. Biomass Gasification Behavior in an Entrained Flow Reactor: Gas Product Distribution and Soot Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Lin, Weigang;

    2012-01-01

    Biomass gasification and pyrolysis were studied in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of operating parameters and biomass types on the syngas composition were investigated. In general, the carbon conversion during biomass gasification was higher than 90% at th...... increased both the H2 and CO yields. Wood, straw, and dried lignin had similar gasification behavior, except with regard to soot formation. The soot yield was lowest during straw gasification possibly because of its high potassium content....

  14. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

  15. Hydrogen production from co-gasification of coal and biomass in supercritical water by continuous flow thermal-catalytic reaction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qiuhui; GUO Liejin; LIANG Xing; ZHANG Ximin

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is a clean energy carrier.Converting abundant coal sources and green biomass energy into hydrogen effectively and without any pollution promotes environmental protection.The co-gasification performance of coal and a model compound of biomass,carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)in supercritical water (SCW),were investigated experimentally.The influences of temperature,pressure and concentration on hydrogen production from co-gasification of coal and CMC in SCW under the given conditions (20-25 MPa,650℃,15-30 s) are discussed in detail.The experimental results show that H2,CO2 and CH4 are the main gas products,and the molar fraction of hydrogen reaches in excess of 60%.The higher pressure and higher CMC content facilitate hydrogen production;production is decreased remarkably given a longer residence time.

  16. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  17. Performance of HT-WGS Catalysts for Upgrading of Syngas Obtained from Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano Bujan, M.; Sanchez Hervas, J. M.

    2009-05-21

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology is being investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which has started in September 2004 and has a duration of five years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participates in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the period 2005-2007 regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification. (Author) 28 refs.

  18. Screening of various low-grade biomass materials for low temperature gasification: Method development and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Ravenni, Giulia; Holm, Jens Kai; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at identifying potential low-grade biomass fuels for a near future Danish CHP system encompassing pretreatment of these fuels by Pyroneer gasification for subsequent conversion of the gas in existing coal-fired boilers. The focus of the work is on development of a suitable screening...

  19. Experimental investigations of biomass gasification with carbon-dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Indraneel

    A sustainable energy cycle may include enhanced utilization of solar energy and atmospheric CO2 to produce biomass and enhanced utilization of exhaust CO2 from power plants for synthetic gas production. The reaction of carbon with CO2 is potentially one of the important processes in a future sustainable carbon cycle. Reactions involving carbon and CO2 are also relevant to the chemical process and metal industries. Biomass char has been recognized as a present and future alternative to fossil-fuels for energy production and fuel synthesis. Therefore, biomass char gasification with CO2 recycling is proposed as a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy technology. Biomass char is a complex porous solid and its gasification involves heat and mass transfer processes within pores of multiple sizes from nanometer to millimeter scales. These processes are coupled with heterogeneous chemistry at the internal and external surfaces. Rates for the heterogeneous carbon gasification reactions are affected by inorganic content of the char. Furthermore, pore structure of the char develops with conversion and influences apparent gasification rates. Effective modeling of the gasification reactions has relied on the best available understanding of diffusion processes and kinetic rate property constants from state of the art experiments. Improvement of the influences of inorganic composition, and process parameters, such as pressure and temperature on the gasification reaction rates has been a continuous process. Economic viability of gasification relies on use of optimum catalysts. These aspects of the current status of gasification technologies have motivated the work reported in this dissertation. The reactions between biomass chars and CO2 are investigated to determine the effects of temperature and pressure on the reaction rates for large char particles of relevance to practical gasification technologies. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor

  20. Wood into the natural gas distribution system. Sweden and Finland as a pioneer for the gasification of biomass; Holz ins Gasnetz. Schweden und Finnland als Vorreiter fuer Grossanlagen zur Biomasse-Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Right now, the thermochemical gasification of biomass and waste is developed on many fronts due to the manifold and attractive options. In Lahti (Finland) a large plant for waste incineration already has gone into operation. A plant for energy production from biomethane from wood is currently being built in Gothenburg (Sweden).

  1. Co-combustion and gasification of various biomasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutanen, K. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Varkaus (Finland). Ahlstrom Pyropower

    1996-12-31

    During the last twenty years the development of fluidized bed combustion and gasification technology has made it possible to increase significantly utilisation of various biomasses in power and heat generation. The forerunner was the pulp and paper industry that has an adequate biomass fuel supply and energy demand on site. Later on municipalities and even utilities have seen biomass as a potential fuel. The range of available biomasses includes wood-based fuels and wastes like bark, wood chips, and saw dust, agricultural wastes like straw, olive waste and rice husk, sludges from paper mills and de-inking plants, other wastes like municipal sludges, waste paper and RDF. Recently new environmental regulations and taxation of fossil fuels have further increased interest in the use of biomasses in energy generation. However, in many cases available quantities and/or qualities of biomasses are not adequate for only biomass-based energy generation in an economic sense. On the other hand plant owners want to maintain a high level of fuel flexibility and fuel supply security. In some cases disposing by burning is the only feasible way to handle certain wastes. In many cases the only way to fulfil these targets and utilize the energy is to apply co-combustion or gasification of different fuels and wastes. Due to the fact that fluidized bed combustion technology offers a very high fuel flexibility and high combustion efficiency with low emissions it has become the dominating technology in co-combustion applications. This presentation will present Alhstrom`s experiences in co-combustion of biomasses in bubbling beds and Ahlstrom Pyroflow circulating fluidized beds based on about 200 operating references worldwide. CFB gasification will also be discussed 9 refs.

  2. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  3. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  4. Implementation of the biomass gasification project for community empowerment at Melani village, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamphweli, Ntshengedzeni S.; Meyer, Edson L. [University of Fort Hare, Institute of Technology, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    Eskom and the University of Fort Hare are engaged in a biomass gasification project using the System Johansson Biomass gasifier (SJBG). The SJBG installed at Melani village in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa is used to assess the viability and affordability of biomass gasification in South Africa. A community needs assessment study was undertaken at the village before the installation of the plant. The study revealed the need for low-cost electricity for small businesses including growing of crops, chicken broilers, manufacturing of windows and door frames, sewing of clothing, bakery etc. It was also found that the community had a problem with the socio-environmental aspects of burning biomass waste from the sawmill furnace as a means of waste management. The SJBG uses the excess biomass materials (waste) to generate low-cost electricity to drive community economic development initiatives. A study on the properties and suitability of the biomass materials resulting from sawmill operation and their suitability for gasification using the SJBG was undertaken. The study established that the biomass materials meet the requirements for the SJBG. A 300 Nm{sup 3}/h SJBG was then manufactured and installed at the village. (author)

  5. Biomass Gasification in Thermal Plasma Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konrád, Miloš; Hrabovský, Milan; Hlína, Michal; Kopecký, Vladimír

    Bratislava: Comenius University Bratislava, 2009 - (Papp, P.; Országh, J.; Matúška, J.; Matejčík, Š.), s. 115-116 ISBN 978-80-89186-45-7. [Symposium on Application of Plasma Processes/17th./. Liptovský Ján (SK), 17.01.2009-22.01.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084; GA MPO FT-TA4/050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * gasification * syngas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  6. Biogenic methane from hydrothermal gasification of biomass; Biogenes Methan durch hydrothermale Vergasung von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.; Vogel, F.

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done in the area of gasification of biomass. The use of dung, manure and sewage sludge as sources of energy is described and discussed. Hydrothermal gasification is proposed as an alternative to conventional gas-phase processes. The aim of the project in this respect is discussed. Here, a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously operating plant on a laboratory scale is being looked at. Difficulties encountered in preliminary tests are discussed. Long-term catalyst stability and the installations for the demonstration of the process are discussed, and gasification tests with ethanol are commented on.

  7. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  8. Carbonaceous residues from biomass gasification as catalysts for biodiesel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael Luque; Antonio Pineda; Juan C. Colmenares; Juan M. Campelo; Antonio A. Romero; Juan Carlos Serrano-Ruiz; Luisa F. Cabeza; Jaime Cot-Gores

    2012-01-01

    Tars and alkali ashes from biomass gasification processes currently constitute one of the major problems in biomass valorisation,generating clogging of filters and issues related with the purity of syngas production.To date,these waste residues find no useful applications and they are generally disposed upon generation in the gasification process.A detailed analysis of these residues pointed out the presence of high quantities of Ca (>30 wt%).TG experiments indicated that a treatment under air at moderate temperatures (400-800 ℃) decomposed the majority of carbon species,while XRD indicated the presence of a crystalline CaO phase.CaO enriched valorized materials turned out to be good heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils,providing moderate to good activities (50%-70% after 12 h) to fatty acid methyl esters in the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol.

  9. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  10. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  11. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  12. Properties of synthetic gas produced by plasma gasification of biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Michal; Hrabovský, Milan; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Kavka, Tetyana; Lorcet, H.

    Greifswald: INP Greifswald, 2010, s. 452-455. ISBN 0-9539105-4-7. [International Conference on Gas Discharges and Their Applications (GD 2010)/18th./. Greifswald (DE), 05.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084; GA MŠk MEB020814 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma * Gerdien arc * gasification * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  13. Integration of Biomass Gasification with High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Baxter, D.; Hunter, Ch.

    České Budějovice: Energy Consulting, 2003, s. 145-155. ISBN 80-239-1142-2. [International Conference of Central European Energy , Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources CEEERES'03 /2./. Prague (CZ), 10.11.2003-11.11.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : biomass * gasification * fuel cells Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Subramanian, Ramanathan [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rizeq, George [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Eiteneer, Boris [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ladd, David [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Vazquez, Arturo [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Anderson, Denise [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bates, Noel [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation

  15. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  16. Benefits of Allothermal Biomass Gasification for Co-Firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Vreugdenhil, B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Many countries have set obligations to reduce the CO2 emissions from coal fired boilers. Co-firing of biomass in existing coal fired power plants is an attractive solution to reduce CO2 emissions. Co-firing can be done by direct mixing of biomass with coal (direct co-firing) or by converting the biomass into a gas or liquid which is fired in a separate burner (indirect co-firing). Direct co-firing is a rather simple solution, but requires a high quality and expensive biomass fuel (e.g. wood pellets). Indirect co-firing requires an additional installation that converts the solid biomass into a gas or liquid, but has the advantage that it can handle a wide range of cheap biomass fuels (e.g. demolition wood) and most of the biomass ash components are separated from the gas before it enters the boiler. Separation of biomass ash can prevent fouling issues in the boiler. Indirect co-firing, using biomass gasification technology, is already common practice. In Geertruidenberg (the Netherlands) a 80 MWth Lurgi CFB gasifier produces gas from demolition wood which is co-fired in the Amer PC boiler. In Ruien (Belgium) a 50 MWth Foster Wheeler fluidized bed gasifier is in operation. The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) developed a 'second generation' allothermal gasifier called the MILENA gasifier. This gasifier has some major advantages over conventional fluidized bed gasifiers. The heating value of the produced gas is approximately 2.5 times higher than of gas produced by conventional bubbling / circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. This results in smaller adaptations to the membrane wall of the boiler for the gas injection, thus lower costs. A major disadvantage of most fluidized bed gasifiers is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Typical fuel conversions vary between 90 and 95%. The remaining combustible material, also containing most of the biomass ash components, is blown out of the gasifier and removed from the gas stream by a cyclone to

  17. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  18. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and transportat

  19. Pressurized gasification of biomass - complete power plant technology; Biomassan paineistettu kaasutus valmis voimalaitostekniikaksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virkkunen, L. [Enviropower Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    Enviropower Oy, which is an affiliate of Tampella Power Oy, has just finished a large gasification test program at the 20 MW test power plant situated at Tampere. Total amount of 3 000 m{sup 3} of finnish mixed wood chips were gasified during the tests in 1993. Enviropower has been the first which has gasified biomass using large-scale pressurized system. The technology can be applied both for biomass and coal. This so called multi-fuel boiler increases the possibilities to use biomass as fuels, and also improves the competitivity of it because it makes the merely utilization of biomass possible also in the coal fired power plants. Gasification technique, based on wood, waste wood and peat, will be commercialized fast in the plants which partially utilizes also other fuels than coal. The most economical way to increase the utilization of biomass is to gasify it with other fuels using the new technology. The gasification combined cycle power plant, based on pressurized fluidized bed gasification can coarsely be compared with common natural gas combined cycle power plants. Gas, produced by gasification from solid fuels, is used as fuel instead of natural gas. The process is very simple. Coal, waste wood, peat and other solid fuels are heated in a fluidized bed type pressurized reactor at the temperature of about one thousand degrees celsius, under the conditions in which the fuels are gasified. The sulfur, the dust and the other harmful compounds are removed from the product gas, and the clean gas is combusted in a gas turbine and the heat produced in the process is converted into electric power using heat recovery boiler and steam turbine

  20. Bio-syngas production from biomass catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising application for biomass is liquid fuel synthesis, such as methanol or dimethyl ether (DME). Previous studies have studied syngas production from biomass-derived char, oil and gas. This study intends to explore the technology of syngas production from direct biomass gasification, which may be more economically viable. The ratio of H2/CO is an important factor that affects the performance of this process. In this study, the characteristics of biomass gasification gas, such as H2/CO and tar yield, as well as its potential for liquid fuel synthesis is explored. A fluidized bed gasifier and a downstream fixed bed are employed as the reactors. Two kinds of catalysts: dolomite and nickel based catalyst are applied, and they are used in the fluidized bed and fixed bed, respectively. The gasifying agent used is an air-steam mixture. The main variables studied are temperature and weight hourly space velocity in the fixed bed reactor. Over the ranges of operating conditions examined, the maximum H2 content reaches 52.47 vol%, while the ratio of H2/CO varies between 1.87 and 4.45. The results indicate that an appropriate temperature (750 oC for the current study) and more catalyst are favorable for getting a higher H2/CO ratio. Using a simple first order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, the apparent activation energies and pre-exponential factors are obtained for nickel based catalysts. The results indicate that biomass gasification gas has great potential for liquid fuel synthesis after further processing

  1. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    OpenAIRE

    Nanou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and transportation. In The Netherlands, the contribution of natural gas to the primary energy consumption is almost 50% (Source: Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands [ECN]) and it is a fuel with a well-devel...

  2. Biomass gasification cogeneration – A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable resource from which a broad variety of commodities can be produced. However, the resource is scarce and must be used with care to avoid depleting future stock possibilities. Flexibility and efficiency in production are key characteristics for biomass conversion technologies...... in future energy systems. Thermal gasification of biomass is proved throughout this article to be both highly flexible and efficient if used optimally. Cogeneration processes with production of heat-and-power, heat-power-and-fuel or heat-power-and-fertilizer are described and compared. The following....../MGT or catalytic fuel synthesis....

  3. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  4. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. PMID:24880809

  5. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier

    2008-09-15

    Gasification is considered one of the most promising technologies in biomass applications. The higher efficiency compared to boiler power systems, the perspectives in fuel synthesis and its environmental friendly features are some examples of its potential. Biomass gasification has evolved since its first applications, but it has not been possible to reach a solid commercial stage, except during periods of crises and only for some specific applications. Meanwhile, other gasification technologies, fed by fossil fuels, are currently widely used on industrial scales. This thesis aims to analyze the knowledge development and diffusion patterns of the biomass gasification technology since 1970s in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden. Additionally, it seeks to identify the factors that strengthen and weaken the learning process. Finally, the concept of learning curve will be used to numerically assess the rate of learning in small scale biomass gasification for electricity generation. The feasibility of various future scenarios will be evaluated in order to know what is the likelihood for the technology to become competitive in the short term. To do so, the historical evolution of biomass gasification in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden has been analyzed. These countries have been selected due to the increasing number of ongoing projects and initiatives since 1970. Subsequently, the development of this technology has been encouraged by two historical facts. Initially, the price of fossil fuels grew in 1973 and 1979 enhancing the interest for biomass gasification as a future alternative. Afterwards, the willingness, shown by the mentioned countries, to reduce greenhouse gases emissions following the Kyoto protocol has revived the interest in biomass gasification. However, none of these two events has driven this technology sufficiently to achieve a sustainable commercial status. In addition, small and large scale projects have followed different development processes

  6. Economic feasibility of biomass gasification for power generation in three selected communities of northwestern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass gasification is expected to be an attractive option among other competitive applications of biomass conversion for bio-energy. This study analyzes economic feasibility of biomass gasification power generating plants in three selected communities (Ignace, Nipigon and Kenora) of northwestern Ontario. The major variables considered in the model are harvesting and handling costs, logistic costs for biomass feedstock delivery and storage, capital costs of power plant by scales, operation and maintenance costs, labor costs, capital financing costs and other regulatory costs. GIS analysis was undertaken to estimate the distance class matrix to apportion the biomass feedstock supply side from different forest management units. Total cost per MW h power production at a 50 MW scale ranges from CAD 61.89 to CAD 63.79. Total cost per unit of electricity production decreases significantly as plant capacity increases due to economy of scale in the production system. Further, the locations of plants explained the cost variability. - Highlights: ► We model feasibility of gasification power plants in three rural communities. ► The variables considered in the model are logistics, operational and capital costs. ► Mean distance from each community to different forest units are estimated with GIS. ► Total cost per MWh at a 50 MW scale ranges from CAD 61.89 to CAD 63.79. ► Total cost decreases with increase in plant capacity.

  7. Process simulation of biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Wayne; Reynolds, Anthony; Kennedy, David

    2015-03-01

    Biomass gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (BG-SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are of major interest in the context of climate change mitigation, energy security and increasing energy efficiency. Aspen Plus is employed to simulate various BG-SOFC CHP systems. The aim of the research work is to investigate the technical feasibility of these systems and to study the influence of important operating parameters and examine integration options. Systems based on dual fluidised bed steam gasification and tubular SOFC technologies are modelled. The cathode recycle and electric heater integration options are not attractive in comparison to the base case anode recycle system. Thermal integration, i.e. using SOFC flue gas as gasifier oxidant, is desirable. Lowering the syngas preheat temperature (prior to SOFC anodes) is highly recommended and is more practical than lowering the cathode air preheat temperature. Results of the parametric study indicate that: steam to carbon ratio and biomass moisture content should be as low as possible; fuel utilisation factor can change the mode of operation of the plant (focus on electricity or heat); high temperature syngas cleaning is very attractive; gasification air preheating is more attractive than gasification steam superheating. High efficiencies are predicted, proving the technical feasibility of BG-SOFC CHP systems.

  8. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific

  9. Combined heat and power production through biomass gasification with 'Heatpipe-Reformer'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current report aims is to analyze the system for combined heat and power production through biomass gasification with “heatpipe-reformer” system. Special attention is paid on the process of synthetic gas production in the Reformer, its cleaning and further burning in the co-generation unit. A financial analysis is made regarding the investments and profits generated by the combined heat and power production. (authors)

  10. Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by burning char in a separate combustion section of the gasifier and subsequently the heat is transferred to the gasification section. The advantages of indirect gasification are no syngas dilution with nitrogen and no external heat source required. The production process involves several process units, including biomass gasification, syngas cooler, cleaning and compression, methanation reactors and SNG conditioning. The process is simulated with a computer model using the flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus. The exergy analysis is performed for various operating conditions such as gasifier pressure, methanation pressure and temperature. The largest internal exergy losses occur in the gasifier followed by methanation and SNG conditioning. It is shown that exergetic efficiency of biomass-to-SNG process for woody biomass is higher than that for waste biomass. The exergetic efficiency for all biomass feedstock increases with gasification pressure, whereas the effects of methanation pressure and temperature are opposite for treated wood and waste biomass.

  11. Biomass Steam Gasification with In-Situ CO2 Capture for Enriched Hydrogen Gas Production: A Reaction Kinetics Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work. This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of hydrogen production process via biomass steam gasification with calcium oxide as sorbent in a gasifier. A modelling framework consisting of kinetics models for char gasification, methanation, Boudouard, methane reforming, water gas shift and carbonation reactions to represent the gasification and CO2 adsorption in the gasifier, is developed and implemented in MATLAB. The scope of the work includes an investigation of the influence of the temperature, steam/biomass ratio and sorbent/biomass ratio on the amount of hydrogen produced, product gas compositions and carbon conversion. The importance of different reactions involved in the process is also discussed. It is observed that hydrogen production and carbon conversion increase with increasing temperature and steam/biomass ratio. The model predicts a maximum hydrogen mole fraction in the product gas of 0.81 occurring at 950 K, steam/biomass ratio of 3.0 and sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.0. In addition, at sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.52, purity of H2 can be increased to 0.98 mole fraction with all CO2 present in the system adsorbed.

  12. Recent utility efforts to develop advanced gasification biomass power generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a status report on recent utility efforts to evaluate cost-effective opportunities for developing advanced gasification biomass power generation facilities and, in some cases, to actually begin developing the facilities. An overview is provided of national estimates of the potential for producing electricity from various biomass feedstocks. Major manufacturers of advanced gasification biomass power generation technologies are described. Major biomass power generation projects underway by utilities in the US are described. Significant issues affecting further commercialization of biomass gasification facilities are discussed and strategies for addressing the barriers are suggested

  13. A Medium-Scale 50 MW fuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri; Marko Amovic; Rolf Ljunggren; Klas Engvall

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MW fuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modificatio...

  14. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri; Marko Amovic; Rolf Ljunggren; Klas Engvall

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modificatio...

  15. Biomass gasification technology nationalization and human resources formation in North region: GASEIBRAS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sandra@iee.usp.br, e-mail: blora@iee.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Gasification systems already developed in Brazil are not adjusted to the electricity production at isolated communities, because this models that supply a gas with satisfactory properties to this end, are projected to operate with coal and not with biomass in natura, what implies in the biomass transformation in coal with all the environmental impacts and loss of thermodynamic income associates to this practical. These problems had been surpassed with the GASEIFAMAZ Project development realized by CENBIO in the last two years. The project, that it aimed to make possible the electricity supply expansion in communities without energy access in the country north region, consisted of two gasification systems importation from the Indian Institute of Science, tests accomplishment and its transference to an isolated community. (author)

  16. Biomass gasification as project for the rural development; A gaseificacao da biomassa como projeto para o desenvolvimento rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Cortes; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Angulo, Mario Barriga; Parodi, Fernando Aurelio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: mcortes@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; mariobarriga@hotmail.com; jambock@rocketmail.com

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the gasification of the biomass as a project for the rural development. Consider the biomass gasification as an sustainable alternative for energy generation, with low pollutant emission.

  17. Perspectives on gasification systems to produce energy carriers and other chemicals with low CO2 emissions : techno‐economic system analysis on current and advanced flexible thermo‐chemical conversion of fossil fuels and biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Meerman, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    To prevent dangerous climate change, the emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHG) need to be reduced. Two key mitigation options to reduce GHG involve a transition from the current fossil-fuel based infrastructure towards one based on renewable and the implementation of CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS). Gasification facilities could be attractive for both of these options. Gasification is a relatively new technology where carbonaceous feedstocks (including coal and biomass),...

  18. Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass for Fuel Gas Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Hlína, Michal; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Kavka, Tetyana; Chumak, Oleksiy; Mašláni, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3-4 (2009), s. 299-313. ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * plasma gasification * syngas * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2009 http://www.begellhouse.com/journals/57d172397126f956,5cbc272245f24168,0ac09d02537962cf.html

  19. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the

  20. Project on Biomass Gasification and Power Generation Wins BlueSky Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After a strict scrutiny by an international jury, a . system for biomass gasification and power generation developed by the CAS Guanzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) has been chosen as one of the eight winners of the BlueSky Award in 2005. The event was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Technology Promotion Center for Sustainable Development in Shenzhen, in south China's Guangdong Province.

  1. Defluidisation of fluidised beds during gasification of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defluidisation and agglomeration during fluidised bed gasification of biomass is analysed and discussed. It is argued that the agglomeration and defluidisation processes, in principle, closely resemble those that determine the behaviour of glass during glass processing. Crucial properties for working with glass melts are the viscosity, stickiness, surface tension, etc. It is, however, (very) difficult to theoretically quantify these properties through thermodynamics or other theoretical means. Hence it will be problematic to theoretically predict agglomeration and defluidisation. Models for predicting defluidisation must therefore probably be of an empirical nature. As a consequence of this, a number of fluidised bed gasification tests were empirically analysed with respect to defluidisation. In total 145 tests were evaluated; of these 51 defluidised or exhibited some kind of bed disturbance. A number of fuels and bed materials were included in the analysis using a multivariate statistical approach. Based on the analysis an empirical regression equation for predicting the defluidisation temperature during fluidised bed gasification is suggested. -- Highlights: → An empirical regression equation for predicting the defluidisation temperature is suggested. → Alkali and pressure lowers the defluidisation temperatures, whilst Ca and Mg has the opposite effect. → Magnesite as bed material relative to quartz or olivine sand increase defluidisation temperatures with more than 100 oC.

  2. Biomass gasification in Europe - status and perspectives; Vergasung von Biomasse in Europa - Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelbach, L.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification of biomass is a promising option, especially in the fields of waste management and power generation, but there are considerable economic and technical problems that must be solved first. A critical analysis of biomass gasification in Europe today shows that this technology is not marketable today and cannot contribute to environmentally acceptable power supply on a short-term basis. (orig) [Deutsch] Von allen Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse stellt die Technik der Vergasung insbesondere in den Bereichen Abfallentsorgung und Stromerzeugung eine vielversprechende Option dar. Einer weiteren Verbreitung dieser Technik stehen allerdings erhebliche wirtschaftliche und technische Probleme entgegen. Die kritische Analyse der derzeitigen Gegebenheiten der Biomassevergasung in Europa fuehrt zu dem Schluss, dass diese Technik noch nicht unmittelbar vor der Mrkteinfuehrung steht und somit kurzfristig keinen merklichen Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Europa leisten kann. (orig)

  3. Removal of ammonia from producer gas in biomass gasification: integration of gasification optimisation and hot catalytic gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongrapipat, Janjira; Saw, Woei-Lean; Pang, Shusheng [University of Canterbury, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2012-12-15

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is one of the main contaminants in the biomass gasification producer gas, which is undesirable in downstream applications, and thus must be removed. When the producer gas is used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, NH{sub 3} is the main precursor of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formed in gas turbine, whereas in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and in integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) technology, the NH{sub 3} gas poisons the catalysts employed. This paper presents a critical review on the recent development in the understanding of the NH{sub 3} formation in biomass gasification process and in the NH{sub 3} gas cleaning technologies. The NH{sub 3} gas concentration in the producer gas can firstly be reduced by the primary measures taken in the gasification process by operation optimisation and using in-bed catalytic materials. Further removal of the NH{sub 3} gas can be implemented by the secondary measures introduced in the post-gasification gas-cleaning process. Focus is given on the catalytic gas cleaning in the secondary measures and its advantages are analysed including energy efficiency, impacts on environment and recyclability of the catalyst. Based on the review, the most effective cleaning process is proposed with integration of both the primary and the secondary measures for application in a biomass gasification process. (orig.)

  4. Energetic use of wood and biomass by circulating fluidized bed gasification. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project's objective was the development and utilization of a biomass gasification process based on CFB-gasification with dry hot gas upgrading for IC-engine operation. Construction and operation of a test plant at pilot scale with 400 kW fuel input capacity. Development of a mathematical model for CFB-gasification. Reliable operation of CFB-gasifier, good results at partial load and good behaviour at changing the load. Air blown gasification of wood chips yielded lower heating values (LHV) up to 5500 kJ/m3 (s.T.p., dry) for the gas. Main attention to measures for tar removal. Target value was 3 (s.T.p.) for napthalene + PAH. Average amount of tar after CBF-gasifier at 3000-5000 mg/m3 (s.T.p.). Primary measures aiming at a decreased tar production were not suitable for achieving the target value. Several secondary measures were tested. Tars could almost completely be cracked or reformed by special catalysts. In continuous test runs of more than 100 h duration tar contents less than 50 mg/m3 were achieved. A scale up for a catalytic gas cleaning system based on the results is planned. Estimations of economics show the process concept to be advantegous for plants up to 30 MW fuel input capacity. Profitable costs for combined heat and power production from biomass can be expected. (orig.)

  5. Tar dewpoint analyser. For application in biomass gasification product gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project aims at the development of an analyser for the on-line measurement of tar dewpoints in biomass product gases. The work has been executed according to the project proposal. On basis of the specifications for the tar dewpoint analyser (TDA), an existing hydrocarbon dewpoint sensor was modified and a gas conditioning section was designed for tar dewpoint measurements. Preliminary laboratory tests with the gas conditioning section and dewpoint sensor were run to investigate the performance and fouling characteristics of the dewpoint sensor and the gas conditioning section. The TDA (gas conditioning section + sensor) was tested and validated downstream the laboratory scale BFB gasifier at ECN. Tar dewpoints between 25C and 170C could successfully be measured. After finishing the tests a pre design for a commercial analyser was made. Finally, the market for the TDA was identified and segmented in R and D groups, indirect co-combustion and stand-alone biomass gasification installations

  6. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to assess the competitiveness and market potential of small-scale power plant concepts based on biomass gasification and on diesel/gas engines, and to study the effect of process parameters on the efficiency of the circulating fluidized-bed gasifier and on the formation of tarry impurities. Alternative diesel/gas engine power plant concepts based on gasification in scale 6-50 MW{sub e} were assessed. In the basic version, where the electricity is generated only by the a diesel/gas engine, the efficiency level of 37 % is achieved in power generation. When steam cycle is added to the process the efficiency of power generation increases to 44-48 %. The efficiencies achieved in the process are very high compared with those of biomass power plant processes on a commercial level or under development. The most significant potential of biomass-based power generation is made up by wastes of sugar industries in south and Central America and in Asia. There are also very extensive growth potentials of bioenergy use in the NAFTA countries (USA, Canada and Mexico) and in Europe. In Europe, the bioenergy use is expected to grow most sharply in Italy, Spain, Germany and Poland. Carbon conversion obtained in the gasifier was in the range of 99.0-99.9 % for sawdust and 96-98 % for forest residue chips. The tar content of the product gas 10-15 g/m- m{sup 3}{sub n}, for sawdust in the gasification temperature of 830-930 deg C and with sand as circulating fluid-bed. When dolomite was used as circulating fluid-bed, the tar contents were 2-3 g/m{sup 3}{sub n} at as low temperatures as 880-890 deg C. The tar content of gas can be reduced sharply by phasing of gasification air and by using catalytic circulating fluid-bed material Bioenergy Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 Research Programme. 26 refs., 40 figs.

  7. Experimental study on application of high temperature reactor excess heat in the process of coal and biomass co-gasification to hydrogen-rich gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of the experimental study on the simulated application of HTR (High Temperature Reactor) excess heat in the process of allothermal co-gasification of coal and biomass. The laboratory scale installation with a fixed bed gasifier and auxiliary gasification agents pre-heating system, simulating the utilization of the HTR excess heat, were applied in the study. Steam and oxygen were the gasification media employed, and the process was focused on hydrogen-rich gas production. The results of the co-gasification of fuel blends of various biomass content at 800 °C and in various system configurations proved that the application of the simulated HTR excess heat in pre-heating of the gasification agents leads to the increase in the gaseous product yield. Furthermore, the HCA (Hierarchical Clustering Analysis) employed in the experimental data analysis revealed that the gasification of fuel blends of 20 and 40%w/w of biomass content results in higher volumes of the total gas, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide than gasification of fuel blends of higher biomass content. - Highlights: • Simulated utilization of HTR excess heat in co-gasification of coal and biomass. • Assessment of three system configurations in terms of hydrogen production. • Application of the HCA in the experimental data set analysis. • Variation in gas components volume and content with fuel blend composition

  8. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-05-01

    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. PMID:24642484

  9. Gasification for power, CHP and polygeneration Biomass Gasification for Combined Heat Power (CHP) Applications: the GAMECO Project

    OpenAIRE

    Authier, O; Khalfi, Az-Eddine; Sanchez, L.; Aleman, Y; Delebarre, A; Mauviel, G; Dufour, A; Rogaume, Y; Poirier, J.; Kerhoas, J

    2014-01-01

    International audience Air-blown fluidised bed biomass gasification is a well adapted technology for Combined Heat Power (CHP) applications with syngas valorisation in a gas engine. However, it is not mature yet. Despite promising prototypes, CHP gasification needs further improvements to become the reference technology in the medium-size CHP market. This is the purpose of the GAMECO project, which aims at improving an existing technology by optimising its operation, increasing its feedsto...

