WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass gasification plant

  1. Biomass integrated CFB gasification combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H. (Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste or coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi's CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for the advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The paper focuses on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for cofiring into existing boiler plants. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Biomass integrated CFB gasification combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste or coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi`s CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for the advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The paper focuses on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for cofiring into existing boiler plants. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to assess the competitiveness and market potential of small-scale power plant concepts based on biomass gasification and on diesel/gas engines, and to study the effect of process parameters on the efficiency of the circulating fluidized-bed gasifier and on the formation of tarry impurities. Alternative diesel/gas engine power plant concepts based on gasification in scale 6-50 MW{sub e} were assessed. In the basic version, where the electricity is generated only by the a diesel/gas engine, the efficiency level of 37 % is achieved in power generation. When steam cycle is added to the process the efficiency of power generation increases to 44-48 %. The efficiencies achieved in the process are very high compared with those of biomass power plant processes on a commercial level or under development. The most significant potential of biomass-based power generation is made up by wastes of sugar industries in south and Central America and in Asia. There are also very extensive growth potentials of bioenergy use in the NAFTA countries (USA, Canada and Mexico) and in Europe. In Europe, the bioenergy use is expected to grow most sharply in Italy, Spain, Germany and Poland. Carbon conversion obtained in the gasifier was in the range of 99.0-99.9 % for sawdust and 96-98 % for forest residue chips. The tar content of the product gas 10-15 g/m- m{sup 3}{sub n}, for sawdust in the gasification temperature of 830-930 deg C and with sand as circulating fluid-bed. When dolomite was used as circulating fluid-bed, the tar contents were 2-3 g/m{sup 3}{sub n} at as low temperatures as 880-890 deg C. The tar content of gas can be reduced sharply by phasing of gasification air and by using catalytic circulating fluid-bed material Bioenergy Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 Research Programme. 26 refs., 40 figs.

  4. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties...

  5. Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass in an IGCC Power Plant: Gasifier Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Correas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-gasification of coal and biomass in an existing coal-fired IGCC power plant is proposed as an efficient, flexible and environmentally friendly way to increase the biomass contribution to electricity generation. A model of an entrained flow gasifier is described and validated with nearly 3,000 actual steady-state operational data points (4,800 hours. The model is then used to study co-gasification of coal, petroleum coke and up to 10 percent of several types of biomass. As a result, the influence of fuel variations on gasifier performance and modifications in operation that should be made in co-gasification are obtained. A conclusion of our study is that co-gasification is possible provided that operation is properly adapted. A validated model can be very useful for predicting operating points for new fuel mixtures.

  6. Gasification-based biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  7. Experimental Fact-Finding in CFB Biomass Gasification for ECN's 500 kWth Pilot Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.R.A.; Prins, W.; Drift, van der A.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors an

  8. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  9. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    and simulation tools Aspen Plus and DNA. The large-scale DME plants based on entrained flow gasification of torrefied wood pellets achieved biomass to DME energy efficiencies of 49% when using once-through (OT) synthesis, and 66% when using recycle (RC) synthesis. If the net electricity production was included...

  10. Catalytic gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertus, R. J.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Mitchell, D. H.; Weber, S. L.

    1981-12-01

    Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. This concept is to use catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor which is heated indirectly. The objective is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Technically the concept has been demonstrated on a 50 lb per hr scale. Potential advantages over conventional processes include: no oxygen plant is needed, little tar is produced so gas and water treatment are simplified, and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification. Economic studies for a plant processing 2000 T/per day dry wood show that the cost of methanol from wood by catalytic gasification is competitive with the current price of methanol. Similar studies show the cost of methane from wood is competitive with projected future costs of synthetic natural gas. When the plant capacity is decreased to 200 T per day dry wood, neither product is very attractive in today's market.

  11. Pressurized gasification of biomass - complete power plant technology; Biomassan paineistettu kaasutus valmis voimalaitostekniikaksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virkkunen, L. [Enviropower Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    Enviropower Oy, which is an affiliate of Tampella Power Oy, has just finished a large gasification test program at the 20 MW test power plant situated at Tampere. Total amount of 3 000 m{sup 3} of finnish mixed wood chips were gasified during the tests in 1993. Enviropower has been the first which has gasified biomass using large-scale pressurized system. The technology can be applied both for biomass and coal. This so called multi-fuel boiler increases the possibilities to use biomass as fuels, and also improves the competitivity of it because it makes the merely utilization of biomass possible also in the coal fired power plants. Gasification technique, based on wood, waste wood and peat, will be commercialized fast in the plants which partially utilizes also other fuels than coal. The most economical way to increase the utilization of biomass is to gasify it with other fuels using the new technology. The gasification combined cycle power plant, based on pressurized fluidized bed gasification can coarsely be compared with common natural gas combined cycle power plants. Gas, produced by gasification from solid fuels, is used as fuel instead of natural gas. The process is very simple. Coal, waste wood, peat and other solid fuels are heated in a fluidized bed type pressurized reactor at the temperature of about one thousand degrees celsius, under the conditions in which the fuels are gasified. The sulfur, the dust and the other harmful compounds are removed from the product gas, and the clean gas is combusted in a gas turbine and the heat produced in the process is converted into electric power using heat recovery boiler and steam turbine

  12. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However, similar approach for

  13. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  14. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  15. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  16. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  17. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the biomass flow rate; (2 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature decreases the air and biomass flow rates; (3 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the energy and exergy efficiencies, especially at lower pressure ratios; (4 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature raises both efficiencies; and (5 overspray increases the energy efficiency and net cycle power slightly. The gas turbine exhibits the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the combustor the lowest. A comparison of the cycle with similar cycles fired by natural gas and differently configured cycles fueled by biomass shows that the cycle with natural gas firing has an energy efficiency 18 percentage points above the biomass fired cycle, and that steam injection increases the energy efficiency about five percentage points relative to the cycle without steam injection. Also, the influence of steam injection on energy efficiency is more significant than fog cooling.

  18. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, V.P.; Seshan, K.; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid biom

  19. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  20. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated......, and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis...

  1. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Two models of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel production plant were designed and analyzed in DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME by either recycle (RC) or once through (OT) catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis...

  2. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    . Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio...... remained nearly unchanged with varying mixing ratio during straw/wood co-gasification, while increased gradually with increasing biomass mixing ratio during biomass/coal co-gasification. A mathematic model of biomass entrained flow gasification was developed. The model included mixing, drying and pyrolysis......, char-gas and soot-gas reactions, detailed gas-phase reactions, and mass and heat transfer. The model could reasonable predict the yields of syngas products obtained in the biomass gasification experiments. Moreover, the simulation results suggest that the soot can be completely converted and thereby...

  3. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (rp) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio and GT-TIT.

  4. Development of an optimized conceptual plant design for supercritical water gasification of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Magdeldin Abdelwahed, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification, SCWG as a mean for hydrothermal processing of biomass, has illustrated the potential to counter technical barriers that continue to face the wide deployment of biomass based energy systems. The advantageous varying chemical and physical properties of water around the pseudo critical point allow for energetic efficient recovery of the organic constituents in solid biomass. This research provides a systematic approach to fill the knowledge gap for upscaling the...

  5. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    . Different biomass resources are used to generate heat and electricity, to produce gas fuel like bio-SNG (synthesis natural gas) and also to produce liquid fuels, such as ethanol, and biodiesel. Due to the fact that the trend of establishing new and modern plants for handling and processing biomass...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification...... technology in Denmark within the development of green syngas for different sector including transportation sector. Computational models of whole system component for steady-state operation were developed and also system concept and key performance parameters were identified. The main contribution...

  6. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  7. Corrosion during gasification of biomass and waste

    OpenAIRE

    Källström, Rikard

    1993-01-01

    The gasification of biomass and waste results in severe atmospheric corrosion conditions. The problems arise because of the low oxygen content which prevents the metal forming stable and protective oxide surface layer. Consequently it is possible for the aggressive sulphur and chlorine present in the gas to attack the metal. In the Studsvik CFB gasification pilot plant, which uses RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel), the performance of 20 metallic and ceramic materials has been studied. Materials teste...

  8. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two models of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel production plant were designed and analyzed in DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME by either recycle (RC) or once through (OT) catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300 oC. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plants are designed with focus on lowering the total CO2 emissions from the plants; this includes e.g. a recycle of a CO2 rich stream to a CO2 capture plant, which is used in the conditioning of the syngas. The plant models predict energy efficiencies from torrefied biomass to DME of 66% (RC) and 48% (OT) (LHV). If the exported electricity is included, the efficiencies are 71% (RC) and 64% (OT). When accounting for energy loss in torrefaction, the total efficiencies are reduced to 64% (RC) and 58% (OT). The two plants produce DME at an estimated cost of $11.9/GJLHV (RC) and $12.9/GJLHV (OT). If a credit is given for storing the CO2 captured, the future costs may become as low as $5.4/GJLHV (RC) and $3.1/GJLHV (OT).

  9. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  10. A review on gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirubakaran, V. [Rural Technology Centre, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302, Tamil Nadu (India); Sivaramakrishnan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saranathan College of Engineering, Tiruchirapalli 620012, Tamil Nadu (India); Nalini, R. [Department of Renewable Energy, Periyar Maniyammai College of Technology for Women, Vallam 613403, Tamil Nadu (India); Sekar, T. [Department of Petrochemical Technology, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (India); Premalatha, M.; Subramanian, P. [Centre for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (CEESAT), National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirapalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-01-15

    Studies on the effect of size, structure, environment, temperature, heating rate, composition of biomass and ash are reviewed. Based on the observations reported so far, auto-gasification of biomass by the bio-oxygen and the catalytic ash would be feasible. The auto-gasification may be explained in terms of heterogeneous catalytic reaction. Better understanding of auto-gasification is possible by further studies carrying out on the effect of heating rate on auto-gasification. (author)

  11. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been further enhanced in recent years and special attention has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing interest in biomass gasification, several models have been proposed in order to explain and understand this complex process, and th...

  12. A review of biomass gasification technologies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    This report provides an overview of existing technologies and projects in Denmark and Sweden with a focus on the Öresund region. Furthermore it presents the research and development of biomass gasification in the region and these two countries. The list of existing gasification plants from labora...

  13. Integrated biomass gasification combined cycle distributed generation plant with reciprocating gas engine and ORC

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The paper theoretically investigates the performance of a distributed generation plant made up of gasifier, Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) machine as a bottoming unit. The system can be used for maximization of electricity production from biomass in the case where there is no heat demand for cogeneration plant. To analyze the performance of the gasifier a model based on the thermodynamic equilibrium approach is used. Performance of the gas...

  14. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  15. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  16. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri; Marko Amovic; Rolf Ljunggren; Klas Engvall

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modificatio...

  17. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  18. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.;

    2011-01-01

    with geochemical modelling were carried out both on fresh and aged samples. The results showed that the material is comparable to residues from wood combustion and the leaching behaviour was dominated by Ca-containing minerals and solid solutions. Heavy metals were detected in very low concentrations in the bulk......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  19. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip;

    2014-01-01

    such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because......For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels...... there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...

  20. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T. [NICERT, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I. [INETI-DEECA, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A. [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, University of Saragossa, 50018 Saragossa (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  1. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H2. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H2. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  3. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  4. Hydrogen production from biomass over steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, R.; Potetz, A.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Weber, G. [Bioenergy 2020+, Guessing (Austria)

    2010-12-30

    Renewable hydrogen is one option for a clean energy carrier in the future. There were several research programs in the past, to produce hydrogen on a renewable basis by electrolysis, direct conversion of water or by gasification of biomass. None of these options were developed to a stage, that they could be used on a commercial basis. At the moment almost all hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels and one main consumer of hydrogen are refineries. So a good option to demonstrate the production of renewable hydrogen and bring it later into the market is over refineries. The most economic option to produce renewable hydrogen at the moment is over gasification of biomass. In Austria an indirect gasification system was developed and is demonstrated in Guessing, Austria. The biomass CHP Guessing uses the allothermal steam dual fluidised bed gasifier and produces a high grade product gas, which is used at the moment for the CHP in a gas engine. As there is no nitrogen in the product gas and high hydrogen content, this gas can be also used as synthesis gas or for production of hydrogen. The main aim of this paper is to present the experimental and simulation work to convert biomass into renewable hydrogen. The product gas of the indirect gasification system is mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Within the ERA-Net project ''OptiBtLGas'' the reforming of methane and the CO-shift reaction was investigated to convert all hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to hydrogen. On basis of the experimental results the mass- and energy balances of a commercial 100 MW fuel input plant was done. Here 3 different cases of complexity of the overall plant were simulated. The first case was without reforming and CO-shift, only by hydrogen separation. The second case was by including steam - reforming and afterwards separation of hydrogen. The third case includes hydrocarbon reforming, CO-shift and hydrogen separation. In all cases the off-gases (CO

  5. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  6. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  7. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  8. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  9. Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hitofumi [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Katayama, Akio [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Sah, Bhuwneshwar P. [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Pasco Corporation, Tokyo 153-0043 (Japan); Toriu, Tsuyoshi [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo 107-0052 (Japan); Samy, Sat; Pheach, Phon [Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Adams, Mark A. [School of Biological Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grierson, Pauline F. [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have sufficient land available for tree planting for electricity generation based on a requirement of 0.02 ha per household. Among 8008 villages with sufficient land, we assumed that those villages that had greater than 10% of households owning a television (powered by a battery or a generator) would have both a high electricity demand and a capacity to pay for electricity generation. Those 6418 villages were considered appropriate candidates for mini-grid installation by biomass gasification. This study demonstrated that while agricultural residues such as rice husks or cashew nut shells may have high energy potential, only tree farming or plantations would provide sufficient sustainable resources to supply a biomass gasification system. Cost per unit electricity generation by biomass gasification is less than diesel generation when the plant capacity factor exceeds 13%. In order to ensure long-term ecological sustainability as well as appropriate tree-farming technology for farmers, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying biomass production across multiple rotations and with different species across Cambodia. (author)

  10. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Adlhoch, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  11. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from December 1977 to October 1980. The study was comprised of laboratory studies, process development, and economic analyses. The laboratory studies were conducted to develop operating conditions and catalyst systems for generating methane-rich gas, synthesis gases, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide; these studies also developed techniques for catalyst recovery, regeneration, and recycling. A process development unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to evaluate laboratory systems at conditions approximating commercial operations. The economic analyses, performed by Davy McKee, Inc. for PNL, evaluated the feasibility of adapting the wood-to-methane and wood-to-methanol processes to full-scale commercial operations. Plants were designed in the economic analyses to produce fuel-grade methanol from wood and substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam.

  12. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabedin Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  13. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirabedin, Ehsan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Rahim, Murad A.; Topal, Hüseyin

    2014-12-01

    Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP) which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP) systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP) can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  14. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  15. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modification of the Rectisol process. Several different process configurations were evaluated using Aspen plus, including PC-SAFT for the thermodynamic modeling. The developed configuration takes advantage of only one methanol wash column, compared to two columns in a conventional Rectisol process. Results from modeling show the ability of the proposed configuration to remove impurities to a sufficiently low concentrations - almost zero concentration for H2S, CS2, HCl, NH3 and HCN, and approximately 0.01 mg/Nm3 for COS. These levels are acceptable for further upgrading of the gas in a methanation process. Simultaneously, up to 92% of the original CO2 is preserved in the final cleaned syngas stream. No process integration or economic consideration was performed within the scope of the present study, but will be investigated in future projects to improve the overall process.

  16. Biogenic methane from hydrothermal gasification of biomass; Biogenes Methan durch hydrothermale Vergasung von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.; Vogel, F.

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done in the area of gasification of biomass. The use of dung, manure and sewage sludge as sources of energy is described and discussed. Hydrothermal gasification is proposed as an alternative to conventional gas-phase processes. The aim of the project in this respect is discussed. Here, a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously operating plant on a laboratory scale is being looked at. Difficulties encountered in preliminary tests are discussed. Long-term catalyst stability and the installations for the demonstration of the process are discussed, and gasification tests with ethanol are commented on.

  17. Use of Methanation for Optimization of a Hybrid Plant Combining Two-Stage Biomass Gasification, SOFCs and a Micro Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of the two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a micro gas turbine (MGT) was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant is a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...... CHP plants. The demonstrated two-stage gasifier produces a clean product gas, thus ensuring the need for only simple gas conditioning prior to the SOFCs. Focus in this optimization study was on SOFC cooling and the investigation was conducted by system-level modelling combining zerodimensional...... methanator reduced the mass flow of cathode air by 27% and increased the turbine inlet temperature by 17% resulting in an electrical efficiency gain from 48.6 to 50.4% based on lower heating value (LHV). Furthermore, the size of several components could be reduced due to the lower air flow. The study also...

  18. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  19. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  20. Biomass gasification, stage 2 LTH. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerle, I.; Chambert, L.; Hallgren, A.; Hellgren, R.; Johansson, Anders; Mirazovic, M.; Maartensson, R.; Padban, N.; Ye Zhicheng [comps.] [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the final report of the first phase of a project dealing with a comprehensive investigation on pressurized biomass gasification. The intention with the project first phase was firstly to design, install and to take in operation a PCFB biomass gasifier. A thorough feasibility study was made during the first half year including extensive calculations on an internal circulating fluidized bed concept. The experimental phase was intended to study pressurized gasification up to 2.5 MPa (N{sub 2}, air) at temperatures in the interval 850-950 deg C. The more specific experimental objective was to examine the impact from various process conditions on the product formation as well as on the function of the different systems. The technical concept has been able to offer novel approaches regarding biomass feeding and PCFB gasification. The first gasification test run was made in December 1993 after almost 18 months of installation work. Extensive work was made during 1994 and the first half of 1995 to find the balance of the PCFB gasifier. It turned out to be very difficult to find operating parameters such that gave a stable circulation of the bed material during gasification mode. Apparently, the produced gas partly changed the pressure profile over the riser which in turn gave unstable operation. After a comprehensive investigation involving more than 100 hours of tests runs it was decided to leave the circulating bed concept and focus on bubbling bed operations. The test rig is currently operating as a bubbling bed gasifier. 4 refs, 24 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  2. Co-combustion and gasification of various biomasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutanen, K. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Varkaus (Finland). Ahlstrom Pyropower

    1996-12-31

    During the last twenty years the development of fluidized bed combustion and gasification technology has made it possible to increase significantly utilisation of various biomasses in power and heat generation. The forerunner was the pulp and paper industry that has an adequate biomass fuel supply and energy demand on site. Later on municipalities and even utilities have seen biomass as a potential fuel. The range of available biomasses includes wood-based fuels and wastes like bark, wood chips, and saw dust, agricultural wastes like straw, olive waste and rice husk, sludges from paper mills and de-inking plants, other wastes like municipal sludges, waste paper and RDF. Recently new environmental regulations and taxation of fossil fuels have further increased interest in the use of biomasses in energy generation. However, in many cases available quantities and/or qualities of biomasses are not adequate for only biomass-based energy generation in an economic sense. On the other hand plant owners want to maintain a high level of fuel flexibility and fuel supply security. In some cases disposing by burning is the only feasible way to handle certain wastes. In many cases the only way to fulfil these targets and utilize the energy is to apply co-combustion or gasification of different fuels and wastes. Due to the fact that fluidized bed combustion technology offers a very high fuel flexibility and high combustion efficiency with low emissions it has become the dominating technology in co-combustion applications. This presentation will present Alhstrom`s experiences in co-combustion of biomasses in bubbling beds and Ahlstrom Pyroflow circulating fluidized beds based on about 200 operating references worldwide. CFB gasification will also be discussed 9 refs.

  3. Experimental investigations of biomass gasification with carbon-dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Indraneel

    A sustainable energy cycle may include enhanced utilization of solar energy and atmospheric CO2 to produce biomass and enhanced utilization of exhaust CO2 from power plants for synthetic gas production. The reaction of carbon with CO2 is potentially one of the important processes in a future sustainable carbon cycle. Reactions involving carbon and CO2 are also relevant to the chemical process and metal industries. Biomass char has been recognized as a present and future alternative to fossil-fuels for energy production and fuel synthesis. Therefore, biomass char gasification with CO2 recycling is proposed as a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy technology. Biomass char is a complex porous solid and its gasification involves heat and mass transfer processes within pores of multiple sizes from nanometer to millimeter scales. These processes are coupled with heterogeneous chemistry at the internal and external surfaces. Rates for the heterogeneous carbon gasification reactions are affected by inorganic content of the char. Furthermore, pore structure of the char develops with conversion and influences apparent gasification rates. Effective modeling of the gasification reactions has relied on the best available understanding of diffusion processes and kinetic rate property constants from state of the art experiments. Improvement of the influences of inorganic composition, and process parameters, such as pressure and temperature on the gasification reaction rates has been a continuous process. Economic viability of gasification relies on use of optimum catalysts. These aspects of the current status of gasification technologies have motivated the work reported in this dissertation. The reactions between biomass chars and CO2 are investigated to determine the effects of temperature and pressure on the reaction rates for large char particles of relevance to practical gasification technologies. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor

  4. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  5. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-30

    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  6. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  7. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  8. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MWth) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MWth) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  9. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw. PMID:26289326

  12. Benefits of Allothermal Biomass Gasification for Co-Firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Vreugdenhil, B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Many countries have set obligations to reduce the CO2 emissions from coal fired boilers. Co-firing of biomass in existing coal fired power plants is an attractive solution to reduce CO2 emissions. Co-firing can be done by direct mixing of biomass with coal (direct co-firing) or by converting the biomass into a gas or liquid which is fired in a separate burner (indirect co-firing). Direct co-firing is a rather simple solution, but requires a high quality and expensive biomass fuel (e.g. wood pellets). Indirect co-firing requires an additional installation that converts the solid biomass into a gas or liquid, but has the advantage that it can handle a wide range of cheap biomass fuels (e.g. demolition wood) and most of the biomass ash components are separated from the gas before it enters the boiler. Separation of biomass ash can prevent fouling issues in the boiler. Indirect co-firing, using biomass gasification technology, is already common practice. In Geertruidenberg (the Netherlands) a 80 MWth Lurgi CFB gasifier produces gas from demolition wood which is co-fired in the Amer PC boiler. In Ruien (Belgium) a 50 MWth Foster Wheeler fluidized bed gasifier is in operation. The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) developed a 'second generation' allothermal gasifier called the MILENA gasifier. This gasifier has some major advantages over conventional fluidized bed gasifiers. The heating value of the produced gas is approximately 2.5 times higher than of gas produced by conventional bubbling / circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. This results in smaller adaptations to the membrane wall of the boiler for the gas injection, thus lower costs. A major disadvantage of most fluidized bed gasifiers is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Typical fuel conversions vary between 90 and 95%. The remaining combustible material, also containing most of the biomass ash components, is blown out of the gasifier and removed from the gas stream by a cyclone to

  13. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Chong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass

  14. Fuel gas from biomass for power and heat generation. Results of tests at the test gasification plant at Technical University Dresden; Brenngase aus Biomasse fuer die Strom- und Waermeerzeugung. Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen am Vergasungsversuchsstand der TU Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehning, D.; Beckmann, M. [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany). Institut fuer Energietechnik

    2009-07-01

    The gasification of biomass into smaller decentralized plants with a thermal output up to 500 kW has been a subject of variable intensity in research and development. The current development state of the process is however still insufficient regardless of the process, such that a reliable and economic operation of the plants can be guaranteed. For the use of the produced fuel in the gas-engine, high standards are necessary for its quality. The article focusses on the reduction of tar content in fuel gas via catalytic partial oxidation. It describes the theoretical analysis of fundamentals with results and presents experimental tests at the gasification plant and the obtained results. Tests have been realized at the 75 kW{sub th} fixed bed gasifier at the catalytic partial oxidation (1{sup st} Function unit) and at the cooling of gas (2{sup nd} Function unit). The construction and material of the catalyst are essential parameters as well as the apply amount of oxygen, the position of supplying and mixing. By the use of a gas cooling in a stationary fluidized bed is it possible to decrease the tar content in the fuel gas, via condensation on bed material (charcoal). The gas cooling is installed behind the catalyst. The outcome of the combination of both gas treatment-function-units is a further monovariant for optimization. The second unit can also be considered as a ''safety filter''. (orig.)

  15. Feasibility study on combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to increase the production of biomethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification are integrated. • The novel concept can produce much more biomethane. • The novel concept can improve the exergy efficiency. • The novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. - Abstract: There is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. A new concept is proposed to combine anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to produce biomethane. H2 is separated from the syngas generated by biomass gasification in a membrane system, and then is used to upgrade raw biogas from anaerobic digestion. Simulations have been conducted based on the real operation data of one full scale biogas plant and one full scale biomass gasification plant in order to investigate the feasibility of the new concept. Results show that although less power and heat are generated compared to the gasification plant, which results in a lower overall efficiency, much more biomethane can be produced than the biogas plant; and the new concept can achieve a higher exergy efficiency. Due to the increasing price of biomethane, the novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. For example, at a biomethane price of 12.74SEK/kg, the annual income can be increased by 5.3% compared to the total income of the biogas and gasification plant

  16. Gasification reactivity and ash sintering behaviour of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Nasrullah, M.

    2011-12-15

    Char gasification reactivity and ash sintering properties of forestry biomass feedstocks selected for large-scale gasification process was characterised. The study was divided into two parts: (1) Internal variation of the reactivity and the ash sintering of feedstocks. (2) Measurement of kinetic parameters of char gasification reactions to be used in the modelling of a gasifier. The tests were carried out in gases relevant to pressurized oxygen gasification, i.e. steam and carbon dioxide, as well as their mixtures with the product gases H{sub 2} and CO. The work was based on experimental measurements using pressurized thermobalance. In the tests, the temperatures were below 1000 deg C, and the pressure range was between 1 and 20 bar. In the first part, it was tested the effect of growing location, storage, plant parts and debarking method. The following biomass types were tested: spruce bark, pine bark, aspen bark, birch bark, forestry residue, bark feedstock mixture, stump chips and hemp. Thick pine bark had the lowest reactivity (instantaneous reaction rate 14%/min) and hemp the highest (250%/min); all other biomasses laid between these values. There was practically no difference in the reactivities among the spruce barks collected from the different locations. For pine bark, the differences were greater, but they were probably due to the thickness of the bark rather than to the growth location. For the spruce barks, the instantaneous reaction rate measured at 90% fuel conversion was 100%/min, for pine barks it varied between 14 and 75%/min. During storage, quite large local differences in reactivity seem to develop. Stump had significantly lower reactivity compared with the others. No clear difference in the reactivity was observed between barks obtained with the wet and dry debarking, but, the sintering of the ash was more enhanced for the bark from dry debarking. Char gasification rate could not be modelled in the gas mixture of H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2

  17. Characterization of Residual Particulates from Biomass Entrained Flow Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Fæster, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Biomass gasification experiments were carried out in a bench scale entrained flow reactor, and the produced solid particles were collected by a cyclone and a metal filter for subsequent characterization. During wood gasification, the major part of the solid material collected in the filter is soot...