  10. Economic viability of the construction and operation of a biomass gasificator for poultry houses heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima Ferreira; Martin, Samuel; Melo, Lucas D.; Bueno, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: fzanatta@vicosa.ufv.br

    2008-07-01

    In all poultry farms, at least in the first days of life of the chicken, it is necessary to heat the environment to obtain a good development of the chicken and good economics results. However, this additional heat generation is sometimes neglected or not well executed, because of the costs that this practice could bring. This research has the objective of analyze the costs of construction and operation of a Biomass Gasificator for Poultry Houses Heating in comparison with a direct furnace system. The fuel used in both systems was firewood of eucalyptus. For so much, economic analyzes was make considering the costs of the gasification systems implementation in substitution of the traditional system used in the company (direct furnace system). For the viability the adopted method was the partial budget and the complementary investments were analyzed through the cash flow elaboration and of determination of indicator of economic feasibility. (author)

  11. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an integrated biomass gasification combined cycle (IBGCC) with CO2 removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the results of previous studies, the efficiency of a Brayton/Hirn combined cycle fuelled with a clean syngas produced by means of biomass gasification and equipped with CO2 removal by chemical absorption reached 33.94%, considering also the separate CO2 compression process. The specific CO2 emission of the power plant was 178 kg/MW h. In comparison with values previously found for an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (ICGCC) with upstream CO2 chemical absorption (38-39% efficiency, 130 kg/MW h specific CO2 emissions), this configuration seems to be attractive because of the possibility of operating with a simplified scheme and because of the possibility of using biomass in a more efficient way with respect to conventional systems. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted with presenting the results on the basis of the Eco-Indicator 95 impact assessment methodology. Further, a comparison with the results previously obtained for the LCA of the ICGCC was performed in order to highlight the environmental impact of biomass production with fossil fuels utilisation. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilisation in terms of reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and natural resource depletion, although an improved impact assessment methodology may better highlight the advantages due to the biomass utilisation

  12. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  13. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  14. OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS OF CATALYTIC CLEANING OF GAS FROM BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  15. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Circulating fluidized bed system for black liquor gasification with direct causticization. ► Effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on gasification are studied. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive limekiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show 10% higher SNG production from O2 blown system than air blown system. ► SNG production is higher in O2 blown system than air blown system. - Abstract: The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system

  16. Biomass gasification- a promising renewable energy technology for industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for energy in the industrial sector is increasing to meet the growing activities due to the encouragement of the government in our country. This energy requirement is mostly thermal or electrical. To sustain the healthy trend there is an urgent need to look for alternate (renewable) sources of energy in addition to the measures of energy conservation wherever possible. One such very promising, matured, and advanced renewable energy technology is biomass gasification, offering a host of benefits. The use of this technology especially in the industrial sector, by taking the first hand practical examples from our experience of working in this area where it has been put to use is discussed. To further give an idea of the vast nature of its applicability different class of industries have been chosen highlighting the advantages derived by adopting this technology. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  17. Release of chlorine from biomass at gasification conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project was to investigate the influence of different gasifying atmospheres on the release of chlorine from biomass during gasification conditions. Furthermore, the purpose was also to try and identify the formed chloro compounds. The results showed that O2, H2O and CO2 had negligible effect on the chlorine release at temperatures under 700 deg C. At temperatures above 800 deg C the reactivity towards CO2 increased and could be seen as higher chlorine release and less solid residue. No chloro organic compounds (aliphatic one to six carbons or aromatic one to two rings) could be detected in the tar or the fuel gas produced during pyrolysis/gasifying. On the other hand, comparable amounts of chlorinated benzenes were found in the cooling section during combustion of lucerne and of synthetic waste, indicating that oxygen is essential for chlorination reactions. 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. Preliminary studies on the treatment of wastewater from biomass gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Roksana; Chrubasik, Maciej; Stelmach, Sławomir; Sajdak, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents completed research on the purification of undiluted raw water and organic condensates obtained in biomass thermal conversion processes such as gasification, which are rarely addressed in published studies. However, similar studies involving the characterization and purification of aqueous solutions obtained from process gas treatment after the gasification of biomass are available. Condensation of water-organic condensate from process gas helps to reduce the amount of water required by the purification process and the cost of the process technology and water consumption. Oil scrubbers can be used in this case instead of water scrubbers. In this case, the obtained condensate must be subjected to purification processes. This paper presents the results of our research, possible methods of treatment (chemical and biological methods), and the approximate cost of the reagents required for the purification of condensate for specific assumed degrees of purification. The best results from the chemical purification using the Fenton method were obtained with the ratio V(H2O2)/V(cond.) = 6.0 and the ratio V(H2O2)/Fe = 0.0375. To prevent precipitation of ferric hydroxide, this value can be reduced 20-fold, which reduces the total degree of purification to 90%. The cost of almost complete cleaning of tested condensates was calculated to be approximately 2000 USD per/m(3). This cost can be reduced by a factor of approximately four assuming 100% cleaning for 2-furaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and phenol; acetaldehyde, propane-2-one (acetone), methanol and acetic acid are oxidized by 50%. PMID:26184898

  19. Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Maria

    2002-05-01

    A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2

  20. Analysis and co-ordination of the activities concerning gasification of biomass. Summary country report, Denmark and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis summarises the coordination of activities concerning the gasification of biomass in Denmark and Norway. The total quantity of available biomass for energy production in Denmark corresponds to ca. 115 PJ of which ca. 40% is utilized - and this constitutes ca. 6% of the country's total energy consumption. The resulting energy from biomass is currently mostly used for heating purposes utilizing small wood/straw household or farm stoves in addition to ca. 100 district heating systems. There is a tendency to use biomass fuels for electric power production as in the case of all major waste incineration plants and about 10 fully or partly wood/straw-fired cogeneration plants which are found within the range of 2 -20 MWe. A table shows details of all Danish biomass gasification plants and information is given on the types of biomass, under the titles of residue products and energy crops, most relevant to energy production in Denmark. Data is presented on the consumption of renewable energy in Denmark, recalculated in fuel equivalents, and Danish national energy policy and related legislation are described. Information on Norway's use of biomass as fuel is given under the headings of primary consumption, biomass sources and use, legislation, and brief evaluations of commercial gasification plants, pilot and demonstration plants, and laboratory plants and studies. It has recently been decided to speed up the development of small-scale gasification plants for combined heat and electricity production using biomass as fuel in Denmark. Total Norwegian energy consumption is 25% higher than Denmark's, and biomass fuels cover only 3.6% of this. (ARW) 32 refs

  1. Substitution of fossil carbon in metallurgy process approaches for biomass introduction via gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinhappl, M.; Roschitz, C.; Stutterecker, W. (Austrian bioenergy centre gmbH, Area gasification, Graz (Austria)); Kepplinger, W. (Leoben University of Mining and Materials, Institute for Process Technology and Industrial Environmental Protection, Leoben (Austria)); Hofbauer, H. (Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Technology and Biosciences, Vienna (Austria))

    2007-07-01

    A look at the historic development shows, that the early production of wrought iron by the peoples Hethitic (turkey) 1500 B.C. and Chinese 600 B.C. (cast iron); 200 A.D (blast furnace) was based on charcoal. In 1709 the utilisation of fossil coke from coal has started. About 1910 the last char coal operated blast furnaces was shut down in the deepest valley in central Europe. Nowadays we have gigantic production of crude iron in Europe, and all over the world. The monitoring of CO{sub 2} as a greenhouse gas is now done in all branches of energy, transportation and production. In this work the production of iron is analysed, as well as the systems of biomass conversion into char coal, oil and product gas. The biomass technologies of pyrolysis and gasification show suitable products. The systems of blast furnace, MIDREX and COREX show connectors to consume these products. In further work the complete utilisation of biomass with high efficiency as an additionally carrier of carbon/hydrogen will be investigated. Regarding to the necessary process data it will be focused on the path of gasification and 'gas coupling'. A path of complete gasification is preferred, because of the connection to a gas injection system of blast furnace, a DR Midrex plant and the coking plant can be combined with. For evaluation an amount of 30,000 m3/h up to 100,000 m3/h of gas with a lower heating value of minimally 10 MJ/m3 is considered. The necessary quantity of needed biomass resources has been evaluated and the delivery seems to be feasible. The gas quality requirements like inerts, acids, heating value, pressure level are discussed. The role of CO{sub 2}, its shift from fossil to renewable and the precipitation with absorption technology is lightened. The results of this work are the basis of decision in next future. (orig.)

  2. Preliminary study on co-gasification behavior of deoiled asphalt with coal and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Co-gasification of DOA with coal and biomass are proposed and studied. • Pure DOA char shows low reactivity mainly for low surface area, high graphitization degree and low ash content. • Co-gasification of coal and DOA does not show synergetic effect. • Synergetic effect between biomass and DOA is observed. • Potassium naturally in biomass can transfer to DOA and catalyzes the gasification of DOA. - Abstract: The co-gasification behavior of deoiled asphalt (DOA) with coal and biomass were investigated by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The gasification experiments were conducted under CO2 atmosphere within an isothermal temperature range from 900 to 1100 °C. The physical properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS), N2 and CO2 adsorption and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Compared with coal or biomass, the low surface area, high graphitization degree and the low ash content are the main reasons for the low reactivity of DOA. The co-gasification of coal and DOA does not show synergetic effect, while the combination of biomass and DOA shows higher gasification reactivity than that of being calculated. The synergetic effect is mainly caused by the alkali metals. Further study shows the transfer of the potassium from the surface of biomass to DOA greatly increases the active sites of the DOA, which leads to obvious improvement of the co-gasification reactions. Meanwhile, the gasification experiments of adding coal and biomass ashes to DOA also support the above explanations

  3. Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle power generation with supplementary biomass firing: Energy and exergy based performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic analysis of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) plant has been performed based on energy and exergy balances in a proposed configuration. Combustion of supplementary biomass fuel is considered using the oxygen available in the gas turbine (GT) exhaust. The effects of pressure and temperature ratios of the GT system and the amount of fuel burned in the supplementary firing chamber on the thermal and exergetic efficiencies of the plant have been investigated. The plant efficiencies increase with the increase in both pressure and temperature ratios; however, the latter has a stronger influence than the former. Supplementary firing of biomass increases the plant efficiencies of a BIGCC plant till an optimum level of degree of firing. The other technical issues related to supplementary firing, like ash fusion in the furnace and exhaust heat loss maintaining a minimum pinch point temperature difference are accounted and finally a set of optimum plant operating parameters have been identified. The performance of a 50 MWe plant has been analyzed with the optimum operating parameters to find out equipment rating and biomass feed rates. Exergetic efficiencies of different plant equipments are evaluated to localize the major thermodynamic irreversibilities in the plant. -- Highlights: → A thermodynamic analysis of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) plant has been performed based on energy and exergy balances across various plant components in a proposed configuration in order to optimize the operating parameters. → The effect of supplementary biomass firing in the BIGCC plant has been analyzed in detail to find out the optimum degree of firing for the best plant performance. → The equipment ratings and fuel feed rates are evaluated and the technical feasibility of the plant configuration has been analyzed. → Exergetic efficiencies of different plant equipments are evaluated to localize the major thermodynamic

  4. Roadmap for the commercialisation of biomass gasification. A critical evaluation, tips, questions and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass has the potential to be a major replacement of fossil fuels. The world wide availability of biomass is considerable but it is not always in balance with the anticipated consumption. Biomass (wood) has the disadvantage that it has a low energy density and transport costs are, therefore, relatively high. Combustion, being a well-developed technology with many references, is the obvious choice for conversion technology. On the scale that biomass plants are usually constructed, however, the overall efficiency of the combustion system is low. Gasification has the advantage that solid fuel is converted into gaseous fuel which can be used in IC (internal combustion) engines or combined (gas and steam turbine) cycles with high efficiency. Even on a very small scale (several hundred kWe) a biomass-driven IC engine can have an efficiency of around 25%. Gasification has not yet advanced to the stage that it can serve as a reliable conversion technology for supplying electric power to industry or to the national grid. This may be possible on paper but in practice the market needs to be convinced by the success of plants in full operation. The first generation of plants, now under construction, or in operation, have to demonstrate the technology and provide confidence for future developments. Fixed bed gasification in combination with IC engines is more appropriate for small units. The development in micropower units is of particular interest. This development has been initiated for natural gas-fuelled units supplying power and heat to households, apartment blocks or offices. Once the fuel handling problems have been overcome and the units are more reliable and easier to operate, this could be a market with ample cost savings on the basis of mass production. Fluidised bed gasification, integrated with a combined cycle, is probably better suited to larger units, above 10 MWe. After experience has been obtained with units at an atmospheric pressure, the increase of the

  5. Imperium/Lanzatech Syngas Fermentation Project - Biomass Gasification and Syngas Conditioning for Fermentation Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-474

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, E.

    2014-09-01

    LanzaTech and NREL will investigate the integration between biomass gasification and LanzaTech's proprietary gas fermentation process to produce ethanol and 2,3-butanediol. Using three feed materials (woody biomass, agricultural residue and herbaceous grass) NREL will produce syngas via steam indirect gasification and syngas conditioning over a range of process relevant operating conditions. The gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio of the biomass feed into the gasifier, and several levels of syngas conditioning (based on temperature) will be varied to produce multiple syngas streams that will be fed directly to 10 liter seed fermenters operating with the Lanzatech organism. The NREL gasification system will then be integrated with LanzaTech's laboratory pilot unit to produce large-scale samples of ethanol and 2,3-butanediol for conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  6. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  7. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MWth) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MWth) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  8. Assessment of forest biomass technology: Direct combustion, charcoal-making and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the efficient forest biomass technology in groups of direct combustion, charcoal-making and gasification for application in developing countries. Other technologies, such as briquetting, biogas and alcohol distillation, are not covered. 7 refs, 7 tabs

  9. Research into Biomass and Waste Gasification in Atmospheric Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, Zdenek; Ochrana, Ladislav; Lisy, Martin; Balas, Marek; Kohout, Premysl; Skoblja, Sergej

    2007-07-01

    Considerable attention is paid in the Czech Republic to renewable energy sources. The largest potential, out of them all, have biomass and waste. The aim therefore is to use them in CHP in smaller units (up to 5MWel). These are the subject of the research summarized in our article. The paper presents results of experimental research into gasification in a 100 kW AFB gasifier situated in Energy Institute, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, and fitted with gas cleaning equipment. Within the research, study was carried out into gas cleaning taking primary measures in the fluidized bed and using hot filter, metal-based catalytic filter, and wet scrubber. Descriptions and diagrams are given of the gasifier and new ways of cleaning. Results include: Impact of various fuels (farming and forest wastes and fast-growing woods and culm plants) on fuel gas quality. Individual kinds of biomass have very different thermal and physical properties; Efficiency of a variety of cleaning methods on content of dust and tars and comparison of these methods; and, Impact of gasifier process parameters on resultant gas quality. (auth)

  10. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis - a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using the non-stoichometric equilibrium model (SOLGASMIX), we have assessed the outcome of gasification process for different combinations of operating conditions. Four key parameters have been used for optimization, viz. biomass type (saw dust, rice husk, bamboo dust), air or equivalence ratio (AR = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), temperature of gasification (T = 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 oC), and gasification medium (air, air-steam 10% mole/mole mixture, air-steam 30%mole/mole mixture). Performance of the gasification process has been assessed with four measures, viz. molar content of H2 and CO in the producer gas, H2/CO molar ratio, LHV of producer gas and overall efficiency of gasifier. The optimum sets of operating conditions for gasifier for FT synthesis are: AR = 0.2-0.4, Temp = 800-1000 oC, and gasification medium as air. The optimum sets of operating conditions for decentralized power generation are: AR = 0.3-0.4, Temp = 700-800 oC with gasification medium being air. The thermodynamic model and methodology presented in this work also presents a general framework, which could be extended for optimization of biomass gasification for any other application.

  11. Exergy analysis of thermochemical ethanol production via biomass gasification and catalytic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an exergy analysis of thermochemical ethanol production from biomass is presented. This process combines a steam-blown indirect biomass gasification of woody feedstock, with a subsequent conversion of produced syngas into ethanol. The production process involves several process sections, including biomass drying and gasification, syngas cleaning, reforming, conditioning, and compression, ethanol synthesis, separation of synthesis products, and heat recovery. The process is simulated with a computer model using the flow-sheeting software Aspen Plus. The exergy analysis is performed for various ethanol catalysts, including Rh-based and MoS2-based (target) catalysts as well as for various gasification temperatures. The exergetic efficiency is 43.5% for Rh-based and 44.4% for MoS2-based (target) catalyst, when ethanol is considered as the only exergetic output. In case when by-products of ethanol synthesis are considered as the additional output the exergetic efficiency for Rh-based catalyst increases to 58.9% and 65.8% for MoS2-based (target) catalyst. The largest exergy losses occur in biomass gasifier and ethanol synthesis reactor. The exergetic efficiency for both ethanol catalysts increases with decreasing gasification temperature. -- Highlights: ► Thermochemical ethanol production from biomass via biomass gasification and ethanol synthesis has been modeled. ► Exergy analysis is performed for various process conditions and ethanol catalysts. ► Exergetic efficiencies biomass-to-ethanol range from 43.5% for Rh-based catalyst to 44.4% for MoS2-based catalyst. ► The largest exergy losses take place in the biomass gasification. ► Exergy losses in gasification can be reduced at lower gasification temperatures.

  12. Catalytic steam gasification of biomass for a sustainable hydrogen future: influence of catalyst composition

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, C.; Wang, Z.; Wang, L.; J. Huang; Williams, PT

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a clean energy for fuelling the future. Hydrogen will be the energy carrier from other resources such as hydropower, wind, solar and biomass. Producing hydrogen from gasification of biomass wastes, particularly in the presence of steam, represents a promising route to produce this clean and CO2-neutral fuel. The steam pyrolysis-gasification ofbiomass (wood sawdust) was carried out with various nickel-based catalysts for hydrogen production in a two-stage fixed bed reac...

  13. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  14. Economic assessment of solar and conventional biomass gasification technologies: Financial and policy implications under feedstock and product gas price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four configurations of a novel solar-heated biomass gasification facility and one configuration of conventional biomass gasification are analyzed through financial and policy scenarios. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential financial position for varying configurations of a novel technology, as compared to the current state-of-the-art gasification technology. Through the use of project finance and policy scenario development, we assess the baseline breakeven syngas price (normalized against natural gas prices and based upon annual feedstock consumption), the sensitivity of major cost components for the novel facilities, and the implications of policy levers on the economic feasibility of the solar facilities. Findings show that certain solar configurations may compete with conventional facilities on a straightforward economic basis. However, with renewable energy policy levers in place the solar technologies become increasingly attractive options. - Highlights: • We model four solar and one conventional biomass gasification systems. • We assess economic feasibility of these systems with and without policy incentives. • Solar facilities compete with the conventional system in certain scenarios. • Feedstock costs are the largest contributor to system cost sensitivity. • Policy incentives create an economically favorable scenario for solar facilities

  15. Gas, power and heat generation from biomass by allothermal gasification; Gas-, Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse durch allotherme Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqub Chughtai, M. [H und C Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Muehlen, H.J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The allothermal DMT gasification process for biomass is a newcomer. The process, its initial materials, the uses of the product gas, and advantages of the allothermal process are described here. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz des allothermen DMT-Vergasungsverfahrens fuer Biomasse ist neu. Verfahren, Einsatzstoffe und Produktgasnutzung, sowie Vorteile des allothermen Verfahrens werden hier beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  16. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases and aqueous phases. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay and mouse skin tumorigenicity tests). These results are the first step of a longer term program to determine the properties, handling requirements, and utility of the condensates recovered from biomass gasification and pyrolysis. The analytical data demonstrates the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures. 56 refs., 25 figs., 21 tabs.

  17. Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed; Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, M.; Hoelder, D.; Backhaus, C.; Althaus, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed, in combination with a gas engine or gas burner, is a promising option for energetic use of biomass. Economic efficiency analyses on the basis of the UMSICHT plant show that this technology for combined heat and power generation from biomass is promising also for the range below 10 MW. The economic situation of any plant must be considered for the specific boundary conditions imposed by the power supply industry. The feasibility of the process was tested in a demonstration plant at Oberhausen. The plant was optimized further in extensive test series, and a number of tar reduction processes were investigated and improved on. The authors now intend to prove that gasification in a circulating fluidized bed combined with a gas engine cogeneration plant is feasible in continuous operation. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht ist in Kombination mit einem Gasmotor oder einem Gasbrenner eine vielversprechende Option fuer die energetische Biomassenutzung. Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen auf Basis der UMSICHT-Anlage zeigen, dass diese Technologie fuer die gekoppelte Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse auch im Leistungsbereich unter 10 MW grosse Chancen verspricht. Dabei ist die oekonomische Situation einer Anlage im Einzelfall unter Beachtung der energiewirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen zu beurteilen. Durch den Betrieb einer Demonstrationsanlage in Oberhausen konnte die Funktion des Verfahrens nachgewiesen werden. In weiteren umfangreichen Versuchsreihen werden die Anlage weiter optimiert und verschiedene Konzepte zur Teerminderung untersucht und weiterentwickelt. Angestrebt ist der Nachweis des Dauerbetriebs von ZWS-Vergasung zusammen mit dem Gasmotoren-BHKW. (orig./SR)

  18. Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass in an IGCC Power Plant: Gasifier Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Correas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-gasification of coal and biomass in an existing coal-fired IGCC power plant is proposed as an efficient, flexible and environmentally friendly way to increase the biomass contribution to electricity generation. A model of an entrained flow gasifier is described and validated with nearly 3,000 actual steady-state operational data points (4,800 hours. The model is then used to study co-gasification of coal, petroleum coke and up to 10 percent of several types of biomass. As a result, the influence of fuel variations on gasifier performance and modifications in operation that should be made in co-gasification are obtained. A conclusion of our study is that co-gasification is possible provided that operation is properly adapted. A validated model can be very useful for predicting operating points for new fuel mixtures.

  19. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  20. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, N.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated liquid-liquid extraction as a treatment method for biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW). Distribution coefficients for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were determined for the following solvents: methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), n-butyl acetate, n-butanol, MIBK/n-butyl acetate (50:50 vol), MIBK/n-butanol (50:50 vol), tri-butyl phosphate, tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO)/MIBK (10:90 wt), TOPO/kerosene (10:90 wt), kerosene, and toluene. The best distribution coefficient of 1.3 was given by n-butanol. Chemical analysis of the wastewater by gas chromatography (GC) showed acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations of about 4000 mg/1. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were identified in trace amounts. These five compounds accounted for 45% of the measured COD of 29,000 mg/1. Because of the presence of carboxylic acids, pH was expected to affect extraction of the wastewater. At low pH the acids should be in the acidic form, which increased extraction by MIBK. Extraction by n-butanol was increased at high pH, where the acids should be in the ionic form.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding biomass-based ammonia production systems. • Integration of an ammonia production process in a pulp and paper mill. • Integrated ammonia production gains higher system efficiency than stand-alone production. • The economics of an integrated production system is improved compared to stand-alone production. - Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) can be produced by synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen in the Haber–Bosch process, where the economic challenge is the hydrogen production. Currently, substantial amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted from the ammonia industry since the hydrogen production is almost exclusively based on fossil feedstocks. Hydrogen produced via gasification of lignocellulosic biomass is a more environmentally friendly alternative, but the economic performance is critical. The main objective of this work was to perform a techno-economic evaluation of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification in an existing pulp and paper mill. The results were compared with a stand-alone production case to find potential technical and economic benefits deriving from the integration. The biomass gasifier and the subsequent NH3 production were modelled using the commercial software Aspen Plus. A process integration model based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) was used to analyze the effects on the overall energy system of the pulp mill. Important modelling constraints were to maintain the pulp production and the steam balance of the mill. The results showed that the process economics and energy performance are favourable for the integrated case compared to stand-alone production. The main conclusion was however that a rather high NH3 selling price is required to make both production cases economically feasible

  2. Tar analysis from biomass gasification by means of online fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhakl, Christoph; Karellas, Sotirios

    2011-07-01

    Optical methods in gas analysis are very valuable mainly due to their non-intrusive character. That gives the possibility to use them for in-situ or online measurements with only optical intervention in the measurement volume. In processes like the gasification of biomass, it is of high importance to monitor the gas quality in order to use the product gas in proper machines for energy production following the restrictions in the gas composition but also improving its quality, which leads to high efficient systems. One of the main problems in the biomass gasification process is the formation of tars. These higher hydrocarbons can lead to problems in the operation of the energy system. Up to date, the state of the art method used widely for the determination of tars is a standardized offline measurement system, the so-called "Tar Protocol". The aim of this work is to describe an innovative, online, optical method for determining the tar content of the product gas by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. This method uses optical sources and detectors that can be found in the market at low cost and therefore it is very attractive, especially for industrial applications where cost efficiency followed by medium to high precision are of high importance.

  3. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine

  4. Economic development through biomass system integration. Volumes 2--4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners.

  5. Critical factors affecting the integration of biomass gasification and syngas fermentation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan D. Ramachandriya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gasification-fermentation is a thermochemical-biological platform for the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass is gasified at high temperatures to make syngas, a gas composed of CO, CO2, H2, N2 and other minor components. Syngas is then fed to anaerobic microorganisms that convert CO, CO2 and H2 to alcohols by fermentation. This platform offers numerous advantages such as flexibility of feedstock and syngas composition and lower operating temperature and pressure compared to other catalytic syngas conversion processes. In comparison to hydrolysis-fermentation, gasification-fermentation has a major advantage of utilizing all organic components of biomass, including lignin, to yield higher fuel production. Furthermore, syngas fermentation microorganisms do not require strict CO:H2:CO2 ratios, hence gas reforming is not required. However, several issues must be addressed for successful deployment of gasification-fermentation, particularly those that involve the integration of gasification and fermentation. Most previous reviews have focused only on either biomass gasification or syngas fermentation. In this review, the critical factors that affect the integration of biomass gasification with syngas fermentation, such as carbon conversion efficiency, effect of trace gaseous species, H2 to CO ratio requirements, and microbial preference of carbon substrate, are thoroughly discussed.

  6. Process simulation of biomass gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bubbling fluidized bed gasification of biomass is studied by computer simulation. • The effect of some critical parameters on gasification performance is studied. • The performance of air–steam gasification of wood chips is analyzed. • Model predictions are compared against available data from the literature. • The optimum operating conditions for the gasification are found. - Abstract: A detailed process model was developed to simulate the air–steam gasification of biomass in a bubbling fluidized bed for hydrogen and syngas production by coupling Aspen Plus simulator and dedicated FORTRAN subroutines. Effects of critical parameters, including gasification temperature, steam/biomass ratio (SBR), equivalence ratio (ER), and biomass particle size (BPS) on the composition of fuel gas were discussed. The results indicate that the high temperature is more favorable for production of useful syngas (H2 and CO) and hydrogen yield (HY). The simulation results also demonstrate that ER is the most important factor in the process; higher ER contributed to higher carbon conversion, tar reforming, and gas yield, however, it lowered gas caloric value and cold gas efficiency. However, steam injection recognized as a key factor to produce more hydrogen rich gas in the SBR range studied, but had a major effect on CO2 formation. The model is validated by experimental data and found relatively to be in good agreement

  7. Synergistic evaluation of the biomass/coal blends for co-gasification purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gaqa, S Mamphweli, D Katwire, E Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 95% of electricity in South Africa is generated from coal, which is a fossil fuel that has detrimental environmental impacts. Eskom has started investigating the possibility of co-firing coal with biomass to improve their carbon footprint. However, co-firing utilizes approximately 80% of water and results in extensive environmental impacts. This research seeks to investigate the possibility of co-gasification of coal and biomass, which is a thermochemical process that uses about a third of the water required by a coal-fired power station, and results in much lower emissions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was conducted to investigate the existence of a synergy between coal and biomass during gasification. Various coal/biomass blends were investigated using TGA. The synergistic effect between the two feedstock as determined through TGA allowed the prediction of the gasification characteristics of the blends that most likely gave the highest conversion efficiency. Preliminary results suggested the existence of this synergy.

  8. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass for the production of synthetic natural gas[Dissertation 17100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, M. H.

    2007-07-01

    , phenol, and anisole) that approximates hydrolyzed wood served as feed. The skeletal nickel catalysts turned out to be active but not stable, as they deactivated within a few hours. The attempt to stabilize them by co-doping of other metals (Ru, Mo, Cu) was not successful. Ru/TiO{sub 2} was not active enough, but Ru/C completely gasified the mixture at high space velocities over a period of more than 200 hours; the product gas composition corresponded at all times to the thermodynamic equilibrium composition. This catalyst was tested for its tolerance towards sulfate, which turned out to be low: the addition of a few ppm to the feed led to a deactivation within hours. The deactivation mechanism was identified as chemical poisoning. The poisoning species which is present in situ in the hydrothermal environment (sulfate vs. sulfide) is not clear. The experimental evidence can be explained by both hypotheses. A heating system for quartz capillaries rendered the visual examination of hydrothermal processes possible. Due to the required low amounts of feed material (a few hundred milligrams) and frequent capillary explosions, the usage of the system was discontinued. The conveying of solid containing slurries on the laboratory scale turned out to remain an unsolved problem. Thus, only liquid type biomass can be fed with the process demonstration unit that was built. A suitable feedstock was found with palm oil pyrolysis condensate, a problematic waste stream very common in Indonesia, that has a high organic content (exceeding 40 wt %). Preliminary gasification experiments with ethanol and salt separation experiments with sodium sulfate were successful. (author)

  9. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass: A Literature and Technology Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakaboylu, O.; Harinck, J.; Smit, K.G.; De Jong, W.

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification process is an alternative to both conventional gasification as well as anaerobic digestion as it does not require drying and the process takes place at much shorter residence times; a few minutes at most. The drastic changes in the thermo-physical properties of w

  10. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance-of-plant is designed and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on the lower heating value (LHV) can be achieved if all input parameters are selected conservatively. Different parameter studies are performed to analyze the system behavior under different conditions. The analysis shows that the decreasing number of stacks from a design viewpoint, indicating that plant efficiency decreases but power production remains nearly unchanged. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is an optimum value for the utilization factor of the SOFC for the suggested plant design with the suggested input parameters. This optimum value is approximately 65%, which is a rather modest value for SOFC. In addition, introducing a methanator increases plant efficiency slightly. If SOFC operating temperature decreases due to new technology then plant efficiency will slightly be increased. Decreasing gasifier temperature, which cannot be controlled, causes the plant efficiency to increase also. - Highlights: • Design of integrated gasification with solid oxide fuel and Stirling engine. • Important plant parameters study. • Plant running on biomass with and without methanator. • Thermodynamics of integrated gasification SOFC-Stirling engine plants

  11. A comparison of gasification phenomena among raw biomass, torrefied biomass and coal in an entrained-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Gasification phenomena of raw bamboo, torrefied bamboo, and coal are studied. ► The carbon conversions of the three fuels are higher than 90%. ► The coal gas efficiency is sensitive to the type of fuel. ► The gasification performance of torrefied bamboo is enhanced and closer to that of coal. ► With optimum operation, syngas formation from torrefied biomass is amplified by 88%. - Abstract: Gasification of torrefied biomass is a promising technique for producing synthesis gas (syngas) of higher quality than has previously been available. In this study, in order to evaluate the potential of the technique, gasification processes for three different materials, which include raw bamboo, torrefied bamboo (at 280 °C for 1 h), and high-volatile bituminous coal in an entrained-flow gasifier using O2 as the gasification agent, are studied numerically and compared to each other. The obtained results suggest that in all cases, the carbon conversions of the three fuels are higher than 90%. However, the cold gasification efficiency for raw bamboo is low, mainly due to the relatively lower calorific value of the material. In the case of the torrefied bamboo fuel, the gasification performance is enhanced significantly and is quite similar to the coal gasification under the same conditions. It appears that the optimum oxygen-to-fuel mass flow ratios for the gasification of raw bamboo, torrefied bamboo, and coal are 0.9, 0.7, and 0.7, and their equivalence ratios are 0.692, 0.434, and 0.357, respectively. Under optimum conditions with respect to the equivalence ratio, the cold gas efficiency of torrefied bamboo is improved by 88%, as compared to raw bamboo

  12. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  13. Hydrogen production from biomass gasification using biochar as a catalyst/support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dingding; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Daqian; Yang, Haiping; Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Xianhua; Chen, Hanping

    2016-09-01

    Biochar is a promising catalyst/support for biomass gasification. Hydrogen production from biomass steam gasification with biochar or Ni-based biochar has been investigated using a two stage fixed bed reactor. Commercial activated carbon was also studied as a comparison. Catalyst was prepared with an impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, specific surface and porosity analysis, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron micrograph. The effects of gasification temperature, steam to biomass ratio, Ni loading and bio-char properties on catalyst activity in terms of hydrogen production were explored. The Ni/AC catalyst showed the best performance at gasification temperature of 800°C, S/B=4, Ni loading of 15wt.%. Texture and composition characterization of the catalysts suggested the interaction between volatiles and biochar promoted the reforming of pyrolysis volatiles. Cotton-char supported Ni exhibited the highest activity of H2 production (64.02vol.%, 92.08mgg(-1) biomass) from biomass gasification, while rice-char showed the lowest H2 production. PMID:27240230

  14. Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the U.S.A., the widely recognized importance of biomass utilization in controlling carbon build-up in the biosphere and the potential benefit of creating new industries associated with new job opportunities, particularly in the rural areas, have added impetus to the development and commercialization of advanced biomass energy conversion methods. Recent analyses and evaluations have shown that many short rotation energy crops (SREC) produce significant net-energy (i.e., energy yield greater than the energy input for plant growth). SREC such as willow, poplar, and miscanthus may yield up to 20 dry tonnes/yr/ha/year of biomass feedstocks, some with about 20 % moisture, after the third year of plantation. Implementation by U.S. EPA of the recent Clean Water Act Federal Biosolids Rules specified as Code 40 of Federal Register 503, should make available large quantities of high nitrogen content, pathogen-free municipal sludges ideally suited as an inexpensive source of organic fertiliser, thus improving the economics of SREC. The concept of herbaceous SREC can be further augmented when value-added byproducts, such as cattle feed, could be produced along with biomass energy feedstocks. Since 1990, there has been renewed interest in the United States in developing advanced power-generating cycles utilizing biomass gasification. The advanced systems have the potential for higher generation efficiencies, 35 % to 40 %, and lower costs of electricity, $0.045 to $0.055/kWh, compared to conventional direct-combustion systems. The efficiency of power production can be even higher (about 55 %) when the fuel gas is converted to hydrogen followed by electrochemical conversion to electricity in a fuel cell. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes a number of provisions to promote the commercialisation of biomass power production. The recent Global Climate Change Action Plan also includes several programs and incentives for biomass power production. A summary of U.S. demonstration

  15. Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.P. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bain, R.L.; Craig, K.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In the U.S.A., the widely recognized importance of biomass utilization in controlling carbon build-up in the biosphere and the potential benefit of creating new industries associated with new job opportunities, particularly in the rural areas, have added impetus to the development and commercialization of advanced biomass energy conversion methods. Recent analyses and evaluations have shown that many short rotation energy crops (SREC) produce significant net-energy (i.e., energy yield greater than the energy input for plant growth). SREC such as willow, poplar, and miscanthus may yield up to 20 dry tonnes/yr/ha/year of biomass feedstocks, some with about 20 % moisture, after the third year of plantation. Implementation by U.S. EPA of the recent Clean Water Act Federal Biosolids Rules specified as Code 40 of Federal Register 503, should make available large quantities of high nitrogen content, pathogen-free municipal sludges ideally suited as an inexpensive source of organic fertiliser, thus improving the economics of SREC. The concept of herbaceous SREC can be further augmented when value-added byproducts, such as cattle feed, could be produced along with biomass energy feedstocks. Since 1990, there has been renewed interest in the United States in developing advanced power-generating cycles utilizing biomass gasification. The advanced systems have the potential for higher generation efficiencies, 35 % to 40 %, and lower costs of electricity, $0.045 to $0.055/kWh, compared to conventional direct-combustion systems. The efficiency of power production can be even higher (about 55 %) when the fuel gas is converted to hydrogen followed by electrochemical conversion to electricity in a fuel cell. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes a number of provisions to promote the commercialisation of biomass power production. The recent Global Climate Change Action Plan also includes several programs and incentives for biomass power production. A summary of U.S. demonstration

  16. Gasification technologies for heat and power from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, AACM; Maniatis, K; Kaltschmitt, M; Bridgwater, AV

    1997-01-01

    A critical review is presented of biomass gasifier systems presently commercially available or under development. Advantages and possible problem areas are discussed in relation to particular applications. Both large and small scale technologies are reviewed. Catalysed by the EC JOULE and AIR progra

  17. Biomass steam gasification with in-situ CO{sub 2} capture for enriched hydrogen gas production: a reaction kinetics modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrar Inayat, A.; Ahmad, M. M.; Yusup, S.; Mutalib, M. I. A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work. This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of hydrogen production process via biomass steam gasification with calcium oxide as sorbent in a gasifier. A modelling framework consisting of kinetics models for char gasification, methanation, Boudouard, methane reforming, water gas shift and carbonation reactions to represent the gasification and CO{sub 2} adsorption in the gasifier, is developed and implemented in MATLAB. The scope of the work includes an investigation of the influence of the temperature, steam/biomass ratio and sorbent/biomass ratio on the amount of hydrogen produced, product gas compositions and carbon conversion. The importance of different reactions involved in the process is also discussed. It is observed that hydrogen production and carbon conversion increase with increasing temperature and steam/biomass ratio. The model predicts a maximum hydrogen mole fraction in the product gas of 0.81 occurring at 950 K, steam/biomass ratio of 3.0 and sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.0. In addition, at sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.52, purity of H{sub 2} can be increased to 0.98 mole fraction with all CO{sub 2} present in the system adsorbed. (authors)

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Athari; Saeed Soltani; Marc A. Rosen; Seyed Mohammad Seyed Mahmoudi; Tatiana Morosuk

    2015-01-01

    Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1) increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the bioma...

  19. Energetic analysis of gasification of biomass by partial oxidation in supercritical water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Guan; Chaohai Wei; Xinsheng Chai; Ping Ning; Senlin Tian; Junjie Gu; Qiuling Chen; Rongrong Miao

    2015-01-01

    Partial oxidation gasification in supercritical water could produce fuel gases (such as H2, CO and CH4) and signif-icantly reduce the energy consumption. In this work, an energetic model was developed to analyze the partial oxidative gasification of biomass (glucose and lignin) in supercritical water and the related key factors on which gasification under autothermal condition depended upon. The results indicated that the oxidant equiva-lent ratio (ER) should be over 0.3 as the concern about energy balance but less than 0.6 as the concern about fuel gas production. Feedstocks such as glucose and lignin also had different energy recovery efficiency. For ma-terials which can be efficiently gasified, the partial oxidation might be a way for energy based on the combustion of fuel gases. Aromatic materials such as lignin and coal are more potential since partial oxidation could produce similar amount of fuel gases as direct gasification and offer additional energy. Energy recovered pays a key role to achieve an autothermal process. Keeping heat exchanger efficiency above 80%and heat transfer coefficient below 15 kJ·s−1 is necessary to maintain the autothermal status. The results also indicated that the biomass loading should be above 15%but under 20%for an autothermal gasification, since the increase of biomass loading could improve the energy supplied but decrease the efficiency of gasification and gaseous yields. In general, some specific conditions exist among different materials.

  20. Gas quality prediction in ligno-cellulosic biomass gasification in a co-current gas producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research covers the energetic valuation of the biomass for electricity production. As electrical energy production is the main drive behind a modern economy, we wanted to make our contribution to the debate by describing a tried technique, whose use on an industrial scale can still be perfected, failing control over the basic principles that support the gasification processes called upon in this industry. Our study describes gasification, which is a process to transform a solid combustible into a gas combustible. The resulting gas can be used as combustible in an internal combustion motor and produce electricity. Our work interprets the experimental results of gasification tests conducted on an available and functional experimental centre and the ENSPY's Decentralized Energy Production Lab. The work involved developing a tool to appreciate the results of the gasification of the ligneous biomass from the stoichiometric composition of the combustible to be gasified and the chemical and mathematical bases of the gasification process. It is an investigation with a view to elaborating a mathematical model based on the concept of compatibility. Its original lies in the quality prediction method for the gas obtained through the gasification of a biomass whose chemical composition is known. (authors)

  1. Solid-gaseous phase transformation of elemental contaminants during the gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Ameh, Abiba; Lei, Mei; Duan, Lunbo; Longhurst, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Disposal of plant biomass removed from heavy metal contaminated land via gasification achieves significant volume reduction and can recover energy. However, these biomass often contain high concentrations of heavy metals leading to hot-corrosion of gasification facilities and toxic gaseous emissions. Therefore, it is of significant interest to gain a further understanding of the solid-gas phase transition of metal(loid)s during gasification. Detailed elemental analyses (C, H, O, N and key metal/metalloid elements) were performed on five plant species collected from a contaminated site. Using multi-phase equilibria modelling software (MTDATA), the analytical data allows modelling of the solid/gas transformation of metal(loid)s during gasification. Thermodynamic modelling based on chemical equilibrium calculations was carried out in this study to predict the fate of metal(loid) elements during typical gasification conditions and to show how these are influenced by metal(loid) composition in the biomass and operational conditions. As, Cd, Zn and Pb tend to transform to their gaseous forms at relatively low temperatures (1200°C). Simulation of pressurised gasification conditions shows that higher pressures increase the temperature at which solid-to-gaseous phase transformations takes place. PMID:26603198

  2. Biomass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels productions and uses should allow valorization of raw materials belonging to biomass: plants used in food utilization, ligno-cellulose plants, or by-products even wastes from animal or vegetable origin. These bioenergies are renewable energies, and their developments pass through an economical competitivity, a clean and spare production, and atmospheric emissions control of vehicles. The principal advantage of bioenergies is the reduction of fossil carbon consumption and its replacement by a renewable carbon consumption. (A.B.). 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Allothermal gasification of biomass into chemicals and secondary energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The outline of this presentation on the title subject states: Motivation for polygeneration; Allothermal gasification: the MILENA at ECN; Primary gas cleaning: the OLGA for tar removal; Possible secondary energy carriers; Possible chemicals; Polygeneration concept and its feasibility.

  4. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification; Approche thermodynamique des transformations de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissonnet, G.; Seiler, J.M.

    2003-07-01

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H{sub 2}. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H{sub 2}. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  5. Promoting effect of various biomass ashes on the steam gasification of low-rank coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biomass ash was utilized to promote gasification of low rank coal. • Promoting effect of biomass ash highly depended on AAEM content in the ash. • Stability of the ash could be improved by maintaining AAEM amount in the ash. • Different biomass ash could have completely different catalytic activity. - Abstract: Application of biomass ash as a catalyst to improve gasification rate is a promising way for the effective utilization of waste ash as well as for the reduction of cost. Investigation on the catalytic activity of biomass ash to the gasification of low rank coal was performed in details in the present study. Ashes from 3 kinds of biomass, i.e. brown seaweed/BS, eel grass/EG, and rice straw/RS, were separately mixed with coal sample and gasified in a fixed bed downdraft reactor using steam as the gasifying agent. BS and EG ashes enhanced the gas production rate greater than RS ash. Higher catalytic activity of BS or EG ash was mainly attributed to the higher content of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) and lower content of silica in it. Higher content of silica in the RS ash was identified to have inhibiting effect for the steam gasification of coal. Stable catalytic activity was remained when the amount of AAEM in the regenerated ash was maintained as that of the original one

  6. Potential approaches to improve gasification of high water content biomass rich in cellulose in dual fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li; Xu, Guangwen [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Suda, Toshiyuki [Research Laboratory, IHI Corporation, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Murakami, Takahiro [National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Biomass containing water of 30-65 wt.% and rich in cellulose, such as various grounds of drinking materials and the lees of spirit and vinegar, is not suitable for biological digestion, and the thermal conversion approach has to be applied to its conversion into bioenergy. The authors have recently worked on converting such biomass into middle heating-value gas via dual fluidized bed gasification (DFBG) integrated with various process intensification technologies. This article is devoted to highlighting those technical ways, including the choice of the superior technical deployment for a DFBG system, the impregnation of Ca onto fuel in fuel drying, the integration of gas cleaning with fuel gasification via two-stage DFBG (T-DFBG), and the decoupling of fuel drying/pyrolysis and char gasification via the decoupled DFBG (D-DFBG). The attained results demonstrated that the superior deployment of bed combination for the DFBG should be a bubbling/turbulent fluidized bed gasifier integrated with a pneumatic riser combustor. In terms of improving efficiency of fuel conversion into combustible gas and suppressing tar generation during gasification, the impregnation of Ca onto fuel exhibited distinctively high upgrading effect, while both the T-DFBG and D-DFBG were also demonstrated to be effective to a certain degree. (author)

  7. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  8. Supercritical steam cycles and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles for sugarcane mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Burbano, Juan Carlos [Laboratory of Environmental and Thermal Engineering, Polytechnic School - University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289 Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); de Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Technological University of Pereira, Pereira (Colombia)

    2010-02-15

    Back in 1970s and 1980s, cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills were primarily designed to consume all bagasse, and produce steam and electricity to the process. The plants used medium pressure steam boilers (21 bar and 300 C) and backpressure steam turbines. Some plants needed also an additional fuel, as the boilers were very inefficient. In those times, sugarcane bagasse did not have an economic value, and it was considered a problem by most mills. During the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s, sugarcane industry faced an open market perspective, thus, there was a great necessity to reduce costs in the production processes. In addition, the economic value of by-products (bagasse, molasses, etc.) increased, and there was a possibility of selling electricity to the grid. This new scenario led to a search for more advanced cogeneration systems, based mainly on higher steam parameters (40-80 bar and 400-500 C). In the future, some authors suggest that biomass integrated gasification combined cycles are the best alternative to cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills. These systems might attain 35-40% efficiency for the power conversion. However, supercritical steam cycles might also attain these efficiency values, what makes them an alternative to gasification-based systems. This paper presents a comparative thermoeconomic study of these systems for sugarcane mills. The configurations studied are based on real systems that could be adapted to biomass use. Different steam consumptions in the process are considered, in order to better integrate these configurations in the mill. (author)

  9. Influence of pyrolysis conditions on the structure and gasification reactivity of biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; B. Moghtaderi; R. Gupta; T.F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    The physical and chemical structure as well as gasification reactivities of chars generated from several biomass species (i.e. pinus radiata, eucalyptus maculata and sugar cane bagasse) were studied to gain insight into the role of heating rate and pressure on the gasification characteristics of biomass chars. Char samples were generated in a suite of reactors including a wire mesh reactor, a tubular reactor, and a drop tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, digital cinematography and surface area analysis were employed to determine the impact of operating conditions on the char structure. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined for a range of pressures between 1 and 20 bar using pressurised thermogravimetric analysis technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. It was found that under high heating rates the char particles underwent plastic deformation (i.e. melted) developing a structure different to that of the virgin biomass. Pressure was also found to influence the physical and chemical structures of char particles. The difference in the gasification reactivities of biomass chars at pressure was found to correlate well with the effect of pyrolysis pressure on the graphitisation process in the biomass char structure. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Thermogravimetric study on the influence of structural, textural and chemical properties of biomass chars on CO2 gasification reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation aims to examine the influence of textural, structural and chemical properties of biomass chars on the CO2 gasification rate. Various lignocellulosic biomass chars were prepared under the same conditions. Different analytical techniques were used to determine the char properties such as Scanning Electronic Microscopy, nitrogen adsorption manometry, Raman spectroscopy and X Ray Fluorescence. Gasification tests were carried out in a thermobalance under 20% CO2 in nitrogen at 800 °C. Significant differences of the total average reactivity were observed with a factor of 2 between the prepared chars. Moreover, different behaviors of gasification rate profiles versus conversion were obtained. This difference of behavior appeared to be correlated with the biomass char properties. Hence, up to 70% of conversion, the gasification rate was shown to depend on the char external surface and the potassium content. At higher conversion ratio, a satisfactory correlation between the Catalytic Index and the average gasification rate was identified. The results highlight the importance of knowing both textural and structural properties and mineral contents of biomass chars to predict fuel reactivity during CO2 gasification processes. Such behavior prediction is highly important in the gasifiers design for char conversion. - Highlights: • CO2 gasification reactivity of various lignocellulosic chars were examined. • Chars properties affect strongly samples gasification behavior. • Initial gasification rate is affected by external surface, K content and D3/G ratio. • Gasification rate behavior depends on the Alkali index at high conversion

  11. Study of the Apparent Kinetics of Biomass Gasification Using High-Temperature Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevanau, Aliaksandr

    2010-10-15

    Among the latest achievements in gasification technology, one may list the development of a method to preheat gasification agents using switched ceramic honey combs. The best output from this technology is achieved with use of water steam as a gasification agent, which is heated up to 1600 deg C. The application of these temperatures with steam as a gasification agent provides a cleaner syngas (no nitrogen from air, cracked tars) and the ash melts into easily utilised glass-like sludge. High hydrogen content in output gas is also favourable for end-user applications.Among the other advantages of this technology is the presumable application of fixed-bed-type reactors fed by separately produced and preheated steam. This construction assumes relatively high steam flow rates to deliver the heat needed for endothermic reactions involving biomass. The biomass is to be heated uniformly and evenly in the volume of the whole reactor, providing easier and simpler control and operation in comparison to other types of reactors. To provide potential constructors and exploiters of these reactors with the kinetic data needed for the calculations of vital parameters for both reactor construction and exploitation, basic experimental research of high-temperature steam gasification of four types of industrially produced biomass has been conducted.Kinetic data have been obtained for straw and wood pellets, wood-chip charcoal and compressed charcoal of mixed origin

  12. Comparative evaluation of kinetic, equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models for biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Chakma, Sankar; Kumar, Peeush [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Mahanta, Pinakeswar [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of biomass gasification has been an active area of research for past two decades. In the published literature, three approaches have been adopted for the modeling of this process, viz. thermodynamic equilibrium, semi-equilibrium and kinetic. In this paper, we have attempted to present a comparative assessment of these three types of models for predicting outcome of the gasification process in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier. Two model biomass, viz. rice husk and wood particles, have been chosen for analysis, with gasification medium being air. Although the trends in molar composition, net yield and LHV of the producer gas predicted by three models are in concurrence, significant quantitative difference is seen in the results. Due to rather slow kinetics of char gasification and tar oxidation, carbon conversion achieved in single pass of biomass through the gasifier, calculated using kinetic model, is quite low, which adversely affects the yield and LHV of the producer gas. Although equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models reveal relative insensitivity of producer gas characteristics towards temperature, the kinetic model shows significant effect of temperature on LHV of the gas at low air ratios. Kinetic models also reveal volume of the gasifier to be an insignificant parameter, as the net yield and LHV of the gas resulting from 6 m and 10 m riser is same. On a whole, the analysis presented in this paper indicates that thermodynamic models are useful tools for quantitative assessment of the gasification process, while kinetic models provide physically more realistic picture.

  13. Investigations in gasification of biomass mixtures using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781 039, Assam (India)

    2011-07-01

    Biomass gasifiers with power generation capacities exceeding 1 MW have large biomass consumption. Availability of a single biomass in such large quantities is rather difficult, and hence, mixtures of biomasses need to be used as feed-stock for these gasifiers. This study has assessed feasibility of biomass mixtures as fuel in biomass gasifiers for decentralized power generation using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium (with limited carbon conversion) model employing Gibbs energy minimization. Binary mixtures of common biomasses found in northeastern states of India such as rice husk, bamboo dust and saw dust have been taken for analysis. The potential for power generation from gasifier has been evaluated on the basis of net yield (in Nm3) and LHV (in MJ/Nm3) of the producer gas obtained from gasification of 100 g of biomass mixture. The results of simulations have revealed interesting trends in performance of gasifiers with operating parameters such as air ratio, temperature of gasification and composition of the biomass mixture. For all biomass mixtures, the optimum air ratio is {approx} 0.3 with gasification temperature of 800oC. Under total equilibrium conditions, and for engine-generator efficiency of 30%, the least possible fuel consumption is found to be 0.8 kg/kW-h. As revealed in the simulations with semi-equilibrium model, this parameter shows an inverse variation with the extent of carbon conversion. For low carbon conversions ({approx} 60% or so), the specific fuel consumption could be as high as 1.5 kg/kW-h. The results of this study have also been compared with previous literature (theoretical as well as experimental) and good agreement has been found. This study, thus, has demonstrated potential of replacement of a single biomass fuel in the gasifier with mixtures of different biomasses.

  14. Co-gasification of different rank coals with biomass and petroleum coke in a high-pressure reactor for H{sub 2}-rich gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Gil, M.V.; Plaza, M.G.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J.; Rubiera, F. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Four coals of different rank were gasified, using a steam/oxygen mixture as gasifying agent, at atmospheric and elevated pressure in a fixed bed reactor fitted with a solids feeding system in continuous mode. Independently of coal rank, an increase in gasification pressure led to a decrease in H{sub 2} + CO production and carbon conversion. Gasification of the different rank Coals revealed that the higher the carbon content and reactivity, the greater the hydrogen production, co-gasification experiments of binary (coal-biomass) and ternary blends (coal-petcoke-biomass) were conducted at high pressure to study possible synergetic effects. Interactions between the blend components were found to modify the gas production. An improvement in hydrogen production and cold gas efficiency was achieved when the coal was gasified with biomass.

  15. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. PMID:26164851

  16. Pyrolysis and gasification of single biomass particle – new openFoam solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new solver biomassGasificationFoam that extended the functionalities of the well-supported open-source CFD code OpenFOAM. The main goal of this development is to provide a comprehensive computational environment for a wide range of applications involving reacting gases and solids. The biomassGasificationFoam is an integrated solver capable of modelling thermal conversion, including evaporation, pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion, of various solid materials. In the paper we show that the gas is hotter than the solid except at the centre of the sample, where the temperature of the solid is higher. This effect is expected because the thermal conductivity of the porous matrix of the solid phase is higher than the thermal conductivity of the gases. This effect, which cannot be considered if thermal equilibrium between the gas and solid is assumed, leads to precise description of heat transfer into wood particles.

  17. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. PMID:27118736

  18. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-06-19

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. PMID:24946772

  19. Electric power generation from biomass gasification; Geracao de eletricidade a partir da gaseificacao de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Cristina Aparecida Vilas Boas de; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/IEM/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Estudos em Sistemas Termicos], e-mails: cristinasales@unifei.edu.br, ruben@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a techno-economical evaluation of the biomass gasification utilization with different technologies such as: reciprocating engine, gas micro turbine, Stirling engine and fuel cells for small scale electricity generation. The comparative evaluation about the technologies is limited to the utilization in isolated areas. This paper shows the principal characteristics of these technologies. (author)

  20. Properties of hybrid gas-water torch used for gasification of biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavka, Tetyana; Mašláni, Alan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Hrabovský, Milan

    Heilbronn: Institute of Space Propulsion, German Aerospace Center, 2010. s. 29-29. ISBN N. [International Workshop and Exhibition on Plasma Assisted Combustion/6th./. 13.09.2010-15.09.2010, Heilbronn] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : DC arc plasma torch * gasification of biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  1. Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Michal; Hrabovský, Milan; Kavka, Tetyana; Konrád, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2014), s. 63-66. ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070; GA MŠk MEB020814 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Biomass * Gasification * Plasma * Tar Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.220, year: 2014

  2. Artificial neural network modelling approach for a biomass gasification process in fixed bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 2 Different equilibrium models are developed and their performance is analysed. • Neural network prediction models for 2 different fixed bed gasifier types are developed. • The influence of different input parameters on neural network model performance is analysed. • Methodology for neural network model development for different gasifier types is described. • Neural network models are verified for various operating conditions based on measured data. - Abstract: The number of the small and middle-scale biomass gasification combined heat and power plants as well as syngas production plants has been significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to extensive incentives. However, existing issues regarding syngas quality, process efficiency, emissions and environmental standards are preventing biomass gasification technology to become more economically viable. To encounter these issues, special attention is given to the development of mathematical models which can be used for a process analysis or plant control purposes. The presented paper analyses possibilities of neural networks to predict process parameters with high speed and accuracy. After a related literature review and measurement data analysis, different modelling approaches for the process parameter prediction that can be used for an on-line process control were developed and their performance were analysed. Neural network models showed good capability to predict biomass gasification process parameters with reasonable accuracy and speed. Measurement data for the model development, verification and performance analysis were derived from biomass gasification plant operated by Technical University Dresden

  3. Theoretical and experimental investigation of biomass gasification process in a fixed bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation concerns the process of air biomass gasification in a fixed bed gasifier. Theoretical equilibrium calculations and experimental investigation of the composition of syngas were carried out and compared with findings of other researchers. The influence of excess air ratio (λ) and parameters of biomass on the composition of syngas were investigated. A theoretical model is proposed, based on the equilibrium and thermodynamic balance of the gasification zone. The experimental investigation was carried out at a setup that consists of a gasifier connected by a pipe with a water boiler fired with coal (50 kWth). Syngas obtained in the gasifier is supplied into the coal firing zone of the boiler, and co-combusted with coal. The moisture content in biomass and excess air ratio of the gasification process are crucial parameters, determining the composition of syngas. Another important parameter is the kind of applied biomass. Despite similar compositions and dimensions of the two investigated feedstocks (wood pellets and oats husk pellets), compositions of syngas obtained in the case of these fuels were different. On the basis of tests it may be stated that oats husk pellets are not a suitable fuel for the purpose of gasification.

  4. Experimental Fact-Finding in CFB Biomass Gasification for ECN's 500 kWth Pilot Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.R.A.; Prins, W.; Drift, van der A.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors an

  5. Optical Absorption Spectroscopy for Gas Analysis in Biomass Gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2014-01-01

    Forgasning af biomasse er en bæredygtigt kilde til produktion af varme, el og kemiske råstoffer. Forgasningsgassens hovedkomponenter, såsom H2, CO, CO2og CH4, kan måles med den fornødne præcision. Det kniber til gengæld med at måle sporgasserne, såsom organiske, aromatiske, svovl- og kvælstofholdigekomponenter, som dels kan volde problemer i de systemer der aftager forgasningsgassen og dels være skadelige for helbred og miljøet. I dette arbejde er der udviklet en optisk metode til direkte kon...

  6. Evaluation of electric power generation system biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy systems having 100MW scale of electricity generation were designed and evaluated using thermal efficiency, economics, energy pay-back time and CO2 emissions as the basis of measure. The systems investigated were of four cases characterized by the combination of liquefaction and gasification processes, and boiler and combined cycles. The evaluation result indicated that each system seemed to be economically competitive and environmentally benign. (author)

  7. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  8. Modeling of reaction kinetics in bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, R.K.; Halvorsen, B.M. [Telemark University College, Kjolnes ring 56, P.O. Box 203, 3901 Porsgrunn (Norway); Pfeifer, C. [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Bubbling fluidized beds are widely used as biomass gasification reactors as at the biomass gasification plant in Gussing, Austria. The reactor in the plant is a dual circulating bubbling fluidized bed gasification reactor. The plant produces 2MW electricity and 4.5MW heat from the gasification of biomass. Wood chips as biomass and olivine particles as hot bed materials are fluidized with high temperature steam in the reactor. As a result, biomass undergoes endothermic chemical reaction to produce a mixture of combustible gases in addition to some carbon-dioxide (CO2). The combustible gases are mainly hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4). The gas is used to produce electricity and heat via utilization in a gas engine. Alternatively, the gas is further processed for gaseous or liquid fuels, but still on the process of development level. Composition and quality of the gas determine the efficiency of the reactor. A computational model has been developed for the study of reaction kinetics in the gasification rector. The simulation is performed using commercial software Barracuda virtual reactor, VR15. Eulerian-Lagrangian approach in coupling of gas-solid flow has been implemented. Fluid phase is treated with an Eulerian formulation. Discrete phase is treated with a Lagrangian formulation. Particle-particle and particle-wall interactions and inter-phase heat and mass transfer have been taken into account. Series of simulations have been performed to study model prediction of the gas composition. The composition is compared with data from the gasifier at the CHP plant in Güssing, Austria. The model prediction of the composition of gases has good agreements with the result of the operating plant.

  9. Experimental investigation of solid oxide fuel cells using biomass gasification producer gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norheim, Arnstein

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations related to utilisation of biomass gasification producer gases as fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Initial fundamental steps towards a future system of combined heat and power production based on biomass gasification and SOFC are performed and include: 1) Theoretical modeling of the composition of biomass gasification producer gases. 2) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas as fuel. 3) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas containing high sulphur concentration. The modeling of the composition of gasifier producer gas was performed using the program FactSage. The main objective was to investigate the amount and speciation of trace species in the producer gases as several parameters were varied. Thus, the composition at thermodynamic equilibrium of sulphur, chlorine, potassium, sodium and compounds of these were established. This was done for varying content of the trace species in the biomass material at different temperatures and fuel utilisation i.e. varying oxygen content in the producer gas. The temperature interval investigated was in the range of normal SOFC operation. It was found that sulphur is expected to be found as H2S irrespective of temperature and amount of sulphur. Only at very high fuel utilisation some S02 is formed. Important potassium containing compounds in the gas are gaseous KOH and K. When chlorine is present, the amount of KOH and K will decrease due to the formation of KCI. The level of sodium investigated here was low, but some Na, NaOH and NaCl is expected to be formed. Below a certain temperature, condensation of alkali rich carbonates may occur. The temperature at which condensation begins is mainly depending on the amount of potassium present; the condensation temperature increases with increasing potassium content. In the first experimental work

  10. Thermal plasma gasification of organic waste and biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Brno: VUT Brno - OEZ Letohrad, 2013 - (Aubrecht, V.; Bartlová, M.), s. 29-38 ISBN 978-80-214-4753-0. [Symposium on Physics of Switching Arc /20./. Nové Město na Moravě (CZ), 02.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Thermal plasma * plasma gasification * syngas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  11. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  12. The development of biomass gasification technology towards market penetration in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is the second most frequently used fuel, after coal, in China, which accounts for 20% of primary energy consumption. Though the main usage of biomass is for household cooking, the newly developed biomass gasification technology, especially the circulating fluidized bed gasification (CFBG) technology, has laid the foundations for allowing biomass gasification industry penetration into the commercial energy market. The thermal application of CFBG in wood processing factories, utilizing processing wastes to produce gaseous fuel, has been developed successfully and economically in China. The use of CFBG for generating electricity in rice mills, utilizing rice hulls with an output of 1 MW, is also underway. The status and development history of CFBG application in China is introduced in the paper. The aspects of large scale industrial application, utilization of self-produced feed material to reduce the cost of raw material, transportation problems, energy utilization combined with environmental protection etc., is discussed. The economic benefit of using CFBG for biomass and wastes towards market penetration is also presented. (author)

  13. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  14. Modeling and simulation of biomass air-steam gasification in a fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By considering the features of fluidized-bed reactors and the kinetic mechanism of biomass gasification,a steady-state,isothermal,one-dimensional and twophase mathematical model of biomass gasification kinetics in bubbling fluidized beds was developed.The model assumes the existence of two phases - a bubble and an emulsion phase - with chemical reactions occurring in both phases.The axial gas dispersion in the two phases is accounted for and the pyrolysis of biomass is taken to be instantaneous.The char and gas species CO,CO2,H2,H2O,CH4 and 8 chemical reactions are included in the model.The mathematical model belongs to a typical boundary value problem of ordinary differential equations and its solution is obtained by a Matlab program.Utilizing wood powder as the feedstock,the calculated data show satisfactory agreement with experimental results and proves the effectiveness and reliability of the model.