  18. Biomass/coal steam co-gasification integrated with in-situ CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addressing recent environmental regulations on fossil fuel power systems and both biomass fuel supply and coal greenhouse gas issues, biomass/coal co-gasification could provide a feasible transition solution for power plants. In the quest for an even more sustainable process, steam co-gasification of switchgrass and coal was integrated with in-situ CO2 capture, with limestone as the bed material and sorbent. Five gasification/carbonation (at <700 °C) and calcination (at >850 °C) cycles were performed in an atmospheric pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. Hydrogen production was enhanced significantly (∼22%) due to partial adsorption of CO2 by the CaO sorbent, shifting the gasification reactions forward, consistent with Le Châtelier's principle. Tar yield measurements showed that reducing the gasification temperature could be achieved without experiencing higher tar yield, indicating that the lime has a catalytic effect. The sorbent particles decayed and lost their calcium utilization efficiency in the course of cycling due to sintering. The co-existence of three types of solids (biomass, coal, lime) with different particle properties led to bed segregation. An equilibrium model was found to be useful in design of lime-enhanced gasification systems. - Highlights: • Biomass/coal steam co-gasification was integrated with in-situ CO2 capture. • 5 gasification/carbonation (<700 °C) and calcination (>850 °C) cycles were performed. • Lime-enhanced co-gasification enhanced hydrogen production significantly (∼22%). • CaO decayed as an absorbent of CO2 due to sintering and some was lost by attrition. • Equilibrium models are useful in design of lime-enhanced gasification systems

  19. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  20. Plastic waste elimination by co-gasification with coal and biomass in fluidized bed with air in pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Maria P.; Caballero, Miguel A.; Sancho, Jesus A.; Frances, E. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna 3, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    Treatment of plastic waste by gasification in fluidized bed with air using dolomite as tar cracking catalyst has been studied. The gasifier has a 1 m high bed zone (diameter of 9.2 cm) followed by a 1 m high freeboard (diameter of 15.4 cm). The feedstock is composed of blends of plastic waste with pine wood sawdust and coal at flow rates of 1-4 kg/h. Operating variables studied were gasifier bed temperature (750-880 {sup o}C), equivalence ratio (0.30-0.46), feedstock composition and the influence of secondary air insertion in freeboard. Product distribution includes gas and char yields, gas composition (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, light hydrocarbons), heating value and tar content in the flue gas. As a result, a gas with a medium hydrogen content (up to 15% dry basis) and low tar content (less than 0.5 g/m{sub n}{sup 3}) is obtained. (author)

  1. Solid-gaseous phase transformation of elemental contaminants during the gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Ameh, Abiba; Lei, Mei; Duan, Lunbo; Longhurst, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Disposal of plant biomass removed from heavy metal contaminated land via gasification achieves significant volume reduction and can recover energy. However, these biomass often contain high concentrations of heavy metals leading to hot-corrosion of gasification facilities and toxic gaseous emissions. Therefore, it is of significant interest to gain a further understanding of the solid-gas phase transition of metal(loid)s during gasification. Detailed elemental analyses (C, H, O, N and key metal/metalloid elements) were performed on five plant species collected from a contaminated site. Using multi-phase equilibria modelling software (MTDATA), the analytical data allows modelling of the solid/gas transformation of metal(loid)s during gasification. Thermodynamic modelling based on chemical equilibrium calculations was carried out in this study to predict the fate of metal(loid) elements during typical gasification conditions and to show how these are influenced by metal(loid) composition in the biomass and operational conditions. As, Cd, Zn and Pb tend to transform to their gaseous forms at relatively low temperatures (1200°C). Simulation of pressurised gasification conditions shows that higher pressures increase the temperature at which solid-to-gaseous phase transformations takes place. PMID:26603198

  2. Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed; Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, M.; Hoelder, D.; Backhaus, C.; Althaus, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed, in combination with a gas engine or gas burner, is a promising option for energetic use of biomass. Economic efficiency analyses on the basis of the UMSICHT plant show that this technology for combined heat and power generation from biomass is promising also for the range below 10 MW. The economic situation of any plant must be considered for the specific boundary conditions imposed by the power supply industry. The feasibility of the process was tested in a demonstration plant at Oberhausen. The plant was optimized further in extensive test series, and a number of tar reduction processes were investigated and improved on. The authors now intend to prove that gasification in a circulating fluidized bed combined with a gas engine cogeneration plant is feasible in continuous operation. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht ist in Kombination mit einem Gasmotor oder einem Gasbrenner eine vielversprechende Option fuer die energetische Biomassenutzung. Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen auf Basis der UMSICHT-Anlage zeigen, dass diese Technologie fuer die gekoppelte Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse auch im Leistungsbereich unter 10 MW grosse Chancen verspricht. Dabei ist die oekonomische Situation einer Anlage im Einzelfall unter Beachtung der energiewirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen zu beurteilen. Durch den Betrieb einer Demonstrationsanlage in Oberhausen konnte die Funktion des Verfahrens nachgewiesen werden. In weiteren umfangreichen Versuchsreihen werden die Anlage weiter optimiert und verschiedene Konzepte zur Teerminderung untersucht und weiterentwickelt. Angestrebt ist der Nachweis des Dauerbetriebs von ZWS-Vergasung zusammen mit dem Gasmotoren-BHKW. (orig./SR)

  3. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  4. Artificial neural network modelling approach for a biomass gasification process in fixed bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 2 Different equilibrium models are developed and their performance is analysed. • Neural network prediction models for 2 different fixed bed gasifier types are developed. • The influence of different input parameters on neural network model performance is analysed. • Methodology for neural network model development for different gasifier types is described. • Neural network models are verified for various operating conditions based on measured data. - Abstract: The number of the small and middle-scale biomass gasification combined heat and power plants as well as syngas production plants has been significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to extensive incentives. However, existing issues regarding syngas quality, process efficiency, emissions and environmental standards are preventing biomass gasification technology to become more economically viable. To encounter these issues, special attention is given to the development of mathematical models which can be used for a process analysis or plant control purposes. The presented paper analyses possibilities of neural networks to predict process parameters with high speed and accuracy. After a related literature review and measurement data analysis, different modelling approaches for the process parameter prediction that can be used for an on-line process control were developed and their performance were analysed. Neural network models showed good capability to predict biomass gasification process parameters with reasonable accuracy and speed. Measurement data for the model development, verification and performance analysis were derived from biomass gasification plant operated by Technical University Dresden

  5. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC36-03GO13175) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. The primary objectives of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time gas analyses to suitably conditioned syngas streams. A review was conducted of sampling options, available analysis technologies, and commercially available analyzers, that could be successfully applied to the challenging task of on-line syngas characterization. The majority of thermochemical process streams comprise multicomponent gas mixtures that, prior to crucial, sequential cleanup procedures, include high concentrations of condensable species, multiple contaminants, and are often produced at high temperatures and pressures. Consequently, GTI engaged in a concurrent effort under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175 to develop the means to deliver suitably prepared, continuous streams of extracted syngas to a variety of on-line gas analyzers. The review of candidate analysis technology

  6. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Soederstroem, Mats [Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised. (author)

  7. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

  8. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  9. Modeling of reaction kinetics in bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasification reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Thapa, C. Pfeifer, B. M. Halvorsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubbling fluidized beds are widely used as biomass gasification reactors as at the biomass gasification plant in Güssing, Austria. The reactor in the plant is a dual circulating bubbling fluidized bed gasification reactor. The plant produces 2MW electricity and 4.5MW heat from the gasification of biomass. Wood chips as biomass and olivine particles as hot bed materials are fluidized with high temperature steam in the reactor. As a result, biomass undergoes endothermic chemical reaction to produce a mixture of combustible gases in addition to some carbon-dioxide (CO2. The combustible gases are mainly hydrogen (H2, carbon monoxide (CO and methane (CH4. The gas is used to produce electricity and heat via utilization in a gas engine. Alternatively, the gas is further processed for gaseous or liquid fuels, but still on the process of development level. Composition and quality of the gas determine the efficiency of the reactor. A computational model has been developed for the study of reaction kinetics in the gasification rector. The simulation is performed using commercial software Barracuda virtual reactor, VR15. Eulerian-Lagrangian approach in coupling of gas-solid flow has been implemented. Fluid phase is treated with an Eulerian formulation. Discrete phase is treated with a Lagrangian formulation. Particle-particle and particle-wall interactions and inter-phase heat and mass transfer have been taken into account. Series of simulations have been performed to study model prediction of the gas composition. The composition is compared with data from the gasifier at the CHP plant in Güssing, Austria. The model prediction of the composition of gases has good agreements with the result of the operating plant.

  10. Modeling of reaction kinetics in bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, R.K.; Halvorsen, B.M. [Telemark University College, Kjolnes ring 56, P.O. Box 203, 3901 Porsgrunn (Norway); Pfeifer, C. [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Bubbling fluidized beds are widely used as biomass gasification reactors as at the biomass gasification plant in Gussing, Austria. The reactor in the plant is a dual circulating bubbling fluidized bed gasification reactor. The plant produces 2MW electricity and 4.5MW heat from the gasification of biomass. Wood chips as biomass and olivine particles as hot bed materials are fluidized with high temperature steam in the reactor. As a result, biomass undergoes endothermic chemical reaction to produce a mixture of combustible gases in addition to some carbon-dioxide (CO2). The combustible gases are mainly hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4). The gas is used to produce electricity and heat via utilization in a gas engine. Alternatively, the gas is further processed for gaseous or liquid fuels, but still on the process of development level. Composition and quality of the gas determine the efficiency of the reactor. A computational model has been developed for the study of reaction kinetics in the gasification rector. The simulation is performed using commercial software Barracuda virtual reactor, VR15. Eulerian-Lagrangian approach in coupling of gas-solid flow has been implemented. Fluid phase is treated with an Eulerian formulation. Discrete phase is treated with a Lagrangian formulation. Particle-particle and particle-wall interactions and inter-phase heat and mass transfer have been taken into account. Series of simulations have been performed to study model prediction of the gas composition. The composition is compared with data from the gasifier at the CHP plant in Güssing, Austria. The model prediction of the composition of gases has good agreements with the result of the operating plant.

  11. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  12. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  13. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  14. Supercritical water gasification of biomass: an experimental study of model compounds and potential biomass feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakinala, Anand Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Gasification of biomass in supercritical water is a complex process. In supercritical water ideally the biomass structure and the larger molecules are broken down into smaller, gaseous components under the influence of radicals. However, the biomass is normally fed to the system at low temperature a

  15. Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle power generation with supplementary biomass firing: Energy and exergy based performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic analysis of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) plant has been performed based on energy and exergy balances in a proposed configuration. Combustion of supplementary biomass fuel is considered using the oxygen available in the gas turbine (GT) exhaust. The effects of pressure and temperature ratios of the GT system and the amount of fuel burned in the supplementary firing chamber on the thermal and exergetic efficiencies of the plant have been investigated. The plant efficiencies increase with the increase in both pressure and temperature ratios; however, the latter has a stronger influence than the former. Supplementary firing of biomass increases the plant efficiencies of a BIGCC plant till an optimum level of degree of firing. The other technical issues related to supplementary firing, like ash fusion in the furnace and exhaust heat loss maintaining a minimum pinch point temperature difference are accounted and finally a set of optimum plant operating parameters have been identified. The performance of a 50 MWe plant has been analyzed with the optimum operating parameters to find out equipment rating and biomass feed rates. Exergetic efficiencies of different plant equipments are evaluated to localize the major thermodynamic irreversibilities in the plant. -- Highlights: → A thermodynamic analysis of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) plant has been performed based on energy and exergy balances across various plant components in a proposed configuration in order to optimize the operating parameters. → The effect of supplementary biomass firing in the BIGCC plant has been analyzed in detail to find out the optimum degree of firing for the best plant performance. → The equipment ratings and fuel feed rates are evaluated and the technical feasibility of the plant configuration has been analyzed. → Exergetic efficiencies of different plant equipments are evaluated to localize the major thermodynamic

  16. Alternative route of process modification for biofuel production by embedding the Fischer-Tropsch plant in existing stand-alone power plant (10 MW) based on biomass gasification - Part I: A conceptual modeling and simulation approach (a case study in Thailand)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Cheali, Peam; Narataruksa, Phavanee;

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of syngas shows a highly potential to improve the economic potential of the stand-alone power unit-based gasification plants as well as enhancing the growing demand of transportation fuels. The thermochemical conversion of biomass via gasification to heat and power generations from...... a base case process model coupled with techno-economic evaluation for the FT synthesis. In particular, the FT process configurations are designed and assessed using current kinetic laboratory data by our research group for modeling specific reactions in PFR reactor. The calculation of equipment sizing...... the integrated- and non-integrated FT syntheses with respect to techno-economic criteria. The integration of FT synthesis with biomass gasification in this study results in the significant assessment of energy efficiency and cost reduction by 36.92% and 16%, respectively. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  17. Wood products biomass gasification: technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G.; Scarzella, L.

    In this paper, a design lay-out is presented for the gasification of wood products biomass. Regarding this alternative energy form, the paper discusses historical aspects and recent technological developments made by Italian industry. The design, construction, performance, efficiency, present and future applications of a twin-feeding system are described.

  18. Research into Biomass and Waste Gasification in Atmospheric Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, Zdenek; Ochrana, Ladislav; Lisy, Martin; Balas, Marek; Kohout, Premysl; Skoblja, Sergej

    2007-07-01

    Considerable attention is paid in the Czech Republic to renewable energy sources. The largest potential, out of them all, have biomass and waste. The aim therefore is to use them in CHP in smaller units (up to 5MWel). These are the subject of the research summarized in our article. The paper presents results of experimental research into gasification in a 100 kW AFB gasifier situated in Energy Institute, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, and fitted with gas cleaning equipment. Within the research, study was carried out into gas cleaning taking primary measures in the fluidized bed and using hot filter, metal-based catalytic filter, and wet scrubber. Descriptions and diagrams are given of the gasifier and new ways of cleaning. Results include: Impact of various fuels (farming and forest wastes and fast-growing woods and culm plants) on fuel gas quality. Individual kinds of biomass have very different thermal and physical properties; Efficiency of a variety of cleaning methods on content of dust and tars and comparison of these methods; and, Impact of gasifier process parameters on resultant gas quality. (auth)

  19. Hydrogen production from marine biomass by hydrothermal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Supercritical water gasification of Posidonia oceanica was studied. • The output was mainly composed of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide. • Maximum hydrogen yield was obtained with biomass loading of 0.08 (g/mL) at 600 °C. • Maximum hydrogen and methane yields were 10.37 and 6.34 mol/kg, respectively. • The results propose an alternative solution to the landfill of marine biomass. - Abstract: The hydrothermal gasification of Posidonia oceanica was investigated in a batch reactor without adding any catalysts. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 300–600 °C with different biomass loading ranges of 0.04–0.12 (g/mL) in the reaction time of 1 h. The product gas was composed of hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and a small amount of C2–C4 compounds. The results showed that the formation of gaseous products, gasification efficiency and yield distribution of produced gases were intensively affected by biomass loading and temperature. The yields of hydrogen (10.37 mol/kg) and methane (6.34 mol/kg) were attained at 600 °C using biomass loading of 0.08 (g/mL). The results are very promising in terms of deployment of the utilization of marine biomass for hydrogen and/or methane production to industrial scale applications, thereby proposing an alternative solution to the landfill of P. oceanica residues

  20. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  1. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier

    2008-09-15

    . In the case of large scale, interest has shifted from electricity generation to biofuel production, primarily due to the failed demonstration projects of the technology coupled with combined cycle for electricity generation. On the other hand, in small scale projects, cogeneration applications have gained interest over heat production. However, there are fewer actors involved in small scale experimentation than in large scale. Once the specific situation of each country has been analyzed, and the main characteristics of the development process have been identified, one of the causes which have hindered the technology to reach the expected commercial stage has been the lack of resources to demonstrate its competitiveness. So far, a significant number of experimentation activities, based on demonstration projects and pilot plants, have proved the future potential of the technology. Nonetheless, the uncertainty, shown by the great majority of actors, about integrating the biomass gasification in their industrial process has hindered the demonstration of its operational feasibility. Following this, further efforts should focus on the creation of incentives for the construction of new plants which integrate this technology in an industrial process already consolidated in the market. An approximation of the number of new plants needed, could be a good indicator of the economical resources required in order to acquire enough experience to make biomass gasification a competitive technology in the short-term. After simulating various future evolutions for small scale cogeneration applications, the learning rate obtained through the learning curves model predict that, building roughly forty plants in six years, the technology can be consolidated firmly in the market. Considering the decrease in the number of new plants built since 2002, the expectancies are not really optimistic. Nevertheless, it is not an unachievable objective if incentives are created by all administrative

  2. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  3. Combustion gas from biomass - innovative plant concepts on the basis of circulating fluidized bed gasification; Brenngas aus Biomasse - innovative Anlagenkonzepte auf Basis der Zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtvergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The contribution describes the applications of the Lurgi-ZWS gas generator. There are three main fields of application: Direct feeding of combustion gas, e.g. into a rotary kiln, as a substitute for coal or oil, without either dust filtering or gas purification. - Feeding of the combustion gas into the steam generator of a coal power plant after dust filtering and, if necessar, filtering of NH{sub 3} or H{sub 2}S. - Combustion in a gas turbine or gas engine after gas purification according to specifications. The applications are described for several exemplary projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im folgenden wird ueber die Anwendung des Lurgi-ZWS-Gaserzeugers berichtet. Nach heutiger Sicht stehen drei Anwendungsgebiete im Vordergrund: - direkte Einspeisung des Brenngases in z.B. einen Zementdrehrohrofen zur Substitution von Kohle oder Oel, ohne Entstaubung und Gasreinigung. - Einspeisung des Brenngases nach Entstaubung und gegebenenfalls Entfernung weiterer Komponenten wie NH{sub 3} oder H{sub 2}S in den Dampferzeuger eines Kohlekraftwerkes - Einsatz des Brenngases in einer Gasturbine oder Gasmotor nach spezifikationsgerechter Gasreinigung. Die aufgefuehrten Einsatzmoeglichkeiten werden am Beispiel von Projekten beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  4. Gasification of biomass chars in steam-nitrogen mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: hanzade@itu.edu.tr; Yaman, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Kucukbayrak, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-05-15

    Some agricultural and waste biomass samples such as sunflower shell, pinecone, rapeseed, cotton refuse and olive refuse were first pyrolyzed in nitrogen, and then, their chars were gasified in a gas mixture of steam and nitrogen. Experiments were performed using the thermogravimetric analysis technique. Pyrolysis of the biomass samples was performed at a heating rate of 20 K/min from ambient to 1273 K in a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere of 40 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}. The obtained chars were cooled to ambient temperature and then gasified up to 1273 K in a dynamic atmosphere of 40 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} of a mixture of steam and nitrogen. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis profiles from gasification of the chars were derived, and the mass losses from the chars were interpreted in terms of temperature. It was concluded that gasification characteristics of biomass chars were fairly dependent on the biomass properties such as ash and fixed carbon contents and the constituents present in the ash. Different mechanisms in the three temperature intervals, namely water desorption at lower temperatures, decomposition of hydroxide minerals to oxide minerals and formation of carbon monoxide at medium temperatures and production of hydrogen at high temperatures govern the behavior of the char during the gasification process. The chars from pinecone and sunflower shell could be easily gasified under the mentioned conditions. In order to further raise the conversion yields, long hold times should be applied at high temperatures. However, the chars from rapeseed and olive refuse were not gasified satisfactorily. Low ash content and high fixed carbon content biomass materials are recommended for use in gasification processes when char from pyrolysis at elevated temperatures is used as a feedstock.

  5. A simulation study on the torrefied biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model for raw and torrefied biomass with thermodynamic analysis. • Experimental pyrolysis yields including tar as inputs to the model. • Equivalence ratio had the most pronounced effect on the model outcomes. • Torrefied biomass gave higher H2 and CO contents and energy and exergy efficiencies. • Torrefaction mass yields affect the gasification process efficiency. - Abstract: Many studies have evaluated biomass behavior in a gasification process. Similar studies with torrefied biomass are needed to evaluate the improvements in biomass properties with torrefaction. This forms the basis of this study. A two-stage biomass gasification model is presented by using Aspen Plus as the simulation and modeling tool. The model included the minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the produced gas to achieve chemical equilibrium in the process, constrained by mass and energy balances for the system. Air and steam were used as the oxidizing agent in the process that uses both untreated and torrefied biomass as feedstocks. Three process parameters, equivalence ratio (ER), Gibbs reactor temperature and steam-to-biomass ratio (SBR), were studied. 27 cases were included in the analysis by operating the system below the carbon deposition boundary with all carbon in gaseous form in the product gas. Product gas composition in the form of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrogen (N2) was analyzed together with cold gas energy and exergy efficiencies for all the cases. Overall, mole fractions of H2, CO, CO2 and N2 were between 0.23–0.40, 0.22–0.42, 0.01–0.09 and 0.14–0.36 for torrefied wood and 0.21–0.40, 0.17–0.34, 0.03–0.09 and 0.15–0.37 for untreated wood, respectively. Similarly, cold gas energy and exergy efficiencies were between 76.1–97.9% and 68.3–85.8% for torrefied wood and 67.9–91.0% and 60.7–79.4% for untreated wood, respectively. Torrefied biomass has higher H2 and CO

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated With SOFC and Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of a SOFC is fed wherein...

  7. Carbonaceous residues from biomass gasification as catalysts for biodiesel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael Luque; Antonio Pineda; Juan C. Colmenares; Juan M. Campelo; Antonio A. Romero; Juan Carlos Serrano-Ruiz; Luisa F. Cabeza; Jaime Cot-Gores

    2012-01-01

    Tars and alkali ashes from biomass gasification processes currently constitute one of the major problems in biomass valorisation,generating clogging of filters and issues related with the purity of syngas production.To date,these waste residues find no useful applications and they are generally disposed upon generation in the gasification process.A detailed analysis of these residues pointed out the presence of high quantities of Ca (>30 wt%).TG experiments indicated that a treatment under air at moderate temperatures (400-800 ℃) decomposed the majority of carbon species,while XRD indicated the presence of a crystalline CaO phase.CaO enriched valorized materials turned out to be good heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils,providing moderate to good activities (50%-70% after 12 h) to fatty acid methyl esters in the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol.

  8. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated With SOFC and Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT)...

  9. Analysis and co-ordination of the activities concerning gasification of biomass. Summary country report, Denmark and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis summarises the coordination of activities concerning the gasification of biomass in Denmark and Norway. The total quantity of available biomass for energy production in Denmark corresponds to ca. 115 PJ of which ca. 40% is utilized - and this constitutes ca. 6% of the country's total energy consumption. The resulting energy from biomass is currently mostly used for heating purposes utilizing small wood/straw household or farm stoves in addition to ca. 100 district heating systems. There is a tendency to use biomass fuels for electric power production as in the case of all major waste incineration plants and about 10 fully or partly wood/straw-fired cogeneration plants which are found within the range of 2 -20 MWe. A table shows details of all Danish biomass gasification plants and information is given on the types of biomass, under the titles of residue products and energy crops, most relevant to energy production in Denmark. Data is presented on the consumption of renewable energy in Denmark, recalculated in fuel equivalents, and Danish national energy policy and related legislation are described. Information on Norway's use of biomass as fuel is given under the headings of primary consumption, biomass sources and use, legislation, and brief evaluations of commercial gasification plants, pilot and demonstration plants, and laboratory plants and studies. It has recently been decided to speed up the development of small-scale gasification plants for combined heat and electricity production using biomass as fuel in Denmark. Total Norwegian energy consumption is 25% higher than Denmark's, and biomass fuels cover only 3.6% of this. (ARW) 32 refs

  10. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and transportat

  11. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Gasification with gas turbine/engine for power plants; Incl. English lang. appendix of 24 p. titled 'Status of large-scale biomass gasification for power production'; Inventering av framtidens el och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Foergasning med gasturbin/motor foer kraftvaerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldheim, Lars; Larsson, Eva K. (TPS Termiska Processer, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This subproject is limited to applications with gas turbines or engines from approximately 1 MWe and firing of gas in a boiler either as indirect cofiring or as separate firing of gas from waste gasification. Gasification with gas engine, BIG-ICE (Biomass Integrated Gasification Internal-Combustion Engine) is realized in approximately 10 plants in Europe between 1 and 7 MWe. The gas needs to be cleaned from particles and tar before it is fed to the engine. A number of different gasifiers and gas cleaning technologies are applied in these prototypes, and in certain cases a second generation is being built. Gas engines from GE Jenbacher are most common, but there are also other producers with engines for low-calorific-value gas. The exhausts from engines must, unlike gas turbines, be cleaned catalytically, but emissions of hydrocarbons in particular are still higher than from gas turbines. It is possible to increase the electricity generation by applying a 'bottoming cycle' in the form of a steam or an ORC cycle. Such a plant with ORC has been started in Austria this year. During the 1990's expectations were high concerning the development of biomass gasification with gas turbine in a combined cycle BIG-CC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) towards commercialisation. Two demonstration plants were built for the same gas turbine model, Siemens SGT 100 (earlier Typhoon); Vaernamo with pressurised gasification and ARBRE in Eggborough, England, with atmospheric gasification. The atmospheric technology has basically the same demands on gas cleaning as in the engine application, but downstream the gas is compressed to the pressure required by the gas turbine. In pressurised gasification, the gasifier pressure is set by the gas turbine. The gas is not cooled below 350-400 deg C and is cleaned in a high-temperature filter. Despite successful demonstration in Vaernamo, no more plants have been built. The ARBRE plant was never put into regular

  12. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    OpenAIRE

    Nanou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and transportation. In The Netherlands, the contribution of natural gas to the primary energy consumption is almost 50% (Source: Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands [ECN]) and it is a fuel with a well-devel...