  15. Experimental and predicted approaches for biomass gasification with enriched air-steam in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qirang; Huang, Yaji; Niu, Miaomiao; Yang, Gaoqiang; Shao, Zhiwei

    2014-10-01

    Thermo-chemical gasification of sawdust refuse-derived fuel was performed on a bench-scale fluidised bed gasifier with enriched air and steam as fluidising and oxidising agents. Dolomite as a natural mineral catalyst was used as bed material to reform tars and hydrocarbons. A series of experiments were carried out under typical operating conditions for gasification, as reported in the article. A modified equilibrium model, based on equilibrium constants, was developed to predict the gasification process. The sensitivity analysis of operating parameters, such as the fluidisation velocity, oxygen percentage of the enriched air and steam to biomass ratios on the produced gas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the predicted syngas composition was in better agreement with the experimental data compared with the original equilibrium model. The higher fluidisation velocity enhanced gas-solid mixing, heat and mass transfers, and carbon fines elutriation, simultaneously. With the increase of oxygen percentage from 21% to 45%, the lower heating value of syngas increased from 5.52 MJ m(-3) to 7.75 MJ m(-3) and cold gas efficiency from 49.09% to 61.39%. The introduction of steam improved gas quality, but a higher steam to biomass ratio could decrease carbon conversion and gasification efficiency owing to a low steam temperature. The optimal value of steam to biomass ratio in this work was 1.0. PMID:25265865

  16. Gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J.; Jong, W. de; Hein, K.R.G. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    During a 3 year (1996-1998) multinational JOULE project, partly funded by the EU, experimental and theoretical research is being done on co-gasification of biomass (pelletised straw and Miscanthus) and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed reactor. The influence of feedstock and operating conditions on gasification characteristics has been studied using a 1.5 MW{sub th} gasifier, which has been operated at a pressure of 5 bar and temperatures up to 900 C. The project and the test rig are described and results obtained in the first part of the project are presented and analysed. (orig.)

  17. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  18. Integrated drying and gasification: technology for power generation from brown coal and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact that 2% of Australia's electricity generation needs to be derived from new renewable energy sources by the year 2010 limits the fuel/energy options in the short term, simply from the sheer size of the undertaking, namely some 9000 GWh of electricity is required from new renewables alone. Realistically, this target can only be achieved by using biomass as the major fuel/energy source. The increasing government, scientific and community pressures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has focussed particular emphasis on the use of renewable fuels for electricity and heating applications. Various biomass fuels such as agricultural residues, forestry wastes and special energy crops have been targeted as sources. Small and large- scale tests have been conducted in various combustion and gasification equipment facilities especially in Europe and to a lesser extent in Australia. Several operational issues, e.g. chloride removal, slagging, need further resolution. A major factor in the introduction of biomass gasification is the comparative cost with existing coal-fired facilities for producing electricity. However, co-firing of biomass with coal appears to be a less costly option. Nonetheless, biomass gasification technologies are being actively demonstrated and show enhanced efficiency. The IDGCC process is designed to produce electricity at low cost and high efficiency from low-rank coals. These high moisture coals are available at low cost in many countries and their use would reduce imports of black coal or other fuels. The process has been shown to operate successfully at the 10 MW scale and the technology is ready to be applied to a commercially scale plant in the 120 to 400 MW scale plants. The drying and gasification part of IDGCC, i.e. IDG, is a suitable means of preparing biomass for co-firing in existing boiler plant, with advantages in simplifying fuel size reduction and in keeping undesirable inorganic constituents out of the boiler

  19. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The analyses were performed in order to provide more detailed data concerning these condensates for the different process research groups and to allow a determination of the differences in properties of the condensates as a function of reactor environment. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases, aqueous phases and, in some cases, both phases depending on the output of the particular reactor system. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay). The analytical data demonstrate the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures as a result of formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high concentrations. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Amirabedin Ehsan; Pooyanfar Mirparham; Rahim Murad A.; Topal Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP) which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP) systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration s...

  1. Issues Impacting Refractory Service Life in Biomass/Waste Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.

    2007-03-01

    Different carbon sources are used, or are being considered, as feedstock for gasifiers; including natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass. Biomass has been used with limited success because of issues such as ash impurity interactions with the refractory liner, which will be discussed in this paper.

  2. The Influence of H2O and CO2 Addition to the Gasification Media during Oxyfuel Fluidized Bed Gasification of Biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeremiáš, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Skoblia, S.; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2010, VP2.1.12. ISBN N. [European Biomass Conference & Exhibition /18./. Lyon (FR), 03.05.2010-07.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08048 Grant ostatní: RFCR(XE) CT/2007/00005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * biomass Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.conference-biomass.com/

  3. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass - UCGFUNDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: matti.reinikainen@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The project was directed towards improved methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route. The aim of the project was to broaden and deepen the knowledge base and, in particular, generate new fundamental information about the most critical process steps from the point of view of the realisation of the technology. The subtopics of the research project were: (1) Fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step (2) Reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, in particular the reactions of hydrocarbons at gasification temperatures, during hot-gas filtration and on catalytic surfaces (3) Evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications (4) Monitoring of developments elsewhere in the world (5) New analysis techniques (6) Hydrogen from biomass via gasification.

  4. Performance of fluidized bed steam gasification of biomass - Modeling and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loha, Chanchal; Chatterjee, Pradip K. [Thermal Engineering Group, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, CSIR, Durgapur 713 209 (India); Chattopadhyay, Himadri [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2011-03-15

    This paper presents the investigation of the performance from different biomasses in a fluidized bed gasifier where steam has been used as gasifying as well as fluidizing agent. An experimental setup is fabricated to study the gasification performance of rice husk, which is of special relevance to rice-producing countries like China and India. An equilibrium modeling approach is deployed to predict the gas composition which has been compared with the experimental results. Calibration of the model with appropriate modeling coefficients was necessary to achieve close resemblance with the experimental values. Further, the model is used to predict the gas compositions from other biomass and benchmarked with the performance of coal. In this study, the gasification temperature is varied from 650 C to 800 C, whereas the steam-to-biomass ratio (S/B) is varied from 0.75 to 2.00. As the gasification temperature increases, the production of H{sub 2} and CO increases but the generation of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} reduces. The steam-to-biomass ratio was again found to influence the production rates. With increasing steam input, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were found to increase while CO reduces. (author)

  5. Combining a 2-D multiphase CFD model with a Response Surface Methodology to optimize the gasification of Portuguese biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A multiphase CFD model was combined with RSM. • Gasification optimal operating conditions were found in a pilot scale reactor. • Syngas quality indices were optimized in a biomass gasification process. • Propagation of error methodology was combined with a CFD model and RSM. - Abstract: This paper presents a study to evaluate the potential of Portuguese biomasses (coffee husks, forest residues and vine pruning residues) to produce syngas for different applications. By using a 2-D Eulerian–Eulerian approach within the CFD framework, a design of several computer experiments was developed and were used as analysis tools the response surface method (RSM) and the propagation of error (POE) approach. The CFD model was validated under experimental results collected at a semi-industrial reactor. For design purposes, temperature, steam to biomass ratio (SBR) and the type of biomass were selected as input factors. The responses were the H2 generation, the H2/CO ratio, the CH4/H2 ratio, the carbon conversion and the cold gas efficiency. It was concluded that after an optimization procedure to determine the operating conditions, vine pruning residues could show very promising results considering some of the typical syngas indice standards for commercial purposes. From the optimization procedure, it was also concluded that forest residues are preferable for domestic natural gas applications and vine pruning residues for fuel cells and integrated gasification systems application. By using the RSM combined with POE, it was verified that the operating conditions to get higher performances do not always coincide with those necessary to obtain a stable syngas composition

  6. The Development of Ni/Dolomite Catalyst in Simultaneous Biomass Gasification and Reforming in Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Ketcong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous gasification and steam reforming of the biomass on Ni/dolomite catalyst in fluidized bed reactor were studied in the gaseous production in the one stage reactor. Problem statement: The parameters such as temperature, steam flow rate, biomass feed rate, gas flow rate for fluidization, oxygen flow rate and catalyst types were studied to produce the high gaseous products including tar elimination. Approach: The temperature at 780°C, steam flow rate of 222 mmoL h-1, gas flow rate for fluidization 450 mL min-1 and oxygen input 50 mL min-1 were found to be the suitable conditions. The Ni/Dolomite and the developed Ni/Dolomite were studied about their performance. Results: It was confirmed that Ni/Dolomite and newly developed Ni-WO3/Dolomite show high performance in biomass gasification. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was claimed that Ni/Dolomite catalyst was the effective and give best performance for tar cracking. Newly developed Ni-WO3/Dolomite catalyst was investigated to resist sulfur nd coking. Three types of catalyst were used in the biomass gasification, which are Ni/Dolomite, Ni/Dolomite+Silica binder and Ni-WO3/Dolomite. From the XRD analysis, structures of type 1 (Ni/dolomite and type 2 (Ni/Dolomite+Silica binder were similar which were in CaCO3, MgNiO2, NiO and MgO forms. Type 3 (Ni-WO3/Dolomite was CaWO4, MgNiO2, NiO and MgO forms. When the catalytic gasification was operated, newly Ni- WO3/Dolomite catalyst was the best catalyst for bamboo and palm shell biomasses, which could produce the high carbon monoxide and hydrogen but low methane and carbon dioxide were found. Carbon deposition on catalyst was around 0.37 mg according to the TG analysis.

  7. Efficient gasification of wet biomass residue to produce middle caloric gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangwen Xu; Takahiro Murakami; Toshiyuki Suda; Hidehisa Tani; Yutaka Mito

    2008-01-01

    Various process residues represent a kind of biomass resource already concentrated but containing water as much as 60 wt.%.These materials are generally treated as waste or simply combusted directly to generate heat.Recently,we attempted to convert them into middle caloric gas to substitute for natural gas,as a chemical or a high-rank gaseous fuel for advanced combustion utilities.Such conversion is implemented through dual fluidized bed gasification (DFBG).Concerning the high water content of the fuels,DFBG was suggested to accomplish either with high-efficiency fuel drying in advance or direct decoupling of fuel drying/pyrolysis from char gasification and tar/hydrocarbon reforming.Along with fuel drying,calcium-based catalyst can be impregnated into the fuel,without much additional cost,to increase the fuel's gasification reactivity and to reduce tar formation.This article reports the Ca impregnation method and its resulting effects on gasification reactivity and tar suppression ability.Meanwhile,the principle of directly gasifying wet fuel with decoupled dual fluidized bed gasification (D-DFBG) is also highlighted.

  8. The influence of partial oxidation mechanisms on tar destruction in TwoStage biomass gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Egsgaard, Helge; Stelte, Wolfgang;

    2013-01-01

    TwoStage gasification of biomass results in almost tar free producer gas suitable for multiple end-use purposes. In the present study, it is investigated to what extent the partial oxidation process of the pyrolysis gas from the first stage is involved in direct and in-direct tar destruction and...... conversion. The study identifies the following major impact factors regarding tar content in the producer gas: oxidation temperature, excess air ratio and biomass moisture content. In a experimental setup, wood pellets were pyrolyzed and the resulting pyrolysis gas was transferred in a heated partial...... resulting PAH tar compounds are readily converted in the subsequent char-bed of the TwoStage gasification process and the partial oxidation process thus contributes directly as well as in-directly to the overall tar destruction. A high temperature and excess air ratios contribute positively to the direct...

  9. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    that the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel references for electricity production takes place in a combined heat and power plant, but as a sensitivity analysis, we also consider combustion in a condensing mode power plant where only electricity is produced. Our results show that the production of 1 k......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...

  11. Thermodynamic analyses of an externally fired gas turbine combined cycle integrated with a biomass gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A gas turbine combined cycle with gasified biomass external firing is analyzed. • Thermodynamic analysis considers first and second law analyses. • Thermal efficiency peaks at an optimum cycle pressure ratio (about 9). • Three sets of operating parameters are considered in a detailed case study. • One of three cases is more efficient from first or second law viewpoints. - Abstract: Thermodynamic analyses of an externally fired gas turbine combined cycle integrated with a biomass gasification plant, using energy and exergy approaches, are reported for a proposed configuration. Paper is taken to be the fuel and the thermodynamic performance and sizing of the plant is examined for various values of cycle pressure ratio (7–12), gas turbine inlet temperature (1200–1400 K) and heat exchanger cold-end temperature difference (245–275 K). Depending on the gas turbine inlet temperature and heat exchanger cold-end temperature difference, the system overall energy efficiency is observed to attain a maximum at a particular pressure ratio. For a given pressure ratio, the energy efficiency increases with gas turbine inlet temperature and decreases with heat exchanger cold-end temperature difference. An increase in pressure ratio results in a decrease of air flow rate and an increase of steam flow rates. These flow rates are attributable to the size of combined cycle plant. Raising the gas turbine inlet temperature reduces the air flow rate. The performance of a 1 MW plant is investigated with various operating parameters to obtain component ratings and biomass feed rates. Exergy efficiencies of cycle components are examined along with the major thermodynamic irreversibilities

  12. Multiphase flow importance in future nuclear process heat applications: energy alcohol by biomass gasification with HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For future nuclear process heat applications multiphase phenomena are very important in a three-fold sense: For the ability to produce high temperature heat, for the realization of a catastrophe-free nuclear energy technology and for the newly proposed carbondioxide-neutral energy system 'energy alcohol from biomass plus HTR'. The technology of the 'Coated Particle' with the multi-coating of ceramic coatings on microparticles on nuclear fuel for the HTR is the technological reason for the ability to produce high temperature heat from nuclear energy. It is produced by chemical vapour deposition in a fluidized bed, this is a two-phase-fluidized-bed/gaseous-to-solid-states-change by pyrolysis/multi-component/phenomenon. The new requirement of a catastrophe-free nuclear energy technology has led to the identification that the ingress of water droplets into the nuclear core of the HTR should be avoided by self-acting separation of droplets coming from the steam generator tube break before they can get into the core. The behaviour of the water/steam jet in the helium stream is a two-phase-flow/far-from-equilibrium-phase-change/two-component/phenomenon. The biggest challenge to the energy industry is the carbondioxide-climate-change-problem. The solution requires the reduction of the application of fossil primary energy carriers by the factor of about 5 for the world, and e.g. by the factors of about 13 for FRG and about 10 for Japan. As a contribution to the solution a new proposal has been made recently: the production of energy alcohol, e.g. methanol, on the basis 'biomass plus HTR'. The main part of the energy conversion process is the helium-heated fluidized bed steam gasification of biomass. This a two-phase-flow/solid-to-gaseous states-change/pyrolysis and chemical reaction/multi-component/phenomenon. (J.P.N.)

  13. Experimental Gasification of Biomass in an Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Surjosatyo; Fajri Vidian; Yulianto Sulistyo Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    The updraft gasifier is a simple type of reactor for the gasification of biomass that is easy to operate and has high conversion efficiency, although it produces high levels of tar. This study attempts to observe the performance of a modified updraft gasifier. A modified updraft gasifier that recirculates the pyrolysis gases from drying zone back to the combustion zone and gas outlet at reduction zone was used. In this study, the level of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone w...

  14. Fluidized Bed Gasification of Biomass: the Yield of Hydrogen under Different Operating Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeremiáš, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Skoblia, S.; Beňo, Z.; Kameníková, Petra; Durda, Tomáš

    Praha : KANAG - TISK, 2014 - (Bouzek, K.; Doucek, A.), s. 38 ISBN 978-80-7080-878-8. [5International Conference on Hydrogen Technologies /5./. Prague (CZ), 02.04.2014-04.04.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7C11009 Grant ostatní: RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2010-0009 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biomass * gasification * dolomite * limestone * fluidized bed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. Plasma Aided Gasification of Biomass and Plastics using CO2 as Oxidizer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Hlína, Michal; Kavka, Tetyana; Chumak, Oleksiy; Mašláni, Alan; Van Oost, G.

    St. John´s, Newfoundland: IEEE, 2010, s. 1-4. ISBN N. [International Symposium on Non-Thermal/Thermal Plasma Pollution Control Technology & Sustainable Energy, ISNTP 7. St. John´s, Newfoundland (CA), 21.06.2010-25.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * waste * gasification * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  16. Energy balance and kinetics of gasification of biomass particles in thermal plasma flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Konrád, Miloš; Hlína, Michal; Kavka, Tetyana; Kopecký, Vladimír; Chumak, Oleksiy

    Bochum: University of Bochum, 2009, P3.16.05. ISBN 978-0-471-72001-0. [International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry/19th./. Bochum (DE), 26.07.2009-31.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification * syngas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.ispc-conference.org/ispcproc/papers/440.pdf

  17. COMBUSTION STUDY OF MIXTURES RESULTING FROM A GASIFICATION PROCESS OF FOREST BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro Magalhaes, Eliseu

    2011-01-01

    Syngas is being recognized as a viable energy source worldwide, particularly for stationary power generation. In the current work, three typical syngas compositions have been considered as representative of the syngas resultant from forest biomass gasification, and the possibility of using it in internal combustion engines is studied. First, laminar burning velocities have been determined from schlieren flame images at normal temperature and pressure, over a range of equivalence ratios within...

  18. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant Based on gasification of biomass and Electrolysis of water

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Lasse R.; Houbak, Niels; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2 from post-combustion capture and autothermal reforming of natural gas or biogas. Underground gas storage of hydrogen and oxygen was used in connection with the electrolysis to enab...

  19. Thermal plasma gasification of organic waste and biomass for fuel gas production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Patras : University of Patras Plasma Technology Lab, 2008. s. 3-3. ISBN N. [Biennial European Plasma Conference HTTP-10/10th./. 07.07.2008-11.07.2008, Patras] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. Production of syngas by gasification of waste biomass using CO2 as oxidizing medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Strasbourg: European Materials Research Society, 2009 - (Amouroux, J.), s. 61-63 ISBN N. [E- MRS Spring Conference 2009. Strasbourg (FR), 08.06.2009-12.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  1. Artificial neural network models for biomass gasification in fluidized bed gasifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Hernández, J. Alfredo; Bruno, Joan Carles;

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied for modeling biomass gasification process in fluidized bed reactors. Two architectures of ANNs models are presented; one for circulating fluidized bed gasifiers (CFB) and the other for bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers (BFB). Both models determin...... experimental data used R2 > 0.98. Furthermore a sensitivity analysis has been applied in each ANN model showing that all studied input variables are important....

  2. Thermal plasma gasification of organic waste and biomass for fuel gas production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Patras: University of Patras Plasma Technology Lab, 2008. s. 3-3. ISBN N. [Biennial European Plasma Conference HTTP-10/10th./. 07.07.2008-11.07.2008, Patras] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  3. Challenges of selecting materials for the process of biomass gasification in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukis, N.; Habicht, W.; Hauer, E.; Dinjus, E. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2010-07-01

    A new process for the gasification of wet biomass is the reaction in supercritical water. The product is a combustible gas, rich in hydrogen with a high calorific value. The reaction is performed under high temperatures - up to 700 C - and pressures up to 30 MPa. The combination of these physical conditions and the corrosive environment is very demanding for the construction materials of the reactor. Only few alloys exhibit the required mechanical properties, especially the mechanical strength at temperatures higher than 600 C. Ni-Base alloys like alloy 625 can be applied up to a temperature of 700 C and are common materials for application under supercritical water conditions. During gasification experiments with corn silage and other biomasses, corrosion of the reactor material alloy 625 appears. The gasification of an aqueous methanol solution in supercritical water at temperatures up to 600 C and 25 - 30 MPa pressure results in an product gas rich in hydrogen, carbon dioxide and some methane. Alloy 625 shows very low corrosion rates in this environment. It is obvious that the heteroatoms and salts present in biomass cause corrosion of the reactor material. (orig.)

  4. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  5. CFD Simulation of Biomass Gasification using Detailed Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidi, Arash

    2011-01-01

    The use of biomass as a CO2-neutral renewable fuel and the only carbon containing renewable energy source is becoming more important due to the decreasing resources of fossil fuels and their effect on global warming. The projections made for the Renewable Energy Road Map [1] suggested that in the EU, the use of biomass can be expected to double, to contribute around half of the total effort for reaching the 20 % renewable energy target in 2020 [2]. To achieve this goal, efficient processes to...

  6. Hydrodynamic study on gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    S.BASKARA SETHUPATHY; Natarajan, E.

    2012-01-01

    Current scenario of energy insecurity urges us to realize the importance of alternate energy sources. In country with variety of vegetation like India, Biomass finds its place of which fluidized bed gasification of biomass could be more effective. This paper emphasizes the importance of a fluidized bed gasifier for energy conversion of agro-residues for useful purposes. Coconut Shell and Ground nut shell of gross calorific value 19.43MJ/kg and 14.91 MJ/kg respectively are taken for the study....

  7. Modified Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model for Biomass Gasification: A Study of the Influence of Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Juan Carlos; Coronas, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for biomass gasification processes developed in the equation solver program Engineering Equation Solver (EES) with an implemented user-friendly interface. It is based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and includes some modifications to be adapted...... data from different authors for downdraft, fluidized-bed gasifiers and different biomasses, showing good agreement between reported data and modeled values. In addition, it has been used to evaluate the influence of different operating parameters [equivalence ratio (ER), air preheating, steam injection...

  8. Problems and opportunities fr solar energy in biomass, pyrolysis, and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.

    1979-11-01

    Passive solar input for drying crops and wood already make a significant input to the US energy budget, and active solar drying, requiring temperatures below 200/sup 0/C, can easily make an important substitution for fossil fuels in drying. Pyrolysis of biomass typically requires less than 1.6 MBtu/dry ton at a temperature of 500/sup 0/C, and this could potentially be supplied by direct solar heating. The heat input is likely to be by indirect heating of a solid, liquid or gas heat-transfer agent. Fast pyrolysis requires modest heat inputs with high heat-transfer rates at temperatures over 900/sup 0/C and thus may be particularly suited to focusing collectors as energy sources. Char gasification, using steam or CO/sub 2/, requires large energy inputs at temperatures over 900/sup 0/C and thus is the least likely field of application of solar energy. Ultimately, the large scale application of solar energy to biomass pyrolysis and gasification will depend on the relative cost of direct solar versus biomass inputs. Biomass energy inputs now typically cost 1 to 3 $/MBtu; when direct solar heat costs begin to approach this level, we may begin to use direct solar process heat for biomass conversion.

  9. Sulfur Tolerant Magnesium Nickel Silicate Catalyst for Reforming of Biomass Gasification Products to Syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Swartz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium nickel silicate (MNS has been investigated as a catalyst to convert tars and light hydrocarbons to syngas (CO and H2 by steam reforming and CO2 reforming in the presence of H2S for biomass gasification process at NexTech Materials. It was observed that complete CH4 conversion could be achieved on MNS catalyst granules at 800–900 °C and a space velocity of 24,000 mL/g/h in a simulated biomass gasification stream. Addition of 10–20 ppm H2S to the feed had no apparent impact on CH4 conversion. The MNS-washcoated monolith also showed high activities in converting methane, light hydrocarbons and tar to syngas. A 1200 h test without deactivation was achieved on the MNS washcoated monolith in the presence of H2S and/or NH3, two common impurities in gasified biomass. The results indicate that the MNS material is a promising catalyst for removal of tar and light hydrocarbons from biomass gasified gases, enabling efficient use of biomass to produce power, liquid fuels and valuable chemicals.

  10. Biomass gasification to heat, electricity and biofuels. HighBio project publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassi, U.; Wikman, B. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Renewable energy and the use of biomass in energy production promotes sustainable development and decreases the use of fossil fuels. Biomass, e.g. wood chips can be used in the production of heat and electricity, as well as being used as a biofuel component and novel product for the chemical industry. Efficient utilisation of biomass requires a high level of knowledge and the development of new processes to create a new way of thinking. In this process, international co-operation plays a significant role. The aim of the HighBio project was to produce new information on biomass gasification and the utilisation opportunities of product gas in biofuel and biochemicals production. The project was also aimed at studying utilisation properties of biogasification ashes in distributed energy production. Small-scaled CHP plants can be used for simultaneous heat and power production by gasifying wood chips and by burning energy intensive product gas. Compared with thermal combustion, particulate emissions from gasification are lower, which also contributes to the EU's ever tightening emission legislation. Several small and middle scale companies in the Northern part of Finland and Sweden have worked with biomass gasification, and during the project, the birth of new ones has been seen. In this development stage, researchers of the HighBio project have also been strongly involved. Increased use of renewable energy opens up new possibilities for entrepreneurship and the birth of new companies, especially in rural areas. In order to enable these opportunities, we need research data from the universities, novel innovations, and especially their successful commercialisation. The HighBio project has also contributed to tackling those challenges by arranging research seminars and meetings to companies and other interest groups, as well as by establishing research activities and collaborations. Regional collaboration combined with national and international research networks

  11. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow 2; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Haukka, P.; Vehmaan-Kreula, M.; Raiko, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This project was an extension of the earlier Liekki-project 402 carried out in 1993-1994. The aims of the 1995 project were: (1) to study the formation of problematic tar/soot compounds and nitrogen pounds in the conditions of entrained flow gasification of biomass and peat, (2) study the product yields and kinetics of pyrolysis, and (3) to develop simulation methods for entrained flow pyrolysis and gasification. Pyrolysis and gasification tests were carried out at a new entrained flow reactor of the Gasification Research Group of VTT using mainly peat as the feedstock. The pyrolysis kinetics was studies using three particle size distributions of fuel peat (0.075-0.125 mm, 0.16-0.25 mm and 0.315-0.5 mm). The char yields were determined at two temperatures (900 and 1000 deg C) and the effects fuel to gas ratio (suspension density) as well as the effects of gas atmosphere were determined. Limited amount of tests were also carried out with pine wood and dried de-inking sludge. The formation of tars and nitrogen compounds was studied with peat as the feedstock. Based on the test results of this project and the on earlier fluidized-bed gasification data of VTT, the following conclusions can be made: (1) the char yields in rapid entrained flow pyrolysis of small particles of peat and biomass are considerably lower than derived in fluid-bed pyrolysis of more coarse feedstocks. Consequently, simple entrained flow reactors without any recycling of char could already give rather high carbon conversions. However, high carbon conversions can also be easily achieved in fluidized-bed gasifiers with biomass fuels due to the high gasification reactivity of the char, (2) more tars were formed in entrained flow pyrolysis of peat than in fluidized-bed experiments carried out at the same temperature, (3) the total conversion of peat nitrogen to NH{sub 3}+HCN was as high in the entrained flow pyrolysis as in the fluid-bed pyrolysis experiments. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Energy Characterization and Gasification of Biomass Derived by Hazelnut Cultivation: Analysis of Produced Syngas by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Monarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is an extremely energy intensive process. However, high agricultural productivities and the growth of green revolution has been possible only by large amount of energy inputs, especially those coming from fossil fuels. These energy resources have not been able to provide an economically viable solution for agricultural applications. Biomass energy-based systems had been extensively used for transportation and on farm systems during World War II: the most common and reliable solution was wood or biomass gasification. The latter means incomplete combustion of biomass resulting in production of combustible gases which mostly consist of carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen (H2 and traces of methane (CH4. This mixture is called syngas, which can be successfully used to run internal combustion engines (both compression and spark ignition or as substitute for furnace oil in direct heat applications. The aim of the present paper is to help the experimentation of innovative plants for electric power production using agro-forest biomass derived by hazelnut cultivations. An additional purpose is to point out a connection among the chemical and physical properties of the outgoing syngas by biomass characterization and gas-chromatography analysis.

  13. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  14. Hydrodynamic study on gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.BASKARA SETHUPATHY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current scenario of energy insecurity urges us to realize the importance of alternate energy sources. In country with variety of vegetation like India, Biomass finds its place of which fluidized bed gasification of biomass could be more effective. This paper emphasizes the importance of a fluidized bed gasifier for energy conversion of agro-residues for useful purposes. Coconut Shell and Ground nut shell of gross calorific value 19.43MJ/kg and 14.91 MJ/kg respectively are taken for the study. The particle size is restricted not to exceed 3mm. Various empirical correlations involved in fluidization are studied and their interdependence is detailed. From various published data, importance of inert materials and their relative proportions with biomass fuels are studied and optimum biomass to sand ratio is fixed as 10 to 15% by mass. Equations for predicting the minimum fluidization velocities of these mixtures are also discussed. Variations of Fluidization parameters such asminimum fluidization velocity, bubble rise velocity, expanded bed height with respect to temperature, equivalence ratio, particle size is studied and their quantification is analyzed. A 108 mm internal diameter and 1400 mm high FBG is used for the study. Fuel is fed through screw feeder and air is supplied through blower. In the down stream side cyclone separator is placed after which the sampling and burner lines are connected. A regression model is developed and the feasibility of gasifying coconut shell and groundnut shell are discussed. Earlier and present work of coconut shell gasification proves fluidized bed gasification is more appropriate for agro residues.

  15. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading: technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification pro

  16. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass - UCGFunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: matti.reinikainen@vtt.fi; Suominen, T.P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering); Linnekoski, J.; Roenkkoenen, E. (Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry.)

    2010-10-15

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international cooperation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. The project comprises experimental work, modelling, techno-economic evaluations as well as studies based on literature. The project is steered by a wide industrial consortium and the research work is carried out by VTT, Aalto University and Aabo Akademi. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. (orig.)

  17. CFB gasification of biomass. An analysis of available and necessary research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the title analysis is to inventorize the required and available Dutch laboratory facilities for research on Circulating Fluidized Beds (CFB) gasification of biomass. A literature study has been carried to assess the international state-of-the-art of the technology and research. Based on the results the required research facilities could be determined. Next, interviews were held with researchers at relevant Dutch research institutes and information was collected to compile an overview of available Dutch facilities. It appears that the introduction of CFB gasification technologies can take place under good conditions, although coordination of future research activities is desired, while knowledge and facilities are spread over several research institutes. 16 figs., 43 refs., 1 appendix

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the biomass flow rate; (2 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature decreases the air and biomass flow rates; (3 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the energy and exergy efficiencies, especially at lower pressure ratios; (4 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature raises both efficiencies; and (5 overspray increases the energy efficiency and net cycle power slightly. The gas turbine exhibits the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the combustor the lowest. A comparison of the cycle with similar cycles fired by natural gas and differently configured cycles fueled by biomass shows that the cycle with natural gas firing has an energy efficiency 18 percentage points above the biomass fired cycle, and that steam injection increases the energy efficiency about five percentage points relative to the cycle without steam injection. Also, the influence of steam injection on energy efficiency is more significant than fog cooling.

  19. Optical Absorption Spectroscopy for Gas Analysis in Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge

    Biomass gasication as a source of heat, power and chemical feedstock needs monitoring of the gas species to improve the performance and gas quality, deepen the understanding of the process and to be able to control the emission of hazardous compounds. Major species, like H2, CO and CO2, can already...... be determined with sucient precision. However, minor species, like organic, aromatic, sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds, still cause problems in down-stream equipment and are harmful for health and environment. As a result, many different approaches for applications have been proposed to...... and aromatic compounds were determined in laboratory experiments. By means of the laboratory results and spectroscopic databases,the concentrations of the major gas species and the aromatic compounds phenol and naphthalene were determined in extraction and in-situ measurements....

  20. High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification of Biomass Wastes - Stage 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; Szewczyk, Dariusz; Lucas, Carlos; Rafidi, Nabil; Abeyweera Ruchira; Jansson, Anna; Bjoerkman, Eva [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2003-05-01

    In Jan 2002 the Division of Energy and Furnace Technology started the project High Temperature Air an Steam Gasification (HTAG) of biomass wastes, following the approval made by Swedish Energy Agency. The research proved successful; with the fixed bed updraft gasifier coupled to the highly regenerative preheater equipment able to produce a fuel gas not only from wood pellets but also from wood chips, bark and charcoal with considerably reduced amount of tar. This report provides information on solid biomass conversion into fuel gas as a result of air and steam gasification process performed in a fixed bed updraft gasifier. The first chapter of the report presents the overall objectives and the specific objectives of the work. Chapter 2 summarizes state-of-the-art on the gasification field stating some technical differences between low and high temperature gasification processes. Description and schemes of the experimental test rig are provided in Chapter 3. The equipment used to perform measurements of different sort and that installed in the course of the work is described in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes the methodology of experiments conducted whose results were processed and evaluated with help of the scheme of equations presented in Chapter 6, called raw data evaluation. Results of relevant experiments are presented and discussed in Chapter 7. A summary discussion of the tar analysis is presented in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 summarizes the findings of the research work conducted and identifies future efforts to ensure the development of next stage. Final chapter provides a summary of conclusions and recommendations of the work. References are provided at the end of the report. Aimed to assist the understanding of the work done, tables and graphs of experiments conducted, irrespective to their quality, are presented in appendices.