  13. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  14. Bio-syngas production from biomass catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising application for biomass is liquid fuel synthesis, such as methanol or dimethyl ether (DME). Previous studies have studied syngas production from biomass-derived char, oil and gas. This study intends to explore the technology of syngas production from direct biomass gasification, which may be more economically viable. The ratio of H2/CO is an important factor that affects the performance of this process. In this study, the characteristics of biomass gasification gas, such as H2/CO and tar yield, as well as its potential for liquid fuel synthesis is explored. A fluidized bed gasifier and a downstream fixed bed are employed as the reactors. Two kinds of catalysts: dolomite and nickel based catalyst are applied, and they are used in the fluidized bed and fixed bed, respectively. The gasifying agent used is an air-steam mixture. The main variables studied are temperature and weight hourly space velocity in the fixed bed reactor. Over the ranges of operating conditions examined, the maximum H2 content reaches 52.47 vol%, while the ratio of H2/CO varies between 1.87 and 4.45. The results indicate that an appropriate temperature (750 oC for the current study) and more catalyst are favorable for getting a higher H2/CO ratio. Using a simple first order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, the apparent activation energies and pre-exponential factors are obtained for nickel based catalysts. The results indicate that biomass gasification gas has great potential for liquid fuel synthesis after further processing

  15. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. PMID:24880809

  16. Assessment of integration of different biomass gasification alternatives in a district-heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, E.; Ahlgren, E.O. [Department of Energy and Environment, Energy Systems Technology, Division of Energy Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    With increasingly stringent CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets, incentives for efficient use of limited biomass resources increase. Technologies for gasification of biomass may then play a key role given their potential for high electrical efficiency and multiple outputs; not only electricity but also bio transport fuels and district heat. The aim of this study is to assess the economic consequences and the potential for CO{sub 2} reduction of integration of a biomass gasification plant into a district-heating (DH) system. The study focuses on co-location with an existing natural gas combined cycle heat and power plant in the municipal DH system of Goeteborg, Sweden. The analysis is carried out using a systems modelling approach. The so-called MARTES model is used. MARTES is a simulating, DH systems supply model with a detailed time slice division. The economic robustness of different solutions is investigated by using different sets of parameters for electricity price, fuel prices and policy tools. In this study, it is assumed that not only tradable green certificates for electricity but also tradable green certificates for transport fuels exist. The economic results show strong dependence on the technical solutions and scenario assumptions but in most cases a stand-alone SNG-polygeneration plant with district-heat delivery is the cost-optimal solution. Its profitability is strongly dependent on policy tools and the price relation between biomass and fossil fuels. Finally, the results show that operation of the biomass gasification plants reduces the (DH) system's net emissions of CO{sub 2}. (author)

  17. Design and Optimization of an Integrated Biomass Gasification and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian

    . The work deals with the coupling of thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and specific focus is kept on exploring the potential performance of hybrid CHP systems based on the novel two-stage gasification concept and SOFCs. The two-stage gasification concept is developed...

  18. Char-recirculation biomass gasification system--a site-specific feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A site-specific feasibility study was conducted for a char-recirculation biomass gasification plant which would dispose of the chippable solid residues of the area sawmills. The plant would receive green hardwood chips and convert them into active charcoal while producing process steam and electrical power. An economic analysis was performed on the basis of not-for-profit operation, marketing crushed active charcoal to a broker at a discounted price, and displacing purchased electric power. Given a market for the active charcoal, the plant was judged to be economically viable

  19. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Gasification with gas turbine/engine for power plants; Incl. English lang. appendix of 24 p. titled 'Status of large-scale biomass gasification for power production'; Inventering av framtidens el och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Foergasning med gasturbin/motor foer kraftvaerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldheim, Lars; Larsson, Eva K. (TPS Termiska Processer, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This subproject is limited to applications with gas turbines or engines from approximately 1 MWe and firing of gas in a boiler either as indirect cofiring or as separate firing of gas from waste gasification. Gasification with gas engine, BIG-ICE (Biomass Integrated Gasification Internal-Combustion Engine) is realized in approximately 10 plants in Europe between 1 and 7 MWe. The gas needs to be cleaned from particles and tar before it is fed to the engine. A number of different gasifiers and gas cleaning technologies are applied in these prototypes, and in certain cases a second generation is being built. Gas engines from GE Jenbacher are most common, but there are also other producers with engines for low-calorific-value gas. The exhausts from engines must, unlike gas turbines, be cleaned catalytically, but emissions of hydrocarbons in particular are still higher than from gas turbines. It is possible to increase the electricity generation by applying a 'bottoming cycle' in the form of a steam or an ORC cycle. Such a plant with ORC has been started in Austria this year. During the 1990's expectations were high concerning the development of biomass gasification with gas turbine in a combined cycle BIG-CC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) towards commercialisation. Two demonstration plants were built for the same gas turbine model, Siemens SGT 100 (earlier Typhoon); Vaernamo with pressurised gasification and ARBRE in Eggborough, England, with atmospheric gasification. The atmospheric technology has basically the same demands on gas cleaning as in the engine application, but downstream the gas is compressed to the pressure required by the gas turbine. In pressurised gasification, the gasifier pressure is set by the gas turbine. The gas is not cooled below 350-400 deg C and is cleaned in a high-temperature filter. Despite successful demonstration in Vaernamo, no more plants have been built. The ARBRE plant was never put into regular

  20. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air

  1. Evaluation of biomass gasification in a ternary diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper addresses the development of an alternative approach to illustrate biomass gasification in a ternary diagram which is constructed using data from thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of air-blown atmospheric wood gasification. It allows the location of operation domains of slagging entrained-flow, fluidized-bed/dry-ash entrained-flow and fixed/moving-bed gasification systems depending on technical limitations mainly due to ash melting behavior. Performance parameters, e.g. cold gas efficiency or specific syngas production, and process parameters such as temperature and carbon conversion are displayed in the diagram depending on the three independent mass flows representing (1) the gasifying agent, (2) the dry biomass and (3) the moisture content of the biomass. The graphical approach indicates the existence of maxima for cold gas efficiency (84.9%), syngas yield (1.35 m3 (H2 + CO STP)/kg (waf)) and conversion of carbon to CO (81.1%) under dry air-blown conditions. The fluidized-bed/dry-ash entrained-flow processes have the potential to reach these global maxima since they can operate in the identified temperature range from 700 to 950 °C. Although using air as a gasifying agent, the same temperature range posses a potential of H2/CO ratios up to 2.0 at specific syngas productions of 1.15 m3 (H2 + CO STP)/kg (waf). Fixed/moving-bed and fluidized-bed systems can approach a dry product gas LHV from 3.0 to 5.5 MJ/m3 (dry STP). The ternary diagram was also used to study the increase of gasifying agent oxygen fraction from 21 to 99 vol.%. While the dry gas LHV can be increased significantly, the maxima of cold gas efficiency (+6.5%) and syngas yield (+7.4%) are elevated only slightly. - Highlights: • Novel graphical approach for comprehensive assessment of biomass gasification. • Parameters fields for temperature, conversion, cold gas efficiency, syngas yield etc. • Identification of operation ranges for entrained, fluid and moving

  2. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  3. Biomass gasification as project for the rural development; A gaseificacao da biomassa como projeto para o desenvolvimento rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Cortes; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Angulo, Mario Barriga; Parodi, Fernando Aurelio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: mcortes@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; mariobarriga@hotmail.com; jambock@rocketmail.com

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the gasification of the biomass as a project for the rural development. Consider the biomass gasification as an sustainable alternative for energy generation, with low pollutant emission.

  4. Removal of ammonia from producer gas in biomass gasification: integration of gasification optimisation and hot catalytic gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongrapipat, Janjira; Saw, Woei-Lean; Pang, Shusheng [University of Canterbury, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2012-12-15

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is one of the main contaminants in the biomass gasification producer gas, which is undesirable in downstream applications, and thus must be removed. When the producer gas is used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, NH{sub 3} is the main precursor of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formed in gas turbine, whereas in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and in integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) technology, the NH{sub 3} gas poisons the catalysts employed. This paper presents a critical review on the recent development in the understanding of the NH{sub 3} formation in biomass gasification process and in the NH{sub 3} gas cleaning technologies. The NH{sub 3} gas concentration in the producer gas can firstly be reduced by the primary measures taken in the gasification process by operation optimisation and using in-bed catalytic materials. Further removal of the NH{sub 3} gas can be implemented by the secondary measures introduced in the post-gasification gas-cleaning process. Focus is given on the catalytic gas cleaning in the secondary measures and its advantages are analysed including energy efficiency, impacts on environment and recyclability of the catalyst. Based on the review, the most effective cleaning process is proposed with integration of both the primary and the secondary measures for application in a biomass gasification process. (orig.)

  5. Biomass gasification: the understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly al

  6. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the

  8. Biomass gasification in Europe - status and perspectives; Vergasung von Biomasse in Europa - Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelbach, L.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification of biomass is a promising option, especially in the fields of waste management and power generation, but there are considerable economic and technical problems that must be solved first. A critical analysis of biomass gasification in Europe today shows that this technology is not marketable today and cannot contribute to environmentally acceptable power supply on a short-term basis. (orig) [Deutsch] Von allen Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse stellt die Technik der Vergasung insbesondere in den Bereichen Abfallentsorgung und Stromerzeugung eine vielversprechende Option dar. Einer weiteren Verbreitung dieser Technik stehen allerdings erhebliche wirtschaftliche und technische Probleme entgegen. Die kritische Analyse der derzeitigen Gegebenheiten der Biomassevergasung in Europa fuehrt zu dem Schluss, dass diese Technik noch nicht unmittelbar vor der Mrkteinfuehrung steht und somit kurzfristig keinen merklichen Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Europa leisten kann. (orig)

  9. Biomass gasification systems for residential application: An integrated simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy policy of the European member States is promoting high-efficiency cogeneration systems by means of the European directive 2012/27/EU. Particular facilitations have been implemented for the small-scale and micro-cogeneration units. Furthermore, the directive 2010/31/EU promotes the improvement of energy performance of buildings and use of energy from renewable sources for the building sector. In this scenario, systems based on gasification are considered a promising technological solution when dealing with biomass and small scale systems. In this paper, an integrated approach has been implemented to assess the energy performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on biomass gasification and installed in residential blocks. The space-heating loads of the considered building configurations have been simulated by means of EnergyPlus. The heat load for domestic hot water demand has been calculated according to the average daily profiles suggested by the Italian and European technical standards. The efficiency of the whole CHP system has been evaluated supplementing the simulation of the gasification stage with the energy balance of the cogeneration set (i.e., internal combustion engine) and implementing the developed routines in the Matlab-Simulink environment. The developed model has been used to evaluate the primary energy saving (PES) of the CHP system compared to a reference case of separate production of heat and power. Economic analyses are performed either with or without subsidizations for the generated electricity. The results highlight the capability of the integrated approach to estimate both energy and economic performances of CHP systems applied to the residential context. Furthermore, the importance of the generated heat valorisation and the proper system sizing have been discussed. - Highlights: • CHP system based on biomass gasification to meet household energy demand is studied. • Influence of CHP size and operation time on

  10. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-05-01

    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. PMID:24642484

  11. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to prod...

  12. Inhibition of steam gasification of biomass char by hydrogen and tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fushimi, Chihiro; Wada, Tomoko; Tsutsumi, Atsushi [Collaborative Research Center for Energy Engineering, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    The influence of hydrogen and tar on the reaction rate of woody biomass char in steam gasification was investigated by varying the concentrations in a rapid-heating thermobalance reactor. It was observed that the steam gasification of biomass char can be separated into two periods. Compared with the first period, in the second period (in which the relative mass of remaining char is smaller than 0.4) the gasification rate is increased. These effects are probably due to inherent potassium catalyst. Higher hydrogen partial pressure greatly inhibits the gasification of biomass char in the first and second periods. By calculating the first-order rate constants of char gasification in the first and second periods, we found that the hydrogen inhibition on biomass char gasification is caused by the reverse oxygen exchange reaction in the first period. In the second period, dissociative hydrogen adsorption on the char is the major inhibition reaction. The influence of levoglucosan, a major tar component derived from cellulose, was also examined. We found that not only hydrogen but also vapor-phase levoglucosan and its pyrolysates inhibited the steam gasification of woody biomass char. By mixing levoglucosan with woody biomass sample, the pyrolysis of char proceeds slightly more rapidly than with woody biomass alone, and gas evolution rates of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are larger in steam gasification. (author)

  13. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  14. Substitution of fossil carbon in metallurgy process approaches for biomass introduction via gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinhappl, M.; Roschitz, C.; Stutterecker, W. (Austrian bioenergy centre gmbH, Area gasification, Graz (Austria)); Kepplinger, W. (Leoben University of Mining and Materials, Institute for Process Technology and Industrial Environmental Protection, Leoben (Austria)); Hofbauer, H. (Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Technology and Biosciences, Vienna (Austria))

    2007-07-01

    A look at the historic development shows, that the early production of wrought iron by the peoples Hethitic (turkey) 1500 B.C. and Chinese 600 B.C. (cast iron); 200 A.D (blast furnace) was based on charcoal. In 1709 the utilisation of fossil coke from coal has started. About 1910 the last char coal operated blast furnaces was shut down in the deepest valley in central Europe. Nowadays we have gigantic production of crude iron in Europe, and all over the world. The monitoring of CO{sub 2} as a greenhouse gas is now done in all branches of energy, transportation and production. In this work the production of iron is analysed, as well as the systems of biomass conversion into char coal, oil and product gas. The biomass technologies of pyrolysis and gasification show suitable products. The systems of blast furnace, MIDREX and COREX show connectors to consume these products. In further work the complete utilisation of biomass with high efficiency as an additionally carrier of carbon/hydrogen will be investigated. Regarding to the necessary process data it will be focused on the path of gasification and 'gas coupling'. A path of complete gasification is preferred, because of the connection to a gas injection system of blast furnace, a DR Midrex plant and the coking plant can be combined with. For evaluation an amount of 30,000 m3/h up to 100,000 m3/h of gas with a lower heating value of minimally 10 MJ/m3 is considered. The necessary quantity of needed biomass resources has been evaluated and the delivery seems to be feasible. The gas quality requirements like inerts, acids, heating value, pressure level are discussed. The role of CO{sub 2}, its shift from fossil to renewable and the precipitation with absorption technology is lightened. The results of this work are the basis of decision in next future. (orig.)

  15. Gasification for power, CHP and polygeneration Biomass Gasification for Combined Heat Power (CHP) Applications: the GAMECO Project

    OpenAIRE

    Authier, O; Khalfi, Az-Eddine; Sanchez, L.; Aleman, Y; Delebarre, A; Mauviel, G; Dufour, A; Rogaume, Y; Poirier, J.; Kerhoas, J

    2014-01-01

    International audience Air-blown fluidised bed biomass gasification is a well adapted technology for Combined Heat Power (CHP) applications with syngas valorisation in a gas engine. However, it is not mature yet. Despite promising prototypes, CHP gasification needs further improvements to become the reference technology in the medium-size CHP market. This is the purpose of the GAMECO project, which aims at improving an existing technology by optimising its operation, increasing its feedsto...

  16. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  17. Alternative route of process modification for biofuel production by embedding the Fischer–Tropsch plant in existing stand-alone power plant (10 MW) based on biomass gasification – Part I: A conceptual modeling and simulation approach (a case study in Thailand)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: SynBiofuel production through existing gasification plants in Thailand, using waste agricultural biomass as raw material, was studied. The process design was initiated conceptually in the areas of gas phase reaction system via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The development of FT configurations on syngas conversion to transportation fuels (e.g., diesel range) was investigated. In order to develop a techno-economic assessment, the three different capacities corresponding to 1 MW, 2 MW and 3 MW based on thermal input of syngas were evaluated. Once-through FT concept was proposed in which the unconverted syngas was combusted with air in an externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) to produce surplus electricity. The results of process simulation were discussed open-mindedly including the overall plant design and energy efficiency. Preliminary economics, and some site specific situations under which additional capital cost savings on existing infrastructure was realized. - Highlights: • Experimental results were used and integrated with a reactor model for SynBiofuel. • Process simulation with the lumped reaction rate was used to achieve accurate results. • Process simulation was performed using ASPEN Plus to design FT configurations. • Maximum energy FT efficiency was approximately 37%. • Economic potential was computed by ROI and PBP resulting in the attractive solutions. - Abstract: The utilization of syngas shows a highly potential to improve the economic potential of the stand-alone power unit-based gasification plants as well as enhancing the growing demand of transportation fuels. The thermochemical conversion of biomass via gasification to heat and power generations from the earlier study is further enhanced by integrating Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis with the existing gasification pilot scale studied previously. To support the potential and perspectives in major economies due to scaling up in developing countries such as Thailand

  18. OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS OF CATALYTIC CLEANING OF GAS FROM BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  19. Roadmap for the commercialisation of biomass gasification. A critical evaluation, tips, questions and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass has the potential to be a major replacement of fossil fuels. The world wide availability of biomass is considerable but it is not always in balance with the anticipated consumption. Biomass (wood) has the disadvantage that it has a low energy density and transport costs are, therefore, relatively high. Combustion, being a well-developed technology with many references, is the obvious choice for conversion technology. On the scale that biomass plants are usually constructed, however, the overall efficiency of the combustion system is low. Gasification has the advantage that solid fuel is converted into gaseous fuel which can be used in IC (internal combustion) engines or combined (gas and steam turbine) cycles with high efficiency. Even on a very small scale (several hundred kWe) a biomass-driven IC engine can have an efficiency of around 25%. Gasification has not yet advanced to the stage that it can serve as a reliable conversion technology for supplying electric power to industry or to the national grid. This may be possible on paper but in practice the market needs to be convinced by the success of plants in full operation. The first generation of plants, now under construction, or in operation, have to demonstrate the technology and provide confidence for future developments. Fixed bed gasification in combination with IC engines is more appropriate for small units. The development in micropower units is of particular interest. This development has been initiated for natural gas-fuelled units supplying power and heat to households, apartment blocks or offices. Once the fuel handling problems have been overcome and the units are more reliable and easier to operate, this could be a market with ample cost savings on the basis of mass production. Fluidised bed gasification, integrated with a combined cycle, is probably better suited to larger units, above 10 MWe. After experience has been obtained with units at an atmospheric pressure, the increase of the

  20. Hydrothermal catalytic gasification of fermentation residues from a biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas plants, increasing in number, produce a stream of fermentation residue with high organic content, providing an energy source which is by now mostly unused. We tested this biomass as a potential feedstock for catalytic gasification in supercritical water (T ≥ 374 °C, p ≥ 22 MPa) for methane production using a batch reactor system. The coke formation tendency during the heat-up phase was evaluated as well as the cleavage of biomass-bound sulfur with respect to its removal from the process as a salt. We found that sulfur is not sufficiently released from the biomass during heating up to a temperature of 410 °C. Addition of alkali salts improved the liquefaction of fermentation residues with a low content of minerals, probably by buffering the pH. We found a deactivation of the carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst at low catalyst-to-biomass loadings, which we attribute to sulfur poisoning and fouling in accordance with the composition of the fermentation residue. A temperature of 400 °C was found to maximize the methane yield. A residence time dependent biomass to catalyst ratio of 0.45 g g−1 h−1 was found to result in nearly full conversion with the Ru/C catalyst. A Ru/ZrO2 catalyst, tested under similar conditions, was less active. -- Highlights: ► Fermentation residue of a biogas plant could be successfully liquefied with a low rate of coke formation. ► Liquefaction resulted in an incomplete removal of biomass-bound sulfur. ► Low catalyst loadings result in incomplete conversion, implicating catalyst deactivation. ► At 400 °C the observed conversion to methane was highest. ► A residence time dependent biomass to catalyst ratio of 0.45 g g−1 h−1 was determined to yield nearly complete conversion

  1. High-temperature entrained flow gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2012-01-01

    Biomass (wood and straw) gasification has been studied in a laboratory scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of reaction temperature, steam/carbon molar ratio, excess air ratio, and biomass type on the solid, liquid and gas products were investigated. The biomass was completely...... converted at all investigated operating conditions and the syngas contained nearly no tar but some soot at the highest applied reaction temperature of 1350°C. With a rise of reaction temperature from 1000°C to 1350°C, the yield of producer gas (defined as the sum of H2, CO, CO2 and hydrocarbons up to C3...... species) increased dramatically by 72%. The H2/CO molar ratio in syngas was close to 1 at reaction temperature above 1200°C with steam addition. Higher temperature was beneficial to lower the amount of tar while the soot yield showed a peak of 56.7g/kg fuel at 1200°C. With steam addition, the producer gas...

  2. Biomass gasification- a promising renewable energy technology for industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for energy in the industrial sector is increasing to meet the growing activities due to the encouragement of the government in our country. This energy requirement is mostly thermal or electrical. To sustain the healthy trend there is an urgent need to look for alternate (renewable) sources of energy in addition to the measures of energy conservation wherever possible. One such very promising, matured, and advanced renewable energy technology is biomass gasification, offering a host of benefits. The use of this technology especially in the industrial sector, by taking the first hand practical examples from our experience of working in this area where it has been put to use is discussed. To further give an idea of the vast nature of its applicability different class of industries have been chosen highlighting the advantages derived by adopting this technology. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  3. Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Maria

    2002-05-01

    A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2

  4. Preliminary studies on the treatment of wastewater from biomass gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Roksana; Chrubasik, Maciej; Stelmach, Sławomir; Sajdak, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents completed research on the purification of undiluted raw water and organic condensates obtained in biomass thermal conversion processes such as gasification, which are rarely addressed in published studies. However, similar studies involving the characterization and purification of aqueous solutions obtained from process gas treatment after the gasification of biomass are available. Condensation of water-organic condensate from process gas helps to reduce the amount of water required by the purification process and the cost of the process technology and water consumption. Oil scrubbers can be used in this case instead of water scrubbers. In this case, the obtained condensate must be subjected to purification processes. This paper presents the results of our research, possible methods of treatment (chemical and biological methods), and the approximate cost of the reagents required for the purification of condensate for specific assumed degrees of purification. The best results from the chemical purification using the Fenton method were obtained with the ratio V(H2O2)/V(cond.) = 6.0 and the ratio V(H2O2)/Fe = 0.0375. To prevent precipitation of ferric hydroxide, this value can be reduced 20-fold, which reduces the total degree of purification to 90%. The cost of almost complete cleaning of tested condensates was calculated to be approximately 2000 USD per/m(3). This cost can be reduced by a factor of approximately four assuming 100% cleaning for 2-furaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and phenol; acetaldehyde, propane-2-one (acetone), methanol and acetic acid are oxidized by 50%. PMID:26184898

  5. Decentralized combined heat and power production by two-stage biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate options for increasing the electrical efficiency of decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) plants fuelled with biomass compared to conventional technology, this research explored the performance of an alternative plant design based on thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide...... and SOFCs predicted a net electrical efficiency of 44.9% (LHV (lower heating value)) when 1.4 MWe power was produced. The work had significant focus on providing a highly accurate model of the complete plant. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the SOFC operating temperature, SOFC fuel utilization factor...

  6. Gasification of biomass - principles and technical alternatives; Vergasung von Biomassen - Prinzipien und technische Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The technical principles of gasification are outlined, and a number of biomass gasification processes are presented and compared with the coal gasification process. On the basis of the knowledge gained in coal gasification, it will be easy to carry out the development work still required on small-scale biomass gasification systems in cooperation with the gas users. (orig) [Deutsch] Das technische Prinzip derVergasung und verschiedene Verfahrensweisen bei der Vergasung von Biomasse werden vorgestellt und mit der Kohlevergasung verglichen. Auf der Grundlage der technischen Erkenntnisse bei der Kohlevergasung einschliesslich der vor- und nachgeschalteten Prozessstufen sind die noch notwendigen verfahrens- und apparatetechnischen Entwicklungsarbeiten fuer vorwiegend kleine Anlagen in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gasnutzern durchfuehrbar. (orig)

  7. Preliminary study on co-gasification behavior of deoiled asphalt with coal and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Co-gasification of DOA with coal and biomass are proposed and studied. • Pure DOA char shows low reactivity mainly for low surface area, high graphitization degree and low ash content. • Co-gasification of coal and DOA does not show synergetic effect. • Synergetic effect between biomass and DOA is observed. • Potassium naturally in biomass can transfer to DOA and catalyzes the gasification of DOA. - Abstract: The co-gasification behavior of deoiled asphalt (DOA) with coal and biomass were investigated by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The gasification experiments were conducted under CO2 atmosphere within an isothermal temperature range from 900 to 1100 °C. The physical properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS), N2 and CO2 adsorption and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Compared with coal or biomass, the low surface area, high graphitization degree and the low ash content are the main reasons for the low reactivity of DOA. The co-gasification of coal and DOA does not show synergetic effect, while the combination of biomass and DOA shows higher gasification reactivity than that of being calculated. The synergetic effect is mainly caused by the alkali metals. Further study shows the transfer of the potassium from the surface of biomass to DOA greatly increases the active sites of the DOA, which leads to obvious improvement of the co-gasification reactions. Meanwhile, the gasification experiments of adding coal and biomass ashes to DOA also support the above explanations

  8. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using reverse osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S.E.; Eliason, S.D.; Laegreid, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated as a treatment technology for the removal of organics from biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) generated from an experimental biomass gasifier at Texas Tech University. Wastewaters were characteristically high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) with initial values ranging from 32,000 to 68,000 mg/1. Since RO is normally considered a complementary treatment technology, wastewaters were pretreated by biological or wet air oxidation (WAO) processes. One set of experiments were run using untreated wastewaters to compare membrane performance with those experiments using pretreated wastewaters. Experiments were run for 8 to 10 hrs using UOP's TFC-85 membrane operating at 700 psig and 18 to 20/sup 0/C. This membrane is similar to the NS-100, a membrane known for being effective in the separation of organics from solution. Separation of organics from solution was determined by COD removal. Removal percentages for biologically pretreated wastewaters averaged 98% except for one group of runs averaging 69% removal. This exception was probably due to the presence of milk solids in the feed. Use of RO on WAO pretreated wastewaters and unpretreated feeds resulted in 90% COD removal. Membrane degradation was observed when using full-strength and WAO pretreated feeds, but not when using feeds that had undergone biological pretreatment. Color removal was computed for the majority of experiments completed. Overall, 99 to 100% of the total color was removed from BGW feeds, values which coincide with those reported in the literature for other wastewaters.

  9. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively.

  10. Policy Impact on Economic Viability of Biomass Gasification Systems in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranpreya Sriwannawit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is facing challenges on the lack of electricity access in rural areas and the management of agricultural waste. The utilization of waste-to-energy technology can help in mitigating these issues. The aim of this paper is to assess the economic viability of a biomass gasification system for rural electrification by investigating its competitiveness in relation to various government supports. Financial modelling is applied to calculate Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE. NPV and IRR results indicate that biomass gasification is an economically viable option when appropriate financial government supports exist. LCOE result indicates that biomass gasification system is already more economically competitive compared to diesel generator even without additional support but it is less competitive compared to the national electricity grid tariff. In conclusion, the biomass gasification system is an economically viable option for rural electrification in Indonesian context.

  11. Biomass gasification: the understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly alternatives to conventional petrochemical fuels for the production of electricity, hydrogen, synthetic transportation biofuels and other chemicals. The product gas normally contains the major compon...

  12. Enhancing the production of biomethane : A comparison between GoBiGas process and new process of combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmood, Daheem

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there is a rapid growing interest in the use of biomethane for the transport sector. A new method of combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification is proposed.The feasibility study shows that more biomethane can be produced; resulting in an increase in the revenue compared to individual biogas plants. The GoBiGas project,which is initiated by Göteborg Energi, adopted another method based on gasification, water gas shift and methanation to enable biomethane production...

  13. Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-30

    This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

  14. System studies on Biofuel production via Integrated Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Malek, Laura; Hulteberg, Christian [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ. Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly. The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for fair techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project. Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found. In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and

  15. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass for the production of synthetic natural gas[Dissertation 17100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, M. H.

    2007-07-01

    Energy from biomass is a CO{sub 2} neutral, sustainable form of energy. Anaerobic digestion is an established technology for converting biomass to biogas, which contains around 60% methane, besides CO{sub 2} and various contaminants. Most types of biomass contain material that cannot be digested; in woody biomass, this portion is particularly high. Therefore, conventional anaerobic digestion is not suited for the production of biogas from woody biomass. While wood is already being converted to energy by conventional thermal methods (gasification with subsequent methanation), dung, manure, and sewage sludge represent types of biomass whose energy potential remains largely untapped (present energetic use of manure in Switzerland: 0.4%). Conventional gas phase processes suffer from a low efficiency due to the high water content of the feed (enthalpy of vaporization). An alternative technology is the hydrothermal gasification: the water contained within the biomass serves as reaction medium, which at high pressures of around 30 MPa turns into a supercritical fluid that exhibits apolar properties. Under these conditions, tar precursors, which cause significant problems in conventional gasification, can be solubilized and gasified. The need to dry the biomass prior to gasification is obsolete, and as a consequence high thermal process efficiencies (65 - 70%) are possible. Due to their low solubility in supercritical water, the inorganics that are present in the biomass (up to 20 wt % of the dry matter of manure) can be separated and further used as fertilizer. The biomass is thus not only converted into an energy carrier, but it allows valuable substances contained in the biomass to be extracted and re-used. Furthermore, the process can be used for aqueous waste stream destruction. The aim of this project at the Paul Scherrer Institute was to develop a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously

  16. Gas, power and heat generation from biomass by allothermal gasification; Gas-, Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse durch allotherme Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqub Chughtai, M. [H und C Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Muehlen, H.J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The allothermal DMT gasification process for biomass is a newcomer. The process, its initial materials, the uses of the product gas, and advantages of the allothermal process are described here. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz des allothermen DMT-Vergasungsverfahrens fuer Biomasse ist neu. Verfahren, Einsatzstoffe und Produktgasnutzung, sowie Vorteile des allothermen Verfahrens werden hier beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  17. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of a two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and a micro gas turbine was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant represents a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...... CHP plants. A clean product gas was produced by the demonstrated two-stage gasifier, thus only simple gas conditioning was necessary prior to the SOFC stack. The plant was investigated by thermodynamic modeling combining zero-dimensional component models into complete system-level models. Energy...

  18. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, N.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated liquid-liquid extraction as a treatment method for biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW). Distribution coefficients for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were determined for the following solvents: methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), n-butyl acetate, n-butanol, MIBK/n-butyl acetate (50:50 vol), MIBK/n-butanol (50:50 vol), tri-butyl phosphate, tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO)/MIBK (10:90 wt), TOPO/kerosene (10:90 wt), kerosene, and toluene. The best distribution coefficient of 1.3 was given by n-butanol. Chemical analysis of the wastewater by gas chromatography (GC) showed acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations of about 4000 mg/1. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were identified in trace amounts. These five compounds accounted for 45% of the measured COD of 29,000 mg/1. Because of the presence of carboxylic acids, pH was expected to affect extraction of the wastewater. At low pH the acids should be in the acidic form, which increased extraction by MIBK. Extraction by n-butanol was increased at high pH, where the acids should be in the ionic form.

  19. Technical preparation of a 300 kWel biomass gasification plant. Report for the project: Simplification, system and operation optimization of staged gasification unit for CHP production (the Castor unit in Graested); Teknisk forberedelse af 300 kWel bioforgasningsanlaeg. En Delrapport til projektet: Forenkling, system- og driftsoptimering af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarmeproduktion (Castor anlaegget i Graested)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.

    2009-09-15

    In 2003/04 BioSynergi Proces ApS built a complete approx. 450 kWth Open Core staged gasification unit as a development / demonstration plant. The plant uses wet wood chips as fuel for generating electricity and heat. The facility, known as the Castor plant, is connected to the heat supply network in Graested District Heating. The daily operation is handled by BioSynergi Process. The cogeneration system, that the Castor plant represents, is the basis for this completed project. For technical preparation of the planned future up scaling of the cogeneration system, a test of the function of the gas generator core (reactor core) was performed in this sub-project. It is the central component of the total cogeneration system, and it is also the one who has the greatest influence on the overall gasification process. The experiments have demonstrated that the stage gasification principle, which is in operation at the Castor plant, is also possible to have in operation with the desired process steps in the tested reactor core with four times more capacity. Finalization of the total gas generator in the range of 300 kWel is now being developed in a new project. The simplified experiments, that were possible to perform with the outdoor setup of the reactor core, were, however, not suited to qualitative assessments of the gasification process. (ln)

  20. Supercritical steam cycles and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles for sugarcane mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Burbano, Juan Carlos [Laboratory of Environmental and Thermal Engineering, Polytechnic School - University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289 Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); de Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Technological University of Pereira, Pereira (Colombia)

    2010-02-15

    Back in 1970s and 1980s, cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills were primarily designed to consume all bagasse, and produce steam and electricity to the process. The plants used medium pressure steam boilers (21 bar and 300 C) and backpressure steam turbines. Some plants needed also an additional fuel, as the boilers were very inefficient. In those times, sugarcane bagasse did not have an economic value, and it was considered a problem by most mills. During the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s, sugarcane industry faced an open market perspective, thus, there was a great necessity to reduce costs in the production processes. In addition, the economic value of by-products (bagasse, molasses, etc.) increased, and there was a possibility of selling electricity to the grid. This new scenario led to a search for more advanced cogeneration systems, based mainly on higher steam parameters (40-80 bar and 400-500 C). In the future, some authors suggest that biomass integrated gasification combined cycles are the best alternative to cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills. These systems might attain 35-40% efficiency for the power conversion. However, supercritical steam cycles might also attain these efficiency values, what makes them an alternative to gasification-based systems. This paper presents a comparative thermoeconomic study of these systems for sugarcane mills. The configurations studied are based on real systems that could be adapted to biomass use. Different steam consumptions in the process are considered, in order to better integrate these configurations in the mill. (author)

  1. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  2. Hydrogen production by biomass gasification in supercritical water with a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.J.; Jin, H.; Guo, L.J.; Zhang, X.M.; Cao, C.Q.; Guo, X. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering (SKLMF), Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2008-11-15

    Hydrogen production by biomass gasification in supercritical water (SCW) is a promising technology for utilizing high moisture content biomass, but reactor plugging is a critical problem for biomass gasification in the tubular reactor. A novel SCW fluidized bed system for biomass gasification was developed successfully in State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering (SKLMF) to prevent the plugging and it was designed for the temperature up to 923 K and the pressure up to 30 MPa. Model compound (glucose) and real biomass (corn cob) were gasified under SCW conditions to generate hydrogen-rich fuel gas and a performance testing of the new SCW fluidized bed system was conducted. The product gas composed of H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, CO and small amount of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} was obtained. The effects of solution concentration, temperature, pressure and oxidant concentration on gasification were studied. 30 wt% glucose and 18 wt% corn cob feedstocks were continually and stably gasified and reactor plugging was not observed. The results showed that using fluidized bed reactor for biomass gasification in SCW has many advantages and good prospects. (author)

  3. Fugitive emission testing at the Kosovo coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honerkamp, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first fugitive emission testing at a commercial-scale coal gasification plant in Kosovo, Yugoslavia. Data obtained are compared to data from similar testing at refineries and chemical plants. The main conclusions are: a) correlations between screening values and leak rates are similar to the relationship found in petroleum refineries and organic chemical manufacturing plants; b) the log-normal distribution of leaks is similar to the distribution found in refineries and chemical plants; c) fugitive emission control strategies developed for refineries and chemical plants should also be applicable to sources in coal gasification plants.

  4. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass: A Literature and Technology Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakaboylu, O.; Harinck, J.; Smit, K.G.; De Jong, W.

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification process is an alternative to both conventional gasification as well as anaerobic digestion as it does not require drying and the process takes place at much shorter residence times; a few minutes at most. The drastic changes in the thermo-physical properties of w

  5. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  6. Critical factors affecting the integration of biomass gasification and syngas fermentation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan D. Ramachandriya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gasification-fermentation is a thermochemical-biological platform for the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass is gasified at high temperatures to make syngas, a gas composed of CO, CO2, H2, N2 and other minor components. Syngas is then fed to anaerobic microorganisms that convert CO, CO2 and H2 to alcohols by fermentation. This platform offers numerous advantages such as flexibility of feedstock and syngas composition and lower operating temperature and pressure compared to other catalytic syngas conversion processes. In comparison to hydrolysis-fermentation, gasification-fermentation has a major advantage of utilizing all organic components of biomass, including lignin, to yield higher fuel production. Furthermore, syngas fermentation microorganisms do not require strict CO:H2:CO2 ratios, hence gas reforming is not required. However, several issues must be addressed for successful deployment of gasification-fermentation, particularly those that involve the integration of gasification and fermentation. Most previous reviews have focused only on either biomass gasification or syngas fermentation. In this review, the critical factors that affect the integration of biomass gasification with syngas fermentation, such as carbon conversion efficiency, effect of trace gaseous species, H2 to CO ratio requirements, and microbial preference of carbon substrate, are thoroughly discussed.

  7. Process simulation of biomass gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bubbling fluidized bed gasification of biomass is studied by computer simulation. • The effect of some critical parameters on gasification performance is studied. • The performance of air–steam gasification of wood chips is analyzed. • Model predictions are compared against available data from the literature. • The optimum operating conditions for the gasification are found. - Abstract: A detailed process model was developed to simulate the air–steam gasification of biomass in a bubbling fluidized bed for hydrogen and syngas production by coupling Aspen Plus simulator and dedicated FORTRAN subroutines. Effects of critical parameters, including gasification temperature, steam/biomass ratio (SBR), equivalence ratio (ER), and biomass particle size (BPS) on the composition of fuel gas were discussed. The results indicate that the high temperature is more favorable for production of useful syngas (H2 and CO) and hydrogen yield (HY). The simulation results also demonstrate that ER is the most important factor in the process; higher ER contributed to higher carbon conversion, tar reforming, and gas yield, however, it lowered gas caloric value and cold gas efficiency. However, steam injection recognized as a key factor to produce more hydrogen rich gas in the SBR range studied, but had a major effect on CO2 formation. The model is validated by experimental data and found relatively to be in good agreement

  8. Hydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass by two-step gasification method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In-Gu [Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from woody biomass by conventional gasification methods such as partial oxidation or steam gasification. Since these methods produce gas products with low content of hydrogen as well as high content of tar from gasification reactors, posttreatment processes including tar cracker and water-gas shift reaction process are usually necessary for obtaining clean hydrogen-rich gas from woody biomass. In this work, a twostep gasification method was experimentally studied as an alternative to the conventional methods. The first step of the gasification is the fast pyrolysis of biomass to obtain liquid-phase product (bio-oil) and the second step is to gasify the bio-oil to hydrogen-rich gas in supercritical water. The fast pyrolysis of woody biomass was carried out using a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The gasification of bio-oil in supercritical water was performed using a continuous-flow reactor packed with catalyst. The effect of major reaction conditions such as temperature and catalyst on hydrogen yield will be discussed. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  10. Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Tony

    2011-12-15

    Technology for thermal gasification of biomass is one of the key elements to make the vision of an energy system without fossil fuels a reality. Gasification technology can enhance the flexibility needed to maintain a future energy system with a large share of wind power. Furthermore, gasification has advantages in terms of ash recycling and utilisation of vast but challenging biomass residues. Danish companies are globally well advanced with this technology and the market for gasification technology is great in both Denmark and abroad. There is a clear need for targeted technology RD and D in order to reach the last stretch to a commercial breakthrough. The project ''Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark'' is the Danish industrys contribution to the development of biomass gasification and goes into detail with the RD and D needs. The project has been conducted by FORCE Technology for DI Bioenergy with funding from EUDP, Energinet.dk, DI Bioenergy and FORCE Technology and five stakeholder companies. (LN)

  11. Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.P. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bain, R.L.; Craig, K.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In the U.S.A., the widely recognized importance of biomass utilization in controlling carbon build-up in the biosphere and the potential benefit of creating new industries associated with new job opportunities, particularly in the rural areas, have added impetus to the development and commercialization of advanced biomass energy conversion methods. Recent analyses and evaluations have shown that many short rotation energy crops (SREC) produce significant net-energy (i.e., energy yield greater than the energy input for plant growth). SREC such as willow, poplar, and miscanthus may yield up to 20 dry tonnes/yr/ha/year of biomass feedstocks, some with about 20 % moisture, after the third year of plantation. Implementation by U.S. EPA of the recent Clean Water Act Federal Biosolids Rules specified as Code 40 of Federal Register 503, should make available large quantities of high nitrogen content, pathogen-free municipal sludges ideally suited as an inexpensive source of organic fertiliser, thus improving the economics of SREC. The concept of herbaceous SREC can be further augmented when value-added byproducts, such as cattle feed, could be produced along with biomass energy feedstocks. Since 1990, there has been renewed interest in the United States in developing advanced power-generating cycles utilizing biomass gasification. The advanced systems have the potential for higher generation efficiencies, 35 % to 40 %, and lower costs of electricity, $0.045 to $0.055/kWh, compared to conventional direct-combustion systems. The efficiency of power production can be even higher (about 55 %) when the fuel gas is converted to hydrogen followed by electrochemical conversion to electricity in a fuel cell. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes a number of provisions to promote the commercialisation of biomass power production. The recent Global Climate Change Action Plan also includes several programs and incentives for biomass power production. A summary of U.S. demonstration

  12. Wood into the natural gas distribution system. Sweden and Finland as a pioneer for the gasification of biomass; Holz ins Gasnetz. Schweden und Finnland als Vorreiter fuer Grossanlagen zur Biomasse-Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Right now, the thermochemical gasification of biomass and waste is developed on many fronts due to the manifold and attractive options. In Lahti (Finland) a large plant for waste incineration already has gone into operation. A plant for energy production from biomethane from wood is currently being built in Gothenburg (Sweden).

  13. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  14. Synergistic evaluation of the biomass/coal blends for co-gasification purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gaqa, S Mamphweli, D Katwire, E Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 95% of electricity in South Africa is generated from coal, which is a fossil fuel that has detrimental environmental impacts. Eskom has started investigating the possibility of co-firing coal with biomass to improve their carbon footprint. However, co-firing utilizes approximately 80% of water and results in extensive environmental impacts. This research seeks to investigate the possibility of co-gasification of coal and biomass, which is a thermochemical process that uses about a third of the water required by a coal-fired power station, and results in much lower emissions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was conducted to investigate the existence of a synergy between coal and biomass during gasification. Various coal/biomass blends were investigated using TGA. The synergistic effect between the two feedstock as determined through TGA allowed the prediction of the gasification characteristics of the blends that most likely gave the highest conversion efficiency. Preliminary results suggested the existence of this synergy.

  15. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass for the production of synthetic natural gas[Dissertation 17100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, M. H.

    2007-07-01

    Energy from biomass is a CO{sub 2} neutral, sustainable form of energy. Anaerobic digestion is an established technology for converting biomass to biogas, which contains around 60% methane, besides CO{sub 2} and various contaminants. Most types of biomass contain material that cannot be digested; in woody biomass, this portion is particularly high. Therefore, conventional anaerobic digestion is not suited for the production of biogas from woody biomass. While wood is already being converted to energy by conventional thermal methods (gasification with subsequent methanation), dung, manure, and sewage sludge represent types of biomass whose energy potential remains largely untapped (present energetic use of manure in Switzerland: 0.4%). Conventional gas phase processes suffer from a low efficiency due to the high water content of the feed (enthalpy of vaporization). An alternative technology is the hydrothermal gasification: the water contained within the biomass serves as reaction medium, which at high pressures of around 30 MPa turns into a supercritical fluid that exhibits apolar properties. Under these conditions, tar precursors, which cause significant problems in conventional gasification, can be solubilized and gasified. The need to dry the biomass prior to gasification is obsolete, and as a consequence high thermal process efficiencies (65 - 70%) are possible. Due to their low solubility in supercritical water, the inorganics that are present in the biomass (up to 20 wt % of the dry matter of manure) can be separated and further used as fertilizer. The biomass is thus not only converted into an energy carrier, but it allows valuable substances contained in the biomass to be extracted and re-used. Furthermore, the process can be used for aqueous waste stream destruction. The aim of this project at the Paul Scherrer Institute was to develop a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously

  16. A comparison of gasification phenomena among raw biomass, torrefied biomass and coal in an entrained-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Gasification phenomena of raw bamboo, torrefied bamboo, and coal are studied. ► The carbon conversions of the three fuels are higher than 90%. ► The coal gas efficiency is sensitive to the type of fuel. ► The gasification performance of torrefied bamboo is enhanced and closer to that of coal. ► With optimum operation, syngas formation from torrefied biomass is amplified by 88%. - Abstract: Gasification of torrefied biomass is a promising technique for producing synthesis gas (syngas) of higher quality than has previously been available. In this study, in order to evaluate the potential of the technique, gasification processes for three different materials, which include raw bamboo, torrefied bamboo (at 280 °C for 1 h), and high-volatile bituminous coal in an entrained-flow gasifier using O2 as the gasification agent, are studied numerically and compared to each other. The obtained results suggest that in all cases, the carbon conversions of the three fuels are higher than 90%. However, the cold gasification efficiency for raw bamboo is low, mainly due to the relatively lower calorific value of the material. In the case of the torrefied bamboo fuel, the gasification performance is enhanced significantly and is quite similar to the coal gasification under the same conditions. It appears that the optimum oxygen-to-fuel mass flow ratios for the gasification of raw bamboo, torrefied bamboo, and coal are 0.9, 0.7, and 0.7, and their equivalence ratios are 0.692, 0.434, and 0.357, respectively. Under optimum conditions with respect to the equivalence ratio, the cold gas efficiency of torrefied bamboo is improved by 88%, as compared to raw bamboo

  17. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  18. Hydrogen production from biomass gasification using biochar as a catalyst/support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dingding; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Daqian; Yang, Haiping; Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Xianhua; Chen, Hanping

    2016-09-01

    Biochar is a promising catalyst/support for biomass gasification. Hydrogen production from biomass steam gasification with biochar or Ni-based biochar has been investigated using a two stage fixed bed reactor. Commercial activated carbon was also studied as a comparison. Catalyst was prepared with an impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, specific surface and porosity analysis, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron micrograph. The effects of gasification temperature, steam to biomass ratio, Ni loading and bio-char properties on catalyst activity in terms of hydrogen production were explored. The Ni/AC catalyst showed the best performance at gasification temperature of 800°C, S/B=4, Ni loading of 15wt.%. Texture and composition characterization of the catalysts suggested the interaction between volatiles and biochar promoted the reforming of pyrolysis volatiles. Cotton-char supported Ni exhibited the highest activity of H2 production (64.02vol.%, 92.08mgg(-1) biomass) from biomass gasification, while rice-char showed the lowest H2 production. PMID:27240230

  19. Hydrogen production by partial oxidative gasification of biomass and its model compounds in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hui; Lu, Youjun; Guo, Liejin; Cao, Changqing; Zhang, Ximin [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Partial oxidative gasification in supercritical water is a new technology for hydrogen production from biomass. Firstly in this paper, supercritical water partial oxidative gasification process was analyzed from the perspective of theory and chemical equilibrium gaseous product was calculated using the thermodynamic model. Secondly, the influence of oxidant equivalent ratio on partial oxidative gasification of model compounds (glucose, lignin) and real biomass (corn cob) in supercritical water was investigated in a fluidized bed system. Experimental results show that oxidant can improve the gasification efficiency, and an appropriate addition of oxidant can improve the yield of hydrogen in certain reaction condition. When ER equaled 0.4, the gasification efficiency of lignin was 3.1 times of that without oxidant. When ER equaled 0.1, the yield of hydrogen from lignin increased by 25.8% compared with that without oxidant. Thirdly, the effects of operation parameters including temperature, pressure, concentration, and flow rate of feedstock on the gasification were investigated. The optimal operation parameters for supercritical water partial oxidative gasification were obtained. (author)

  20. Energetic analysis of gasification of biomass by partial oxidation in supercritical water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Guan; Chaohai Wei; Xinsheng Chai; Ping Ning; Senlin Tian; Junjie Gu; Qiuling Chen; Rongrong Miao

    2015-01-01

    Partial oxidation gasification in supercritical water could produce fuel gases (such as H2, CO and CH4) and signif-icantly reduce the energy consumption. In this work, an energetic model was developed to analyze the partial oxidative gasification of biomass (glucose and lignin) in supercritical water and the related key factors on which gasification under autothermal condition depended upon. The results indicated that the oxidant equiva-lent ratio (ER) should be over 0.3 as the concern about energy balance but less than 0.6 as the concern about fuel gas production. Feedstocks such as glucose and lignin also had different energy recovery efficiency. For ma-terials which can be efficiently gasified, the partial oxidation might be a way for energy based on the combustion of fuel gases. Aromatic materials such as lignin and coal are more potential since partial oxidation could produce similar amount of fuel gases as direct gasification and offer additional energy. Energy recovered pays a key role to achieve an autothermal process. Keeping heat exchanger efficiency above 80%and heat transfer coefficient below 15 kJ·s−1 is necessary to maintain the autothermal status. The results also indicated that the biomass loading should be above 15%but under 20%for an autothermal gasification, since the increase of biomass loading could improve the energy supplied but decrease the efficiency of gasification and gaseous yields. In general, some specific conditions exist among different materials.

  1. Kinetics of petroleum coke/biomass blends during co-gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-liang; Guo, Jian; Wang, Guang-wei; Xu, Tao; Chai, Yi-fan; Zheng, Chang-le; Xu, Run-sheng

    2016-09-01

    The co-gasification behavior and synergistic effect of petroleum coke, biomass, and their blends were studied by thermogravimetric analysis under CO2 atmosphere at different heating rates. The isoconversional method was used to calculate the activation energy. The results showed that the gasification process occurred in two stages: pyrolysis and char gasification. A synergistic effect was observed in the char gasification stage. This effect was caused by alkali and alkaline earth metals in the biomass ash. Kinetics analysis showed that the activation energy in the pyrolysis stage was less than that in the char gasification stage. In the char gasification stage, the activation energy was 129.1-177.8 kJ/mol for petroleum coke, whereas it was 120.3-150.5 kJ/mol for biomass. We also observed that the activation energy calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method were larger than those calculated by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunosen (KAS) method. When the conversion was 1.0, the activation energy was 106.2 kJ/mol when calculated by the KAS method, whereas it was 120.3 kJ/mol when calculated by the FWO method.

  2. Improvement of biomass char-CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity using microwave irradiation and natural catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahijani, Pooya, E-mail: pooya.lahijani@gmail.com [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohammadi, Maedeh, E-mail: m.mohammadi@nit.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, 47148 Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin, E-mail: mezainal@eng.usm.my [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, E-mail: chrahman@usm.my [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • We study microwave-induced gasification of EFB ash-loaded biomass char with CO{sub 2}. • Synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst resulted in CO{sub 2} conversion of 93%. • Gasification of pristine char using conventional heating gives CO{sub 2} conversion of 58%. • E{sub a} of 74 and 247 kJ/mol were obtained for microwave and conventional CO{sub 2} gasification. - Abstract: In char-CO{sub 2} gasification, the highly endothermic nature of the Boudouard reaction (CO{sub 2} (g) + C (s) ↔ 2CO (g)) dictates use of very high temperatures to shift the equilibrium towards CO production. In this study, such high temperature (750–900 °C) was provided by microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to perform the gasification tests by passing CO{sub 2} through a packed bed of oil palm shell (OPS) char. In order to speed up the microwave-induced CO{sub 2} gasification, ash of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was used as natural catalyst (rich in potassium) and incorporated into the skeleton of the OPS char. The synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst concluded to very encouraging results, where a CO{sub 2} conversion of 93% was achieved at 900 °C, within 60 min microwave gasification. In comparison, CO{sub 2} conversion in thermal gasification (conventional heating) of pristine OPS char was only 58% under the same operating condition.

  3. Improvement of biomass char-CO2 gasification reactivity using microwave irradiation and natural catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study microwave-induced gasification of EFB ash-loaded biomass char with CO2. • Synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst resulted in CO2 conversion of 93%. • Gasification of pristine char using conventional heating gives CO2 conversion of 58%. • Ea of 74 and 247 kJ/mol were obtained for microwave and conventional CO2 gasification. - Abstract: In char-CO2 gasification, the highly endothermic nature of the Boudouard reaction (CO2 (g) + C (s) ↔ 2CO (g)) dictates use of very high temperatures to shift the equilibrium towards CO production. In this study, such high temperature (750–900 °C) was provided by microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to perform the gasification tests by passing CO2 through a packed bed of oil palm shell (OPS) char. In order to speed up the microwave-induced CO2 gasification, ash of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was used as natural catalyst (rich in potassium) and incorporated into the skeleton of the OPS char. The synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst concluded to very encouraging results, where a CO2 conversion of 93% was achieved at 900 °C, within 60 min microwave gasification. In comparison, CO2 conversion in thermal gasification (conventional heating) of pristine OPS char was only 58% under the same operating condition

  4. Allothermal gasification of biomass into chemicals and secondary energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The outline of this presentation on the title subject states: Motivation for polygeneration; Allothermal gasification: the MILENA at ECN; Primary gas cleaning: the OLGA for tar removal; Possible secondary energy carriers; Possible chemicals; Polygeneration concept and its feasibility.

  5. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  6. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  7. Biomass Gasification Behavior in an Entrained Flow Reactor: Gas Product Distribution and Soot Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Lin, Weigang;

    2012-01-01

    . In comparison to pyrolysis, lower yields of soot, H2, and CO were produced during gasification. The yield of soot could be reduced by a longer residence time, larger feeder air flow, lower oxygen concentration, higher excess air ratio, higher steam/carbon ratio, and higher reactor temperature. Changes...... in residence time, feeder air flow, and oxygen concentration did not show a noticeable influence on H2 and CO yields. Increasing the excess air ratio decreased both the H2 and CO yields; increasing the steam/carbon ratio increased the H2 yield but decreased the CO yield; and increasing the reactor temperature......Biomass gasification and pyrolysis were studied in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of operating parameters and biomass types on the syngas composition were investigated. In general, the carbon conversion during biomass gasification was higher than 90...

  8. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification; Approche thermodynamique des transformations de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissonnet, G.; Seiler, J.M.