  1. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T. [NICERT, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I. [INETI-DEECA, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A. [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, University of Saragossa, 50018 Saragossa (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  2. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  3. Gasification-based energy production systems for different size classes - Potential and state of R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Conference paper). Different energy production systems based on biomass and waste gasification are being developed in Finland. In 1986-1995 the Finnish gasification research and development activities were almost fully devoted to the development of simplified IGCC power systems suitable to large-scale power production based on pressurized fluid-bed gasification, hot gas cleaning and a combined-cycle process. In the 1990's the atmospheric-pressure gasification activities aiming for small and medium size plants were restarted in Finland. Atmospheric-pressure fixed-bed gasification of wood and peat was commercialized for small-scale district heating applications already in the 1980's. Today research and development in this field aims at developing a combined heat and power plant based on the use of cleaned product gas in internal combustion engines. Another objective is to enlarge the feedstock basis of fixed-bed gasifiers, which at present are limited to the use of piece-shaped fuels such as sod peat and wood chips. Intensive research and development is at present in progress in atmospheric-pressure circulating fluidized-bed gasification of biomass residues and wastes. This gasification technology, earlier commercialized for lime-kiln applications, will lead to co-utilization of local residues and wastes in existing pulverized coal fired boilers. The first demonstration plant is under construction in Finland and there are several projects under planning or design phase in different parts of Europe. 48 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Gasification-based energy production systems for different size classes - Potential and state of R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.

    1997-12-31

    (Conference paper). Different energy production systems based on biomass and waste gasification are being developed in Finland. In 1986-1995 the Finnish gasification research and development activities were almost fully devoted to the development of simplified IGCC power systems suitable to large-scale power production based on pressurized fluid-bed gasification, hot gas cleaning and a combined-cycle process. In the 1990`s the atmospheric-pressure gasification activities aiming for small and medium size plants were restarted in Finland. Atmospheric-pressure fixed-bed gasification of wood and peat was commercialized for small-scale district heating applications already in the 1980`s. Today research and development in this field aims at developing a combined heat and power plant based on the use of cleaned product gas in internal combustion engines. Another objective is to enlarge the feedstock basis of fixed-bed gasifiers, which at present are limited to the use of piece-shaped fuels such as sod peat and wood chips. Intensive research and development is at present in progress in atmospheric-pressure circulating fluidized-bed gasification of biomass residues and wastes. This gasification technology, earlier commercialized for lime-kiln applications, will lead to co-utilization of local residues and wastes in existing pulverized coal fired boilers. The first demonstration plant is under construction in Finland and there are several projects under planning or design phase in different parts of Europe. 48 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Analysis of Operation Parameters in a Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasifier Integrated with a Biomass Rotary Dryer: Development and Application of a System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Puadian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An integrated system model was developed in UniSim Design for a dual fluidized bed (DFB biomass gasifier and a rotary biomass dryer using a combination of user-defined and built-in unit operations. A quasi-equilibrium model was used for modelling biomass steam gasification in the DFB gasifier. The biomass drying was simulated with consideration of mass and energy balances, heat transfer, and dryer’s configuration. After validation using experimental data, the developed system model was applied to investigate: (1 the effects of gasification temperature and steam to biomass (S/B ratio on the gasification performance; (2 the effect of air supplied to the fast fluidized bed (FFB reactor and feed biomass moisture content on the integrated system performance, energy and exergy efficiencies. It was found that gasification temperature and S/B ratio have positive effects on the gasification yields; a H2/CO ratio of 1.9 can be achieved at the gasification temperature of 850 °C with a S/B ratio of 1.2. Consumption of excessive fuel in the system at higher biomass feed moisture content can be compensated by the heat recovery such as steam generation while it has adverse impact on exergy efficiency of the system.

  6. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  7. Formation of naphthalene at gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup with dolomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tar generated at gasification of biomass and municipal wastes is an unwanted byproduct. With dolomite as catalyst the tar content is reduced to such a level as to allow final cleaning of the fuel gas with water. It is still desirable to further reduce the naphthalene level in the fuel gas. The aim of the project is to determine the influence of process variables on cracking of naphthalene with dolomite in a small fluidized bed gasifier, and to determine the influence on the content of BTX in the gas from the same variables. 10 refs, 21 figs, 1 tab

  8. Thermal plasma generated in gas-water torch and its utilization for gasification of biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavka, Tetyana; Hrabovský, Milan; Konrád, Miloš; Mašláni, Alan

    Bratislava, Slovensko : Comenius University Press, 2007 - (Matúška, J.; Matejčík, Š.; Skalný, J.). s. 197-198 ISBN 978-80-89186-13-6. [Symposium on Application of Plasma Processes/16th./. 20.1.2007-25.1.2007, Podbanske] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) 202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Thermal plasma jet * gasification * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http:// neon .dpp.fmph.uniba.sk/sapp/

  9. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  10. Synthesis, Modeling and Exergy Analysis of Atmospheric Air Blown Biomass Gasification for Fischer-Tropsch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Panopoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of the present work is to investigate the combination of an atmospheric and a pressurised air blown biomass gasifier towards Fischer-Tropsch (FT synthesis of second generation biofuels and co-production of power. The complete process was simulated in AspenPlusTM software including sub-models for the gasification, gas cleaning and conditioning as well as for the FT reactor. A sensitivity analysis on exergetic performance was performed mainly examining the recycling of FT-tail gas. For the base case of 80% FT CO conversion without any recirculation, the exergetic efficiency was found to be 34.3% with atmospheric gasification and 30.64% for pressurised gasification. Recirculation of the non-reacted CO, H2 as well as light gas products of the FT-reactor back to the atmospheric gasifier can increase the overall efficiency up to 48.1 %.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings.

  11. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  12. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Muhammad R.

    2012-07-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving energy systems of existing chemical pulp mills by integrating gasification technology. The present study investigates bio-fuel alternatives from the dry black liquor gasification (BLG) system with direct causticization and direct methane production from the catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system. The studied systems are compared with bio-fuel alternatives from the Chemrec BLG system and the improvements in the energy systems of the pulp mill are analyzed. The results are used to identify the efficient route based on system performance indicators e.g. material and energy balances to compare BLG systems and the conventional recovery boiler system, potential biofuel production together with biomass to biofuel conversion efficiency, energy ratios, potential CO{sub 2} mitigation combining on-site CO{sub 2} reduction using CO{sub 2} capture and potential CO{sub 2} offsets from biofuel use, and potential motor fuel replacement. The results showed that the dry BLG system for synthetic natural gas (SNG) production offers better integration opportunities with the chemical pulp mill in terms of overall material and energy balances. The biofuel production and conversion efficiency are higher in the CHG system than other studied configurations but at a cost of larger biomass import. The dry BLG system for SNG production achieved high biomass to biofuel efficiency and considerable biofuel production

  13. Plasmatron gasification of biomass lignocellulosic waste materials derived from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to study the feasibility and operational performance of plasmatron (plasma torch) gasification of municipal solid waste mixed with raw wood (MSW/RW) derived from the pretreatment of Steam Mechanical Heat Treatment (SMHT), as the target material (MRM). A 10 kW plasmatron reactor is used for gasification of the MRM. The production of syngas (CO and H2) is the major component, and almost 90% of the gaseous products appear in 2 min of reaction time, with relatively high reaction rates. The syngas yield is between 88.59 and 91.84 vol%, and the recovery mass ratio of syngas from MRM is 45.19 down to 27.18 wt% with and without steam with the energy yields of 59.07–111.89%. The concentrations of gaseous products from the continuous feeding of 200 g/h are stable and higher than the average concentrations of the batch feeding of 10 g. The residue from the plasmatron gasification with steam is between 0 and 4.52 wt%, with the inorganic components converted into non-leachable vitrified lava, which is non-hazardous. The steam methane reforming reaction, hydrogasification reaction and Boudouard reaction all contribute to the increase in the syngas yield. It is proved that MSW can be completely converted into bioenergy using SMHT, followed by plasmatron gasification. - Highlights: • After steam treatment, the lignocellulosic in MSW can be derived to refuse solid biomass (RSB). • 90% of products appear quickly in 2 min with the maximum energy yield of 111.89%. • The residue is non-leachable verified lava with very low mass. • Continuous feeing process is stable and practical for further use

  14. Formation and removal of biomass-derived contaminants in fluidized-bed gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of this thesis were to examine the effects of the feedstock and the operating conditions of a fluidized-bed gasifier on the formation of tars and nitrogen-containing compounds and to study the effectiveness of the hot gas cleaning methods developed for the removal of particulates, alkali metals, tars and nitrogen-containing compounds. The most essential part of the work was carried out in the pressurized fluidized-bed gasification test facilities composed of an air-blown bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent hot gas filter unit. The operation pressure of the test rig could be varied in the range 0.3 - 1.0 MPa and the maximum allowable gasification temperature was 1 050 deg C. The maximum capacity with biomass fuels was 80 kg/h. A wide range of feedstocks from hard coals, lignite and peat to different wood derived fuels and straw were used in the gasification tests. Two different types of ceramic filters were tested in the filter unit connected to the pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier. The filter unit was operated in a temperature range of 400 - 740 deg C. The particulate removal requirements set by the gas turbines were met by both types of filters and with product gases derived from all the feedstocks tested. In addition to the gasification and gas filtration tests, catalytic tar and ammonia decomposition was studied using both laboratory and bench-scale test facilities. Inexpensive calcium-based bulk materials, dolomites and limestones, were efficient tar decomposition catalysts in atmospheric-pressure tests

  15. Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional biomass pyrolysis/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the operating parameters on biomass pyrolysis are investigated in a laboratory setup based on the principle of keeping the heating value of the gas almost unchanged. The studied parameters include reaction temperature, residence time of volatile phase in the reactor, physico-chemical pretreatment of biomass particles, heating rate of the external heating furnace and improvement of the heat and mass transfer ability of the pyrolysis reactor. The running temperature of a separate cracking reactor and the geometrical configuration of the pyrolysis reactor are also studied. However, due to time limits, different types of catalysts are not used in this work to determine their positive influences on biomass pyrolysis behaviour. The results indicate that product gas production from biomass pyrolysis is sensitive to the operating parameters mentioned above, and the product gas heating value is high, up to 13-15 MJ/N m3

  16. Economics of biomass energy utilization in combustion and gasification plants: effects of logistic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substitution of conventional fossil fuels with biomass for energy production results both in a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and in the replacement of non-renewable energy sources. However, at present, generating energy from biomass is rather expensive due to both technological limits related to lower conversion efficiencies, and logistic constraints. In particular, the logistics of biomass fuel supply is likely to be complex owing to the intrinsic feedstock characteristics, such as the limited period of availability and the scattered geographical distribution over the territory. In this paper, the economical feasibility of biomass utilization for direct production of electric energy by means of combustion and gasification-conversion processes, has been investigated and evaluated over a capacity range from 5 to 50 MW, taking into account total capital investments, revenues from energy sale and total operating costs, also including a detailed evaluation of logistic costs. Moreover, in order to evaluate the impact of logistics on the bio-energy plants profitability, the effects of main logistic variables such as specific vehicle transport costs, vehicles capacity, specific purchased biomass costs and distribution density, have been examined. Finally, a mapping of logistic constraints on plant profitability in the specified capacity range has been carried out

  17. Integration of mixed conducting membranes in an oxygen–steam biomass gasification process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Soprani, Stefano; Søgaard, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    . However, high costs for both oxygen supply equipment and operation are significant challenges for the commercial implementation of this technology. Mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes can be used for oxygen separation from air at a lower energy consumption compared to cryogenic...... distillation, especially for small to medium scale plants. This paper examines different configurations for oxygen production using MIEC membranes where the oxygen partial pressure difference is achieved by creating a vacuum on the permeate side, compressing the air on the feed side or a combination of the two....... The two configurations demonstrating the highest efficiency are then thermally integrated into an oxygen– steam biomass gasification plant. The energy demand for oxygen production and the membrane area required for a 6 MWth biomass plant are calculated for different operating conditions. Increasing...

  18. Handbook of biomass downdraft gasifier engine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T B; Das, A

    1988-03-01

    This handbook has been prepared by the Solar Energy Research Institute under the US Department of Energy /bold Solar Technical Information Program/. It is intended as a guide to the design, testing, operation, and manufacture of small-scale (less than 200 kW (270 hp)) gasifiers. A great deal of the information will be useful for all levels of biomass gasification. The handbook is meant to be a practical guide to gasifier systems, and a minimum amount of space is devoted to questions of more theoretical interest.

  19. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass (UCGFunda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Nasrullah, M.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-10-15

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international co-operation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. A lot of data on the reactivity and ash sintering properties of various kinds of biomasses has been obtained in the project and the information will now be formulated into a mathematical model. In addition to catalysis also thermal reactions play an important role in gas cleaning. Both experimental and modelling work on both of the reaction types is being carried out. Three techno-economic evaluations on alternative and competing technologies will be completed in the coming year. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. New analysis techniques developed in the project have proven very useful and for instance a fast on-line tar analysis method is now well established. (orig.)

  20. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2 from post-combustion capture and autothermal reforming of natural gas or biogas. Underground gas storage of hydrogen and oxygen was used in connection with the electrolysis to enable the electrolyser to follow the variations in the power produced by renewables. Six plant configurations, each with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated, and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (∼90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 Euro /GJexergy. The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis of water, gasification of biomass and autothermal reforming of natural gas for syngas production.

  1. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  2. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua

    2014-10-17

    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification. PMID:25459803

  3. Gasification of refuse-derived fuel in a high throughput gasification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing quantities of municipal wastes have led to the development of numerous technologies for combustion or gasification of these wastes. Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Battelle has completed a preliminary investigation of gasification of prepared municipal wastes [refuse derived fuel (RDF)] to produce a medium Btu gas without oxygen in its High Throughput Gasification system. A successful test program was conducted in a 12 TPD Process Research Unit (PRU) to provide data on product gas composition and production rates possible with the RDF feedstock. Test data generated during the program were compared to an extensive data base generated with wood in the research unit. Results of this test program are presented along with data on waste water characteristics from the PRU. Data generated during the experimental program were used in the generation of a process conceptual design. A preliminary economic evaluation based on this design indicates that the Battelle process provides significant economic benefits when compared to mass burn technologies

  4. Assessment of the Potential of Biomass Gasification for Electricity Generation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is an agriculture based country where more than 65 percent of the people live in rural areas and over 70% of total primary energy consumption is covered by biomass, mainly agricultural waste and wood. Only about 6% of the entire population has access to natural gas, primarily in urban areas. Electricity production in Bangladesh largely depends on fossil fuel whose reserve is now under threat and the government is now focusing on the alternating sources to harness electricity to meet the continuous increasing demand. To reduce the dependency on fossil fuels, biomass to electricity could play a vital role in this regard. This paper explores the biomass based power generation potential of Bangladesh through gasification technology—an efficient thermochemical process for distributed power generation. It has been estimated that the total power generation from the agricultural residue is about 1178 MWe. Among them, the generation potential from rice husk, and bagasses is 1010 MWe, and 50 MWe, respectively. On the other hand, wheat straw, jute stalks, maize residues, lentil straw, and coconut shell are also the promising biomass resources for power generation which counted around 118 MWe. The forest residue and municipal solid waste could also contribute to the total power generation 250 MWe and 100 MWe, respectively.

  5. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modification of the Rectisol process. Several different process configurations were evaluated using Aspen plus, including PC-SAFT for the thermodynamic modeling. The developed configuration takes advantage of only one methanol wash column, compared to two columns in a conventional Rectisol process. Results from modeling show the ability of the proposed configuration to remove impurities to a sufficiently low concentrations - almost zero concentration for H2S, CS2, HCl, NH3 and HCN, and approximately 0.01 mg/Nm3 for COS. These levels are acceptable for further upgrading of the gas in a methanation process. Simultaneously, up to 92% of the original CO2 is preserved in the final cleaned syngas stream. No process integration or economic consideration was performed within the scope of the present study, but will be investigated in future projects to improve the overall process.

  6. Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Agrawal

    2004-09-07

    The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

  7. On the gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water : over de vergassing van natte biomassa in superkritiek water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a challenging thermo-chemical conversion route for wet biomass and waste streams into hydrogen and/or methane. At temperatures and pressures above the critical point the physical properties of water differ strongly from liquid water or steam. Because of the

  8. Biomass Waste Gasification – Can Be the Two Stage Process Suitable for Tar Reduction and Power Generation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, J.; Štojdl, J.; Richter, M.; Popelka, J.; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, J.; Vacek, J.; Skoblia, S.; Buryan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 692-700. ISSN 0956-053X Grant ostatní: RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : waste biomass * gasification * tar Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.485, year: 2012

  9. Experimental Gasification of Biomass in an Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Surjosatyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The updraft gasifier is a simple type of reactor for the gasification of biomass that is easy to operate and has high conversion efficiency, although it produces high levels of tar. This study attempts to observe the performance of a modified updraft gasifier. A modified updraft gasifier that recirculates the pyrolysis gases from drying zone back to the combustion zone and gas outlet at reduction zone was used. In this study, the level of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone was varied, and as well as measurements of gas composition, lower heating value and tar content. The results showed that an increase in the amount of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone resulted in a decrease in the amount of tar produced. An increase in the amount of recirculated gases tended to increase the concentrations of H2 and CH4 and reduce the concentration of CO with the primary (gasification air flow held constant. Increasing the primary air flow tended to increase the amount of CO and decrease the amount of H2. The maximum of lower heating value was 4.9 MJ/m3.

  10. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirabedin, Ehsan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Rahim, Murad A.; Topal, Hüseyin

    2014-12-01

    Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP) which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP) systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP) can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  11. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabedin Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  12. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    A way to reduce the CO2 emissions from the transportation sector is by increasing the use of biofuels in the sector. DME and methanol are two such biofuels, which can be synthesized from biomass, by use of gasification followed by chemical synthesis. This method of producing biofuels is shown to be...... energy efficiency of the synthesis plants, and lowering the plant CO2 emissions - but also try to improve the DME/methanol yield per unit biomass input, and integrate surplus electricity from renewables in the production of DME/methanol. This objective lead to the design of the following plants: 1. Large...... if a credit was given for storing the bio-CO2 captured, the cost became as low as $5.4/GJLHV (RC) and $3.1/GJLHV (OT) (at $100/ton-CO2). The small-scale DME and methanol plants achieved biomass to DME/methanol efficiencies of 45-46% when using once-through (OT) synthesis, and 56-58% when using...

  13. Computational simulation of the biomass gasification process in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an agro-industrial country as Cuba many residues of cultivation like the rice and the cane of sugar take place, besides the forest residues in wooded extensions. Is an interesting application for all this biomass, the gasification technology, by its high efficiency and its positive environmental impact. The computer simulation appears like a useful tool in the researches of parameters of operation of a gas- emitting, because it reduces the number of experiments to realise and the cost of the researches. In the work the importance of the application of the computer simulation is emphasized to anticipate the hydrodynamic behavior of fluidized bed and of the process of combustion of the biomass for different residues and different conditions of operation. A model using CFD for the simulation of the process of combustion in a gas- emitting of biomass sets out of fluidized bed, the hydrodynamic parameters of the multiphasic flow from the elaboration of a computer simulator that allows to form and to vary the geometry of the reactor, as well as the influence of the variation of magnitudes are characterized such as: speed, diameter of the sand and equivalent reason. Experimental results in cylindrical channels appear, to complete the study of the computer simulation realised in 2D. (author)

  14. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated, and the...... low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis of...

  15. Clean Hydrogen Production via Novel Steam-Air Gasification of Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasification converts biomass into H2 and CO rich product gas by using air, oxygen and/or steam as reaction agent. An experimental and modelling study of hydrogen production was conducted using a laboratory scale counter-current fixed bed gasifier with preheated air and steam as the gasifying agents. Commercial charcoal was used as the fuel and the reactor bed was maintained at temperatures of 750-960 C by external heaters. H2 (17-28 vol%), CO (5-11 vol%) and CO2 (18-21 vol%) forms a large portion of the synthesis gas produced depending on the ratio of the gasifying agent. The experimental work was coupled with both equilibrium and kinetic modelling to predict the equilibrium composition, conversion rates and temperature profile. (authors)

  16. A review of biomass energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews some recent development in biomass utilisation systems in Malaysia. The technology reviewed are direct combustion of biomass , wood briquetting technology, pyrolysis of biomass and gasification of wood in Malaysia

  17. Biomass market introduction. How to overcome the non-technical barriers for a wider use of biomass gasification in Europe. Proceedings of a workshop. Utrecht, November 28. 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy projects can fail due to technical problems but also due to non-technical barriers. The authors mention the risk of failure, the biomass supply assurance, financing, uncertainty about emission regulations, and acceptance by the public. On the above mentioned background a workshop was organised at 28 November 1997, as a joint activity of Novem and the EU / FAIR Concerted Action Analysis and Co-ordination of the Activities concerning a Gasification of Biomass'. At this workshop important non-technical barriers are identified, ways how to overcome them are analyzed, defined and actions are discussed to be taken on the EU and National level to improve the implementation of biomass gasification projects. Copies of overhead sheets and texts of 14 papers are presented

  18. Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ECR technique was proposed to convert biomass gasification tar model compounds. • Electric current enhanced the reforming efficiency remarkably. • The highest toluene conversion reached 99.9%. • Ni–CeO2/γ-Al2O3 exhibited good stability during the ECR performance. - Abstract: Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni–CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H2 and CO were the major gas products, while CO2 and CH4 were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion

  19. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Two models of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel production plant were designed and analyzed in DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME by either recycle (RC) or once through (OT) catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis...... process that takes place at 200–300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plants are designed with focus on lowering the total CO2 emissions from the plants; this includes e.g. a recycle of a CO2...... rich stream to a CO2 capture plant, which is used in the conditioning of the syngas.The plant models predict energy efficiencies from torrefied biomass to DME of 66% (RC) and 48% (OT) (LHV). If the exported electricity is included, the efficiencies are 71% (RC) and 64% (OT). When accounting for energy...

  20. Electric energy generation using biomass gasification; Generacion de energia electrica a partir de la gasificacion de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J.; Arauzo, J.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Sanchez, Jose Luis [Universidad de Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion. Grupo de Procesos Termoquimicos; Rocha, J.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Mesa Perez, J.M. [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Gasification experiments have been carried out with a atmospheric pressure down draft gasifier of a capacity of 250 kg/h of biomass. Biomass used have been almond shells and olive cut. Results obtained show a similar behaviour in gas composition with two biomass. A small fraction of the generated gas from the gasifier has been fed to a small generator of 4 kV A. The gas has been previously cleaned and dried by means of a scrubber and a condenser, to remove tar products. The generator has been operated with a great stability without any modification, and energy generated with gas from gasification are relatively close to the values obtained with conventional fuels such as gasoline or commercial butane. (author)

  1. Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. → It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. → The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. → The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO2 neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

  2. Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y., E-mail: y.huang@ulster.ac.u [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Wang, Y.D. [The Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Rezvani, S.; McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Anderson, M.; Hewitt, N.J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. {yields} It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. {yields} The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. {yields} The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO{sub 2} neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

  3. Gasification-based methanol production from biomass in industrial clusters: Characterisation of energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the potential for reducing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biomass gasification-based methanol production systems based on energy balances. Configurations which are process integrated with a chemical cluster have been compared to stand-alone units, i.e. units with no connection to any other industry but with the possibility to district heating connection. Two different uses of methanol are considered: the use as a vehicle fuel and the use for production of olefins via the methanol-to-olefins process. An added value of the integration can be the availability of excess hydrogen. For the studied case, the methanol production could be increased by 10% by using excess hydrogen from the cluster. The results show that the integrated systems have greater potential to reduce GHG emissions than the stand-alone systems. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the references for electricity production and district heating production technology have important impacts on the outcomes. Using excess heat for district heating was found to have positive or negative impacts on GHG emissions depending on what heat production technologies it replaces. The investigated olefins production systems resulted in GHG emissions reductions that were similar in magnitude to those of the investigated biofuel production systems. - Highlights: • Gasification-based bio-methanol/olefin production integrated with chemical cluster. • GHG emission comparison with stand-alone, based on energy analysis. • Results show lower GHG emissions in the cluster-integrated cases. • Identified improvement of methanol conversion efficiency by use of excess hydrogen. • Similar GHG emission levels for bio-methanol as biofuel as for olefins production

  4. Methanol production via pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification – Techno-economic comparison of integrated vs. stand-alone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11–18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR. - Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding integration of methanol synthesis processes in a pulp and paper mill are presented. • The overall energy efficiency increases in integrated methanol production systems compared to stand-alone production units. • The economics of the integrated system improves compared to stand-alone alternatives. • Tax

  5. Experimental study on biomass gasification in a double air stage downdraft reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an experimental study of the gasification of a wood biomass in a moving bed downdraft reactor with two-air supply stages. This configuration is considered as primary method to improve the quality of the producer gas, regarding its tar reduction. By varying the air flow fed to the gasifier and the distribution of gasification air between stages (AR), being the controllable and measurable variables for this type of gasifiers, measuring the CO, CH4 and H2 gas concentrations and through a mass and energy balance, the gas yield and its power, the cold efficiency of the process and the equivalence ratio (ER), as well as other performance variables were calculated. The gasifier produces a combustible gas with a CO, CH4 and H2 concentrations of 19.04, 0.89 and 16.78% v respectively, at a total flow of air of 20 Nm3 h-1 and an AR of 80%. For these conditions, the low heating value of the gas was 4539 kJ Nm-3. Results from the calculation model show a useful gas power and cold efficiency around 40 kW and 68%, respectively. The resulting ER under the referred operation condition is around 0.40. The results suggested a considerable effect of the secondary stage over the reduction of the CH4 concentration which is associated with the decreases of the tar content in the produced gas. Under these conditions the biomass devolatilization in the pyrolysis zone gives much lighter compounds which are more easily cracked when the gas stream passes through the combustion zone. -- Highlights: → Obtained results an important for a better phenomenological understanding of processes occurring in two stage gasification reactors. → The air flow is the fundamental parameter in the operation of downdraft gasifiers. → CH4 reduction is associated with a decreases in the tar content. → An enhancement in the thermal cracking of tar is carried out in the two-air downdraft gasifier.

  6. History, challenge and solution of biomass gasification: a review%生物质气化技术的再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张齐生; 马中青; 周建斌

    2013-01-01

    Recently, as the widely application of biotechnology in the industry, agriculture and energy, it has been playing a great role in technology reform and economy growth. And currently, due to the problems of rapid depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution, people are looking for a renewable and green fuel and fuel processing technology that can partially replace the fossil fuel. Biomass gasification technology, regarding as a renewable and sustainable bio-energy conversion technology, has been developing rapidly. However, for the immature gasification system and ineffective recycling utilization of gasification byproducts (bio-char and bio-extract) , it hinders the commercialization and operation of gasification technology seriously. Biomass gasification poly-generation technology is defined as the comprehensive utilization of gas (producer gas) , solid (bio-char) and liquid (bio-extract) products from biomass downdraft fixed bed gasification system. The presentation of poly-generation methodology and the successful application of the associated e-quipment provide a new guideline for the further development of biomass gasification technology. This paper describes the history, challenge and solution of biomass gasification technology.%近现代,生物技术在工业、农业和能源领域得到广泛应用,对世界科技和经济发展起到重大的变革和促进作用.由于化石燃料资源性枯竭问题和环境污染问题,寻找一种清洁、可再生的替代燃料和燃料生产技术已迫在眉睫.生物质气化技术作为一种清洁的可再生能源利用技术得到了快速发展,然而由于气化设备自身不够成熟以及未对气化副产物(生物质炭和生物质提取液)加以有效利用等问题,严重阻碍了生物质气化技术的商业化推广和运行.生物质气化多联产技术是指基于生物质下吸式固定床气化的气、固、液三相产品多联产及其产品分相回收、利用技术.

  7. Prevention of the ash deposits by means of process conditions in biomass gasification; Biomassapolttoaineiden tuhkan kuonaantumiskaeyttaeytymisen estaeminen prosessiolosuhteiden avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Nieminen, M.; Kurkela, E.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In fluidised-bed gasification, various types of deposits and agglomerates may be formed by biomass ash in the bed, in upper zones of the reactor, for instance in cyclones. These may decisively hamper the operation of the process. The aim of the project was to obtain data on the detrimental fouling behaviour of the ash of different types of biomass in fluidised-bed gasification, and on the basis of these data to determine the process conditions and ways of preventing this kind of behaviour. Different types of biomass fuel relevant to energy production such as straw, wood residue were be used as samples. The project consisted of laboratory studies and fluidised-bed reactor tests including ash behaviour studied both in the bed and freeboard. In laboratory tests, the sample material was characterised as a function of different process parameters. In fluid-bed reactors, the most harmful biomasses were tested using process variables such as temperature, bed material and the gasification agents. Bubbling fluidised-bed gasification tests with wheat straw showed that agglomerates with different sizes and structures formed in the bed depending on the temperature, the feed gas composition and bed material. Agglomerates consisted of molten ash which sintered with bed material and other solids. In all BFB tests, freeboard walls were slicked by ash agglomerates (different amounts) which, however, were easily removable. The results of this project and the earlier pilot-scale gasification experience obtained with the same feedstocks showed that useful characteristic data about ash behaviour can be obtained using laboratory tests and small scale reactors. (orig.)

  8. Two-stage dual fluidized bed gasification: Its conception and application to biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guangwen [Research Laboratory, IHI Corporation, Ltd., Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan); Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Haidian, Beijing 100080 (China); Murakami, Takahiro [Research Laboratory, IHI Corporation, Ltd., Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan); Clean Gas Group, National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Suda, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaw, Yoshiaki; Tani, Hidehisa [Research Laboratory, IHI Corporation, Ltd., Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    The quoted two-stage dual fluidized bed gasification (T-DFBG) devises the use of a two-stage fluidized bed (TFB) to replace the single-stage bubbling fluidized bed gasifier involved in the normally encountered dual fluidized bed gasification (N-DFBG) systems. By feeding fuel into the lower stage of the TFB, this lower stage functions as a fuel gasifier similar to that in the N-DFBG so that the upper stage of the TFB works to upgrade the produced gas in the lower stage and meanwhile to suppress the possible elutriation of fuel particles fed into the freeboard of the lower-stage bed. The heat carrier particles (HCPs) circulated from the char combustor enter first the upper stage of the TFB to facilitate the gas upgrading reactions occurring therein, and the particles are in turn forwarded into the lower stage to provide endothermic heat for fuel pyrolysis and gasification reactions. Consequently, with T-DFBG it is hopeful to increase gasification efficiency and decrease tar content in the produced gas. This anticipation was corroborated through gasifying dry coffee grounds in two 5.0kg/h experimental setups configured according to the principles of T-DFBG and N-DFBG, respectively. In comparison with the N-DFBG case, the test according to T-DFBG increased, the fuel C conversion and cold gas efficiency by about 7% and decreased tar content in the produced gas by up to 25% under similar reaction conditions. Test results demonstrated also that all these upgrading effects via adopting T-DFBG were more pronounced when a Ca-based additive was blended into the fuel. (author)

  9. Modelling of gasification using deferent kinds of biomass in a downdraft reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work is exposed the methodology of realization of a equilibrium model, capable to predict the composition of the generated gas, its caloric value, the cold and hot efficiency and the quantity of air per quantity of biomass in a downdraft reactor. For this model's realization it was considered that all the chemical reactions that happen in the gasification area are in thermodynamic equilibrium, doesn't considered tar formation, and alone it is considered the methane formation(CH4), it is not considered formation of CxHy. To make more practical and more accessible the model was carried out a software in Excel. The work use as fuel, wood, paddy husk, paper and solid waste. The behavior of generated gases was studied with the variation of the content of humidity. Were determined the calorific value of generated gas, and the value of the cold and hot efficiency for each biomass varying the content of humidity of the same one, where it shows for 20% of humidity, for the wood a value of 5,65MJ/Nm3, for the paddy husk is of 3,88 MJ/Nm3, for the paper it is of 5,83 MJ/Nm3, and for the waste it is of 4,36 MJ/Nm3; and the cold and hot efficiency for wood 30,16%, and 60,37%; for paddy husk 25,43% and 40,83%, paper 33,40% and 63,28%; and waste 22,18% and 41,35% respectively. It was also determined the gravimetric relationship of necessary air/ biomass for each biomass. (author)

  10. Investigation on syngas production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air–steam gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Innovation in gasifier design. • Integration of pyrolysis and steam gasification processes. • Energy saving, improvement of gasifier efficiency, syngas and hydrogen yield. • Overall investigation on gasification parameters. • Optimization conditions of integration of pyrolysis and gasification process. - Abstract: Fuel production from agro-waste has become an interesting alternative for energy generation due to energy policies and greater understanding of the importance of green energy. This research was carried out in a lab-scale gasifier and coconut shell was used as feedstock in the integrated process. In order to acquire the optimum condition of syngas production, the effect of the reaction temperature, equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass (S/B) ratio was investigated. Under the optimized condition, H2 and syngas yield achieved to 83.3 g/kg feedstock and 485.9 g/kg feedstock respectively, while LHV of produced gases achieved to 12.54 MJ/N m3

  11. Bio-refinery system integrated with pulp and paper mills using black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass energy utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of biomass worldwide that include bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern pulp and paper industries have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to co-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving today's existing chemical pulp and paper mills integrating gasification technology.The present study evaluates the energy conversion performance of integrated black liquor gasification (BLG) within the chemical pulp mills in comparison with conventional pulp mill energy system. The objective is to investigate and compare various BLG technologies and bio-fuel production routes. The comparison is performed to identify the advantageous route based on system performance indicators e.g. bio-fuel production potential, fuel to product efficiency (FTPE), biomass import, overall system thermal energy efficiency, on-site CO{sub 2} reduction using carbon capture, and potential CO{sub 2} offsets from bio-fuel use in transport sector.The study on a variety of BLG configurations shows promising results for potential bio-fuel production offering significant contributions toward fossil fuel savings, emission reductions, and improved energy security. Methanol, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and dimethyl ether (DME) show promising features as potential fuel candidates. The comparative results show significantly larger bio-fuel production potential of black liquor conversion to SNG from catalytic hydrothermal gasification than DME, methanol or SNG production from the dry BLG (DBLG) and Chemrec BLG (CBLG) systems. The energy ratio of SNG production from the CHG system is higher than DME and

  12. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  13. Syngas production by gasification of aquatic biomass with CO2/O2 and simultaneous removal of H2S and COS using char obtained in the gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applicability of gulfweed as feedstock for a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was studied for both production of gas with high syngas (CO + H2) content via gasification of gulfweed and removal of gaseous impurities using char obtained in the gasification. Gulfweed as aqueous biomass was gasified with He/CO2/O2 using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier at ambient pressure and 900 °C at equivalence ratios (ER) of 0.1–0.3. The syngas content increased while the conversion to gas on a carbon basis decreased with decreasing ER. At an ER of 0.1 and He/CO2/O2 = 0/85/15%, the syngas content was maximized at 67.6% and conversion to gas on a carbon basis was 94.2%. The behavior of the desulfurization using char obtained during the gasification process at ER = 0.1 and He/CO2/O2 = 0/85/15% was investigated using a downdraft fixed-bed reactor at 250–550 °C under 3 atmospheres (H2S/N2, COS/N2, and a mixture of gases composed of CO, CO2, H2, N2, CH4, H2S, COS, and steam). The char had a higher COS removal capacity at 350 °C than commercial activated carbon because (Ca,Mg)S crystals were formed during desulfurization. The char simultaneously removed H2S and COS from the mixture of gases at 450 °C more efficiently than did activated carbon. These results support this novel BTL process consisting of gasification of gulfweed with CO2/O2 and dry gas cleaning using self-supplied bed material. -- Highlights: • A product gas with high syngas content was produced from the gasification of gulfweed with CO2/O2. • The syngas content increased with decreasing the equivalence ratio. • The syngas content was maximized at 67.6% at an ER of 0.1 and He/CO2/O2 = 0/85/15%. • The char simultaneously removed H2S and COS from a mixture of gases at 450 °C efficiently

  14. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (rp) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio and GT-TIT.

  15. Mathematical modelling of the gasification of cellulose-containing biomass using a zoning model; Mathematische Modellierung der Vergasung zellulosehaltiger Biomasse mit Hilfe eines Zonenmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K.; Saller, G.; Funk, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1998-09-01

    The composition of the product gas is decisive for the further process stages. In contrast to coal gasification, which has been investigated for more than a century, there is still a lack of theoretical and experimental knowledge on biomass gasification. The contribution presents a mathematical model that is to provide deeper knowledge of the constant-flow fixed-bed gasifier, which is still widely regarded as a `black box`. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Einen wesentlichen Prozessschritt der thermochemischen Konversion stellt der Vergasungsprozess dar, da die Zusammensetzung des erhaltenen Gases fuer die weiteren Prozessschritte von entscheidender Bedeutung ist. Im Gegensatz zur Vergasung von Kohle, die bereits seit fast 100 Jahren untersucht wird, besteht bei der Vergasung von Biomasse ein starker Nachholbedarf in Bezug auf das theoretische und experimentelle Detailwissen. In diesem Beitrag wird im Rahmen eines mathematischen Modells ein Ansatz vorgestellt, in dem der Gleichstrom-Festbettvergaser, der bisher meist als `blackbox` betrachtet wurde, weiter aufgeschluesselt wird. (orig./SR)

  16. Effect of reactions in small eddies on biomass gasification with eddy dissipation concept - Sub-grid scale reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juhui; Yin, Weijie; Wang, Shuai; Meng, Cheng; Li, Jiuru; Qin, Bai; Yu, Guangbin

    2016-07-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) approach is used for gas turbulence, and eddy dissipation concept (EDC)-sub-grid scale (SGS) reaction model is employed for reactions in small eddies. The simulated gas molar fractions are in better agreement with experimental data with EDC-SGS reaction model. The effect of reactions in small eddies on biomass gasification is emphatically analyzed with EDC-SGS reaction model. The distributions of the SGS reaction rates which represent the reactions in small eddies with particles concentration and temperature are analyzed. The distributions of SGS reaction rates have the similar trend with those of total reactions rates and the values account for about 15% of the total reactions rates. The heterogeneous reaction rates with EDC-SGS reaction model are also improved during the biomass gasification process in bubbling fluidized bed. PMID:27010338

  17. PFB air gasification of biomass. Investigation of product formation and problematic issues related to ammonia, tar and alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padban, Nader

    2000-09-01

    Fluidised bed thermal gasification of biomass is an effective route that results in 100 % conversion of the fuel. In contrast to chemical, enzymatic or anaerobic methods of biomass treatment, the thermal conversion leaves no contaminated residue after the process. The product gas evolved within thermal conversion can be used in several applications such as: fuel for gas turbines, combustion engines and fuel cells, and raw material for production of chemicals and synthetic liquid fuels. This thesis treats a part of the experimental data from two different gasifiers: a 90 kW{sub th} pressurised fluidised bubbling bed gasifier at Lund University and a 18 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed gasifier integrated with gas turbine (IGCC) in Vaernamo. A series of parallel and consecutive chemical reactions is involved in thermal gasification, giving origin to formation of a variety of products. These products can be classified within three major groups: gases, tars and oils, and char. The proportion of these categories of species in the final product is a matter of the gasifier design and the process parameters. The thesis addresses the technical and theoretical aspects of the biomass thermochemical conversion and presents a new approach in describing the gasification reactions. There is an evidence of fuel effect on the characteristics of the final products: a mixture of plastic waste (polyethylene) and biomass results in higher concentration of linear hydrocarbons in the gas than gasification of pure biomass. Mixing the biomass with textile waste (containing aromatic structure) results in a high degree of formation of aromatic compounds and light tars. Three topic questions within biomass gasification, namely: tar, NO{sub x} and alkali are discussed in the thesis. The experimental results show that gasification at high ER or high temperature decreases the total amount of the tars and simultaneously reduces the contents of the oxygenated and alkyl-substituted poly

  18. Economic development through biomass system integration: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. Chapters describe alfalfa basics, production risks, production economics, transportation and storage, processing, products, market analysis, business analysis, environmental impact, and policy issues. 69 figs., 63 tabs.

  19. Design of a 2.5MW(e) biomass gasification power generation module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, R.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this contract was to produce a detailed process and mechanical design of a gasification and gas clean up system for a 2.5MW(e) power generation module based on the generation of electrical power from a wood chip feed stock. The design is to enable the detailed economic evaluation of the process and to verify the technical performance data provided by the pilot plant programme. Detailed process and equipment design also assists in the speed at which the technology can be implemented into a demonstration project. (author)

  20. Effects of Components of Blended Biomass Pellets on Mechanical Properties, Gasification Reactivity, Alkali, HCl and H2S Release

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Hartman, Miloslav; Tošnarová, Markéta; Krček, Martin

    Krakow: Agricultural University in Cracow, 2015 - (Wróbel, M.; Hebda, T.), s. 86 ISBN ISBN 978-83-65180-01-8. [International Conference Renewable Energy Sources /2./. Krynica (PL), 15.05.26-15.05.29] R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mixed biomass pellets * mechanical properties * gasification Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use

  1. Plasma Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass for Syngas Production, Int. Round Table on Thermal Plasma Applications, invited lecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Sharm el Sheikh: University Sherbrook, 2007 - (Boulos, M.; Heberlein, J.; Fauchais, P.), s. 3-4 [Intternational Round Table on Thermal Plasma Applications. Sharm El Sheikh (EG), 14.01.2007-18.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : gasification * Biomass * thermal plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  2. Removal and Conversion of Tar in Syngas from Woody Biomass Gasification for Power Utilization Using Catalytic Hydrocracking

    OpenAIRE

    Jiu Huang; Klaus Gerhard Schmidt; Zhengfu Bian

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification has yet to obtain industrial acceptance. The high residual tar concentrations in syngas prevent any ambitious utilization. In this paper a novel gas purification technology based on catalytic hydrocracking is introduced, whereby most of the tarry components can be converted and removed. Pilot scale experiments were carried out with an updraft gasifier. The hydrocracking catalyst was palladium (Pd). The results show the dominant role of temperature and flow rate. At a cons...

  3. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

  4. Monitoring `Renewable fuels`. Gasification and pyrolysis of biomass. Second situation report; Monitoring ``Nachwachsende Rohstoffe``. Vergasung und Pyrolyse von Biomasse. Zweiter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.; Wintzer, D.

    1997-04-01

    The second situation report deals with gasification and pyrolysis as means of improving the energetic utilisation of wood and strawlike biomass and with various possibilities of utilising the gas produced in these processes. It also presents different gasification techniques, measures for gas purification, and ways of utilising gas for electricity generation. Out of the wide range of possible process combinations for producing energy from biomass the report only deals more closely with a few concepts that appear very promising from today`s viewpoint. Working from the current state and perspectives of technical development and from prospective operating conditions and potential market chances of pyrolysis and gasification the report deliberates on the future orientation of research, development, and demonstration activities. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im zweiten Sachstandsbericht werden die Vergasung und Pyrolyse zur besseren energetischen Nutzung von Holz und halmartiger Biomasse und verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zur Verwertung des dabei erzeugten Gases betrachtet. Es werden unterschiedliche Vergasungstechniken, Massnahmen zur Gasreinigung und Arten der Gasnutzung zur Stromgewinnung dargestellt. Aus der Vielzahl an moeglichen Kombinationen werden einige, aus gegenwaertiger Sichtweise besonders vielversprechende Konzepte zur Energieerzeugung ueber die Biomassevergasung naeher ausgefuehrt. Ausgehend vom Stand und von den Perspektiven der technischen Entwicklungen sowie den Einsatzbedingungen und potentiellen Marktchancen werden Schlussfolgerungen fuer die zukuenftige Ausrichtung im Bereich Forschung, Entwicklung und Demonstration Anstrengungen gezogen. (orig./SR)

  5. Treatment of biomass-gasification wastewaters by wet-air oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, C.J.

    1981-09-01

    Production of synthetic natural gas from gasification of biomass results in the generation of a high-strength wastewater that is difficult to treat by conventional means. This study investigated the use of wet air oxidation (WAO) as a treatment method for these wastewaters. A literature review was conducted to identify the suitability of WAO for the treatment of high-strength industrial wastewaters and to determine typical operating conditions for such treatment. Data presented in the literature showed that WAO should be suitable for treatment. Data presented in the literature showed that WAO should be suitable for treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW), and a laboratory treatability study was designed. BGW, having an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 30,800 mg/1 and initial color of 183,000 APHA units, was treated in a laboratory autoclave for 20, 40, 60, 120, and 180 min at temperatures and pressures of 150/sup 0/C, 5.1 MPa (750 psi); 200/sup 0/C, 6.9 MPa (1000 psi); 250/sup 0/C, 10.3 MPa (1500 psi); and 300/sup 0/C, 13.8 MPa (2000 psi). Maximum COD removals of 0% for the 150/sup 0/C, 5.2 MPa (750 psi) runs; 40% for the 200/sup 0/C, 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) runs, 55% for the 250/sup 0/C, 10.3 MPa (1500 psi) runs; and 85% for the 300/sup 0/C, 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) runs were measured. Maximum color removals for these respective runs were 56%, 82%, 97%, and 99%. Initial removal rates of COD and color were observed to increase with reaction temperature. The experimental results suggest that oxidation of BGW organics by WAO occurs in a stepwise fashion with large organic molecules first being hydrolyzed and then partially oxidized to low molecular weight intermediates. Complete oxidation of these intermediates is more difficult and most easily accomplished at high reaction temperatures. The best application of WAO to treatment of BGW appears to be as a pretreatment to biological treatment and it is recommended that this application be investigated.

  6. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  7. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. PMID:26210232

  8. Co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, L.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU funded, international, R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding co-utilisation of biomass and/or waste in advanced coal conversion processes. The project comprises three main programmes, each of which includes a number of smaller subprogrammes. The three main programmes are: Coal-biomass systems component development and design; Coal-biomass environmental studies; Techno-economic assessment studies. (orig)

  9. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  10. Synergetic and inhibition effects in carbon dioxide gasification of blends of coals and biomass fuels of Indian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyam Naidu, V; Aghalayam, P; Jayanti, S

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the enhancement of CO2 gasification reactivity of coals due to the presence of catalytic elements in biomass such as K2O, CaO, Na2O and MgO. Co-gasification of three Indian coal chars with two biomass chars has been studied using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in CO2 environment at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. The conversion profiles have been used to establish synergetic or inhibitory effect on coal char reactivity by the presence of catalytic elements in biomass char by comparing the 90% conversion time with and without biomass. It is concluded that both biomasses exhibit synergistic behavior when blended with the three coals with casuarina being more synergetic than empty fruit bunch. Some inhibitory effect has been noted for the high ash coal at the highest temperature with higher 90% conversion time for the blend over pure coal, presumably due to diffusional control of the conversion rate. PMID:26967339

  11. Temperature effect on continuous gasification of microalgal biomass. Theoretical yield of methanol production and its energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, A.; Hon-Nami, K.; Kunito, S. [Energy and Environment R and D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Company, 4-1 Egasaki-cho Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230 (Japan); Hada, M.; Ogushi, Y. [Hiroshima R and D Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., 4-6-22 Kan-non-shinmachi Nishi-ku, Hiroshima 733 (Japan)

    1998-10-19

    A microalga, Spirulina, was partially oxidized at temperatures of 850C, 950C, and 1000C, and the composition of produced gas was determined in order to evaluate the theoretical yield of methanol from the gas. The gas composition depended on the temperature, and the gasification at 1000C gave the highest theoretical yield of 0.64g methanol from 1g of the biomass. Based on this yield, the total energy requirement for the whole process including the microalgal biomass production and conversion into methanol was obtained. Energy balance, which was defined as the ratio of the energy of methanol produced to the total required energy, was 1.1, which indicates that this process was plausible as an energy producing process. The greater part of the total required energy, almost four-fifth, was consumed with the microalgal biomass production, suggesting that more efficient production of microalgal biomass might greatly improve its energy balance

  12. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures. PMID:26773946

  13. Energy use of residues and biomass - pyrolysis oil and gasification; Pyrolyysioeljy ja kaasutus jaetteiden ja biomassan energiakaeyttoeoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Commission of European Union aims to triple the use of bioenergy from the present level by the year 2010. Finland is the leading user of bioenergy in industrialized countries. In Finland there are more than 120 multi-fuel boilers cogeneration power and heat. By the year 2010 the utilization of biomass as fuel could grow by 25-40%. However, this depends on development of the price and the taxes of competing energy sources. The utilization of wood fuels is mainly based on the combustion technology. New gasification power plants are being developed in Finland for utilization of wood and in Europe for utilization of field biomasses. In this plants the purified product gas is led either into a gas-engine or into gasturbines to produce power. VTT Energy is developing in cooperation with Condens Oy a new small-scale gas-engine power plant. VTT Energy participates also in development of Vaernamo gasification combined cycle power plant in Sweden by the side of Foster Wheeler Oy, and with Carbona Oy in development of a test facility in the USA. It is possible to produce pyrolysis oil from wood dust by using fast heating. It is possible to used the method, by small modifications, also for oil- fired boilers of large real estate houses. About 800 grams of pyrolysis oil is obtained from a kilogram of dry wood. About 15 000 liters of wood oil has been imported in Finland in the research projects coordinated by VTT Energy. Fortum Oil and Gas Oy and Oilon Oy are testing the utilization of pyrolysis oil in the oil-fired boilers. VTT Energy and Vapo Oy have developed in Finland a process, by which it is possible to produce pyrolysis oil in traditional power plants. The objective is to construct a pilot-scale facility in the year 2000. The objective of waste management in Finland is to develop material and energy utilization of wastes. Hereby Technology Development Centre TEKES started in autumn 1998 a technology program for energy use of residues. The objective of the program is to

  14. Low temperature supercritical water gasification of biomass constituents: Glucose/phenol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an interesting technology for the production of energy from wet and residual biomass. To date, the complete understanding of the fundamental phenomena involved in SCWG is still an open issue. An interesting aspect to be investigated is represented by the interactions among the single constituents of biomass, such as cellulose and lignin. This can be accomplished by using glucose and phenol as model compounds. In the present study, four glucose/phenol mixtures were utilized. All mixtures presented a constant organics mass fraction of 5%, where the relative fraction of phenol ranged from 0% (pure glucose) to 30%. The mixtures were gasified at 400 °C and 25.0 MPa in a continuous tubular reactor, with a residence time between 10 and 240 s. Results showed that, at the considered reaction conditions, phenol mostly behaves as a sort of inert in terms of total gas production, although it plays an inhibitory action towards H2. The analysis of the liquid phase revealed that phenol likely inhibits Cannizzaro and de-carbonylation reactions and it advantages the pathways involving de-hydration reactions. - Highlights: • Glucose/Phenol mixtures were gasified in supercritical water at 400 °C and 25 MPa. • At the considered conditions, phenol shows very limited conversion. • Phenol inhibits H2 production, while its action is limited for the other gases. • Phenol favors de-hydration and inhibits de-carbonylation and Cannizzaro reaction. • Methanol is the reaction product produced the most

  15. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-11-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

  16. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  17. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2004-08-24

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report discusses Test Campaign TC16 of the PSDF gasification process. TC16 began on July 14, 2004, lasting until August 24, 2004, for a total of 835 hours of gasification operation. The test campaign consisted of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and high sodium lignite from the North Dakota Freedom mine. The highest gasifier operating temperature mostly varied from 1,760 to 1,850 F with PRB and 1,500 to 1,600 F with lignite. Typically, during PRB operations, the gasifier exit pressure was maintained between 215 and 225 psig using air as the gasification oxidant and between 145 and 190 psig while using oxygen as the oxidant. With lignite, the gasifier operated only in air-blown mode, and the gasifier outlet pressure ranged from 150 to 160 psig.

  18. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2006-09-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of the Transport Gasifier following significant modifications of the gasifier configuration. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC20, occurring from August 8 to September 23, 2006. The modifications proved successful in increasing gasifier residence time and particulate collection efficiency, two parameters critical in broadening of the fuel operating envelope and advancing gasification technology. The gasification process operated for over 870 hours, providing the opportunity for additional testing of various gasification technologies, such as PCD failsafe evaluation and sensor development.

  19. Study of the Apparent Kinetics of Biomass Gasification Using High-Temperature Steam

    OpenAIRE

    Alevanau, Aliaksandr

    2010-01-01

    Among the latest achievements in gasification technology, one may list the development of a method to preheat gasification agents using switched ceramic honey combs. The best output from this technology is achieved with use of water steam as a gasification agent, which is heated up to 1600 °C. The application of these temperatures with steam as a gasification agent provides a cleaner syngas (no nitrogen from air, cracked tars) and the ash melts into easily utilised glass-like sludge. High hyd...

  20. An ecological and economic assessment of absorption-enhanced-reforming (AER) biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Analysis of biomass gasification with new absorption enhanced reforming technology. • Energy- and mass balances for three different process configurations to produce heat, SNG and/or hydrogen. • Ecological (based on LCA) and economic (based on production costs) assessment of the technology. • Comparison of results with existing operational plants producing similar products. - Abstract: Biomass gasification with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) is a promising technology to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas that can be used to generate electricity, heat, substitute natural gas (SNG) and hydrogen (5.0 quality). To evaluate the production of the four products from an ecological and economic point of view, three different process configurations are considered. The plant setup involves two coupled fluidized beds: the steam gasifier and the regenerator. Subsequently the product gas can be used to operate a CHP plant (configuration one), be methanised (configuration two) or used to produce high-quality hydrogen (configuration three). Regarding ecological criteria, the global warming potential, the acidification potential and the cumulative energy demand of the processes are calculated, based on a life-cycle assessment approach. The economic analysis is based on the levelized costs of energy generation (LCOE). The AER-based processes are compared to conventional and renewable reference processes, which they might stand to substitute. The results show that the AER processes are beneficial from an ecological point of view as they are less carbon intensive (mitigating up to 800gCO2-eq.kW-1hel-1), require less fossil energy input (only about 0.5kWhfossilkW-1hel-1) and have a comparable acidification potential (300–900mgSO2-eq.kW-1hel-1) to most reference processes. But the results depend heavily on the extent to which excess heat can be used to replace conventional heating processes, and hence on the exact location of the plant. The economic results

  1. Biomass gasification bottom ash as a source of CaO catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CaO catalyst was successfully developed from wood gasification bottom ash. • CaCO3 in bottom ash can be converted to CaO catalyst by calcination. • CaO catalysts derived from bottom ash exhibited high activity towards transesterification. • CaO catalysts derived from bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times. - Abstract: The main aim of this research is to develop environmentally and economically benign heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil. For this propose, calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst has been developed from bottom ash waste arising from woody biomass gasification. Calcium carbonate was found to be the main component in bottom ash and can be transformed into the active CaO catalyst by simple calcination at 800 °C without any chemical treatment. The obtained CaO catalysts exhibit high biodiesel production activity, over 90% yield of methyl ester can be achieved at the optimized reaction condition. Experimental kinetic data fit well the pseudo-first order kinetic model. The activation energy (Ea) of the transesterification reaction was calculated to be 83.9 kJ mol−1. Moreover, the CaO catalysts derived from woody biomass gasification bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times, offering the efficient and low-cost CaO catalysts which could make biodiesel production process more economic and environmental friendly

  2. Research on low emission MSW gasification and melting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gang; NI Mingjiang; CHI Yong; JIN Yuqi; ZHANG Jiaquan; MIAO Qi; CEN Kefa

    2007-01-01

    In order to eliminate secondary pollution caused by municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration,a MSW gasification and melting process is proposed.The process is expected to reduce the emission of pollutants,especially heavy-metals and dioxins.In this paper,the combustible components of MSW and simulated MSW were gasified in a lab-scale fluidized bed at 400℃-700℃ when the excess air ratio (ER) was between 0.2 and 0.8.The experimental results indicated that the MSW could be gasified effectively in a fluidized bed at approximately 600℃-700℃ when excess air ratio was 0.2-0.4.The melting characteristics of two typical fly ash samples from MSW incinerators were investigated.The results indicated that fly ash of pure MSW incineration could be melted at approximately 1,300℃ and that of MSW and coal co-combustion could be melted at approximately 1,400℃.When temperature was over 1,100℃,more than 99.9% of the dioxins could be decomposed and most of the heavy-metals could be solidified in the slag.Based on the above experiments,two feasible MSW gasification and melting processes were proposed for low calorific value MSW:(1) sieved MSW gasification and melting system,which was based on an idea of multi-recycle;(2) gasification and melting scheme of MSW adding coal as assistant fuel.

  3. Effect of temperature and dolomite on tar formation during gasification of torrefied biomass in a pressurized fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the effect of temperature and bed material on the yields and composition of gas and tar produced from gasification of two types of biomass feedstock previously torrefied at 275 °C. Special attention was devoted to the evolution of tar composition under the different experimental conditions. Experiments were conducted in a fluidized bed reactor using two different types of bed material (sand and dolomite) under a constant pressure of 0.5 MPa and at two temperature levels (750 and 850 °C). Tar destruction reactions promoted by the catalyst (dolomite) enhanced the production of some of the gas components (H2, CO2, CO and CH4) whereas C2 hydrocarbons decreased, this effect being slightly more relevant at 850 °C. Comparable trends were observed with increasing temperature, which had a positive effect on cracking reactions and tar destruction. For both feedstocks, the increase in temperature resulted in (i) higher gas yields, and (ii) enhanced char gasification rate. On the other hand the evolution of tar yield and composition revealed a possible competition between two tar reaction pathways during gasification, (i) tar polymerization, and (ii) de-alkylation, dehydration and cracking of tars, depending on the experimental conditions and feedstock used. - Highlights: • An experimental study of pressurized gasification of torrefied biomass is presented. • Special attention was devoted to the evolution of tar composition. • Increasing temperature and dolomite presence led to higher gas and lower tar yields. • Tar evolution revealed a possible competition between two tar reaction pathways

  4. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the secondary fuel is combusted with the main fuel to adhere to main fuel shortage. Gasification of two fuels together, known as co-gasification, is practiced worldwide, some in industrial scale. However, current practice utilizes biomass fuel as the secondary fuel to coal in co-gasification. This investigation explores into the feasibility of co-gasifying two biomass fuels together to produce syngas. OPF was chosen as the primary fuel and a selection of Malaysian biomasses were studied to discover their compatibility with OPF in co-gasification. Biomass selection was made using score-and-rank method and their selection criteria are concisely discussed.

  5. Enhancing the production of biomethane : A comparison between GoBiGas process and new process of combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmood, Daheem

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there is a rapid growing interest in the use of biomethane for the transport sector. A new method of combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification is proposed.The feasibility study shows that more biomethane can be produced; resulting in an increase in the revenue compared to individual biogas plants. The GoBiGas project,which is initiated by Göteborg Energi, adopted another method based on gasification, water gas shift and methanation to enable biomethane production...

  6. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2004-02-28

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details test campaign TC14 of the PSDF gasification process. TC14 began on February 16, 2004, and lasted until February 28, 2004, accumulating 214 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. The gasifier operating temperatures varied from 1760 to 1810 F at pressures from 188 to 212 psig during steady air blown operations and approximately 160 psig during oxygen blown operations.

  7. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  8. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two models of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel production plant were designed and analyzed in DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME by either recycle (RC) or once through (OT) catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300 oC. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plants are designed with focus on lowering the total CO2 emissions from the plants; this includes e.g. a recycle of a CO2 rich stream to a CO2 capture plant, which is used in the conditioning of the syngas. The plant models predict energy efficiencies from torrefied biomass to DME of 66% (RC) and 48% (OT) (LHV). If the exported electricity is included, the efficiencies are 71% (RC) and 64% (OT). When accounting for energy loss in torrefaction, the total efficiencies are reduced to 64% (RC) and 58% (OT). The two plants produce DME at an estimated cost of $11.9/GJLHV (RC) and $12.9/GJLHV (OT). If a credit is given for storing the CO2 captured, the future costs may become as low as $5.4/GJLHV (RC) and $3.1/GJLHV (OT).

  9. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  10. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2004-11-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results gasification operation with Illinois Basin bituminous coal in PSDF test campaign TC17. The test campaign was completed from October 25, 2004, to November 18, 2004. System startup and initial operation was accomplished with Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, and then the system was transitioned to Illinois Basin coal operation. The major objective for this test was to evaluate the PSDF gasification process operational stability and performance using the Illinois Basin coal. The Transport Gasifier train was operated for 92 hours using PRB coal and for 221 hours using Illinois Basin coal.

  11. Decentralized combined heat and power production by two-stage biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2013-01-01

    fuel cells (SOFC). Based on experimental data from a demonstrated 0.6 MWth two-stage gasifier, a model of the gasifier plant was developed and calibrated. Similarly, an SOFC model was developed using published experimental data. Simulation of a 3 MWth plant combining two-stage biomass gasification and...... SOFCs predicted a net electrical efficiency of 44.9% (LHV (lower heating value)) when 1.4 MWe power was produced. The work had significant focus on providing a highly accurate model of the complete plant. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the SOFC operating temperature, SOFC fuel utilization factor...

  12. Fresh tar (from biomass gasification) destruction with downstream catalysts: comparison of their intrinsic activity with a realistic kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A model for fresh tar destruction over catalysts placed downstream a biomass gasifier is presented. It includes the stoichio-metry and the calculation of the kinetic constants for the tar destruction. Catalysts studied include commercial Ni steam reforming catalysts and calcinated dolomites. Kinetic constants for tar destruction are calculated for several particle sizes, times- on-stream and temperatures of the catalyst and equivalence ratios in the gasifier. Such intrinsic kinetic constants allow a rigorous or scientific comparison of solids and conditions to be used in an advanced gasification process. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  14. Quantitative analysis of potential power production and environmental benefits of Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (BioIGCC) are a promising technology, alternative to fossil fuels for power generation. Significant reduction of CO2 emissions could be achieved, although important changes in the gas turbines and gasifiers design and further technological development would be necessary. The aim of this work is to study quantitatively the benefits of using BioIGCC plants instead of fossil fuel technologies, in terms of power supply and CO2 emission avoidance, including the study of pre-combustion CO2 capture. Different biomass substrates are analysed and compared and the required land use in each case and for different scenarios is also studied and quantified. The power generation and greenhouse gas emission avoidance potential of BioIGCC technology in Europe is also studied and the viability of this technology in different circumstances is discussed. In several cases BioIGCC plants are found to be viable from the point of view of availability of biomass resources and the cost of the produced kWh. In the whole EU-27 the potential hovers around 30 GW and a reduction of nearly 4% of the total EU emissions in 2009 in a conservative scenario, and up to 100 GW and 15% of emission reduction in a more optimistic one. - Highlights: ► Quantitative analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles is done. ► Benefits in terms of power supply and CO2 emission avoidance are accounted. ► Different biomass substrates, land productivity and land use scenarios are treated. ► The overall potential for the European Union countries is estimated. ► Viability of BioIGCC is found under most circumstances.

  15. Biomass gasification in fixed bed type down draft: theoretical and experimental aspects; Gasificacao de biomassa em leito fixo tipo concorrente: aspectos teoricos e experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Juan Daniel; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida

    2008-07-01

    Actually are recognizing the advantages of biomass in reducing dependence on fossil fuels and significant reduction in emissions of greenhouse effect gases such as Co2. Also are known the different conversion of biomass routes for their use or exploitation, such as thermochemical process (gasification, pyrolysis and combustion), the biological process (fermentation and transesterification) and the physical process (densification, reducing grain and mechanical pressing). In this sense, the gasification is regarded as the most promising mechanism to obtain a homogeneous gaseous fuel with sufficient quality in the small scale distributed generation. This work presents some aspects of biomass gasification in fixed bed, as well as some preliminary results in the evaluation and operation of fixed bed down draft gasifier with double stage air supply of the NEST, identifying the adequate air supply quantity (equivalence ratio in the range of 0,35 to 0,45) for obtaining a fuel gas with lower heating value around 4 MJ/N m3. (author)

  16. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electric......An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks...... for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance...