    2003-07-01

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H{sub 2}. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H{sub 2}. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  9. Taguchi approach for co-gasification optimization of torrefied biomass and coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Chih-Jung; Hung, Chen-I

    2013-09-01

    This study employs the Taguchi method to approach the optimum co-gasification operation of torrefied biomass (eucalyptus) and coal in an entrained flow gasifier. The cold gas efficiency is adopted as the performance index of co-gasification. The influences of six parameters, namely, the biomass blending ratio, oxygen-to-fuel mass ratio (O/F ratio), biomass torrefaction temperature, gasification pressure, steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F ratio), and inlet temperature of the carrier gas, on the performance of co-gasification are considered. The analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests that the O/F ratio is the most important factor in determining the performance and the appropriate O/F ratio is 0.7. The performance is also significantly affected by biomass along with torrefaction, where a torrefaction temperature of 300°C is sufficient to upgrade eucalyptus. According to the recommended operating conditions, the values of cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion at the optimum co-gasification are 80.99% and 94.51%, respectively.

  10. Promoting effect of various biomass ashes on the steam gasification of low-rank coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biomass ash was utilized to promote gasification of low rank coal. • Promoting effect of biomass ash highly depended on AAEM content in the ash. • Stability of the ash could be improved by maintaining AAEM amount in the ash. • Different biomass ash could have completely different catalytic activity. - Abstract: Application of biomass ash as a catalyst to improve gasification rate is a promising way for the effective utilization of waste ash as well as for the reduction of cost. Investigation on the catalytic activity of biomass ash to the gasification of low rank coal was performed in details in the present study. Ashes from 3 kinds of biomass, i.e. brown seaweed/BS, eel grass/EG, and rice straw/RS, were separately mixed with coal sample and gasified in a fixed bed downdraft reactor using steam as the gasifying agent. BS and EG ashes enhanced the gas production rate greater than RS ash. Higher catalytic activity of BS or EG ash was mainly attributed to the higher content of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) and lower content of silica in it. Higher content of silica in the RS ash was identified to have inhibiting effect for the steam gasification of coal. Stable catalytic activity was remained when the amount of AAEM in the regenerated ash was maintained as that of the original one

  11. Technology is not a barrier for biomass power: Experiences from 130 biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aijala, M.; Hulkkonen, S.

    1998-07-01

    Finland is one of the leading countries in the utilization of biomass fuels for power production. The biomass fuels in Finland are peat and wood biomass, which are also the only indigenous fuels available. Peat and wood biomass cover about 26% of the primary energy consumption in Finland and their share in power generation is about 18% (peat 8% and wood biomass 10%). There are about 230 biomass fired boilers in operation of which 130 are used for combined heat and power (CHP) production. The wood and peat-fired power plants range in size from a small CHP plant of 5 MWe to the largest condensing plant of 154 MWe. The most common technology today for the biomass fuels is fluidized bed combustion with back pressure steam cycle for district heat or process steam production. Bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) is best for wood and peat combustion and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) is needed, when coal is wanted as a back up fuel. The largest bubbling fluidized bed in Finland has a capacity of 295 MWth using peat and wood wastes as fuels. The smallest ones are only a few MWth. Circulating fluidized bed boilers range from 25 to 290 MWth in biomass applications. Condensing power generation from solid fuels in the relatively small size scale is not economical at todays conditions. Gasification is used only in a few small heating stations. One promising application area for the gasification technology, however, is in the co-combustion processes. The peat and wood biomass fuels are good fuels from combustion point of view, and do not create any major operating problems. The investment cost biomass fired CHP plants range from ECU 1,100 to 1,800/kWe depending on the size range. The costs of electricity in the municipal CHP plants is ECU 20-35/MWh. In industrial plants with longer operating time and low fuel price the cost of electricity can be even lower than ECU 17/MWh.

  12. PFB air gasification of biomass. Investigation of product formation and problematic issues related to ammonia, tar and alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padban, Nader

    2000-09-01

    -aromatics in the product gas. There is an indication that the tars are the products of the stepwise destruction of the primary structure of the biomass. Increased temperature favours dissociation of the heavy tar compounds to lighter structures. During gasification a part of the fuel-bound nitrogen (fb-N) converts to ammonia which forms NO{sub x} in the following combustion steps of the product gas. The degree of conversion to ammonia is dependent on the process parameters and generally increases with increasing ER and temperature until a total carbon conversion is achieved. The mechanisms of the release of the fb-N and also the routes to minimise the ammonia in the product gas are discussed. In a gasification plant alkali metals can be the reason beyond problems such as agglomeration of the bed material, deposit formation on cold surfaces and erosion and corrosion of the ceramic and metallic parts. The experimental results show that the type of alkali from the fuel has a crucial importance in causing the alkali-related problems.

  13. Design, fabrication, operation and Aspen simulation of oil shale pyrolysis and biomass gasification process using a moving bed downdraft reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Hassan

    Energy is the major facilitator of the modern life. Every developed and developing economy requires access to advanced sources of energy to support its growth and prosperity. Declining worldwide crude oil reserves and increasing energy needs has focused attention on developing existing unconventional fossil fuels like oil shale and renewable resources such as biomass. Sustainable, renewable and reliable resources of domestically produced biomass comparing to wind and solar energy is a sensible motivation to establish a small-scale power plant using biomass as feed to supply electricity demand and heat for rural development. The work in Paper I focuses on the possibility of water pollution from spent oil shale which should be studied before any significant commercial production is attempted. In Paper II, the proposed Aspen models for oil shale pyrolysis is to identify the key process parameters for the reactor and optimize the rate of production of syncrude from oil shale. The work in Paper III focuses on (1) Design and operation of a vertical downdraft reactor, (2) Establishing an optimum operating methodology and parameters to maximize syngas production through process testing. Finally in Paper IV, a proposed Aspen model for biomass gasification simulates a real biomass gasification system discussed in Paper III.

  14. Use of farm waste biomass in the process of gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechocki, J. [Warmia and Mazury Univ., Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The process of gasification of waste biomass from farm production was examined along with the energy balance of the process. A newly developed biomass gasification technology that uses manure from poultry farms as the input material was shown to meet all environmental requirements. The gas was purified in a membrane process to increase its calorific value. The gas was then used in an internal combustion engine powering a current generating system to produce electricity and heat in a combined heat and power system (CHP).

  15. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  16. The mathematical description of the gasification process of woody biomass in installations with a plasma heat source for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrtdinov, A. R.; Safin, R. G.; Gerasimov, M. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Gilfanov, K. K.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the scheme of processing of plant biomass in the gasification installation with a plasma heat source to produce synthesis gas suitable for chemical industry. The analyzed physical picture of raw materials' recycling process underlies a mathematical description of the process set out in the form of the basic differential equations with boundary conditions. The received mathematical description allows calculating of the main parameters of equipment for biomass recycling and to determine the optimal modes of its operation.

  17. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-06-19

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. PMID:24946772

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of biomass gasification with CO2 recycle for synthesis gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cold gas efficiency does not take system energy into account, another factor is proposed. • Recycled CO2 improves efficiency and CO2 per syngas production at some operating conditions. • Optimum CO2/C is around 0.1–0.2 for pressurized and low temperature gasification. - Abstract: Thermodynamic analysis of biomass gasification with recycled CO2 was investigated in this work to determine optimum operation mode and CO2/C ratio. Gasification System Efficiency (GSE), which takes into account the energy demand in the system, and CO2 emission per syngas production (CO2/Sg) were calculated to evaluate the performance of the gasification system. Considering the production of syngas at a H2/CO ratio of 1.5, it was revealed that indirect gasification using biomass as fuel is the most efficient and environmental-friendly operation mode. The recycled CO2 proves to increase syngas production. However, when considering the additional energy demand required for processing the CO2 recycle, it was demonstrated that there are only some ranges of operating conditions (high pressure and low temperature) which offer the benefit of the CO2 recycle. The optimum CO2/C was reported to be around 0.1–0.2 for pressurized and low temperature gasification

  19. Influence of pyrolysis conditions on the structure and gasification reactivity of biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; B. Moghtaderi; R. Gupta; T.F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    The physical and chemical structure as well as gasification reactivities of chars generated from several biomass species (i.e. pinus radiata, eucalyptus maculata and sugar cane bagasse) were studied to gain insight into the role of heating rate and pressure on the gasification characteristics of biomass chars. Char samples were generated in a suite of reactors including a wire mesh reactor, a tubular reactor, and a drop tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, digital cinematography and surface area analysis were employed to determine the impact of operating conditions on the char structure. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined for a range of pressures between 1 and 20 bar using pressurised thermogravimetric analysis technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. It was found that under high heating rates the char particles underwent plastic deformation (i.e. melted) developing a structure different to that of the virgin biomass. Pressure was also found to influence the physical and chemical structures of char particles. The difference in the gasification reactivities of biomass chars at pressure was found to correlate well with the effect of pyrolysis pressure on the graphitisation process in the biomass char structure. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Thermogravimetric study on the influence of structural, textural and chemical properties of biomass chars on CO2 gasification reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation aims to examine the influence of textural, structural and chemical properties of biomass chars on the CO2 gasification rate. Various lignocellulosic biomass chars were prepared under the same conditions. Different analytical techniques were used to determine the char properties such as Scanning Electronic Microscopy, nitrogen adsorption manometry, Raman spectroscopy and X Ray Fluorescence. Gasification tests were carried out in a thermobalance under 20% CO2 in nitrogen at 800 °C. Significant differences of the total average reactivity were observed with a factor of 2 between the prepared chars. Moreover, different behaviors of gasification rate profiles versus conversion were obtained. This difference of behavior appeared to be correlated with the biomass char properties. Hence, up to 70% of conversion, the gasification rate was shown to depend on the char external surface and the potassium content. At higher conversion ratio, a satisfactory correlation between the Catalytic Index and the average gasification rate was identified. The results highlight the importance of knowing both textural and structural properties and mineral contents of biomass chars to predict fuel reactivity during CO2 gasification processes. Such behavior prediction is highly important in the gasifiers design for char conversion. - Highlights: • CO2 gasification reactivity of various lignocellulosic chars were examined. • Chars properties affect strongly samples gasification behavior. • Initial gasification rate is affected by external surface, K content and D3/G ratio. • Gasification rate behavior depends on the Alkali index at high conversion

  1. Comparative evaluation of kinetic, equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models for biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Chakma, Sankar; Kumar, Peeush [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Mahanta, Pinakeswar [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of biomass gasification has been an active area of research for past two decades. In the published literature, three approaches have been adopted for the modeling of this process, viz. thermodynamic equilibrium, semi-equilibrium and kinetic. In this paper, we have attempted to present a comparative assessment of these three types of models for predicting outcome of the gasification process in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier. Two model biomass, viz. rice husk and wood particles, have been chosen for analysis, with gasification medium being air. Although the trends in molar composition, net yield and LHV of the producer gas predicted by three models are in concurrence, significant quantitative difference is seen in the results. Due to rather slow kinetics of char gasification and tar oxidation, carbon conversion achieved in single pass of biomass through the gasifier, calculated using kinetic model, is quite low, which adversely affects the yield and LHV of the producer gas. Although equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models reveal relative insensitivity of producer gas characteristics towards temperature, the kinetic model shows significant effect of temperature on LHV of the gas at low air ratios. Kinetic models also reveal volume of the gasifier to be an insignificant parameter, as the net yield and LHV of the gas resulting from 6 m and 10 m riser is same. On a whole, the analysis presented in this paper indicates that thermodynamic models are useful tools for quantitative assessment of the gasification process, while kinetic models provide physically more realistic picture.

  2. Thermoeconomic Analysis Of a Gasification Plant Fed By Woodchips And Integrated With SOFC And STIG Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a thermo-economic analysis of an integrated biogas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for electric power generation. Basic plant layout consists of a gasification plant (GP), an SOFC and a retrofitted gas turbine with steam injection (STIG). Different system...... above 53% and 43% respectively which are significantly greater than conventional 10 MWe plants fed by biomass. Thermo-economic analysis provides an average cost of electricity for best performing layouts close to 6.4 and 9.4 c€/kWe which is competitive within the market. A sensitivity analysis...

  3. Pyrolysis and gasification of single biomass particle – new openFoam solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new solver biomassGasificationFoam that extended the functionalities of the well-supported open-source CFD code OpenFOAM. The main goal of this development is to provide a comprehensive computational environment for a wide range of applications involving reacting gases and solids. The biomassGasificationFoam is an integrated solver capable of modelling thermal conversion, including evaporation, pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion, of various solid materials. In the paper we show that the gas is hotter than the solid except at the centre of the sample, where the temperature of the solid is higher. This effect is expected because the thermal conductivity of the porous matrix of the solid phase is higher than the thermal conductivity of the gases. This effect, which cannot be considered if thermal equilibrium between the gas and solid is assumed, leads to precise description of heat transfer into wood particles.

  4. Performance of HT-WGS Catalysts for Upgrading of Syngas Obtained from Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano Bujan, M.; Sanchez Hervas, J. M.

    2009-05-21

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology is being investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which has started in September 2004 and has a duration of five years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participates in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the period 2005-2007 regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification. (Author) 28 refs.

  5. Biomass CHP plant Guessing: reliable solution for fossil free municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start up of the biomass gasification CHP plant in 2002 marked the last step of the small Austrian town of Guessing towards the supply with 100 % biomass based renewable energy. Furthermore a sustainable process of regional development has been set into force, which turned this former poor region into a prospering European centre of renewable energy. Reaching an electric efficiency of 25 % and a total efficiency of 80 %, the process of steam blown gasification and gas utilisation in an engine enables economic operation even in small plants. For more than 11,000 operating hours the system could prove its reliability. Due to the favourable characteristics of the product gas research projects beyond electricity production were already started. (authors)

  6. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume that t...

  7. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  8. Electric power generation from biomass gasification; Geracao de eletricidade a partir da gaseificacao de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Cristina Aparecida Vilas Boas de; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/IEM/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Estudos em Sistemas Termicos], e-mails: cristinasales@unifei.edu.br, ruben@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a techno-economical evaluation of the biomass gasification utilization with different technologies such as: reciprocating engine, gas micro turbine, Stirling engine and fuel cells for small scale electricity generation. The comparative evaluation about the technologies is limited to the utilization in isolated areas. This paper shows the principal characteristics of these technologies. (author)

  9. Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A system level modelling study of three combined heat and power systems based on biomass gasification is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first system, in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the second system and in a combined SOFC–MGT arrangement in the third...

  10. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  11. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  12. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  13. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  14. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Subramanian, Ramanathan [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rizeq, George [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Eiteneer, Boris [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ladd, David [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Vazquez, Arturo [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Anderson, Denise [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bates, Noel [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation

  15. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  16. Gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J.; Jong, W. de; Hein, K.R.G. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    During a 3 year (1996-1998) multinational JOULE project, partly funded by the EU, experimental and theoretical research is being done on co-gasification of biomass (pelletised straw and Miscanthus) and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed reactor. The influence of feedstock and operating conditions on gasification characteristics has been studied using a 1.5 MW{sub th} gasifier, which has been operated at a pressure of 5 bar and temperatures up to 900 C. The project and the test rig are described and results obtained in the first part of the project are presented and analysed. (orig.)

  17. Experimental and predicted approaches for biomass gasification with enriched air-steam in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qirang; Huang, Yaji; Niu, Miaomiao; Yang, Gaoqiang; Shao, Zhiwei

    2014-10-01

    Thermo-chemical gasification of sawdust refuse-derived fuel was performed on a bench-scale fluidised bed gasifier with enriched air and steam as fluidising and oxidising agents. Dolomite as a natural mineral catalyst was used as bed material to reform tars and hydrocarbons. A series of experiments were carried out under typical operating conditions for gasification, as reported in the article. A modified equilibrium model, based on equilibrium constants, was developed to predict the gasification process. The sensitivity analysis of operating parameters, such as the fluidisation velocity, oxygen percentage of the enriched air and steam to biomass ratios on the produced gas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the predicted syngas composition was in better agreement with the experimental data compared with the original equilibrium model. The higher fluidisation velocity enhanced gas-solid mixing, heat and mass transfers, and carbon fines elutriation, simultaneously. With the increase of oxygen percentage from 21% to 45%, the lower heating value of syngas increased from 5.52 MJ m(-3) to 7.75 MJ m(-3) and cold gas efficiency from 49.09% to 61.39%. The introduction of steam improved gas quality, but a higher steam to biomass ratio could decrease carbon conversion and gasification efficiency owing to a low steam temperature. The optimal value of steam to biomass ratio in this work was 1.0. PMID:25265865

  18. Effects of Biomass Feedstocks and Gasification Conditions on the Physiochemical Properties of Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Huhnke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon and carbon-based catalysts. Considering these high-value applications, char could provide economic benefits to a biorefinery utilizing gasification or pyrolysis technologies. However, the properties of char depend heavily on biomass feedstock, gasifier design and operating conditions. This paper reports the effects of biomass type (switchgrass, sorghum straw and red cedar and equivalence ratio (0.20, 0.25 and 0.28, i.e., the ratio of air supply relative to the air that is required for stoichiometric combustion of biomass, on the physiochemical properties of char derived from gasification. Results show that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface areas of most of the char were 1–10 m2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The corresponding Fourier Transform Infrared spectra showed that the surface functional groups of char differed between biomass types but remained similar with change in equivalence ratio.

  19. The development of biomass gasification technology towards market penetration in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is the second most frequently used fuel, after coal, in China, which accounts for 20% of primary energy consumption. Though the main usage of biomass is for household cooking, the newly developed biomass gasification technology, especially the circulating fluidized bed gasification (CFBG) technology, has laid the foundations for allowing biomass gasification industry penetration into the commercial energy market. The thermal application of CFBG in wood processing factories, utilizing processing wastes to produce gaseous fuel, has been developed successfully and economically in China. The use of CFBG for generating electricity in rice mills, utilizing rice hulls with an output of 1 MW, is also underway. The status and development history of CFBG application in China is introduced in the paper. The aspects of large scale industrial application, utilization of self-produced feed material to reduce the cost of raw material, transportation problems, energy utilization combined with environmental protection etc., is discussed. The economic benefit of using CFBG for biomass and wastes towards market penetration is also presented. (author)

  20. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  1. Modeling and simulation of biomass air-steam gasification in a fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By considering the features of fluidized-bed reactors and the kinetic mechanism of biomass gasification,a steady-state,isothermal,one-dimensional and twophase mathematical model of biomass gasification kinetics in bubbling fluidized beds was developed.The model assumes the existence of two phases - a bubble and an emulsion phase - with chemical reactions occurring in both phases.The axial gas dispersion in the two phases is accounted for and the pyrolysis of biomass is taken to be instantaneous.The char and gas species CO,CO2,H2,H2O,CH4 and 8 chemical reactions are included in the model.The mathematical model belongs to a typical boundary value problem of ordinary differential equations and its solution is obtained by a Matlab program.Utilizing wood powder as the feedstock,the calculated data show satisfactory agreement with experimental results and proves the effectiveness and reliability of the model.

  2. High temperature air-blown woody biomass gasification model for the estimation of an entrained down-flow gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobusuke; Tanaka, Miku; Piao, Guilin; Kobayashi, Jun; Hatano, Shigenobu; Itaya, Yoshinori; Mori, Shigekatsu

    2009-01-01

    A high temperature air-blown gasification model for woody biomass is developed based on an air-blown gasification experiment. A high temperature air-blown gasification experiment on woody biomass in an entrained down-flow gasifier is carried out, and then the simple gasification model is developed based on the experimental results. In the experiment, air-blown gasification is conducted to demonstrate the behavior of this process. Pulverized wood is used as the gasification fuel, which is injected directly into the entrained down-flow gasifier by the pulverized wood banner. The pulverized wood is sieved through 60 mesh and supplied at rates of 19 and 27kg/h. The oxygen-carbon molar ratio (O/C) is employed as the operational condition instead of the air ratio. The maximum temperature achievable is over 1400K when the O/C is from 1.26 to 1.84. The results show that the gas composition is followed by the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. Therefore, the air-blown gasification model is developed based on the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. The simple gasification model agrees well with the experimental results. From calculations in large-scale units, the cold gas is able to achieve 80% efficiency in the air-blown gasification, when the woody biomass feedrate is over 1000kg/h and input air temperature is 700K.

  3. Biomass gasification cogeneration – A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2013-01-01

    in future energy systems. Thermal gasification of biomass is proved throughout this article to be both highly flexible and efficient if used optimally. Cogeneration processes with production of heat-and-power, heat-power-and-fuel or heat-power-and-fertilizer are described and compared. The following......Biomass is a renewable resource from which a broad variety of commodities can be produced. However, the resource is scarce and must be used with care to avoid depleting future stock possibilities. Flexibility and efficiency in production are key characteristics for biomass conversion technologies...

  4. Supercritical Water Gasification of Wet Biomass: Modeling and Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakaboylu, O.

    2016-01-01

    In the following decades, biomass will play an important role among the other renewable energy sources globally as it is already the fourth largest energy resource after coal, oil and natural gas. It is possible to obtain gaseous, liquid or solid biofuels from biomass via thermochemical or biochemic

  5. Issues Impacting Refractory Service Life in Biomass/Waste Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.

    2007-03-01

    Different carbon sources are used, or are being considered, as feedstock for gasifiers; including natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass. Biomass has been used with limited success because of issues such as ash impurity interactions with the refractory liner, which will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the

  7. Energy and exergy analyses of an integrated CCHP system with biomass air gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Propose a biomass-gasification CCHP system. • A heat pipe heat exchanger is used to recover waste heat from product gas. • Present the energy and exergy analyses of the biomass CCHP system. • Analyze the annual off-design performances. - Abstract: Biomass-fueled combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is a sustainable distributed energy system to reduce fossil energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission. This study proposes a biomass CCHP system that contains a biomass gasifier, a heat pipe heat exchanger for recovering waste heat from product gas, an internal combustion engine to produce electricity, an absorption chiller/heater for cooling and heating, and a heat exchanger to produce domestic hot water. Operational flows are presented in three work conditions: summer, winter, and the transitional seasons. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for different operational flows. The case demonstrated that the energy efficiencies in the three work conditions are 50.00%, 37.77%, and 36.95%, whereas the exergy efficiencies are 6.23%, 12.51%, and 13.79%, respectively. Destruction analyses of energy and exergy indicate that the largest destruction occurs in the gasification system, which accounts for more than 70% of the total energy and exergy losses. Annual performance shows that the proposed biomass-fueled CCHP system reduces biomass consumption by 4% compared with the non-use of a heat recovery system for high-temperature product gas

  8. Efficient gasification of wet biomass residue to produce middle caloric gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangwen Xu; Takahiro Murakami; Toshiyuki Suda; Hidehisa Tani; Yutaka Mito

    2008-01-01

    Various process residues represent a kind of biomass resource already concentrated but containing water as much as 60 wt.%.These materials are generally treated as waste or simply combusted directly to generate heat.Recently,we attempted to convert them into middle caloric gas to substitute for natural gas,as a chemical or a high-rank gaseous fuel for advanced combustion utilities.Such conversion is implemented through dual fluidized bed gasification (DFBG).Concerning the high water content of the fuels,DFBG was suggested to accomplish either with high-efficiency fuel drying in advance or direct decoupling of fuel drying/pyrolysis from char gasification and tar/hydrocarbon reforming.Along with fuel drying,calcium-based catalyst can be impregnated into the fuel,without much additional cost,to increase the fuel's gasification reactivity and to reduce tar formation.This article reports the Ca impregnation method and its resulting effects on gasification reactivity and tar suppression ability.Meanwhile,the principle of directly gasifying wet fuel with decoupled dual fluidized bed gasification (D-DFBG) is also highlighted.

  9. Gasification techniques and fluidized-bed gasification of biomass - ways of optimising combustion and energy utilisation. Vergasungstechniken und Wirbelschichtvergasung von Biomasse - Wege zur Optimierung der Verbrennung und der Energienutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, W. (Wamsler Umwelttechnik, Muenchen (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    To date, electricity can only be generated from biomass via steam production. There are no gasification techniques available for generating electricity from biomass at an industrial scale. The paper describes the current stage of development and two possible applications of a gasification technique whose attractivity lies not only in direct electricity production and utilisation of residual heat (block-type thermal power station). The gasification is also a way of compensating the drawbacks of solid fuel combustion compared with gas combustion. (orig./EF)

  10. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  11. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted.

  12. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. PMID:26826573

  13. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Gasification reactivity of biomass chars with CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong Kyun; Lee, Sun Ki; Kang, Min Woong; Hwang, Jungho [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Tae-U. [High Temperature Processing R and D Department of Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 35-3, Hongchon-Ri, Ipchang-Myun, Seobuk-Gu, Chonan-Si (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, carbon conversion was calculated from the data obtained with a real-time gas analyzer. In a lab-scale furnace, each biomass sample was pyrolyzed in a nitrogen environment and became biomass char. For preparation of the char, the furnace was electrically heated over 40 min up to the wall temperature of 850 C, and maintained at the same temperature over 17 min. The furnace was again heated over 3 min to a temperature higher than 850 C and then CO{sub 2} was injected. The biomass char was then gasified with CO{sub 2} under isothermal conditions. The reactivity of biomass char was investigated at various temperatures and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The VRM (volume reaction model), SCM (shrinking core model), and RPM (random pore model) were used to interpret the experimental data. For each model, the activation energy (E) and pre-exponential factor (A) of the biomass char-CO{sub 2} reaction were determined from gas-analysis data by using the Arrhenius equation. For the RPM, the apparent reaction order was determined. According to this study, it was found that the experimental data agreed better with the RPM than with the other two models. Through BET analyses, it was found that the structural parameter ({psi}) of the surface area for the RPM was obtained as 4.22. (author)

  15. COMBUSTION STUDY OF MIXTURES RESULTING FROM A GASIFICATION PROCESS OF FOREST BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro Magalhaes, Eliseu

    2011-01-01

    Syngas is being recognized as a viable energy source worldwide, particularly for stationary power generation. In the current work, three typical syngas compositions have been considered as representative of the syngas resultant from forest biomass gasification, and the possibility of using it in internal combustion engines is studied. First, laminar burning velocities have been determined from schlieren flame images at normal temperature and pressure, over a range of equivalence ratios within...

  16. Structural evolution of biomass char and its effect on the gasification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatehi, Hesameddin; Bai, Xue Song

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of char porous structure can affect the conversion rate of the char by affecting the intra-particle transport, especially in the zone II conversion regime. A multi-pore model based on the capillary pore theory is developed to take into account different conversion rates for pores......-pore model accommodates the detailed intra-particle transport, it is a useful basis toward developing a more predictive model for biomass char gasification....

  17. Project on Biomass Gasification and Power Generation Wins BlueSky Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After a strict scrutiny by an international jury, a . system for biomass gasification and power generation developed by the CAS Guanzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) has been chosen as one of the eight winners of the BlueSky Award in 2005. The event was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Technology Promotion Center for Sustainable Development in Shenzhen, in south China's Guangdong Province.

  18. CFD Simulation of Biomass Gasification using Detailed Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidi, Arash

    2011-01-01

    The use of biomass as a CO2-neutral renewable fuel and the only carbon containing renewable energy source is becoming more important due to the decreasing resources of fossil fuels and their effect on global warming. The projections made for the Renewable Energy Road Map [1] suggested that in the EU, the use of biomass can be expected to double, to contribute around half of the total effort for reaching the 20 % renewable energy target in 2020 [2]. To achieve this goal, efficient processes to...

  19. Interpretation of biomass gasification yields regarding temperature intervals under nitrogen-steam atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    Gasification of some agricultural waste biomass samples (sunflower shell, pine cone, cotton refuse, and olive refuse) and colza seed was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer at temperatures up to 1273 K with a constant heating rate of 20 K/min under a dynamic nitrogen-steam atmosphere. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis profiles of the samples were derived from the non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis data. Gasification yields of the biomass samples at temperature intervals of 473-553 K, 553-653 K, 653-773 K, 773-973 K, and 973-1173 K were investigated considering the successive stages of ''evolution of carbon oxides'', ''start of hydrocarbon evolution'', ''evolution of hydrocarbons'', ''dissociation'', and ''evolution of hydrogen'', respectively. Although, there were some interactions between these stages, some evident relations were observed between the gasification yields in a given stage and the chemical properties of the parent biomass materials. (author)

  20. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  1. Challenges of selecting materials for the process of biomass gasification in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukis, N.; Habicht, W.; Hauer, E.; Dinjus, E. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2010-07-01

    A new process for the gasification of wet biomass is the reaction in supercritical water. The product is a combustible gas, rich in hydrogen with a high calorific value. The reaction is performed under high temperatures - up to 700 C - and pressures up to 30 MPa. The combination of these physical conditions and the corrosive environment is very demanding for the construction materials of the reactor. Only few alloys exhibit the required mechanical properties, especially the mechanical strength at temperatures higher than 600 C. Ni-Base alloys like alloy 625 can be applied up to a temperature of 700 C and are common materials for application under supercritical water conditions. During gasification experiments with corn silage and other biomasses, corrosion of the reactor material alloy 625 appears. The gasification of an aqueous methanol solution in supercritical water at temperatures up to 600 C and 25 - 30 MPa pressure results in an product gas rich in hydrogen, carbon dioxide and some methane. Alloy 625 shows very low corrosion rates in this environment. It is obvious that the heteroatoms and salts present in biomass cause corrosion of the reactor material. (orig.)

  2. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study. PMID:24508907

  3. Energy Characterization and Gasification of Biomass Derived by Hazelnut Cultivation: Analysis of Produced Syngas by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Monarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is an extremely energy intensive process. However, high agricultural productivities and the growth of green revolution has been possible only by large amount of energy inputs, especially those coming from fossil fuels. These energy resources have not been able to provide an economically viable solution for agricultural applications. Biomass energy-based systems had been extensively used for transportation and on farm systems during World War II: the most common and reliable solution was wood or biomass gasification. The latter means incomplete combustion of biomass resulting in production of combustible gases which mostly consist of carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen (H2 and traces of methane (CH4. This mixture is called syngas, which can be successfully used to run internal combustion engines (both compression and spark ignition or as substitute for furnace oil in direct heat applications. The aim of the present paper is to help the experimentation of innovative plants for electric power production using agro-forest biomass derived by hazelnut cultivations. An additional purpose is to point out a connection among the chemical and physical properties of the outgoing syngas by biomass characterization and gas-chromatography analysis.

  4. Modelling of combined cycle power plants using biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, F.; Cano, A. [University of Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Carpio, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2003-04-01

    The olive tree in Spain can generate large quantities of by-product biomass suitable for gasification. Gasification technologies under development would enable these fuels to be used in gas turbines. Biomass conversion to a clean essentially ash-free form, usually by gasification and purification, is necessary to obtain high efficiency. This paper reports results of detailed full-load performance modelling of cogeneration systems based on gasifier/gas turbine technologies. (Author)

  5. Modified Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model for Biomass Gasification: A Study of the Influence of Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Juan Carlos; Coronas, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    to a real process, in which only a partial approach to chemical equilibrium is achieved. The model can be used to predict the producer gas composition, yield, and heating value for a certain biomass with a specific ultimate composition and moisture content. It has been validated with published experimental......This paper presents a mathematical model for biomass gasification processes developed in the equation solver program Engineering Equation Solver (EES) with an implemented user-friendly interface. It is based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and includes some modifications to be adapted...

  6. Artificial neural network models for biomass gasification in fluidized bed gasifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Hernández, J. Alfredo; Bruno, Joan Carles;

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied for modeling biomass gasification process in fluidized bed reactors. Two architectures of ANNs models are presented; one for circulating fluidized bed gasifiers (CFB) and the other for bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers (BFB). Both models determine...... bed gasifier can be successfully predicted by applying neural networks. ANNs models use in the input layer the biomass composition and few operating parameters, two neurons in the hidden layer and the backpropagation algorithm. The results obtained by these ANNs show high agreement with published...

  7. Gasification technologies for heat and power from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, AACM; Maniatis, K; Kaltschmitt, M; Bridgwater, AV

    1997-01-01

    A critical review is presented of biomass gasifier systems presently commercially available or under development. Advantages and possible problem areas are discussed in relation to particular applications. Both large and small scale technologies are reviewed. Catalysed by the EC JOULE and AIR progra

  8. Sulfur Tolerant Magnesium Nickel Silicate Catalyst for Reforming of Biomass Gasification Products to Syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Swartz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium nickel silicate (MNS has been investigated as a catalyst to convert tars and light hydrocarbons to syngas (CO and H2 by steam reforming and CO2 reforming in the presence of H2S for biomass gasification process at NexTech Materials. It was observed that complete CH4 conversion could be achieved on MNS catalyst granules at 800–900 °C and a space velocity of 24,000 mL/g/h in a simulated biomass gasification stream. Addition of 10–20 ppm H2S to the feed had no apparent impact on CH4 conversion. The MNS-washcoated monolith also showed high activities in converting methane, light hydrocarbons and tar to syngas. A 1200 h test without deactivation was achieved on the MNS washcoated monolith in the presence of H2S and/or NH3, two common impurities in gasified biomass. The results indicate that the MNS material is a promising catalyst for removal of tar and light hydrocarbons from biomass gasified gases, enabling efficient use of biomass to produce power, liquid fuels and valuable chemicals.

  9. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  10. Catalytic gasification of char from co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenkui [State key Laboratory of Multi-phase Complex system, the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Song, Wenli; Lin, Weigang [State key Laboratory of Multi-phase Complex system, the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-09-15

    The catalytic gasification of char from co-pyrolysis of coal and wheat straw was studied. Alkali metal salts, especially potassium salts, are considered as effective catalysts for carbon gasification by steam and CO{sub 2}, while too expensive for industry application. The herbaceous type of biomass, which has a high content of potassium, may be used as an inexpensive source of catalyst by co-processing with coal. The reactivity of chars from co-pyrolysis of coal and straw was experimentally examined. The chars were prepared in a spout-entrained reactor with different ratios of coal to straw. The gasification characteristics of chars were measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The co-pyrolysis chars revealed higher gasification reactivity than that of char from coal, especially at high level of carbon conversion. The influence of the alkali in the char and the pyrolysis temperature on the reactivity of co-pyrolysis char was investigated. The experimental results show that the co-pyrolysis char prepared at 750 C have the highest alkali concentration and reactivity. (author)

  11. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow 2; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Haukka, P.; Vehmaan-Kreula, M.; Raiko, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This project was an extension of the earlier Liekki-project 402 carried out in 1993-1994. The aims of the 1995 project were: (1) to study the formation of problematic tar/soot compounds and nitrogen pounds in the conditions of entrained flow gasification of biomass and peat, (2) study the product yields and kinetics of pyrolysis, and (3) to develop simulation methods for entrained flow pyrolysis and gasification. Pyrolysis and gasification tests were carried out at a new entrained flow reactor of the Gasification Research Group of VTT using mainly peat as the feedstock. The pyrolysis kinetics was studies using three particle size distributions of fuel peat (0.075-0.125 mm, 0.16-0.25 mm and 0.315-0.5 mm). The char yields were determined at two temperatures (900 and 1000 deg C) and the effects fuel to gas ratio (suspension density) as well as the effects of gas atmosphere were determined. Limited amount of tests were also carried out with pine wood and dried de-inking sludge. The formation of tars and nitrogen compounds was studied with peat as the feedstock. Based on the test results of this project and the on earlier fluidized-bed gasification data of VTT, the following conclusions can be made: (1) the char yields in rapid entrained flow pyrolysis of small particles of peat and biomass are considerably lower than derived in fluid-bed pyrolysis of more coarse feedstocks. Consequently, simple entrained flow reactors without any recycling of char could already give rather high carbon conversions. However, high carbon conversions can also be easily achieved in fluidized-bed gasifiers with biomass fuels due to the high gasification reactivity of the char, (2) more tars were formed in entrained flow pyrolysis of peat than in fluidized-bed experiments carried out at the same temperature, (3) the total conversion of peat nitrogen to NH{sub 3}+HCN was as high in the entrained flow pyrolysis as in the fluid-bed pyrolysis experiments. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Optical Absorption Spectroscopy for Gas Analysis in Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge

    Biomass gasication as a source of heat, power and chemical feedstock needs monitoring of the gas species to improve the performance and gas quality, deepen the understanding of the process and to be able to control the emission of hazardous compounds. Major species, like H2, CO and CO2, can already...... be determined with sucient precision. However, minor species, like organic, aromatic, sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds, still cause problems in down-stream equipment and are harmful for health and environment. As a result, many different approaches for applications have been proposed to evaluate...

  13. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  14. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  15. Biomass Steam Gasification with In-Situ CO2 Capture for Enriched Hydrogen Gas Production: A Reaction Kinetics Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work. This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of hydrogen production process via biomass steam gasification with calcium oxide as sorbent in a gasifier. A modelling framework consisting of kinetics models for char gasification, methanation, Boudouard, methane reforming, water gas shift and carbonation reactions to represent the gasification and CO2 adsorption in the gasifier, is developed and implemented in MATLAB. The scope of the work includes an investigation of the influence of the temperature, steam/biomass ratio and sorbent/biomass ratio on the amount of hydrogen produced, product gas compositions and carbon conversion. The importance of different reactions involved in the process is also discussed. It is observed that hydrogen production and carbon conversion increase with increasing temperature and steam/biomass ratio. The model predicts a maximum hydrogen mole fraction in the product gas of 0.81 occurring at 950 K, steam/biomass ratio of 3.0 and sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.0. In addition, at sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.52, purity of H2 can be increased to 0.98 mole fraction with all CO2 present in the system adsorbed.

  16. Hydrodynamic study on gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.BASKARA SETHUPATHY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current scenario of energy insecurity urges us to realize the importance of alternate energy sources. In country with variety of vegetation like India, Biomass finds its place of which fluidized bed gasification of biomass could be more effective. This paper emphasizes the importance of a fluidized bed gasifier for energy conversion of agro-residues for useful purposes. Coconut Shell and Ground nut shell of gross calorific value 19.43MJ/kg and 14.91 MJ/kg respectively are taken for the study. The particle size is restricted not to exceed 3mm. Various empirical correlations involved in fluidization are studied and their interdependence is detailed. From various published data, importance of inert materials and their relative proportions with biomass fuels are studied and optimum biomass to sand ratio is fixed as 10 to 15% by mass. Equations for predicting the minimum fluidization velocities of these mixtures are also discussed. Variations of Fluidization parameters such asminimum fluidization velocity, bubble rise velocity, expanded bed height with respect to temperature, equivalence ratio, particle size is studied and their quantification is analyzed. A 108 mm internal diameter and 1400 mm high FBG is used for the study. Fuel is fed through screw feeder and air is supplied through blower. In the down stream side cyclone separator is placed after which the sampling and burner lines are connected. A regression model is developed and the feasibility of gasifying coconut shell and groundnut shell are discussed. Earlier and present work of coconut shell gasification proves fluidized bed gasification is more appropriate for agro residues.

  17. Performance evaluation of an integrated small-scale SOFC-biomass gasification power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchanapai, Suranat; Iwai, Hiroshi; Saito, Motohiro; Yoshida, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The combination of biomass gasification and high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offers great potential as a future sustainable power generation system. In order to provide insights into an integrated small-scale SOFC-biomass gasification power generation system, system simulation was performed under diverse operating conditions. A detailed anode-supported planar SOFC model under co-flow operation and a thermodynamic equilibrium for biomass gasification model were developed and verified by reliable experimental and simulation data. The other peripheral components include three gas-to-gas heat exchangers (HXs), heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), burner, fuel and air compressors. To determine safe operating conditions with high system efficiency, energy and exergy analysis was performed to investigate the influence through detailed sensitivity analysis of four key parameters, e.g. steam-to-biomass ratio (STBR), SOFC inlet stream temperatures, fuel utilization factor (Uf) and anode off-gas recycle ratio (AGR) on system performance. Due to the fact that SOFC stack is accounted for the most expensive part of the initial investment cost, the number of cells required for SOFC stack is economically optimized as well. Through the detailed sensitivity analysis, it shows that the increase of STBR positively affects SOFC while gasifier performance drops. The most preferable operating STBR is 1.5 when the highest system efficiencies and the smallest number of cells. The increase in SOFC inlet temperature shows negative impact on system and gasifier performances while SOFC efficiencies are slightly increased. The number of cells required for SOFC is reduced with the increase of SOFC inlet temperature. The system performance is optimized for Uf of 0.75 while SOFC and system efficiencies are the highest with the smallest number of cells. The result also shows the optimal anode off-gas recycle ratio of 0.6. Regarding with the increase of anode off-gas recycle ratio

  18. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading: technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification pro

  19. Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from raw and torrefied biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E M; Dupont, C; Darvell, L I; Commandré, J-M; Saddawi, A; Jones, J M; Grateau, M; Nocquet, T; Salvador, S

    2012-09-01

    Torrefaction is a mild thermal pretreatment (Ttorrefaction on the gasification and oxidation reactivity of chars from torrefied and raw biomass was investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the differences in O(2) and steam reactivity, between chars prepared from torrefied and raw willow, under both high- and low-heating-rate conditions. High-heating-rate chars were prepared at 900°C with a residence time of 2s. Low-heating-rate chars were prepared with a heating rate of 33°C/min, a maximum temperature of 850 or 1000°C, and a residence time of 30 min or 1h, respectively, at the maximum temperature. Pretreatment by torrefaction consistently reduced char reactivity. Torrefaction's impact was greatest for high-heating-rate chars, reducing reactivity by a factor of two to three. The effect of torrefaction on a residence time requirements for char burnout and gasification was estimated.

  20. Economic viability of the construction and operation of a biomass gasificator for poultry houses heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima Ferreira; Martin, Samuel; Melo, Lucas D.; Bueno, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: fzanatta@vicosa.ufv.br

    2008-07-01

    In all poultry farms, at least in the first days of life of the chicken, it is necessary to heat the environment to obtain a good development of the chicken and good economics results. However, this additional heat generation is sometimes neglected or not well executed, because of the costs that this practice could bring. This research has the objective of analyze the costs of construction and operation of a Biomass Gasificator for Poultry Houses Heating in comparison with a direct furnace system. The fuel used in both systems was firewood of eucalyptus. For so much, economic analyzes was make considering the costs of the gasification systems implementation in substitution of the traditional system used in the company (direct furnace system). For the viability the adopted method was the partial budget and the complementary investments were analyzed through the cash flow elaboration and of determination of indicator of economic feasibility. (author)

  1. Biomass Co-Firing in Suspension-Fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Hvid, Søren Lovmand; Baxter, Larry

    , in the future it is expected to become relevant to cofire in more advanced plants as the trend in the power plant structure is towards older plants having fewer operating hours or being decommissioned. A major product of this project is an experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based......The objective of the project is to investigate critical issues associated with cofiring with low-NOx burners and cofiring in advanced suspension-fired plants with for example high-temperature steam cycles. Experience has been gained using biofuels for cofiring in older power plant units. However...... of advanced cofired combustion and potentially gasification systems and secondarily to resolve immediate and critical issues associated with cofired systems. Another essential issue is the assessment of fuel flexibility in cofired plants to help keep biomass use competitive compared to other renewable...

  2. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  3. Hydrogen production from biomass. Optimization of gasification by experimental by experimental statistical design; Produccion de hidrogeno a partir de biomasa. Optimizacion de la gasificacion por aplicacion del diseno estadistico de experimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche Calvo, A.

    2008-07-01

    Biomass conversion into a gas with high content in hydrogen is considered as a future alternative to obtain energy and chemicals products for renewable sources. One of the current technologies for this purpose is the gasification using steam as gasification agent. The technical objective of this work is the study of the process of biomass gasification with steam and oxygen as thermochemical process of transformation of biomass to obtain the maximum amount of hydrogen with lowest tar content. Materials and Methods. An experimental statistical strategy with three variables and two levels of operation was planned to optimize the gasification process. the study was conducted without changing the type of biomass-fed, the type of catalyst used and the quantity of bed inside the gasifier. Two mathematical models have been obtained as results. Both of them correlated the experimental factors to the production of hydrogen and tars. The design of experiments methodology has been applied to assess the influence os several experimental factors, such as the introduced amount of steam, the use of catalyst and oxygen, both in the production of hydrogen, as in the minimization of the formation of tars. This statistical technique has enabled the modeling of the selected biomass gasification performing the minimum number of pilot plant tests to identify possible improvements and optimizations both in the yield of produced hydrogen as in the generation of tars. (Author) 10 refs.

  4. High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification of Biomass Wastes - Stage 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; Szewczyk, Dariusz; Lucas, Carlos; Rafidi, Nabil; Abeyweera Ruchira; Jansson, Anna; Bjoerkman, Eva [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2003-05-01

    In Jan 2002 the Division of Energy and Furnace Technology started the project High Temperature Air an Steam Gasification (HTAG) of biomass wastes, following the approval made by Swedish Energy Agency. The research proved successful; with the fixed bed updraft gasifier coupled to the highly regenerative preheater equipment able to produce a fuel gas not only from wood pellets but also from wood chips, bark and charcoal with considerably reduced amount of tar. This report provides information on solid biomass conversion into fuel gas as a result of air and steam gasification process performed in a fixed bed updraft gasifier. The first chapter of the report presents the overall objectives and the specific objectives of the work. Chapter 2 summarizes state-of-the-art on the gasification field stating some technical differences between low and high temperature gasification processes. Description and schemes of the experimental test rig are provided in Chapter 3. The equipment used to perform measurements of different sort and that installed in the course of the work is described in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes the methodology of experiments conducted whose results were processed and evaluated with help of the scheme of equations presented in Chapter 6, called raw data evaluation. Results of relevant experiments are presented and discussed in Chapter 7. A summary discussion of the tar analysis is presented in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 summarizes the findings of the research work conducted and identifies future efforts to ensure the development of next stage. Final chapter provides a summary of conclusions and recommendations of the work. References are provided at the end of the report. Aimed to assist the understanding of the work done, tables and graphs of experiments conducted, irrespective to their quality, are presented in appendices.

  5. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  6. The effect of Jatropha torrified biomass and coal preparation on steam co-gasification in a fixed bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloqaili, Mashal Mohammed

    Coal fired power stations produce vast amounts of harmful products that may affect our health and environment. Co-gasification of coal and biomass could be a solution to this issue as an emerging technology. Biomass may reduce emissions significantly and it may contribute to reducing capital operational cost while providing high gas yields. This research tests the co-gasification of coal and biomass blended chars. Coal and biomass were both prepared. Coal Illinois No #6 was prepared as coal semi-char and coal-char while Jatropha biomass was torrefied at six different temperatures ranging from [200-300] ºC. The co-gasification experiments was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. A gasification temperature was 900 ºC and a constant flow rate of 100 mL/min. Carbon conversion, maximum char reactivity, products yield and amount of hydrogen produced were evaluated and studied based on data obtained from the G.C. Additionally, weight of bed material and ash leftover weight from gasification process were significantly contributed in calculating the carbon conversion percentages.

  7. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  8. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases and aqueous phases. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay and mouse skin tumorigenicity tests). These results are the first step of a longer term program to determine the properties, handling requirements, and utility of the condensates recovered from biomass gasification and pyrolysis. The analytical data demonstrates the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures. 56 refs., 25 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. The influence of partial oxidation mechanisms on tar destruction in TwoStage biomass gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Egsgaard, Helge; Stelte, Wolfgang;

    2013-01-01

    TwoStage gasification of biomass results in almost tar free producer gas suitable for multiple end-use purposes. In the present study, it is investigated to what extent the partial oxidation process of the pyrolysis gas from the first stage is involved in direct and in-direct tar destruction...... adsorption and determined by stable isotope dilution analysis. The results have shown that partial oxidation reduces and converts primary tars into low molecular weight, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), primarily naphthalene. At temperatures above 950°C practically all phenol is converted...

  10. Synthesis, Modeling and Exergy Analysis of Atmospheric Air Blown Biomass Gasification for Fischer-Tropsch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Panopoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of the present work is to investigate the combination of an atmospheric and a pressurised air blown biomass gasifier towards Fischer-Tropsch (FT synthesis of second generation biofuels and co-production of power. The complete process was simulated in AspenPlusTM software including sub-models for the gasification, gas cleaning and conditioning as well as for the FT reactor. A sensitivity analysis on exergetic performance was performed mainly examining the recycling of FT-tail gas. For the base case of 80% FT CO conversion without any recirculation, the exergetic efficiency was found to be 34.3% with atmospheric gasification and 30.64% for pressurised gasification. Recirculation of the non-reacted CO, H2 as well as light gas products of the FT-reactor back to the atmospheric gasifier can increase the overall efficiency up to 48.1 %.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings.

  11. Gasification CFD Modeling for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.; Guenther, C.P.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we have described recent progress on developing CFD models for two commercial-scale gasifiers, including a two-stage, coal slurry-fed, oxygen-blown, pressurized, entrained-flow gasifier and a scaled-up design of the PSDF transport gasifier. Also highlighted was NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator for coupling high-fidelity equipment models with process simulation for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced power plants. Using APECS, we have coupled the entrained-flow gasifier CFD model into a coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant. The results for the FutureGen co-simulation illustrate how the APECS technology can help engineers better understand and optimize gasifier fluid dynamics and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance.

  12. Formation and removal of biomass-derived contaminants in fluidized-bed gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of this thesis were to examine the effects of the feedstock and the operating conditions of a fluidized-bed gasifier on the formation of tars and nitrogen-containing compounds and to study the effectiveness of the hot gas cleaning methods developed for the removal of particulates, alkali metals, tars and nitrogen-containing compounds. The most essential part of the work was carried out in the pressurized fluidized-bed gasification test facilities composed of an air-blown bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent hot gas filter unit. The operation pressure of the test rig could be varied in the range 0.3 - 1.0 MPa and the maximum allowable gasification temperature was 1 050 deg C. The maximum capacity with biomass fuels was 80 kg/h. A wide range of feedstocks from hard coals, lignite and peat to different wood derived fuels and straw were used in the gasification tests. Two different types of ceramic filters were tested in the filter unit connected to the pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier. The filter unit was operated in a temperature range of 400 - 740 deg C. The particulate removal requirements set by the gas turbines were met by both types of filters and with product gases derived from all the feedstocks tested. In addition to the gasification and gas filtration tests, catalytic tar and ammonia decomposition was studied using both laboratory and bench-scale test facilities. Inexpensive calcium-based bulk materials, dolomites and limestones, were efficient tar decomposition catalysts in atmospheric-pressure tests

  13. Development of a bi-equilibrium model for biomass gasification in a downdraft bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes a simple and accurate tool for predicting the main parameters of biomass gasification (syngas composition, heating value, flow rate), suitable for process study and system analysis. A multizonal model based on non-stoichiometric equilibrium models and a repartition factor, simulating the bypass of pyrolysis products through the oxidant zone, was developed. The results of tests with different feedstocks (corn cobs, wood pellets, rice husks and vine pruning) in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350kW) were used for validation. The average discrepancy between model and experimental results was up to 8 times less than the one with the simple equilibrium model. The repartition factor was successfully related to the operating conditions and characteristics of the biomass to simulate different conditions of the gasifier (variation in potentiality, densification and mixing of feedstock) and analyze the model sensitivity.

  14. About the gasification of untreated scrap and waste wood in fluidized bed reactor for use in decentralized gas engine-cogeneration plants; Zur Vergasung von Rest- und Abfallholz in Wirbelschichtreaktoren fuer dezentrale Energieversorgungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepper, H.

    2005-10-20

    This dissertation examines the thermochemical conversion (gasification) of untreated scrap and waste wood in combustible gases for use in decentralized gas engine-cogeneration plants of low output (1 to 10 MW fuel power). A general section goes into the basics of the energetic utilization of solid biomass, the subprocesses of thermochemical conversion being described in more detail. Special attention is given to the processes and state of the art of biomass gasification in decentralized plants. A theoretical section analyzes the gasification models for solid biomass presented in the literature. Based on this analysis, a simplified kinetic model is derived for the gasification of untreated scrap and waste wood with air in bubbling fluidized bed reactors. It includes a fluid mechanic analysis of the fluidized bed based on HILLIGARDT, an empirical pyrolysis model and a global kinetic approach to the main chemical reaction taken from the literature. An experimental section describes the tests of the gasification of forest scrap wood in a semi-industrial fluidized bed gasification test plant with 150 kW fuel power and presents the significant test results. The gasification model derived is applied to check the test plant's standard settings and compare them with measured values. Furthermore, the model is employed to explain basic reaction paths and zones and to perform concluding parameter simulations. (orig.)

  15. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  16. Dairy Biomass-Wyoming Coal Blends Fixed Gasification Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gordillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated animal feeding operations such as dairies produce a large amount of manure, termed as dairy biomass (DB, which could serve as renewable feedstock for thermal gasification. DB is a low-quality fuel compared to fossil fuels, and hence the product gases have lower heat content; however, the quality of gases can be improved by blending with coals. This paper deals with air-steam fixed-bed counterflow gasification of dairy biomass-Wyoming coal blend (DBWC. The effects of equivalence ratio (1.6<Φ<6.4 and steam-to-fuel ratio (0.4

  17. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  18. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  19. Tar analysis from biomass gasification by means of online fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhakl, Christoph; Karellas, Sotirios

    2011-07-01

    Optical methods in gas analysis are very valuable mainly due to their non-intrusive character. That gives the possibility to use them for in-situ or online measurements with only optical intervention in the measurement volume. In processes like the gasification of biomass, it is of high importance to monitor the gas quality in order to use the product gas in proper machines for energy production following the restrictions in the gas composition but also improving its quality, which leads to high efficient systems. One of the main problems in the biomass gasification process is the formation of tars. These higher hydrocarbons can lead to problems in the operation of the energy system. Up to date, the state of the art method used widely for the determination of tars is a standardized offline measurement system, the so-called "Tar Protocol". The aim of this work is to describe an innovative, online, optical method for determining the tar content of the product gas by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. This method uses optical sources and detectors that can be found in the market at low cost and therefore it is very attractive, especially for industrial applications where cost efficiency followed by medium to high precision are of high importance.