  17. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A NANO-Ni-La-Fe/Al2O3 CATALYST TO BE USED FOR SYN-GAS PRODUCTION AND TAR REMOVAL AFTER BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfen Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a supported tri-metallic catalyst (nano-Ni-La-Fe/γ-Al2O3 for tar removal in biomass steam gasification, to significantly enhance the quality of the produced gas. For this purpose, the supported tri-metallic catalysts were prepared by a deposition-precipitation (DP method. Different analytical approaches were used to characterize the synthesized catalysts. The results showed that the prepared tri-metallic catalysts had an egg-shell structure with a specific surface area of 214.7 m2/g. The activity of the catalysts for gas production and tar removal in the process of biomass gasification was also investigated using a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. The experiments indicated that the tar yield after adding catalyst was reduced significantly and the efficiency of tar removal reached 99% for the biomass steam gasification at 800oC, while the gas yield after adding catalysts increased markedly and less coke was found over the catalyst. Meanwhile, the compositions of gas products before and after adding catalyst in the process also changed significantly; in particular, the content of hydrogen in catalytic steam gasification was improved by over 10 vol%. Therefore, using the prepared tri-metallic catalyst in biomass gasification can significantly improve the quality of the produced gas and efficiently eliminate the tar generation, preventing coke deposition on the catalyst surfaces, thus demonstrating a long lifetime of the catalyst.

  19. Multi-functional biomass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.

    2004-12-01

    The central research question of this thesis is: What is the potential of multi-functional biomass systems to improve the costs and the land use efficiency of saving non-renewable energy consumption and reducing GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions in quantitative terms? Therefore, in the following chapters the performance of multi-functional biomass systems is quantified. Biomass system costs are investigated from a societal perspective using e.g. low discount rates. A main focus will be on the review of methodologies for accounting GHG emissions, non-renewable energy consumption, agricultural land use and costs as well as the adaptation of these methodologies to special aspects of multifunctional biomass use. The analysis of the potential benefits of multi-functional biomass systems is carried out by several case studies of biomass systems including various waste treatment technologies for the short term that appeared promising after a first review. Because at present the shift of biomass production to more favourable areas seems to be an alternative for more efficient biomass systems, these case studies are situated in Europe and concentrate on Poland in order to investigate the potential of biomass production in the new EU-member states of Central Eastern Europe. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, the concept of multi-product use and its potential impacts on fuel costs of bioenergy and GHG emission reduction per area of agricultural land use are investigated. Especially, the relation between the economic value and the specific GHG emission reduction of a possible material application and the potential benefits of multiproduct use is analysed. Material uses regarded for multi-product use are the use of wheat grains for food, wheat straw for animal litter, hemp bark fibres for reinforced composites, hemp core fibres for animal litter, hemp seeds for food and cosmetics and poplar wood chips for pulp. For energy uses parts of the crops are used as solid fuel for electricity

  20. Updraft biomass gasification reactor evaluation of fuel; Reator de gaseificacao de biomassa em fluxo contra corrente para aquecimento de ar de secagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ivanildo da S. dos; Silva, Jadir N. da; Martins, Marcio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: ivanildomt@gmail.com, jadir@ufv.br, aredes@ufv.br

    2010-07-01

    Searching for a clean hot air from biomass for on farm applications, a gasification/combustion system was designed, built and evaluated. The system consisted of a countercurrent gasifier, coupled with a combustion chamber that burns the producer gas, and eucalyptus firewood was used as a fuel. Willing to reduce heat losses from the unit as well as to prevent thermal hazardous the unit was totally covered with brick's wall. Initial unit thermal efficiency was of about 56% and it reaches up to 71% at recharge. It was concluded that this system attended the proposed objectives, producing clean hot air that can be used for drying purposes as well as ambient space heating. (author)

  1. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS(regsign) and METHANE de-NOX(regsign) technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources

  2. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T. [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  3. Tar removal from biomass gasification streams: processes and catalysts; Remocao do alcatrao de correntes de gaseificacao de biomassa: processos e catalisadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitete, Cristina P.B. [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Processos de Conversao de Biomassa; Souza, Mariana M.V.M., E-mail: mmattos@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Biomass gasification is a technology that has attracted great interest in synthesis of biofuels and oxo alcohols. However, this gas contains several contaminants, including tar, which need to be removed. Removal of tar is particularly critical because it can lead to operational problems. This review discusses the major pathways to remove tar, with a particular focus on the catalytic steam reforming of tar. Few catalysts have shown promising results; however, long-term studies in the context of real biomass gasification streams are required to realize their potential. (author)

  4. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  5. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip;

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels such as...... are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is...

  6. Integrated biomass gasification combined cycle distributed generation plant with reciprocating gas engine and ORC

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The paper theoretically investigates the performance of a distributed generation plant made up of gasifier, Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) machine as a bottoming unit. The system can be used for maximization of electricity production from biomass in the case where there is no heat demand for cogeneration plant. To analyze the performance of the gasifier a model based on the thermodynamic equilibrium approach is used. Performance of the gas...

  7. Analysing performance of bio-refinery systems by integrating black liquor gasification with chemical pulp mills

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Muhammad Raza

    2012-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of the biomass worldwide including bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern mills have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to poly-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and pa...

  8. The production of synthetic natural gas (SNG): A comparison of three wood gasification systems for energy balance and overall efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of Synthetic Natural Gas from biomass (Bio-SNG) by gasification and upgrading of the gas is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions and replace declining fossil natural gas reserves. Production of energy from biomass is approximately CO2 neutral. Production of Bio-SNG can even be CO2 negative, since in the final upgrading step, part of the biomass carbon is removed as CO2, which can be stored. The use of biomass for CO2 reduction will increase the biomass demand and therefore will increase the price of biomass. Consequently, a high overall efficiency is a prerequisite for any biomass conversion process. Various biomass gasification technologies are suitable to produce SNG. The present article contains an analysis of the Bio-SNG process efficiency that can be obtained using three different gasification technologies and associated gas cleaning and methanation equipment. These technologies are: (1) Entrained Flow, (2) Circulating Fluidized Bed and (3) Allothermal or Indirect gasification. The aim of this work is to identify the gasification route with the highest process efficiency from biomass to SNG and to quantify the differences in overall efficiency. Aspen Plus registered was used as modeling tool. The heat and mass balances are based on experimental data from literature and our own experience. Overall efficiency to SNG is highest for Allothermal gasification. The net overall efficiencies on LHV basis, including electricity consumption and pre-treatment but excluding transport of biomass are 54% for Entrained Flow, 58% for CFB and 67% for Allothermal gasification. Because of the significantly higher efficiency to SNG for the route via Allothermal gasification, ECN is working on the further development of Allothermal gasification. ECN has built and tested a 30 kWth lab scale gasifier connected to a gas cleaning test rig and methanation unit and presently is building a 0.8 MWth pilot plant, called Milena, which will be connected to the existing

  9. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  10. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilized soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Project has started 1995 by determination of fertilized areas in Finland, Portugal and Spain. According to the results obtained from the analysis proper amount of pine and eucalyptus samples were selected for combustion and gasification tests. After that atmospheric and pressurized combustion and gasifications tests, including few series of gas clean up tests, have been performed by INETI and VTT. The 1 MW-scale long term test, were conducted by CIEMAT. The results are indicating that fertilization increases the potassium content in trees up to 50% or more depending upon the climate and conditions in soil. Alkali release seems to be an inverse function of the pressure indicating that the highest alkali release take place under atmospheric conditions corresponding to 111 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is over 25 wt.-% of total potassium in pine and 214 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is 32 wt.-% of total potassium in eucalyptus as received in the 1 MW ABFBC-tests. The potassium release is higher than allowed for the gas turbine process. Therefore the flue gas need to be cleaned up before it enters the gas turbine. For alkali removal at the operation conditions in oxidizing environment, the sorbent technology looks promising. According to the gasification tests the alkali release seems to be somewhat lower. Using for example filter system such as ceramic cancel filter the alkali emissions can be kept below requirements for gas turbine process using temperatures between 460-480 deg C. The research conducted here shows that fertilized biomass accumulate nutrients such potassium more than the non fertilized biomasses. Also the soil conditions has an effect to that. Due to the fact that alkalies in biomass are bonded differently than that of coal, the release is also higher. It could be shown that in combined gas turbine process the release of potassium is too high and need to be removed from the flue gas. It could also be shown that alkalies can be captured between 95-100 % at high temperature

  11. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass and U.S. northeast forest residuals gasification for electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Gardner, Kevin H; Jambeck, Jenna R

    2013-04-01

    With the goal to move society toward less reliance on fossil fuels and the mitigation of climate change, there is increasing interest and investment in the bioenergy sector. However, current bioenergy growth patterns may, in the long term, only be met through an expansion of global arable land at the expense of natural ecosystems and in competition with the food sector. Increasing thermal energy recovery from solid waste reduces dependence on fossil- and biobased energy production while enhancing landfill diversion. Using inventory data from pilot processes, this work assesses the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of plasma gasification as a route capable of transforming construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass (CDDB) and forest residues into electricity. Results indicate that the environmental burdens associated with CDDB and forest residue gasification may be similar to conventional electricity generation. Land occupation is lowest when CDDB is used. Environmental impacts are to a large extent due to coal cogasified, coke used as gasifier bed material, and fuel oil cocombusted in the steam boiler. However, uncertainties associated with preliminary system designs may be large, particularly the heat loss associated with pilot scale data resulting in overall low efficiencies of energy conversion to electricity; a sensitivity analysis assesses these uncertainties in further detail. PMID:23496419

  12. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-12-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  13. The mathematical description of the gasification process of woody biomass in installations with a plasma heat source for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrtdinov, A. R.; Safin, R. G.; Gerasimov, M. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Gilfanov, K. K.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the scheme of processing of plant biomass in the gasification installation with a plasma heat source to produce synthesis gas suitable for chemical industry. The analyzed physical picture of raw materials' recycling process underlies a mathematical description of the process set out in the form of the basic differential equations with boundary conditions. The received mathematical description allows calculating of the main parameters of equipment for biomass recycling and to determine the optimal modes of its operation.

  14. Biomass Gasification in Internal Circulating Fluidized Beds: a Thermodynamic Predictive Tool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccio, F.; Svoboda, Karel; Schosger, J.-P.; Baxter, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2008), s. 721-726. ISSN 0256-1115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * fluidized bed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2008

  15. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-03-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  16. Biomass Energy Systems and Resources in Tropical Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lugano (KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Tanzania has a characteristic developing economy, which is dependent on agricultural productivity. About 90% of the total primary energy consumption of the country is from biomass. Since the biomass is mostly consumed at the household level in form of wood fuel, it is marginally contributing to the commercial energy supply. However, the country has abundant energy resources from hydro, biomass, natural gas, coal, uranium, solar, wind and geothermal. Due to reasons that include the limited technological capacity, most of these resources have not received satisfactory harnessing. For instance: out of the estimated 4.7GW macro hydro potential only 561MW have been developed; and none of the 650MW geothermal potential is being harnessed. Furthermore, besides the huge potential of biomass (12 million tons of oil equivalent), natural gas (45 million cubic metres), coal (1,200 million tones), high solar insolation (4.5 - 6.5 kWh/m2), 1,424km of coastal strip, and availability of good wind regime (> 4 m/s wind speed), they are marginally contributing to the production of commercial energy. Ongoing exploration work also reveals that the country has an active system of petroleum and uranium. On the other hand, after commissioning the 229 km natural gas pipeline from SongoSongo Island to Dar es Salaam, there are efforts to ensure a wider application in electricity generation, households, automotive and industry. Due to existing environmental concerns, biomass resource is an attractive future energy for the world, Tanzania inclusive. This calls for putting in place sustainable energy technologies, like gasification, for their harnessing. The high temperature gasification (HTAG) of biomass is a candidate technology since it has shown to produce improved syngas quality in terms of gas heating value that has less tar. This work was therefore initiated in order to contribute to efforts on realizing a commercial application of biomass in Tanzania. Particularly, the work aimed at

  17. Experiments on biomass gasification using chemical looping with nickel-based oxygen carrier in a 25 kWth reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass gasification using chemical looping (BGCL) is an innovative biomass gasification technology, which utilizes lattice oxygen from oxygen carrier instead of molecular oxygen from air. This work attempted to investigate the BGCL performance with nickel-based oxygen carrier in a 25 kWth reactor. The new prototype is composed of a high velocity fluidized bed as an air reactor, a cyclone, a bubbling fluidized bed as a fuel reactor, and a loop-seal. At first, the major reactions in the process were presented and chemical reaction thermodynamics in the fuel reactor was analyzed. The NiO/Al2O3 oxygen carrier was then applied in the reactor. Different variables, such as gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass (S/B) ratio and NiO content, were analyzed. The carbon conversion efficiency increased smoothly within the temperature range of 650–850 °C, while the syngas yield reached the maximum of 0.33 Nm3kg−1 at 750 °C. Additionally, based on the tradeoff between carbon conversion efficiency and syngas yield, it was concluded that 30 wt.% was the optimal NiO content. Besides, in order to get high quality syngas with low CO2 emission, CaO-decorated NiO/Al2O3 oxygen carrier was investigated. Experimental results showed that the addition of CaO enhanced the biomass gasification process and increased the syngas yield. - Highlights: • A new 25 kWth prototype was made in this study. • NiO was selected as oxygen carrier in the new prototype. • Gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio and NiO content were investigated. • CaO-decorated NiO/Al2O3 was tested to produce high quality syngas

  18. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2007-01-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of gasification operation with lignite coal following the 2006 gasifier configuration modifications. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC21, occurring from November 7, 2006, through January 26, 2007. The test campaign began with low sodium lignite fuel, and after 304 hours of operation, the fuel was changed to high sodium lignite, for 34 additional hours of operation. Both fuels were from the North Dakota Freedom mine. Stable operation with low sodium lignite was maintained for extended periods, although operation with high sodium lignite was problematic due to agglomeration formation in the gasifier restricting solids circulation.

  19. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass-UCGFunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: matti.reinikainen@vtt.fi; Suominen, T. P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland), Teknisk Kemi och Reaktionsteknik), e-mail: timo.suominen@abo.fi; Linnekoski, J. (Aalto Univ., School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland), Lab. of Industrial Chemistry)

    2011-11-15

    The research was directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project were (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international cooperation. VTT itself financed also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. The project comprised experimental work, modelling, techno-economic evaluations as well as studies based on literature. The project was steered by a wide industrial consortium and the research work was carried out by VTT, Aalto University and Aabo Akademi. International development in syngas technology was closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. More information on the project can be found on project webpage http://www.vtt.fi/proj/ucgfunda/ (orig.)

  20. Improved yield parameters in catalytic steam gasification of forestry residue; optimizing biomass feed rate and catalyst type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corujo, Andrea; Yerman, Luis; Arizaga, Beatriz; Brusoni, Mariana; Castiglioni, Jorge [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica de Superficies, DETEMA Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, CC 1157, 11800-Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2010-12-15

    The catalytic gasification (900 C) of forestry industry residue (Eucalyptus saligna) was laboratory-studied. Biomass feed rate and type and amount of catalyst were assayed for their effect on the gasified product composition and the overall energy yield of the gasification reaction. The use of a calcined dolomite catalyst resulted in a combustible gas mixture of adequate calorific power (10.65 MJ m{sup -3}) for use as fuel, but neither the product gas composition nor the energy yield varied significantly with widely different amounts of the catalyst (2 g and 20 g). The use of NiO-loaded calcined dolomite catalysts did not affect the product gas composition significantly but led to a 30% increase in the total product gas volume and to a reduction in the rate of tar and char formation. The catalyst loaded with the smallest amount of NiO studied (0.4 wt%. Ni/Dol) led to the highest energy yield (21.50 MJ kg{sup -1} on a dry-wood basis) based on the use of the gasified product as fuel. The gasified product was found to have an adequate H{sub 2}/CO molar ratio and H{sub 2} content for use as synthesis gas source and partial source of H{sub 2}. (author)

  1. Gasification of biomass wastes in an entrained flow gasifier: Effect of the particle size and the residence time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Juan J.; Aranda-Almansa, Guadalupe [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Departamento de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Edificio Politecnico), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Bula, Antonio [Universidad del Norte, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Km.5 Antigua Via Puerto Colombia, Barranquilla (Colombia)

    2010-06-15

    Experimental tests in an entrained flow gasifier have been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of the biomass particle size and the space residence time on the gasifier performance and the producer gas quality. Three types of biomass fuels (grapevine pruning and sawdust wastes, and marc of grape) and a fossil fuel (a coal-coke blend) have been tested. The results obtained show that a reduction in the fuel particle size leads to a significant improvement in the gasification parameters. The thermochemical characterisation of the resulting char-ash residue shows a sharp increase in the fuel conversion for particles below 1 mm diameter, which could be adequate to be used in conventional entrained flow gasifiers. Significant differences in the thermochemical behaviour of the biomass fuels and the coal-coke blend have been found, especially in the evolution of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio with the space time, mainly due to the catalytic effect of the coal-coke ash. The reaction temperature and the space time have a significant effect on the H{sub 2}/CO ratio (the relative importance of each of these parameters depending on the temperature), this value being independent of the fuel particle size. (author)

  2. Study of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass from the self-organization perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alevanau, Aliaksandr

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the analysis of kinetics of i) low-temperature pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbons, ii) high-temperature steam gasification of char of wood pellets (>700oC), iii) high temperature pyrolysis of straw pellets in an atmosphere of argon and steam, and iv) high temperature pyrolysis of slices of transversally cut wooden sticks. The results of the kinetic measurements in the high-temperature cases are approximated using a least-square based optimization software, which was s...

  3. Investigation of agricultural residues gasification for electricity production in Sudan as an example for biomass energy utilization under arid climate conditions in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhiet, Arig G.

    2008-05-15

    This study examines the possibility of electricity production through gasification of agricultural residues in Sudan. The study begins in Chapter 1, by providing general contextual analysis of the energy situation (production and consumption patterns) in Sudan with specific focus on electricity. It proceeded to study the potential of Petroleum, Biomass and other renewable sources for electricity production. Dramatic increase in electricity production was found to be essential especially through decentralised power plants as the current electricity production services cover {proportional_to} 13 % of the population of Sudan. Biomass potential in Sudan justifies the use of agricultural residues as energy source; its potential was estimated by {proportional_to} 350000 TJ/a. Further, the urban centres of arid regions in western Sudan were identified as the target group for this study. In chapter 2, specific investigations for selected study area through field work using statistical tools such as questionnaires, interviews and field observation show that income is highly correlated to electricity consumption. The flat rate system did not result in higher consumption thus the assumption that this consumption will not drastically change in the next 10 years could be accepted. As orientation value for BGPP, 8000 tons of GN.S are available annually, the average electricity consumption is {proportional_to} 4 kWh/day/family while acceptable price could be 40 SDD/kWh (0.15 Euro). In chapter 3, literature review was carried to spot out the comparative merits of the gasification technology and the most optimum gasifying and electricity production system. As a result downdraft gasifier and ICE were suggested as suitable systems. In chapter 4, fuel properties and fuel properties of agricultural residues were studied, different samples were tested and the results were presented. The main conclusions derived were: fuel properties of agricultural residues are modifiable properties, so

  4. AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells. FINAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Di Donato, Antonello; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Velo García, Enrique; Nougués, José María; Pérez Fortes, María del Mar; Bojarski, Aarón David

    2010-01-01

    Informe Final del Projecte ECSC RFC-CR-04006: AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells

  5. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  6. Production of a gas rich in hydrogen from gasification of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gasification consists in a thermal transformation of a strong fuel (coal, peat, wood...) in presence of a sparkling compound (O2, air, CO, steam of water...). The goal of this transformation is generally to convert the strong in view of the obtaining of a combustible sparkling mixture. She/it distinguishes herself/itself therefore of the pyrolysis, thermal operation taking place in the absence of gas reacting with the strong follows a partial oxidation of pyrolysis products in presence of oxygen or air to a temperature of 600 to 1.000 C. One gets a gas satisfying the CO, of the CO2, of the H2.... The generated gas is a fuel that can be used then in furnaces or purified and used in turbines to room of combustion and batteries to fuels. This transformation puts in game a set of thermochemical mechanisms, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction, greatly coupled, that condition the working of a gasification process and whose optimization imposes the technological constraints of which some are only raised partially at this day. (authors)

  7. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  8. An experimental study on hydrogen-rich gas production via steam gasification of biomass in a research-scale fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Steam gasification via fluidized-bed is an interesting technology for hydrogen rich gas production. • The increase of steam/biomass ratio plays a major role on the hydrogen yield. • Hydrogen yield slightly increases as the biomass particle size decreases. • Tar yield strongly depends on reaction temperature. - Abstract: A research scale fluidized-bed reactor has been built and used to study the effect of steam/biomass ratio, time duration of experiments, reactor temperature, and biomass particle size on hydrogen yield and tar content in produced syngas during steam gasification of biomass. Batch experiments were performed with wood residue crushed into three different sizes of 0.5–1 mm (small), 1–2.5 mm (medium), and 2.5–5 mm (large), at reactor temperatures of 700, 800, and 900 °C. As the steam/biomass ratio increases, a decrease in formation of CO, accompanied by an increase in the hydrogen concentration, is observed. As expected, an increase in reactor temperature leads to a significant increase of H2 output and tar reforming. The obtained results show that hydrogen yield increases as time duration of the experiment is increased. It is also found that a reduction in particle diameter leads to a significant improvement in hydrogen yield

  9. Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

    1993-06-01

    Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

  10. Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

  11. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilised soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K.; Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    This presentation describes research carried out by VTT Energy and METLA during 1996, as part of the collaborative EU project involving Finland, Portugal and Spain. The main objectives of this project are to carry out experimental studies of both combustion and gasification under atmospheric (Portugal and Spain) and pressurised conditions (Finland) using biomass from different countries, namely Finland, Portugal and Spain. This was to determine the influence of biomass fertilising conditions on the process itself and the impact on the integrated energy production facilities, such as gas turbines. The aim of the research was carried out during 1996: (1) To complete the biomass collection, analyses and selection of the samples for combustion and gasification tests. This task has been carried out in co-operation with VTT and METLA, (2) To start the combustion and gasification tests under pressurised and atmospheric conditions. The combustion research in Finland is being performed in pressurised entrained flow reactor at VTT in Jyvaeskylae and the gasification research is being conducted at VTT in Espoo. The collection of biomass samples has been completed. The analyses of the samples show that for instance potassium and phosphorus content will be increased by about 30-50 % due to fertilisation. In the ash fusion tests, the ash from fertilised bark and branches and needles may start to soften already at 900 deg C under reducing conditions depending on the composition of the ash. In oxidising atmospheres the ash softening seems to occur at higher temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that the fertilisation may have an influence on the combustion process

  12. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  13. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MWe; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system

  14. Experimental Research on Heterogeneous N2O Decomposition with Ash and Biomass Gasification Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the promoting effects of ash and biomass gas reburning on N2O decomposition were investigated based on a fluidized bed reactor, with the assessment of the influence of O2 on N2O decomposition with circulating ashes. Experimental results show that different metal oxides contained in ash play distinct roles in the process of N2O decomposition with biomass gas reburning. Compared with other components in ash, CaO is proven to be very active and has the greatest promoting impact on N2O decomposition. It is also found that O2, even in small amounts, can weaken the promoting effect of ash on N2O decomposition by using biomass gas reburning.

  15. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  16. Experimental Research on Heterogeneous N2O Decomposition with Ash and Biomass Gasification Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Qin; Qiang Lu; Changqing Dong; Xiaoying Hu; Yongping Yang; Junjiao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the promoting effects of ash and biomass gas reburning on N2O decomposition were investigated based on a fluidized bed reactor, with the assessment of the influence of O2 on N2O decomposition with circulating ashes. Experimental results show that different metal oxides contained in ash play distinct roles in the process of N2O decomposition with biomass gas reburning. Compared with other components in ash, CaO is proven to be very active and has the greatest promoting impact on...

  17. Experimental Research on Heterogeneous N 2 O Decomposition with Ash and Biomass Gasification Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Junjiao Zhang; Yongping Yang; Xiaoying Hu; Changqing Dong; Qiang Lu; Wu Qin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the promoting effects of ash and biomass gas reburning on N 2 O decomposition were investigated based on a fluidized bed reactor, with the assessment of the influence of O 2 on N 2 O decomposition with circulating ashes. Experimental results show that different metal oxides contained in ash play distinct roles in the process of N 2 O decomposition with biomass gas reburning. Compared with other components in ash, CaO is proven to be very active and has the greatest promoting im...

  18. The development of solid fuel gasification systems for cost-effective power generation with low environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Ranta, J.; Hepola, J.; Kangasmaa, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1997-10-01

    Relatively low carbon conversion is a disadvantage related to the air-blown fluidised-bed coal-biomass co-gasification process. Low carbon conversion is due to different reactivities and ash sintering behaviour of coal and biomass which leads to compromises in definition of gasification process conditions. In certain cases co-gasification may also lead to unexpected deposit formations or corrosion problems in downstream components especially when high alkali metal or chlorine containing biomass feedstocks are co-gasified with coal. During the reporting period, the work focused on co-gasification of coal and wood waste. The objectives of the present work were to find out the optimum conditions for improving the carbon conversion and to study the formation of different gas impurities. The results based on co-gasification tests with a pressurised fluidised-bed gasifies showed that in co-gasification even with only 15 % coal addition the heavy tar concentration was decreased significantly and, simultaneously, an almost total carbon conversion was achieved by optimising the gasification conditions. The study of filter fines recirculation and solid residues utilisation was started by characterizing filter dust. The work was carried out with an entrained-flow reactor in oxidising, inert and reducing gas conditions. The aim was to define the conditions required for achieving increased carbon conversion in different reactor conditions

  19. Simulation of bio-syngas production from biomass gasification%生物质气化制取合成气的模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯飞; 宋国辉; 沈来宏; 肖军; 魏龙; 孟华剑

    2012-01-01

    The interconnected fluidized beds technology is described in this paper, which is used to produce bio-syngas from biomass gasification. This technology separates the gasification and combustion processes of biomass. The heat is transferred from combustor to gasifier by bed materials, while extra heat needed in gasification process is provided by additional biomass burning in combustor. ASPEN PLUS software is used to establish the model and simulate the process. The simulated and experimental results are compared to verify the feasibility of the simulation. The effects of gasification temperature and steam to biomass ratio (S/B) on bio-syngas production are studied. The results show that,to achieve higher carbon conversion, gasification proportion and yield of high-quality bio-syngas, the suitable gasification temperature is suitable around 650 -800℃ ,and the S/B is about 0. 2 - 1. 0.%阐述了利用串行流化床制取生物质合成气的技术,该技术将生物质气化过程与燃烧过程分开,气化反应器和燃烧反应器之间通过床料进行热量传递,并通过生物质补燃实现自供热.利用ASPEN PLUS软件建立了串行流化床制取合成气的模型,通过将模拟数值与实验结果相比较,验证了模拟研究的可行性.重点研究了气化温度、水蒸汽与生物质的质量配比(S/B)对制取生物质合成气的影响.结果表明,为获取较高品质的生物质合成气并得到较高的碳转化率、气化份额和合成气产率,气化温度以650~800℃为宜,S/B应在0.2~1.0之间.

  20. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip; Chollacoop, Nuwong; Cheali, Peam

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels such as...... Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because there...

  1. System studies on biofuel production via integrated biomass gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim; Malek, Laura; Hultegren, Christian; Pettersson, Karin; Wetterlund, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between differe...

  2. Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, W.

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays m

  3. Characterization of a spent Ru/C catalyst after gasification of biomass in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambach, J; Schubert, M; Döbeli, M; Vogel, F

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-supported ruthenium catalysts promote the gasification of aqueous organic feed with high efficiency to synthetic natural gas in supercritical water. Ruthenium metal was recently identified as the catalytically active species. [1] Occasionally deactivation is observed. To understand the deactivation, the fresh and several spent catalyst samples were investigated by RBS, ERDA, and XPS. The data revealed a massive reduction of the ruthenium concentration in toto and especially of the surface concentration. Of importance is the almost complete disappearance of the spectral features in the valance band region. Coverage of the ruthenium clusters e.g. with a thin 'carbonaceous' layer, i.e. a kind of fouling, or structural modifications of the ruthenium clusters might be the origin. Additionally, leaching of ruthenium might contribute, but is not considered a major effect, because ruthenium was never found in the liquid effluent of the reactor. The influence of additionally detected corrosion products (Ni, Cr, Fe, Ti) from the stainless steel and the titanium alloy walls seems to be small. No evidence for a deactivation by sulphur could be found. PMID:23211730

  4. Biomass to hydrogen-rich syngas via catalytic steam gasification of bio-oil/biochar slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Yao, Jingang; Liu, Jing; Yan, Beibei; Shan, Rui

    2015-12-01

    The catalytic steam gasification of bio-oil/biochar slurry (bioslurry) for hydrogen-rich syngas production was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor using LaXFeO3 (X=Ce, Mg, K) perovskite-type catalysts. The effects of elemental substitution in LaFeO3, temperature, water to carbon molar ratio (WCMR) and bioslurry weight hourly space velocity (WbHSV) were examined. The results showed that La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 gave the best performance among the prepared catalysts and had better catalytic activity and stability than the commercial 14 wt.% Ni/Al2O3. The deactivation caused by carbon deposition and sintering was significantly depressed in the case of La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 catalyst. Both higher temperature and lower WbHSV contributed to more H2 yield. The optimal WCMR was found to be 2, and excessive introducing of steam reduced hydrogen yield. The La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 catalyst gave a maximum H2 yield of 82.01% with carbon conversion of 65.57% under the optimum operating conditions (temperature=800°C, WCMR=2 and WbHSV=15.36h(-1)). PMID:26378962

  5. Modified dolomite in biomass gasification with simultaneous tar reformation and CO2 capture: effect of metal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CO2 absorption capacity of calcined dolomite [a (CaMg)O solid solution] doped with iron and nickel transition metals has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor operating at temperature conditions (650 deg. C) at which the sorption process is thermodynamically favoured at ambient pressure. The presence of metals (catalytic sites) between CaO grains (CO2 absorption sites) may improve the potential of dolomite for the simultaneous process of catalytic tar reforming and CO2 capture in biomass gasification, with the aim of developing an effective combined catalyst and sorbent particle. It was found that iron and nickel may be optimised in the substrate reducing critical limitations on CO2 capture capacity. A Sorption Enhanced Reforming test is proposed, at 650 deg. C, for both iron and nickel doped calcined dolomite, using toluene as model tar compound: iron has been found to be not active in such conditions, whereas the 4% Ni/(CaMg)O has been indicated as the most suitable combined catalyst and sorbent particle.

  6. Removal and Conversion of Tar in Syngas from Woody Biomass Gasification for Power Utilization Using Catalytic Hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification has yet to obtain industrial acceptance. The high residual tar concentrations in syngas prevent any ambitious utilization. In this paper a novel gas purification technology based on catalytic hydrocracking is introduced, whereby most of the tarry components can be converted and removed. Pilot scale experiments were carried out with an updraft gasifier. The hydrocracking catalyst was palladium (Pd. The results show the dominant role of temperature and flow rate. At a constant flow rate of 20 Nm3/h and temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C the tar conversion rates reached 44.9%, 78.1% and 92.3%, respectively. These results could be increased up to 98.6% and 99.3% by using an operating temperature of 700 °C and lower flow rates of 15 Nm3/h and 10 Nm3/h. The syngas quality after the purification process at 700 °C/10 Nm3/h is acceptable for inner combustion (IC gas engine utilization.