  20. Modeling and Assessment of a Biomass Gasification Integrated System for Multigeneration Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Khanmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass due to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts has attracted many researchers’ attention in the recent years. Access to an energy conversion system which is able to have the optimum performance for applying valuable low heating value fuels has been considered by many practitioners and scholars. This paper focuses on the accurate modeling of biomass gasification process and the optimal design of a multigeneration system (heating, cooling, electrical power, and hydrogen as energy carrier to take the advantage of this clean energy. In the process of gasification modeling, a thermodynamic equilibrium model based on Gibbs energy minimization is used. Also, in the present study, a detailed parametric analysis of multigeneration system for undersigning the behavior of objective functions with changing design parameters and obtaining the optimal design parameters of the system is done as well. The results show that with exergy efficiency as an objective function this parameter can increase from 19.6% in base case to 21.89% in the optimized case. Also, for the total cost rate of system as an objective function it can decrease from 154.4 $/h to 145.1 $/h.

  1. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N.; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  2. Techno-economic analysis of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding biomass-based ammonia production systems. • Integration of an ammonia production process in a pulp and paper mill. • Integrated ammonia production gains higher system efficiency than stand-alone production. • The economics of an integrated production system is improved compared to stand-alone production. - Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) can be produced by synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen in the Haber–Bosch process, where the economic challenge is the hydrogen production. Currently, substantial amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted from the ammonia industry since the hydrogen production is almost exclusively based on fossil feedstocks. Hydrogen produced via gasification of lignocellulosic biomass is a more environmentally friendly alternative, but the economic performance is critical. The main objective of this work was to perform a techno-economic evaluation of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification in an existing pulp and paper mill. The results were compared with a stand-alone production case to find potential technical and economic benefits deriving from the integration. The biomass gasifier and the subsequent NH3 production were modelled using the commercial software Aspen Plus. A process integration model based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) was used to analyze the effects on the overall energy system of the pulp mill. Important modelling constraints were to maintain the pulp production and the steam balance of the mill. The results showed that the process economics and energy performance are favourable for the integrated case compared to stand-alone production. The main conclusion was however that a rather high NH3 selling price is required to make both production cases economically feasible

  3. Industrial demonstration plant for the gasification of herb residue by fluidized bed two-stage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xi; Shao, Ruyi; Wang, Fang; Dong, Pengwei; Yu, Jian; Xu, Guangwen

    2016-04-01

    A fluidized bed two-stage gasification process, consisting of a fluidized-bed (FB) pyrolyzer and a transport fluidized bed (TFB) gasifier, has been proposed to gasify biomass for fuel gas production with low tar content. On the basis of our previous fundamental study, an autothermal two-stage gasifier has been designed and built for gasify a kind of Chinese herb residue with a treating capacity of 600 kg/h. The testing data in the operational stable stage of the industrial demonstration plant showed that when keeping the reaction temperatures of pyrolyzer and gasifier respectively at about 700 °C and 850 °C, the heating value of fuel gas can reach 1200 kcal/Nm(3), and the tar content in the produced fuel gas was about 0.4 g/Nm(3). The results from this pilot industrial demonstration plant fully verified the feasibility and technical features of the proposed FB two-stage gasification process. PMID:26849201

  4. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  5. Integration of a municipal solid waste gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    it reacts with air and produces electricity. The exhausted gases out of the SOFC enter a burner for further fuel combusting and finally the off-gases are sent to a gas turbine to produce additional electricity. Different plant configurations have been studied and the best one found to be a regenerative gas...... in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of an SOFC is fed wherein...

  6. Assessment of the Potential of Biomass Gasification for Electricity Generation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is an agriculture based country where more than 65 percent of the people live in rural areas and over 70% of total primary energy consumption is covered by biomass, mainly agricultural waste and wood. Only about 6% of the entire population has access to natural gas, primarily in urban areas. Electricity production in Bangladesh largely depends on fossil fuel whose reserve is now under threat and the government is now focusing on the alternating sources to harness electricity to meet the continuous increasing demand. To reduce the dependency on fossil fuels, biomass to electricity could play a vital role in this regard. This paper explores the biomass based power generation potential of Bangladesh through gasification technology—an efficient thermochemical process for distributed power generation. It has been estimated that the total power generation from the agricultural residue is about 1178 MWe. Among them, the generation potential from rice husk, and bagasses is 1010 MWe, and 50 MWe, respectively. On the other hand, wheat straw, jute stalks, maize residues, lentil straw, and coconut shell are also the promising biomass resources for power generation which counted around 118 MWe. The forest residue and municipal solid waste could also contribute to the total power generation 250 MWe and 100 MWe, respectively.

  7. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  8. Methanol production via pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification – Techno-economic comparison of integrated vs. stand-alone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11–18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR. - Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding integration of methanol synthesis processes in a pulp and paper mill are presented. • The overall energy efficiency increases in integrated methanol production systems compared to stand-alone production units. • The economics of the integrated system improves compared to stand-alone alternatives. • Tax

  9. On the gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water : over de vergassing van natte biomassa in superkritiek water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a challenging thermo-chemical conversion route for wet biomass and waste streams into hydrogen and/or methane. At temperatures and pressures above the critical point the physical properties of water differ strongly from liquid water or steam. Because of the

  10. Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Agrawal

    2004-09-07

    The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

  11. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels.

  12. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. PMID:26164851

  13. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  14. Biomass ash - bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in fluidised bed combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.J.M.; Hofmans, H.; Huijnen, R.; Kastelein, R.; Kiel, J.H.A. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The present study has been aimed at improving the fundamental understanding of mechanisms underlying agglomeration and defluidisation in fluidised bed combustion and gasification of biomass and waste. To this purpose dedicated lab-scale static heating and fluidisation experiments have been conducted with carefully selected and prepared ashes and bed materials, viz. straw ash/sand and willow ash/sand mixtures, mullite subjected to straw gasification and artificially coated mullite. The main conclusion is that ash/bed material interaction processes are very important and often determine the bed agglomeration and defluidisation tendency. In the static heating experiments with both ash/sand mixtures, partial melting-segregation of ash components and dissolution/reaction with the bed material are processes that determine the melt composition. This melt composition and behaviour can deviate considerably form expectations based on ash-only data. Artificially coated bed materials prove to be very useful for systematic studies on the influence of coating composition and thickness on agglomeration tendency. For the coated mullite samples, different stages in the defluidisation process are identified and the influence of coating properties (thickness, composition, morphology) and operating parameters is elucidated. The behaviour of the mullite appears to be dominated by a remnant glass phase. On the one hand, this glass phase accounts for an alkali-getter capability, while on the other hand it is mainly responsible for agglomeration at temperatures {>=} 800C. 3 refs.

  15. Experimental Gasification of Biomass in an Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Surjosatyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The updraft gasifier is a simple type of reactor for the gasification of biomass that is easy to operate and has high conversion efficiency, although it produces high levels of tar. This study attempts to observe the performance of a modified updraft gasifier. A modified updraft gasifier that recirculates the pyrolysis gases from drying zone back to the combustion zone and gas outlet at reduction zone was used. In this study, the level of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone was varied, and as well as measurements of gas composition, lower heating value and tar content. The results showed that an increase in the amount of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone resulted in a decrease in the amount of tar produced. An increase in the amount of recirculated gases tended to increase the concentrations of H2 and CH4 and reduce the concentration of CO with the primary (gasification air flow held constant. Increasing the primary air flow tended to increase the amount of CO and decrease the amount of H2. The maximum of lower heating value was 4.9 MJ/m3.

  16. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. PMID:27118736

  17. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency.

  18. Design of a 2.5MW(e) biomass gasification power generation module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, R.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this contract was to produce a detailed process and mechanical design of a gasification and gas clean up system for a 2.5MW(e) power generation module based on the generation of electrical power from a wood chip feed stock. The design is to enable the detailed economic evaluation of the process and to verify the technical performance data provided by the pilot plant programme. Detailed process and equipment design also assists in the speed at which the technology can be implemented into a demonstration project. (author)

  19. Experimental investigation of solid oxide fuel cells using biomass gasification producer gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norheim, Arnstein

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations related to utilisation of biomass gasification producer gases as fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Initial fundamental steps towards a future system of combined heat and power production based on biomass gasification and SOFC are performed and include: 1) Theoretical modeling of the composition of biomass gasification producer gases. 2) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas as fuel. 3) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas containing high sulphur concentration. The modeling of the composition of gasifier producer gas was performed using the program FactSage. The main objective was to investigate the amount and speciation of trace species in the producer gases as several parameters were varied. Thus, the composition at thermodynamic equilibrium of sulphur, chlorine, potassium, sodium and compounds of these were established. This was done for varying content of the trace species in the biomass material at different temperatures and fuel utilisation i.e. varying oxygen content in the producer gas. The temperature interval investigated was in the range of normal SOFC operation. It was found that sulphur is expected to be found as H2S irrespective of temperature and amount of sulphur. Only at very high fuel utilisation some S02 is formed. Important potassium containing compounds in the gas are gaseous KOH and K. When chlorine is present, the amount of KOH and K will decrease due to the formation of KCI. The level of sodium investigated here was low, but some Na, NaOH and NaCl is expected to be formed. Below a certain temperature, condensation of alkali rich carbonates may occur. The temperature at which condensation begins is mainly depending on the amount of potassium present; the condensation temperature increases with increasing potassium content. In the first experimental work

  20. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    ), fast growing energy crops (switchgrass), and popular forage crop (alfalfa), as well as biochar derived from those materials and their mixtures. It demonstrated that Py-MBMS coupled with MVA could be used as fast analytical tools for the study of not only biomass composition but also its thermal decomposition behaviors. It found that the impact of biomass composition heavily depends on the thermal decomposition temperature because at different temperature, the composition of biomass decomposed and the impact of minerals on the decomposition reaction varies. At low temperature (200-500°C), organic compounds attribute to the majority of variation in thermal decomposition products. At higher temperature, inorganics dramatically changed the pyrolysis pathway of carbohydrates and possibly lignin. In gasification, gasification tar formation is also observed to be impacted by ash content in vapor and char. In real reactor, biochar structure also has interactions with other fractions to make the final pyrolysis and gasification product. Based on the evaluation of process efficiencies during torrefaction, temperature ranging from 275°C to 300°C with short residence time (<10min) are proposed to be optimal torrefaction conditions. 500°C is preferred to 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature in two stage gasification because higher primary pyrolysis temperature resulted in more tar and less gasification char. Also, in terms of carbon yield, more carbon is lost in tar while less carbon is retained in gas product using 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature. In addition, pyrolysis char is found to produce less tar and more gas during steam gasification compared with gasification of pyrolysis vapor. Thus it is suggested that torrefaction might be an efficient pretreatment for biomass gasification because it can largely improve the yield of pyrolysis char during the primary pyrolysis step of gasification thus reduce the total tar of the overall gasification products. Future work

  1. Experimental study on application of high temperature reactor excess heat in the process of coal and biomass co-gasification to hydrogen-rich gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of the experimental study on the simulated application of HTR (High Temperature Reactor) excess heat in the process of allothermal co-gasification of coal and biomass. The laboratory scale installation with a fixed bed gasifier and auxiliary gasification agents pre-heating system, simulating the utilization of the HTR excess heat, were applied in the study. Steam and oxygen were the gasification media employed, and the process was focused on hydrogen-rich gas production. The results of the co-gasification of fuel blends of various biomass content at 800 °C and in various system configurations proved that the application of the simulated HTR excess heat in pre-heating of the gasification agents leads to the increase in the gaseous product yield. Furthermore, the HCA (Hierarchical Clustering Analysis) employed in the experimental data analysis revealed that the gasification of fuel blends of 20 and 40%w/w of biomass content results in higher volumes of the total gas, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide than gasification of fuel blends of higher biomass content. - Highlights: • Simulated utilization of HTR excess heat in co-gasification of coal and biomass. • Assessment of three system configurations in terms of hydrogen production. • Application of the HCA in the experimental data set analysis. • Variation in gas components volume and content with fuel blend composition

  2. Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ECR technique was proposed to convert biomass gasification tar model compounds. • Electric current enhanced the reforming efficiency remarkably. • The highest toluene conversion reached 99.9%. • Ni–CeO2/γ-Al2O3 exhibited good stability during the ECR performance. - Abstract: Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni–CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H2 and CO were the major gas products, while CO2 and CH4 were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion

  3. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  4. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  5. Economic assessment of solar and conventional biomass gasification technologies: Financial and policy implications under feedstock and product gas price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four configurations of a novel solar-heated biomass gasification facility and one configuration of conventional biomass gasification are analyzed through financial and policy scenarios. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential financial position for varying configurations of a novel technology, as compared to the current state-of-the-art gasification technology. Through the use of project finance and policy scenario development, we assess the baseline breakeven syngas price (normalized against natural gas prices and based upon annual feedstock consumption), the sensitivity of major cost components for the novel facilities, and the implications of policy levers on the economic feasibility of the solar facilities. Findings show that certain solar configurations may compete with conventional facilities on a straightforward economic basis. However, with renewable energy policy levers in place the solar technologies become increasingly attractive options. - Highlights: • We model four solar and one conventional biomass gasification systems. • We assess economic feasibility of these systems with and without policy incentives. • Solar facilities compete with the conventional system in certain scenarios. • Feedstock costs are the largest contributor to system cost sensitivity. • Policy incentives create an economically favorable scenario for solar facilities

  6. Electric energy generation using biomass gasification; Generacion de energia electrica a partir de la gasificacion de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J.; Arauzo, J.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Sanchez, Jose Luis [Universidad de Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion. Grupo de Procesos Termoquimicos; Rocha, J.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Mesa Perez, J.M. [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Gasification experiments have been carried out with a atmospheric pressure down draft gasifier of a capacity of 250 kg/h of biomass. Biomass used have been almond shells and olive cut. Results obtained show a similar behaviour in gas composition with two biomass. A small fraction of the generated gas from the gasifier has been fed to a small generator of 4 kV A. The gas has been previously cleaned and dried by means of a scrubber and a condenser, to remove tar products. The generator has been operated with a great stability without any modification, and energy generated with gas from gasification are relatively close to the values obtained with conventional fuels such as gasoline or commercial butane. (author)

  7. Biomass market introduction. How to overcome the non-technical barriers for a wider use of biomass gasification in Europe. Proceedings of a workshop. Utrecht, November 28. 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy projects can fail due to technical problems but also due to non-technical barriers. The authors mention the risk of failure, the biomass supply assurance, financing, uncertainty about emission regulations, and acceptance by the public. On the above mentioned background a workshop was organised at 28 November 1997, as a joint activity of Novem and the EU / FAIR Concerted Action Analysis and Co-ordination of the Activities concerning a Gasification of Biomass'. At this workshop important non-technical barriers are identified, ways how to overcome them are analyzed, defined and actions are discussed to be taken on the EU and National level to improve the implementation of biomass gasification projects. Copies of overhead sheets and texts of 14 papers are presented

  8. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  9. Prevention of the ash deposits by means of process conditions in biomass gasification; Biomassapolttoaineiden tuhkan kuonaantumiskaeyttaeytymisen estaeminen prosessiolosuhteiden avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Nieminen, M.; Kurkela, E.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In fluidised-bed gasification, various types of deposits and agglomerates may be formed by biomass ash in the bed, in upper zones of the reactor, for instance in cyclones. These may decisively hamper the operation of the process. The aim of the project was to obtain data on the detrimental fouling behaviour of the ash of different types of biomass in fluidised-bed gasification, and on the basis of these data to determine the process conditions and ways of preventing this kind of behaviour. Different types of biomass fuel relevant to energy production such as straw, wood residue were be used as samples. The project consisted of laboratory studies and fluidised-bed reactor tests including ash behaviour studied both in the bed and freeboard. In laboratory tests, the sample material was characterised as a function of different process parameters. In fluid-bed reactors, the most harmful biomasses were tested using process variables such as temperature, bed material and the gasification agents. Bubbling fluidised-bed gasification tests with wheat straw showed that agglomerates with different sizes and structures formed in the bed depending on the temperature, the feed gas composition and bed material. Agglomerates consisted of molten ash which sintered with bed material and other solids. In all BFB tests, freeboard walls were slicked by ash agglomerates (different amounts) which, however, were easily removable. The results of this project and the earlier pilot-scale gasification experience obtained with the same feedstocks showed that useful characteristic data about ash behaviour can be obtained using laboratory tests and small scale reactors. (orig.)

  10. New gasification plants for combined heat and power in Denmark; Nye forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarme i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmoeller, S.

    1997-12-31

    In Danish energy planning, the role of combined heat and power generation has been increasing. This has aroused an interest in gasification of biofuels. Several gasification techniques are being developed and the focus is on wood rather than straw. This conference paper describes the present projects in this field and lists the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. The tar content of the gas is a problem. A recent attempt has been made to decompose the tar in biogas plants. Gasification plants are supposed to be commercially available within a few years

  11. Molecular level insights to the interaction of toluene with ZrO2-based biomass gasification gas clean-up catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viinikainen, T.; Kauppi, I.; Korhonen, S.; Lefferts, L.; Kanervo, J.; Lehtonen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gasification of biomass, followed by ZrO2-catalyzed hot gas clean-up at 600–900 °C for the oxidation of impurities (such as tar), is an environmentally attractive way to produce heat and power or synthesis gas. The interaction of toluene (as a model compound for tar) with ZrO2-based gasification gas

  12. Modelling of gasification using deferent kinds of biomass in a downdraft reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work is exposed the methodology of realization of a equilibrium model, capable to predict the composition of the generated gas, its caloric value, the cold and hot efficiency and the quantity of air per quantity of biomass in a downdraft reactor. For this model's realization it was considered that all the chemical reactions that happen in the gasification area are in thermodynamic equilibrium, doesn't considered tar formation, and alone it is considered the methane formation(CH4), it is not considered formation of CxHy. To make more practical and more accessible the model was carried out a software in Excel. The work use as fuel, wood, paddy husk, paper and solid waste. The behavior of generated gases was studied with the variation of the content of humidity. Were determined the calorific value of generated gas, and the value of the cold and hot efficiency for each biomass varying the content of humidity of the same one, where it shows for 20% of humidity, for the wood a value of 5,65MJ/Nm3, for the paddy husk is of 3,88 MJ/Nm3, for the paper it is of 5,83 MJ/Nm3, and for the waste it is of 4,36 MJ/Nm3; and the cold and hot efficiency for wood 30,16%, and 60,37%; for paddy husk 25,43% and 40,83%, paper 33,40% and 63,28%; and waste 22,18% and 41,35% respectively. It was also determined the gravimetric relationship of necessary air/ biomass for each biomass. (author)

  13. Investigation on syngas production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air–steam gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Innovation in gasifier design. • Integration of pyrolysis and steam gasification processes. • Energy saving, improvement of gasifier efficiency, syngas and hydrogen yield. • Overall investigation on gasification parameters. • Optimization conditions of integration of pyrolysis and gasification process. - Abstract: Fuel production from agro-waste has become an interesting alternative for energy generation due to energy policies and greater understanding of the importance of green energy. This research was carried out in a lab-scale gasifier and coconut shell was used as feedstock in the integrated process. In order to acquire the optimum condition of syngas production, the effect of the reaction temperature, equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass (S/B) ratio was investigated. Under the optimized condition, H2 and syngas yield achieved to 83.3 g/kg feedstock and 485.9 g/kg feedstock respectively, while LHV of produced gases achieved to 12.54 MJ/N m3

  14. Materials tests at the PRENFLO coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehnen, K.; Ullrich, N. (Gesellschaft fuer Kohle-Technologie mbH, Essen (Germany, F.R.)); Bakker, W.T. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    This report evaluates the behavior of tube materials tested in the PRENFLO coal gasification plant. The tests were conducted in the PRENFLO demonstration plant at Fuerstenhausen, Federal Republic of Germany. Some of the alloys were supplied by EPRI and some by GKT. The alloys were tested for more than 2000 operating hours as steam superheater tubes and isothermally in the form of prestressed tensile bars and U-bends. Thickness loss measurements and microscopic evaluation of the superheater tubes indicate that the low alloy ferritic steels (< 9 % Cr) are only suitable for use at temperatures below 400 {degree}C (752 {degree}F), if provisions are made to replace or repair the heat exchanger tubes every 2--5 years. Sanicro 28 and coextruded SS 310/T 11 tubes promise long-term service in evaporator elements with steam pressures up to 138 bar (2000 psi). Isothermal exposure of austenitic prestressed tensile bars and U-bend coupons did not reveal any stress corrosion cracking or other signs of downtime corrosion. 66 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The analyses were performed in order to provide more detailed data concerning these condensates for the different process research groups and to allow a determination of the differences in properties of the condensates as a function of reactor environment. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases, aqueous phases and, in some cases, both phases depending on the output of the particular reactor system. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay). The analytical data demonstrate the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures as a result of formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high concentrations. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  17. A polygeneration system for the methanol production and the power generation with the solar–biomass thermal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new polygeneration system is proposed to generate methanol and power. • Endothermic reactions of the biomass gasification are driven by solar energy. • The thermodynamic properties of the system are numerically investigated. • The sensitivity of the economic performance of the system is evaluated. • The superiorities of the proposed system is demonstrated. - Abstract: A polygeneration system of generating methanol and power with the solar thermal gasification of the biomass is proposed in this work. The endothermic reactions of the biomass gasification are driven by the concentrated solar thermal energy in a range of 1000–1500 K. The syngas from the biomass gasification is used to produce the methanol via a synthesis reactor. The un-reacted gas is used for the power generation via a combined cycle power unit. The thermodynamic and economic performances of the polygeneration system are investigated. A portion of the concentrated solar thermal energy can be chemically stored into the syngas, and thus the energy level of the solar thermal energy is improved. Numerical simulations are implemented to evaluate the thermal performances of the proposed polygeneration system. The results indicate that H2/CO molar ratio of the syngas reaches 1.43–1.89, which satisfies the requirements of the methanol synthesis. The highest energy efficiency and the exergy efficiency of the polygeneration system approximately are 56.09% and 54.86%, respectively. The proposed polygeneration system can achieve the stable utilization of the solar energy and the mitigation of CO2 emission, and thus a promising approach is introduced for the efficient utilization of the abundant solar and biomass resources in the Western China

  18. Imperium/Lanzatech Syngas Fermentation Project - Biomass Gasification and Syngas Conditioning for Fermentation Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-474

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, E.

    2014-09-01

    LanzaTech and NREL will investigate the integration between biomass gasification and LanzaTech's proprietary gas fermentation process to produce ethanol and 2,3-butanediol. Using three feed materials (woody biomass, agricultural residue and herbaceous grass) NREL will produce syngas via steam indirect gasification and syngas conditioning over a range of process relevant operating conditions. The gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio of the biomass feed into the gasifier, and several levels of syngas conditioning (based on temperature) will be varied to produce multiple syngas streams that will be fed directly to 10 liter seed fermenters operating with the Lanzatech organism. The NREL gasification system will then be integrated with LanzaTech's laboratory pilot unit to produce large-scale samples of ethanol and 2,3-butanediol for conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  19. Potential approaches to improve gasification of high water content biomass rich in cellulose in dual fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li; Xu, Guangwen [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Suda, Toshiyuki [Research Laboratory, IHI Corporation, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Murakami, Takahiro [National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Biomass containing water of 30-65 wt.% and rich in cellulose, such as various grounds of drinking materials and the lees of spirit and vinegar, is not suitable for biological digestion, and the thermal conversion approach has to be applied to its conversion into bioenergy. The authors have recently worked on converting such biomass into middle heating-value gas via dual fluidized bed gasification (DFBG) integrated with various process intensification technologies. This article is devoted to highlighting those technical ways, including the choice of the superior technical deployment for a DFBG system, the impregnation of Ca onto fuel in fuel drying, the integration of gas cleaning with fuel gasification via two-stage DFBG (T-DFBG), and the decoupling of fuel drying/pyrolysis and char gasification via the decoupled DFBG (D-DFBG). The attained results demonstrated that the superior deployment of bed combination for the DFBG should be a bubbling/turbulent fluidized bed gasifier integrated with a pneumatic riser combustor. In terms of improving efficiency of fuel conversion into combustible gas and suppressing tar generation during gasification, the impregnation of Ca onto fuel exhibited distinctively high upgrading effect, while both the T-DFBG and D-DFBG were also demonstrated to be effective to a certain degree. (author)

  20. Mathematical modelling of the gasification of cellulose-containing biomass using a zoning model; Mathematische Modellierung der Vergasung zellulosehaltiger Biomasse mit Hilfe eines Zonenmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K.; Saller, G.; Funk, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1998-09-01

    The composition of the product gas is decisive for the further process stages. In contrast to coal gasification, which has been investigated for more than a century, there is still a lack of theoretical and experimental knowledge on biomass gasification. The contribution presents a mathematical model that is to provide deeper knowledge of the constant-flow fixed-bed gasifier, which is still widely regarded as a `black box`. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Einen wesentlichen Prozessschritt der thermochemischen Konversion stellt der Vergasungsprozess dar, da die Zusammensetzung des erhaltenen Gases fuer die weiteren Prozessschritte von entscheidender Bedeutung ist. Im Gegensatz zur Vergasung von Kohle, die bereits seit fast 100 Jahren untersucht wird, besteht bei der Vergasung von Biomasse ein starker Nachholbedarf in Bezug auf das theoretische und experimentelle Detailwissen. In diesem Beitrag wird im Rahmen eines mathematischen Modells ein Ansatz vorgestellt, in dem der Gleichstrom-Festbettvergaser, der bisher meist als `blackbox` betrachtet wurde, weiter aufgeschluesselt wird. (orig./SR)

  1. Hazardous air pollutant testing at the LGTI coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetherold, R.G.; Williams, W.A.; Maxwell, D.P.; Mann, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    A comprehensive hazardous air pollutant test program was conducted in November 1994 at the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI), plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana. This program was sponsored by DOE/PETC, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Destec Energy. In May of 1995, additional testing of the hot syngas stream was conducted at the LGTI facility under this same program. DOE/METC provided additional technical support for the hot gas testing effort. In this paper, the sampling and analytical methods used during the November and May test program are summarized. The hot gas testing is described in greater detail. In particular, the hot gas sampling probe and probe insertion/withdrawal system are discussed. The sampling probe was designed to collect particulate and extract gas samples at process temperature and pressure. The design of the probe system is described, and the operating procedures are summarized. The operation of the probe during the testing is discussed, and photographs of the testing are provided. In addition to the summaries and descriptions of the test methodologies, selected preliminary emissions results of the November sampling are included in the paper.