  7. The influence of perceived uncertainty on entrepreneurial action in emerging renewable energy technology; biomass gasification projects in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging renewable energy technologies cannot break through without the involvement of entrepreneurs who dare to take action amidst uncertainty. The uncertainties that the entrepreneurs involved perceive will greatly affect their innovation decisions and can prevent them from engaging in innovation projects aimed at developing and implementing emerging renewable energy technologies. This article analyzes how perceived uncertainties and motivation influence an entrepreneur's decision to act, using empirical data on biomass gasification projects in the Netherlands. Our empirical results show that technological, political and resource uncertainty are the most dominant sources of perceived uncertainty influencing entrepreneurial decision-making. By performing a dynamic analysis, we furthermore demonstrate that perceived uncertainties and motivation are not stable, but evolve over time. We identify critical factors in the project's internal and external environment which influence these changes in perceived uncertainties and motivation, and describe how various interactions between the different variables in the conceptual model (internal and external factors, perceived uncertainty, motivation and previous actions of the entrepreneurs) positively or negatively influence the decision of entrepreneurs to continue entrepreneurial action. We discuss how policymakers can use these insights for stimulating the development and diffusion of emerging renewable energy technologies

  8. Structural evolution of biomass char and its effect on the gasification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatehi, Hesameddin; Bai, Xue Song

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of char porous structure can affect the conversion rate of the char by affecting the intra-particle transport, especially in the zone II conversion regime. A multi-pore model based on the capillary pore theory is developed to take into account different conversion rates for pores with...... different radii. The model is valid for biomass chars produced under relatively low heating rates, when the original beehive structure of the biomass is not destroyed during the pyrolysis stage. The contribution of different pores with different radius is taken into account using an effectiveness factor...... presented for each pore radius with respect to different reactions. As the char conversion proceeds, the pore enlargement increases the contribution of micro-pores; consequently the effective surface area will increase. The increase in the effective surface area leads to an increased reactivity of char...

  9. Biomass Gasification - Process analysis and dimensioning aspects for downdraft units and gas cleaning lines

    OpenAIRE

    Stoppiello, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In such territories where food production is mostly scattered in several small / medium size or even domestic farms, a lot of heterogeneous residues are produced yearly, since farmers usually carry out different activities in their properties. The amount and composition of farm residues, therefore, widely change during year, according to the single production process periodically achieved. Coupling high efficiency micro-cogeneration energy units with easy handling biomass conversion equipm...

  10. Criteria for selection of dolomites and catalysts for tar elimination from biomass gasification gas. Kinetic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chem. Eng.

    1996-12-31

    Calcined dolomites and commercial steam reforming catalysts are used downstream biomass gasifiers for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. To further compare these solids under a rigorous basis, a reaction network and a kinetic model are presented. The apparent kinetic constant for the tar reduction is here proposed as a basis of comparison. Tar sampling and analysis, and the units used for the space-time in the catalytic reactor affect the kinetic constants observed. (author) (2 refs.)

  11. Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzinger, G J [Economics, Environment and Regulation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility.

  12. Biomass thermal conversion : pelletisation of lignocelluloses and the effect on the gasification process

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Kyriakos Xenofon

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural residues and energy crops constitute an important part of the energy chain although they are not being used extensively in the energy generation processes since they are associated with disadvantages such as low bulk and energy densities and handling problems. One solution is the pelletisation of these residues, which solves a great deal of these problems and enables the competition of biomass with other types of fuels. A large amount of work, concerning the combus...

  13. Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility

  14. System aspects of black liquor gasification - Consequences for both industry and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The pulp and paper industry consumes large quantities of biofuels (mainly bark and black liquor) to satisfy process requirements. Biomass is however a limited resource, and biofuel usage should therefore be as effective as possible. Modern pulp mills and integrated pulp and paper mills have excess fuel compared to the amounts needed to satisfy the process steam demand. The excess fuel is often used for cogeneration of electric power in CHP units. For integrated pulp and paper mills, this usually requires import of supplementary fuel to the plant. For market pulp mills, the excess internal biofuel quantities are sufficient to also allow electric power generation in condensing power plant units. If biofuel availability at a reasonable price is limited, import/export to, from a mill changes the amount of such biofuel available to alternative users. The goal of this thesis is to compare different mill powerhouse technologies and CHP plant configurations (including conventional recovery boiler technology and black liquor gasification technology) in order to identify the technology and CHP plant configuration that can produce the most electric power output from a given fuel resource for a given process steam demand. Different process steam demand levels for different representative mill types are considered. The comparison accounts for increased/decreased electricity production in an alternative energy system when biofuel is imported/exported to/from from the mill. The alternative energy system considered includes a district heating system with CHP capacity and natural gas fired combined cycle power plant capacity. The results show that black liquor gasification is in all cases considered an attractive powerhouse recovery cycle technology compared to conventional recovery boiler technology. If the marginal electric power generation efficiency for biofuel exported to the reference alternative energy system is 49%, excess mill internal biofuel should be used on mill

  15. Poly generation property of agricultural straw based on biomass pyrolysis/gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A large mount of agricultural waste generated annually in China. The efficient and clean utilization of these biomass resources is seem to an opportunity not only enhancing the standard of living of peasant but also significantly reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Poly generation of biomass not only generating gas product with high heat value but also producing bio-char with high quality, is one of the most promising technology for Chinese rural. Currently, fixed bed pyrolysis technology is attracted major concern, however, it resulted a no-continuous and unstable production. In this paper, a novel pyrolysis technology is introduced, and the pyrolysis property of local typical agricultural straw was investigated under variant condition. A pyrolysis gases containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4, and trace of small-molecule hydrocarbon were produced, and the heat value was above 17 MJ/ m3. It is sufficient for the requirement of local resident. The tar yield is very low since it condensed on the heated materials in the low temperature zone and was further cracked to a lower molecule gases in the high temperature zone, and the main liquid product is wood vinegar. It contained above 80 % wt of water, 5-12 % wt of acetic acid and some furan and phonetic. The wood charcoal is another important product possessing rather higher benefits than gas product. The heat value of the charcoal is over 27 MJ/ kg and without smoke during combustion, so there is a huge market on the catering industry for the charcoal whose cost is lower than the charcoal form forests woods, simultaneously the char have a good porosity as the BET surface area about 100 m2/ g, so can be used as a lower cost adsorbent in the environment industry. As the commercialization of biomass poly generation technology, the high value conversion and utilization of wood vinegar and charcoal would bring considerable benefits for consumer. (author)

  16. Release of chlorine from biomass at pyrolysis and gasification conditions, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from pyrolysis experiment with some biomass materials and pure cellulose shows that the chlorine evaporates from different fuels in two steps. The second of these steps can be explained as evaporation of KCl or other volatile chlorides. The first step starts at temperature levels 300-400 deg C which is too low for salt volatilization. Anyhow, the materials releases up to 50% of the total fuel chlorine in this first step. To explain this first step a mechanism has been suggested in which the chlorine during pyrolysis can be transferred to hydrogen chloride 4 refs, 9 figs

  17. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  18. 3rd annual biomass energy systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The main objectives of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conference were (1) to review the latest research findings in the clean fuels from biomass field, (2) to summarize the present engineering and economic status of Biomass Energy Systems, (3) to encourage interaction and information exchange among people working or interested in the field, and (4) to identify and discuss existing problems relating to ongoing research and explore opportunities for future research. Abstracts for each paper presented were edited separately. (DC)

  19. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

    2004-05-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. A review of the literature indicated that the Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. We selected diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, and surface coatings of Si and Ti for the preliminary testing. These coatings will be applied using the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition technique developed at SRI which is rapid and relatively inexpensive. We have procured coupons of typical alloys used in a gasifier. These coupons will be coated with Cr, Al, Si, and Ti. The samples will be tested in a bench-scale reactor using simulated coal gas compositions. In addition, we will be sending coated samples for insertion in the gas stream of the coal gasifier.

  20. A continuous two stage solar coal gasification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.; Manasse, F. K.; Venkataramanan, V.

    The characteristics of a two-stage fluidized-bed hybrid coal gasification system to produce syngas from coal, lignite, and peat are described. Devolatilization heat of 823 K is supplied by recirculating gas heated by a solar receiver/coal heater. A second-stage gasifier maintained at 1227 K serves to crack remaining tar and light oil to yield a product free from tar and other condensables, and sulfur can be removed by hot clean-up processes. CO is minimized because the coal is not burned with oxygen, and the product gas contains 50% H2. Bench scale reactors consist of a stage I unit 0.1 m in diam which is fed coal 200 microns in size. A stage II reactor has an inner diam of 0.36 m and serves to gasify the char from stage I. A solar power source of 10 kWt is required for the bench model, and will be obtained from a central receiver with quartz or heat pipe configurations for heat transfer.

  1. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

  2. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

  3. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2002-06-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC08 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier in air- and oxygen-blown modes during TC08. Test Run TC08 was started on June 9, 2002 and completed on June 29. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen blown was smooth. The gasifier temperature was varied between 1,710 and 1,770 F at pressures from 125 to 240 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC08, 476 hours of solid circulation and 364 hours of coal feed were attained with 153 hours of pure oxygen feed. The gasifier and PCD operations were stable in both enriched air and 100 percent oxygen blown modes. The oxygen concentration was slowly increased during the first transition to full oxygen-blown operations. Subsequent transitions from air to oxygen blown could be completed in less than 15 minutes. Oxygen-blown operations produced the highest synthesis gas heating value to date, with a projected synthesis gas heating value averaging 175 Btu/scf. Carbon conversions averaged 93 percent, slightly lower than carbon conversions achieved during air-blown gasification.

  4. Hydrogen production from biomass. Optimization of gasification by experimental by experimental statistical design; Produccion de hidrogeno a partir de biomasa. Optimizacion de la gasificacion por aplicacion del diseno estadistico de experimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche Calvo, A.

    2008-07-01

    Biomass conversion into a gas with high content in hydrogen is considered as a future alternative to obtain energy and chemicals products for renewable sources. One of the current technologies for this purpose is the gasification using steam as gasification agent. The technical objective of this work is the study of the process of biomass gasification with steam and oxygen as thermochemical process of transformation of biomass to obtain the maximum amount of hydrogen with lowest tar content. Materials and Methods. An experimental statistical strategy with three variables and two levels of operation was planned to optimize the gasification process. the study was conducted without changing the type of biomass-fed, the type of catalyst used and the quantity of bed inside the gasifier. Two mathematical models have been obtained as results. Both of them correlated the experimental factors to the production of hydrogen and tars. The design of experiments methodology has been applied to assess the influence os several experimental factors, such as the introduced amount of steam, the use of catalyst and oxygen, both in the production of hydrogen, as in the minimization of the formation of tars. This statistical technique has enabled the modeling of the selected biomass gasification performing the minimum number of pilot plant tests to identify possible improvements and optimizations both in the yield of produced hydrogen as in the generation of tars. (Author) 10 refs.

  5. Gasification — the process and the technology

    OpenAIRE

    Swaaij, van, W.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Thermochemical gasification of biomass can produce low, medium and high calorific value gases. The characteristics, applications and potential of the different processes and reactor types are discussed. The introduction of biomass gasification on a large or intermediate scale for the production of power, synthetic natural gas (SNG), methanol etc. will depend on developments in coal and (municipal) solid waste gasification and on the price of biomass. Biomass - and especially wood - is a clean...

  6. ASPEN Plus simulation of coal integrated gasification combined blast furnace slag waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An integrated system of coal gasification with slag waste heat recovery was proposed. • The goal of BF slag heat saving and emission reduction was achieved by this system. • The optimal parameters were obtained and the waste heat recovery rate reached 83.08%. • About 6.64 kmol/min syngas was produced when using one ton BF slag to provide energy. - Abstract: This article presented a model for the system of coal gasification with steam and blast furnace slag waste heat recovery by using the ASPEN Plus as the simulating and modeling tool. Constrained by mass and energy balance for the entire system, the model included the gasifier used to product syngas at the chemical equilibrium based on the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and the boiler used to recover the heat of the blast furnace slag (BF slag) and syngas. Two parameters of temperature and steam to coal ratio (S/C) were considered to account for their impacts on the Datong coal (DT coal) gasification process. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), cold gasification efficiency (CGE), syngas product efficiency (PE) and the heating value of syngas produced by 1 kg pulverized coal (HV) were adopted as the indicators to examine the gasification performance. The optimal operating temperature and S/C were 800 °C and 1.5, respectively. At this condition, CE reached above 90% and the maximum values of the CGE, PE and HV were all obtained. Under the optimal operating conditions, 1000 kg/min BF slag, about 40.41 kg/min DT pulverized coal and 77.94 kg/min steam were fed into the gasifier and approximate 6.64 kmol/min syngas could be generated. Overall, the coal was converted to clean syngas by gasification reaction and the BF slag waste heat was also recovered effectively (reached up to 83.08%) in this system, achieving the objective of energy saving and emission reduction

  7. Application of Exergoeconomic and Exergoenvironmental Analysis to an SOFC System with an Allothermal Biomass Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tsatsaronis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the future, energy conversion systems will be needed that reduce the environmental impact and costs of energy supply when fossil fuels are employed. An alternative is using biomass as a renewable energy resource to achieve both effects. For this reason, interest in biomass gasification processes resurged considerably in the past years. In particular, combination of allothermal biomass gasification with a high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC has met with great interest as an attractive option for electricity generation. To objectively evaluate this new biomass conversion process, the newly developed exergoenvironmental analysis and the established exergoeconomic analysis are applied. The basic idea of both methods is that in energy conversion systems, exergy represents the only rational basis for assigning environmental impacts and costs to the energy carriers and to the inefficiencies within the system. The present article identifies the most relevant system components from the environmental and economic points of view and provides information about possibilities of design improvements. Comparison of the results of both methods reveals that the most relevant process components are the SOFC, the heat exchanger for preheating the air, and the allothermal fluidized-bed gasifier. A special focus will be placed on differences between both analysis methods.

    •  This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings.

  8. Energy study of the energy supply systems for isolated communities in Cuba from the use of biomass gasifiers downdraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At work a comprehensive energy analysis of plants generating electricity from the gasification of various biomass that currently conceived by the management of the Electric Union for the electrification of isolated communities in the fields of Cuba is made. For this, based on the properties of the main biomass available, the calculations needed are performed to evaluate the efficiency of the gasifier and other components of energy transformation system. The power generation are taken into consideration and an assessment of the needs of biomass in each case is made. (full text)

  9. Biomass Gasifier Energy Cyber-Physical System Design with Coupling of the Wind and Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihuan Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The air pollution in China has been quite serious, and biomass is extremely rich in large agricultural country. In the view of current situation, highly efficient solar collectors, wind energy and solar energy coupled heating straw gasification system is studied. The stability of continuous gas production is analyzed in various weather conditions including windy, calm, sunny and cloudy. Highly efficient solar panels, wind energy and solar energy coupled heating straw gasification control system is raised. This system overcomes the time variability of the weather conditions to ensure the stability of the continuous gas production under a variety of weather conditions. It has high quality of gas production, strong anti-interference ability and robustness.

  10. The effect of H2S on oxidation properties of ZrO2-based biomass gasification gas clean-up catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppi, Inkeri

    2015-01-01

    Biomass gasification gas contains impurities which have to be removed before the gas can be utilized in e.g. energy or liquid fuels production. ZrO2-based catalysts can be used to oxidize tar impurities when oxygen is added to the gas. These catalysts have proven activity even when H2S is present. Moreover, an improving effect of H2S on ZrO2 oxidation activity has been observed at temperatures of 600 and 700 °C. Therefore, the reactivities of unsulfided and sulfided ZrO2-based catalysts were ...

  11. Improving the Technical, Environmental, and Social Performance of Wind Energy Systems Using Biomass-Based Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A completely renewable baseload electricity generation system is proposed by combining wind energy, compressed air energy storage, and biomass gasification. This system can eliminate problems associated with wind intermittency and provide a source of electrical energy functionally equivalent to a large fossil or nuclear power plant. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) can be economically deployed in the Midwestern US, an area with significant low-cost wind resources. CAES systems require a combustible fuel, typically natural gas, which results in fuel price risk and greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing natural gas with synfuel derived from biomass gasification eliminates the use of fossil fuels, virtually eliminating net CO2 emissions from the system. In addition, by deriving energy completely from farm sources, this type of system may reduce some opposition to long distance transmission lines in rural areas, which may be an obstacle to large-scale wind deployment.

  12. Energy Characterization and Gasification of Biomass Derived by Hazelnut Cultivation: Analysis of Produced Syngas by Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    D. Monarca; Colantoni, A; Cecchini, M.; Longo, L; L. Vecchione; Carlini, M.; Manzo, A

    2012-01-01

    Modern agriculture is an extremely energy intensive process. However, high agricultural productivities and the growth of green revolution has been possible only by large amount of energy inputs, especially those coming from fossil fuels. These energy resources have not been able to provide an economically viable solution for agricultural applications. Biomass energy-based systems had been extensively used for transportation and on farm systems during World War II: the most common and reliable...

  13. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  14. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO2 emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO2 reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO2 emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO2 emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic value of these local

  15. Thermal gasification or direct combustion? Comparison of advanced cogeneration systems in the sugarcane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare different cogeneration system scenarios for efficient energy production from bagasse fuel in an Indonesian sugar and ethanol factory. These scenarios include the use of condensing-extraction steam turbines, variable speed electric drives for process equipment, measures to reduce low pressure steam demand for process needs, and two advanced cogeneration systems. One advanced system includes an 80 bar high pressure direct combustion steam Rankine cycle (advanced SRC), while the other uses a biomass integrated gasifier combined cycle (BIGCC); both utilize fuel dryers. Using steady-state thermodynamic models, we estimate that the net electricity generation potentials of the BIGCC and advanced SRC systems are approximately seven and five times the potential of the existing factory, respectively. The maximum net electricity generation potentials for the respective systems are 170 kWh/tc (BIGCC) and 140 kWh/tc (advanced SRC). However, the BIGCC system needs a bagasse feed rate that is 50 percent higher than the advanced SRC system to satisfy the factory low pressure steam demand for sugar and ethanol processing, which may affect its ability to provide steam and electricity during the off-season. For the Indonesian sugar factory, the annual revenue potential of the BIGCC system is US$14 million per year, approximately 50 percent higher than that of the advanced SRC system (electricity sale rate: US$45/MsWh; carbon credit price: US$13.60). BIGCC technology is still in an early stage of development and there are no commercial systems in sugar factories, so an advanced SRC system may be a more suitable option in the near future. -- Highlights: ► We use steady state thermodynamic models to simulate a sugar-ethanol factory. ► We compare existing performance with five improved and advanced cogeneration system scenarios. ► High pressure steam Rankine cycle can significantly increase electricity generation. ► Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle can

  16. 浅析流化床生物质与煤共气化技术方案%Briefly Analyzing Scheme for Biomass and Coal Co-gasification Technology of Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕可军; 毛少祥; 孔北方; 柏林红

    2012-01-01

    In allusion to problems that the biomass was difficult to gasity independently, author has discussed the co-complemented technical scheme of biomass with coal co-gasification; has introduced the physical property of biomass and its gasification features; has discussed the technical features and process flow for pulverized coal gasification technology with fluidized bed of ash meh collection ; has presented the technical scheme to make co-gasification of biomass with coal on basis of pulverized coal gasification technology with fluidized bed of ash meh collection ; and also has presented the relative solution measures for existing problems.%针对生物质能源难以单独气化的问题,探讨了生物质与煤共气化的互补性技术方案;介绍了生物质的物理性质和气化特性;论述了灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术的特点和工艺流程;提出了在灰融聚流化床粉煤气化的基础上进行生物质与煤共气化技术方案,对存在的问题提出了相关解决措施。

  17. Exergetic assessment of an integrated gasifier/boiler system for hydrogen production with different biomass types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinci, Y. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Izmir Vocational School; Hepbasli, A. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Dincer, I. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2009-07-01

    Biomass comprises all living matter present on earth and is derived from growing plants including algae, trees and crops or animal manure. It usually consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Sulfur is also present in small quantities, while some biomass consists of significant amounts of inorganic species. Biomass has the potential to accelerate the realization of hydrogen as a major fuel of the future. Since biomass is renewable and consumes atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) during growth, it can have a small net CO{sub 2} impact compared to fossil fuels. However, hydrogen from biomass has major challenges as there are no completed technology demonstrations. In addition, the yield of hydrogen is low from biomass to biomass since the hydrogen content in biomass is low to begin with and the energy content is low due to the 40 percent oxygen content of biomass. This paper highlighted the importance of biomass-based syntactical gas and hydrogen production and reviewed the characteristics of six different biomass fuels used in various gasification systems and their energetic aspects and technical details. These fuels included almond shells; walnut prunings; rice straw; whole tree wood chips; sludge; and non-recyclable waste paper for hydrogen production from an integrated gasifier-boiler power system. The paper also presented a case study on biomass-based hydrogen production and assessed its thermodynamic performance through exergy. The results of the study were discussed through exergetic, irreversibility and improvement potential. It was concluded that the highest exergy rate was found for walnut pruning and almond shell. 15 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Bio-refinery system in a pulp mill for methanol production with comparison of pressurized black liquor gasification and dry gasification using direct causticization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) for bio-fuel or electricity production at the modern pulp mills is a field in continuous evolution and the efforts are considerably driven by the climate change, fuel security, and renewable energy. This paper evaluates and compares two BLG systems for methanol production: (i) oxygen blown pressurized thermal BLG; and (ii) dry BLG with direct causticization, which have been regarded as the most potential technology candidates for the future deployment. A key objective is to assess integration possibilities of BLG technologies with the reference Kraft pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) pulp/day replacing conventional recovery cycle. The study was performed to compare the systems’ performance in terms of potential methanol production, energy efficiency, and potential CO2 reductions. The results indicate larger potential of black liquor conversion to methanol from the pressurized BLG system (about 77 million tonnes/year of methanol) than the dry BLG system (about 30 million tonnes/year of methanol) utilizing identical amount of black liquor available worldwide (220 million tDS/year). The potential CO2 emissions reduction from the transport sector is substantially higher in pressurized BLG system (117 million tonnes/year CO2 reductions) as compared to dry BLG system (45 million tonnes/year CO2 reductions). However, the dry BLG system with direct causticization shows better results when considering consequences of additional biomass import. In addition, comparison of methanol production via BLG with other bio-refinery products, e.g. hydrogen, dimethyl ether (DME) and bio-methane, has also been discussed.

  19. ABB Combustion Engineering coal gasification systems for combined cycle power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, H.E. Jr.; Mirolli, M.D.; Vroom, H.H. III [ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Windsor, CT (United States). Gasification Product Group

    1994-12-31

    ABB Combustion Engineering have designed and supplied IGCC power projects with a variety of power plant equipment - including the heat recovery boilers and gasifier vessel in Texaco`s Cool Water IGCC demonstration plant in California; and 120 TPD gasifier at its Windsor, Connecticut site. ABB-CE is also developing an air blown IGCC technology for applications in the power industry. This two-stage, entrained-flow, air blown, slagging bottom gasification system offers design simplicity which is anticipated to achieve greater system reliability and reduced plant maintenance costs. Discussion is presented of ABB-CE`s capabilities as a supplier of engineered gasification systems for commercially available technology, such as Texaco, Shell and Krupp (Prenflo). Also discussed is the development of ABB-CE`s air blown, entrained gasification process which is awaiting demonstration. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Optimization of biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation using Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With sufficient territory and abundant biomass resources Spain appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. This paper addresses biomass fuelled generation of electricity in the specific aspect of finding the best location and the supply area of the electric generation plant for three alternative technologies (gas motor, gas turbine and fuel cell-microturbine hybrid power cycle), taking into account the variables involved in the problem, such as the local distribution of biomass resources, transportation costs, distance to existing electric lines, etc. For each technology, not only optimal location and supply area of the biomass plant, but also net present value and generated electric power are determined by an own binary variant of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). According to the values derived from the optimization algorithm, the most profitable technology can be chosen. Computer simulations show the good performance of the proposed binary PSO algorithm to optimize biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation. (author)

  1. Off-design Characteristics of IGCC System Based on Two-stage Coal-slurry Gasification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU gaoxin; WU Shaohua; LI Zhenzhong; WANG Yang

    2012-01-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle system (IGCC) is often operated at off-design condition which has attracted much attention. But little research has been done on the IGCC system based on the two-stage coalslurry gasification technology which can increase the cold gas efficiency and decrease the oxygen consumption.

  2. Dynamics of Technological Innovation Systems. The Case of Biomass Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovation Systems. These can be divided into virtuous and vicious cycles. In the case of virtuous cycles a successful diffusion of the respective technologies occurred (for example biomass digestion in Germany and biomass co-firing in the Netherlands), whereas low diffusion is observed for the technologies (for example biomass digestion, biomass gasification and stand-alone biomass combustion in the Netherlands) where vicious cycles dominated the system. Furthermore, the findings show that biomass technologies go through long-term trajectories (10-30 years) of development, diffusion and implementation. However, the Dutch government only provided short-term policies and removed all support when the technical problems were not solved within this short term. In order to accelerate the diffusion of biomass energy technologies a long-term and stable guidance by the government is needed where time and space for trial and error are provided, where a market is formed and where entrepreneurs pack together to lobby for better institutional conditions for their technology

  3. Biomass energy systems program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  4. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  5. Design of biomass district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomass exploitation takes advantage of the agricultural, forest, and manure residues and in extent, urban and industrial wastes, which under controlled burning conditions, can generate heat and electricity, with limited environmental impacts. Biomass can - significantly - contribute in the energy supplying system, if the engineers will adopt the necessary design changes to the traditional systems and become more familiar with the design details of the biomass heating systems. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology of the design of biomass district heating systems taking into consideration the optimum design of building structure and urban settlement around the plant. The essential energy parameters are presented for the size calculations of a biomass burning-district heating system, as well as for the environmental (i.e. Greenhouse Gas Emissions) and economic evaluation (i.e. selectivity and viability of the relevant investment). Emphasis has been placed upon the technical parameters of the biomass system, the economic details of the boiler, the heating distribution network, the heat exchanger and the Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  6. Biomass-powered Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Experimental and Modeling Studies for System Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a sustainable energy source which, through thermo-chemical processes of biomass gasification, is able to be converted from a solid biomass fuel into a gas mixture, known as syngas or biosyngas. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a power generation device that directly converts the chemical

  7. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  8. Thermochemical gas production from biomass - pyrolysis and gasification. Papers of a seminar organized by the Energy Research Project Manager in cooperation with the German Society for Technical Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrmann, J. (ed.)

    1981-11-01

    A collection of papers are presented which were given on November 12 and 13, 1981 at the Juelich Nuclear Research Institute. The topics include pyrolysis and vaporization from biomass, gas fuel production from biomass, energy production from biomass, and various concepts on energy supply and systems. Papers are accompanied by diagrams and illustrations.

  9. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  10. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  11. A Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment of Nonrenewable Energy and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions of a Village-Level Biomass Gasification Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Pang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale bio-energy projects have been launched in rural areas of China and are considered as alternatives to fossil-fuel energy. However, energetic and environmental evaluation of these projects has rarely been carried out, though it is necessary for their long-term development. A village-level biomass gasification project provides an example. A hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA of its total nonrenewable energy (NE cost and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is presented in this paper. The results show that the total energy cost for one joule of biomass gas output from the project is 2.93 J, of which 0.89 J is from nonrenewable energy, and the related GHG emission cost is 1.17 × 10−4 g CO2-eq over its designed life cycle of 20 years. To provide equivalent effective calorific value for cooking work, the utilization of one joule of biomass gas will lead to more life cycle NE cost by 0.07 J and more GHG emissions by 8.92 × 10−5 g CO2-eq compared to natural gas taking into consideration of the difference in combustion efficiency and calorific value. The small-scale bio-energy project has fallen into dilemma, i.e., struggling for survival, and for a more successful future development of village-level gasification projects, much effort is needed to tide over the plight of its development, such as high cost and low efficiency caused by decentralized construction, technical shortcomings and low utilization rate of by-products.

  12. Intrinsic reactivity of biomass-derived char under steam gasification conditions. Potential of wood ash as catalyst.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanou, Pavlina; Gutierrez Murillo, Hector E.; Swaaij, van Wim P.M.; Rossum, van Guus; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of ash on the steam gasification rate of pine wood derived char particles in the temperature range 600–800 °C is investigated. Ash derived from pine wood or specific ash components were added to the pine-wood (before pyrolysis) or to the produced char (after pyrolysis) via physical mix

  13. Effect of Reaction Temperature and Type of Catalyst on Hydrogen Production in Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi-Nik Mohammadali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by supercritical water gasification (SCWG at low temperature and in presence of alkali catalyst. Experiments were carried out in a batch autoclave reactor at 400 °C and 9% solid content. Effect of reaction time and alkali catalyst on gas yield, gas composition, carbon gasification efficiency (CGE and hydrogen gasification efficiency (HGE were investigated. Influence of reaction time on gas yield and composition as well as on CGE was found to be insignificant. Extending the reaction time even up to 4 h could not cause an attractive conversion of bagasse. In the presence of catalysts (K2CO3, KHCO3, NaHCO3 and NaOH, sugarcane bagasse was partially gasified in SCW and hydrogen-rich gas containing CO2 as the main carbon compound was produced. Among the implemented catalysts, K2CO3 was identified to be the most effective for improvement of HGE. Use of the catalyst under our experimental conditions, the maximum HGE of 19% was achieved; however the highest CGE occurred with KHCO3. Results showed that feed to catalyst ratio of 2 was high enough to reach the greatest possible gasification of hydrogen at 400 °C and 45 min. More CGE and HGE would be possible only by increasing the temperature, pressure and/or reaction time.

  14. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  15. System applications CRC -Biomass + Coal; Aplicaciones Sistema CRC-Biomasa+Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Main object of Phase I of the project is to analyse the technical-economic feasibility of the combined use of biomass and coal for power generation in the Spanish region of Andalusia, by means of new medium-size independent power plants or using biomass as supplementary fuel in existing large coal power plants, including: -Analysis and classification of biomass and coal resources in the region -Technical-economic study of conventional alternatives using the steam cycle -Analysis of efficiency improvement provided by advanced Rankine-cycle technologies, like the SMR cycle -Analysis of alternatives based on parallel combined cycles using gas turbines, including advanced solutions, like the EAPI and CRC-EAPI systems. -Description and evaluation of different biomass drying systems. -Description and evaluation of the three main biomass gasification systems currently under development: atmospheric direct, atmospheric indirect and pressurized. Main objects of Phase II of the project are to analyse a specific application of the EAPI system to a real cogeneration plant project and to analyse the application of the CRC2 system to a commercial supercritical power plant, including technical-economic study of both applications. (Author)

  16. 基于贝叶斯网络的生物质气化中毒事故定量bow-tie分析%Quantitative Bow-Tie Analyses for Biomass Gasification Poisoning Accidents Based on Bayesian Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫放; 许开立; 姚锡文; 王文菁

    2015-01-01

    Fussell-Vesely worth of each event is calculated by Bayesian network .Prevention measures are adopted to the reason event with higher worth .The event tree analysis is conducted to determine control measures and calculate the probability of biomass gasification poisoning accidents before and after measures are taken .Finally the biomass gasification poisoning acci-dents after using bow-tie analysis based on Bayesian network are evaluated by risk assessment matrix .As the result ,this method can reduce probability and risk of accidents by adopting safety measures to parts of the whole points of the system .%本文通过贝叶斯网络计算各原因事件的弗塞-维思利重要度,选取重要度较高的原因事件采取预防措施;并通过事件树分析确定控制措施,计算采取措施前后生物质气化中毒事故发生的概率,最后通过危险性评价矩阵对采取基于贝叶斯网络的bow-tie分析后的生物质气化中毒事故风险进行评价。结果表明,采用该方法只需对系统中部分节点采取安全措施即可有效降低事故发生概率,从而降低事故风险。

  17. Damage monitoring of refractory wall in a generic entrained-bed slagging gasification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S.; Sarkar, S.; Gupta, S.; Ray, A. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-12-15

    The main cause of performance degradation in entrained-bed slagging gasification systems is attributed to evolution of structural damage in the refractory walls. Early detection of such damage is necessary to avert unscheduled shutdown of a