  2. Biomethanol production from gasification of non-woody plant in South Africa: Optimum scale and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanol production from biomass is a promising carbon neutral fuel, well suited for use in fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), as transportation fuel and as chemical building block. The concept used in this study incorporates an innovative Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER) gasification process, which enables an efficient conversion of biomass into a hydrogen-rich gas (syngas) and then, uses the Mitsubishi methanol converter (superconverter) for methanol synthesis. Technical and economic prospects for production of methanol have been evaluated. The methanol plants described have a biomass input between 10 and 2000 MWth. The economy of the methanol production plants is very dependent on the production capacity and large-scale facilities are required to benefit from economies of scale. However, large-scale plants are likely to have higher transportation costs per unit biomass transported as a result of longer transportation distances. Analyses show that lower unit investment costs accompanying increased production scale outweighs the cost for transporting larger quantities of biomass. The unit cost of methanol production mostly depends on the capital investments. The total unit cost of methanol is found to decrease from about 10.66 R/l for a 10 MWth to about 6.44 R/l for a 60 MWth and 3.95 R/l for a 400 MWth methanol plant. The unit costs stabilise (a near flat profile was observed) for plant sizes between 400 and 2000 MWth, but the unit cost do however continue to decrease to about 2.89 R/l for a 2000 MWth plant. Long term cost reduction mainly resides in technological learning and large-scale production. Therefore, technology development towards large-scale technology that takes into account sustainable biomass production could be a better choice due to economic reasons.

  3. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Frances, E.; Campos, I.J.; Martin, J.A.; Gil, J. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  4. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  5. Removal and Conversion of Tar in Syngas from Woody Biomass Gasification for Power Utilization Using Catalytic Hydrocracking

    OpenAIRE

    Jiu Huang; Klaus Gerhard Schmidt; Zhengfu Bian

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification has yet to obtain industrial acceptance. The high residual tar concentrations in syngas prevent any ambitious utilization. In this paper a novel gas purification technology based on catalytic hydrocracking is introduced, whereby most of the tarry components can be converted and removed. Pilot scale experiments were carried out with an updraft gasifier. The hydrocracking catalyst was palladium (Pd). The results show the dominant role of temperature and flow rate. At a cons...

  6. Effects of blend ratio between high density polyethylene and biomass on co-gasification behavior in a two-stage gasification system

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2016-08-12

    The co-gasification of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with a biomass has been carried out in a two-stage gasification system which comprises an oxidative pyrolysis reactor and a thermal plasma reactor. The equivalence ratio was changed from 0.38 to 0.85 according to the variation of blend ratio between HDPE and biomass. The highest production yield was achieved to be 71.4 mol/h, when the equivalence ratio was 0.47. A large amount of hydrocarbons was produced from the oxidative pyrolysis reactor as decreasing equivalence ratio below 0.41, while the CO2 concentration significantly increased with a high equivalence ratio over 0.65. The production yield was improved by the thermal plasma reactor due to the conversion of hydrocarbons into syngas in a high temperature region of thermal plasma. At the equivalence ratio of 0.47, conversion selectivities of CO and H2 from hydrocarbons were calculated to be 74% and 44%, respectively. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC.

  7. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: Draft for the plan of management for bio-energy. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: The electricity companies' programme for gasification of coal and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish power companies have, since the middle of the 80's carried through a technology development effort for the use of bio-fuels in power (and dual-purpose power) plants. This note concerns the current status of the development and a sketch for an action programme for future effort. Straw is the largest unexploited potential. The use of bio-fuels does not produce so much carbon dioxide, but on the other hand biomass supply can fluctuate. Biofuels are also difficult to stoke, and expensive. Close co-operation between agriculture and forestry is necessary and risks are high for the involved sectors. It must be possible to use bio-fuels combined with coal to secure a sturdy and economic energy production, it is necessary to have a stable energy and industrial policy to maintain interest in the long term development effort, the contrasts of interest between natural gas and bio-fuels on the decentralized thermal power market must be clarified and the prices of bio-fuels must be made competitive by making supply and subsidies more effective. The main areas for future development are the bio-fuel resources, logistics and economy, straw in central power plants, gasification of coal and biomass, bio-fuels in decentralized cogeneration plants, biogas plants, conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels etc. A close co-ordination of ELSAM/ELKRAFT's development activities and cooperation between organizations in Denmark and abroad should be aimed at. (AB)

  8. Monitoring `Renewable fuels`. Gasification and pyrolysis of biomass. Second situation report; Monitoring ``Nachwachsende Rohstoffe``. Vergasung und Pyrolyse von Biomasse. Zweiter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.; Wintzer, D.

    1997-04-01

    The second situation report deals with gasification and pyrolysis as means of improving the energetic utilisation of wood and strawlike biomass and with various possibilities of utilising the gas produced in these processes. It also presents different gasification techniques, measures for gas purification, and ways of utilising gas for electricity generation. Out of the wide range of possible process combinations for producing energy from biomass the report only deals more closely with a few concepts that appear very promising from today`s viewpoint. Working from the current state and perspectives of technical development and from prospective operating conditions and potential market chances of pyrolysis and gasification the report deliberates on the future orientation of research, development, and demonstration activities. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im zweiten Sachstandsbericht werden die Vergasung und Pyrolyse zur besseren energetischen Nutzung von Holz und halmartiger Biomasse und verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zur Verwertung des dabei erzeugten Gases betrachtet. Es werden unterschiedliche Vergasungstechniken, Massnahmen zur Gasreinigung und Arten der Gasnutzung zur Stromgewinnung dargestellt. Aus der Vielzahl an moeglichen Kombinationen werden einige, aus gegenwaertiger Sichtweise besonders vielversprechende Konzepte zur Energieerzeugung ueber die Biomassevergasung naeher ausgefuehrt. Ausgehend vom Stand und von den Perspektiven der technischen Entwicklungen sowie den Einsatzbedingungen und potentiellen Marktchancen werden Schlussfolgerungen fuer die zukuenftige Ausrichtung im Bereich Forschung, Entwicklung und Demonstration Anstrengungen gezogen. (orig./SR)

  9. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical model of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.

  10. Thermo-economic analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell and steam injected gas turbine plant integrated with woodchips gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a thermo-economic analysis of an integrated biogas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for electric power generation. Basic plant layout consists of a gasification plant (GP), an SOFC and a retrofitted steam-injected gas turbine (STIG). Different system configurations and simulations are presented and investigated. A parallel analysis for simpler power plants, combining GP, SOFC, and hybrid gas turbine (GT) is carried out to obtain a reference point for thermodynamic results. Thermodynamic analysis shows energetic and exergetic efficiencies for optimized plant above 53% and 43% respectively which are significantly greater than conventional 10 MWe plants fed by biomass. Thermo-economic analysis provides an average cost of electricity for best performing layouts close to 6.4 and 9.4 c€/kWe which is competitive within the market. A sensitivity analysis of the influence of SOFC stack cost on the generation cost is also presented. In order to discuss the investment cost, an economic analysis has been carried out and main parameters such as Net Present Value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and Time of Return of Investment (TIR) are calculated and discussed. - Highlights: • We model 14 different integrated syngas fueled SOFC systems targeting a power of 10 MWe. • Different STIG configurations are integrated with the SOFC plant. • Biomass gasification is integrated with the STIG and SOFC plants. • The best performing layouts achieve energy efficiencies in the range of 48.5–53.8%. • The thermo-economic analysis provides a minimum generation costs of 6.38 c€/kW h

  11. Biomass-fueled power plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, M. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Hulkkonen, S. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-07-01

    Combined heat and power production (CHP) from biomass is a commercially viable alternative when district heat or process steam is needed in small towns or in a process industry. The high nominal investment cost of a small power plant that uses local biomass fuels is compensated by the revenues from the heat. The price of the district heat or the steam generated in the CHP-plant can be valued at the same price level as the heat from a mere steam boiler. Also, the price of heat produced by a small-generation-capacity plant is local and higher, whereas electricity has a more general market price. A typical small Finnish CHP-plant consists of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler and a simplified steam turbine cycle generating 4 to 10 MW of electricity and 10 to 30 MW of district heat or process steam. There are about 10 power plants of this type in commercial operation in Finland. As a whole, biomass, which is used in more than 200 plants, provides about 20% of the primary energy consumption in Finland. Roughly half of these produce only heat but the rest are combined heat and power plants. The majority of the plants is in pulp and paper industry applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is the biggest energy producer in Finland. IVO builds, owns and operates several biomass-fired power plants and carries out active R and D work to further develop the biomass-fueled small power plant. This paper discusses the experiences of the biomass-fueled power plants. (author)

  12. The direct observation of alkali vapor species in biomass combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, R J; Dayton, D C; Milne, T A

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes new data from screening various feedstocks for alkali vapor release under combustion conditions. The successful development of a laboratory flow reactor and molecular beam, mass spectrometer interface is detailed. Its application to several herbaceous and woody feedstocks, as well as a fast-pyrolysis oil, under 800 and 1,100{degrees}C batch combustion, is documented. Chlorine seems to play a large role in the facile mobilization of potassium. Included in the report is a discussion of relevant literature on the alkali problem in combustors and turbines. Highlighted are the phenomena identified in studies on coal and methods that have been applied to alkali speciation. The nature of binding of alkali in coal versus biomass is discussed, together with the implications for the ease of release. Herbaceous species and many agricultural residues appear to pose significant problems in release of alkali species to the vapor at typical combustor temperatures. These problems could be especially acute in direct combustion fired turbines, but may be ameliorated in integrated gasification combined cycles.

  13. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures. PMID:26773946

  14. Study of the Apparent Kinetics of Biomass Gasification Using High-Temperature Steam

    OpenAIRE

    Alevanau, Aliaksandr

    2010-01-01

    Among the latest achievements in gasification technology, one may list the development of a method to preheat gasification agents using switched ceramic honey combs. The best output from this technology is achieved with use of water steam as a gasification agent, which is heated up to 1600 °C. The application of these temperatures with steam as a gasification agent provides a cleaner syngas (no nitrogen from air, cracked tars) and the ash melts into easily utilised glass-like sludge. High hyd...

  15. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk;

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barle...... the characteristic low compressibility and high friction giving much better conditions for root penetration increasing yield potentials. Furthermore, risk of drought in dry periods, and nutrient losses in wet periods in coarser soil types is also reduced......Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...... was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amendment of straw (SGB) and wood (WGB) GB on shoot and root growth under two levels of water supply in a temperate sandy loam and coarse sandy soil. In the sandy loam, the reduced water regime significantly affected plant growth and water consumption, whereas...

  16. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.)

  17. Meditation on the construction of exemplar plant for briquetted coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Kuiyi [China National Coal Industry Import and Export Corporation, Beijing (China)

    1997-12-31

    China uses a considerable amount of anthracite, but the fines from anthracite mining are not sufficiently used. This project involved the construction of a plant for the manufacture of anthracite briquettes under high pressure, for use in gasification plants. The characteristics of the coals used and the types of briquette formed are described. 2 tabs.

  18. Plant biomass briquetting : a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China). College of Engineering; Tumuluru, J.S.; Tabil, L.; Meda, V. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The technology of converting straws into briquettes for biofuel or energy applications was discussed with particular reference to the factors that affect the quality of briquette, such as the loading pressure, particle size of the chopped material, the preheating temperature, the moisture content and residence time of the die. The study results of briquetting materials such as corn stover, switch grass, alfalfa, cotton stalks and reed canary grass were also presented. The main briquetting related technologies, systems and equipment were also reviewed. The study showed that in order to produce an economically competitive feedstock, further research should be extended to other biomass materials as well as developing technologies to obtain a high quality briquette with better efficiencies from a wide range of biomass materials.

  19. Combining a 2-D multiphase CFD model with a Response Surface Methodology to optimize the gasification of Portuguese biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A multiphase CFD model was combined with RSM. • Gasification optimal operating conditions were found in a pilot scale reactor. • Syngas quality indices were optimized in a biomass gasification process. • Propagation of error methodology was combined with a CFD model and RSM. - Abstract: This paper presents a study to evaluate the potential of Portuguese biomasses (coffee husks, forest residues and vine pruning residues) to produce syngas for different applications. By using a 2-D Eulerian–Eulerian approach within the CFD framework, a design of several computer experiments was developed and were used as analysis tools the response surface method (RSM) and the propagation of error (POE) approach. The CFD model was validated under experimental results collected at a semi-industrial reactor. For design purposes, temperature, steam to biomass ratio (SBR) and the type of biomass were selected as input factors. The responses were the H2 generation, the H2/CO ratio, the CH4/H2 ratio, the carbon conversion and the cold gas efficiency. It was concluded that after an optimization procedure to determine the operating conditions, vine pruning residues could show very promising results considering some of the typical syngas indice standards for commercial purposes. From the optimization procedure, it was also concluded that forest residues are preferable for domestic natural gas applications and vine pruning residues for fuel cells and integrated gasification systems application. By using the RSM combined with POE, it was verified that the operating conditions to get higher performances do not always coincide with those necessary to obtain a stable syngas composition

  20. Effect of temperature and dolomite on tar formation during gasification of torrefied biomass in a pressurized fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the effect of temperature and bed material on the yields and composition of gas and tar produced from gasification of two types of biomass feedstock previously torrefied at 275 °C. Special attention was devoted to the evolution of tar composition under the different experimental conditions. Experiments were conducted in a fluidized bed reactor using two different types of bed material (sand and dolomite) under a constant pressure of 0.5 MPa and at two temperature levels (750 and 850 °C). Tar destruction reactions promoted by the catalyst (dolomite) enhanced the production of some of the gas components (H2, CO2, CO and CH4) whereas C2 hydrocarbons decreased, this effect being slightly more relevant at 850 °C. Comparable trends were observed with increasing temperature, which had a positive effect on cracking reactions and tar destruction. For both feedstocks, the increase in temperature resulted in (i) higher gas yields, and (ii) enhanced char gasification rate. On the other hand the evolution of tar yield and composition revealed a possible competition between two tar reaction pathways during gasification, (i) tar polymerization, and (ii) de-alkylation, dehydration and cracking of tars, depending on the experimental conditions and feedstock used. - Highlights: • An experimental study of pressurized gasification of torrefied biomass is presented. • Special attention was devoted to the evolution of tar composition. • Increasing temperature and dolomite presence led to higher gas and lower tar yields. • Tar evolution revealed a possible competition between two tar reaction pathways

  1. Termisk forgasning af biomasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    of these activities has been fruitful. The two- stage gasifier was developed for gasification aiming at decentralised cogeneration of heat and power. The development ranged from lap-top scale equipment to a fully automatic plant with more than 2000 hours of operation. Compared to most other gasification processes...... and development. The advantages of that process is, that the main parts of the inorganic species from the biomass, which are undesirable in the power plant, is deposed in the ashes in the gasifier without the use of gas cleaning equipment. Originally the purpose of the activities was to find gasification...... to thermal gasification of biomass. Focus is on gasification for decentralised cogeneration of heat and power, and on related research on fundamental processes. In order to insure continuity of the presentation the other activities in the group, have also been described. The group was started in the late...

  2. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  3. Fresh tar (from biomass gasification) destruction with downstream catalysts: comparison of their intrinsic activity with a realistic kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A model for fresh tar destruction over catalysts placed downstream a biomass gasifier is presented. It includes the stoichio-metry and the calculation of the kinetic constants for the tar destruction. Catalysts studied include commercial Ni steam reforming catalysts and calcinated dolomites. Kinetic constants for tar destruction are calculated for several particle sizes, times- on-stream and temperatures of the catalyst and equivalence ratios in the gasifier. Such intrinsic kinetic constants allow a rigorous or scientific comparison of solids and conditions to be used in an advanced gasification process. (orig.) 4 refs.

  4. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.;

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  5. Thermoeconomic Analysis Of a Gasification Plant Fed By Woodchips And Integrated With SOFC And STIG Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a thermo-economic analysis of an integrated biogas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for electric power generation. Basic plant layout consists of a gasification plant (GP), an SOFC and a retrofitted gas turbine with steam injection (STIG). Different system configurations and simulations are presented and investigated. A parallel analysis for simpler power plants, combining GP, SOFC, and hybrid gas turbine (GT) is carried out to obtain a reference point for thermo...

  6. Biomass gasification in fixed bed type down draft: theoretical and experimental aspects; Gasificacao de biomassa em leito fixo tipo concorrente: aspectos teoricos e experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Juan Daniel; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida

    2008-07-01

    Actually are recognizing the advantages of biomass in reducing dependence on fossil fuels and significant reduction in emissions of greenhouse effect gases such as Co2. Also are known the different conversion of biomass routes for their use or exploitation, such as thermochemical process (gasification, pyrolysis and combustion), the biological process (fermentation and transesterification) and the physical process (densification, reducing grain and mechanical pressing). In this sense, the gasification is regarded as the most promising mechanism to obtain a homogeneous gaseous fuel with sufficient quality in the small scale distributed generation. This work presents some aspects of biomass gasification in fixed bed, as well as some preliminary results in the evaluation and operation of fixed bed down draft gasifier with double stage air supply of the NEST, identifying the adequate air supply quantity (equivalence ratio in the range of 0,35 to 0,45) for obtaining a fuel gas with lower heating value around 4 MJ/N m3. (author)

  7. Co-gasification of different rank coals with biomass and petroleum coke in a high-pressure reactor for H{sub 2}-rich gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Gil, M.V.; Plaza, M.G.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J.; Rubiera, F. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Four coals of different rank were gasified, using a steam/oxygen mixture as gasifying agent, at atmospheric and elevated pressure in a fixed bed reactor fitted with a solids feeding system in continuous mode. Independently of coal rank, an increase in gasification pressure led to a decrease in H{sub 2} + CO production and carbon conversion. Gasification of the different rank Coals revealed that the higher the carbon content and reactivity, the greater the hydrogen production, co-gasification experiments of binary (coal-biomass) and ternary blends (coal-petcoke-biomass) were conducted at high pressure to study possible synergetic effects. Interactions between the blend components were found to modify the gas production. An improvement in hydrogen production and cold gas efficiency was achieved when the coal was gasified with biomass.

  8. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix B: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle. PNL obtained this information from laboratory and process development unit testing. The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to methanol. Plant production is 997 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $120,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are respectively $.45, $.48, $.55, and $.69 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $.59, $.62, $.69, and $.83 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. Both calculation methods include a return on equity capital in the costs. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.9%.

  9. Modelling and performance analysis of an integrated plasma gasification combined cycle (IPGCC) power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste management is become a very crucial issue in many countries, due to the ever-increasing amount of waste material, both domiciliary and industrial, generated. The main strategies for the waste management are the increase of material recovery (MR) which can reduce the landfill disposal, the improvement of energy recovery (ER) from waste and the minimization of the environmental impact. Recent studies have focused on an innovative technology, the plasma gasification, that has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization. In this paper, a plasma gasification process based on plasma torch technology has been investigated by developing a thermochemical model (EPJ, EquiPlasmaJet) able to estimate both the syngas composition and the energy required for the gasification reactions. The EPJ model has been employed to predict the syngas composition and the energy balance of a RDF (refuse derived fuel) plasma arc gasification reactor using air as plasma gas, and, in order to define the optimal operating conditions three different configurations have been investigated. Results show that, in the better plant solution, the plasma gasification efficiency is 69.1% (LHV) and the lower heating value of the syngas generated is about 9 MJ/kg. Furthermore in order to evaluate the suitability of this technology for energy recovery from solid wastes, the integration of the optimum plasma gasification system (PGS) with a gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) has been analysed and the performance of the resulting integrated plasma gasification combined cycle (IPGCC) has been evaluated. The system efficiency (31% LHV) is very high in comparison with the efficiency of conventional technologies based on waste incineration (20%).

  10. Energetic analysis and optimisation of an integrated coal gasification-combined cycle power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaswinkel, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are presented to analyse and optimise the energetic performance of integrated coal gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The methods involve exergy analysis and pinch technology and can be used to identify key process parameters and to generate alternative design options for impro

  11. Tar removal from biomass gasification streams: processes and catalysts; Remocao do alcatrao de correntes de gaseificacao de biomassa: processos e catalisadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitete, Cristina P.B. [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Processos de Conversao de Biomassa; Souza, Mariana M.V.M., E-mail: mmattos@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Biomass gasification is a technology that has attracted great interest in synthesis of biofuels and oxo alcohols. However, this gas contains several contaminants, including tar, which need to be removed. Removal of tar is particularly critical because it can lead to operational problems. This review discusses the major pathways to remove tar, with a particular focus on the catalytic steam reforming of tar. Few catalysts have shown promising results; however, long-term studies in the context of real biomass gasification streams are required to realize their potential. (author)

  12. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  13. Performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system: Hydrogen and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is expected to play a significant role in next-generation energy systems. Because most hydrogen that is used as a fuel for PEMFCs is derived from the reforming of natural gas, the use of renewable energy sources such as biomass to produce this hydrogen offers a promising alternative. This study is focused on the performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC system. The combined heat and power generation output of this integrated system is designed for residential applications, taking into account thermal and electrical demands. A flowsheet model of the integrated PEMFC system is developed and employed to analyze its performance with respect to various key operating parameters. A purification process consisting of a water–gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor is also necessary in order to reduce the concentration of CO in the synthesis gas to below 10 ppm for subsequent use in the PEMFC. The effect of load level on the performance of the PEMFC system is investigated. Based on an electrical load of 5 kW, it is found that the electrical efficiency of the PEMFC integrated system is 22%, and, when waste heat recovery is considered, the total efficiency of the PEMFC system is 51%. - Highlights: • Performance of a biomass gasification and PEMFC integrated system is analyzed. • A flowsheet model of the PEMFC integrated system is developed. • Effect of biomass sources and key parameters on hydrogen and power generation is presented. • The PEMFC integrated system is designed for small-scale power demand. • Effect of load changes on the performance of PEMFC is investigated

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  15. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks...... for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance...

  16. Energy and cost analysis of small-size integrated coal gasification and syngas storage power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The option of syngas storage in small size coal gasification power plants is proposed. ► Syngas storage enhances flexibility and load modulation capabilities of coal gasification power plants. ► Performance and energy production costs greatly depend on the required peaking energy production. ► Solutions based on internal combustion engines perform better than solutions based on gas turbines. ► Peaking energy production costs are comparable with those of conventional peaking units. - Abstract: This study evaluates the energy and economic performance of small and medium size coal gasification power plants integrated with a syngas storage section (ICGSS). In ICGSS systems, a portion of the produced syngas is stored during periods of low energy demand and used to increase power output during periods of peaking demand, so that they can perform a load-following service and can operate in the electricity markets for energy and spinning reserve. The main energy and economic performance of ICGSS power generation plants were evaluated with reference to two different prime movers (gas turbines and internal combustion engines) and as a function of the required electrical load curve. Moreover, a preliminary economic analysis was also carried out to evaluate the peak-load energy production cost in comparison with base-load energy production cost. The results of the study show that ICGSS power plants offer considerable scope for enhancing operating flexibility and load modulation capabilities of coal gasification power plants. Plant options based on internal combustion engines performed better than options based on gas turbines.

  17. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 200 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a result of an additional study made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The report has as its basis the original 2000 tons of wood per day study generated from process development unit testing performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of this additional work was to determine the feasibility of a smaller scale plant one tenth the size of the original or 200 tons of dry wood feed per day. Plant production based on this wood feed is 100 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $34,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are, respectively, $1.20, $1.23, $1.30, and $1.44 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $1.60, $1.63, $1.70, and $1.84 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. The costs calculated by the utility financing method include a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.0%.

  18. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix A. Feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to SNG. Plant production is 21.6 MM scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $95,115,000 - September, 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. For utility financing, the gas production costs are respectively $5.09, $5.56, $6.50, and $8.34 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton delivered to the plant at a moisture content of 49.50 wt %. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $6.62, $7.11, $8.10, and $10.06 per MM Btu. The cost calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for by-product char is 58.3%.

  19. Economic development through biomass system integration. Volumes 2--4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners.

  20. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk;

    2016-01-01

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant-available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types still needs to be explored. A pot experiment with spring......, the reduced water regime significantly affected plant growth and water consumption, whereas the effect was less pronounced in the coarse sand. Irrespective of the soil type, both GBs increased AWC by 17-42%, with the highest absolute effect in the coarse sand. The addition of SGB to coarse sand led...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amendment by 1 % straw and wood gasification biochar (SGB and WGB), respectively, on AWC and plant growth responses under two levels of water supply in a temperate sandy loam and a coarse sandy subsoil. In the sandy loam...

  1. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant-available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types still needs to be explored. A pot experiment...... with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amendment by 1% straw and wood gasification biochar (SGB and WGB), respectively, on AWC and plant growth responses under two levels of water supply in a temperate sandy loam and a coarse sandy subsoil. In the sandy loam......, the reduced water regime significantly affected plant growth and water consumption, whereas the effect was less pronounced in the coarse sand. Irrespective of the soil type, both GBs increased AWC by 17–42%, with the highest absolute effect in the coarse sand. The addition of SGB to coarse sand led...

  2. Experiments on biomass gasification using chemical looping with nickel-based oxygen carrier in a 25 kWth reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass gasification using chemical looping (BGCL) is an innovative biomass gasification technology, which utilizes lattice oxygen from oxygen carrier instead of molecular oxygen from air. This work attempted to investigate the BGCL performance with nickel-based oxygen carrier in a 25 kWth reactor. The new prototype is composed of a high velocity fluidized bed as an air reactor, a cyclone, a bubbling fluidized bed as a fuel reactor, and a loop-seal. At first, the major reactions in the process were presented and chemical reaction thermodynamics in the fuel reactor was analyzed. The NiO/Al2O3 oxygen carrier was then applied in the reactor. Different variables, such as gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass (S/B) ratio and NiO content, were analyzed. The carbon conversion efficiency increased smoothly within the temperature range of 650–850 °C, while the syngas yield reached the maximum of 0.33 Nm3kg−1 at 750 °C. Additionally, based on the tradeoff between carbon conversion efficiency and syngas yield, it was concluded that 30 wt.% was the optimal NiO content. Besides, in order to get high quality syngas with low CO2 emission, CaO-decorated NiO/Al2O3 oxygen carrier was investigated. Experimental results showed that the addition of CaO enhanced the biomass gasification process and increased the syngas yield. - Highlights: • A new 25 kWth prototype was made in this study. • NiO was selected as oxygen carrier in the new prototype. • Gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio and NiO content were investigated. • CaO-decorated NiO/Al2O3 was tested to produce high quality syngas

  3. Investigation of agricultural residues gasification for electricity production in Sudan as an example for biomass energy utilization under arid climate conditions in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhiet, Arig G.

    2008-05-15

    This study examines the possibility of electricity production through gasification of agricultural residues in Sudan. The study begins in Chapter 1, by providing general contextual analysis of the energy situation (production and consumption patterns) in Sudan with specific focus on electricity. It proceeded to study the potential of Petroleum, Biomass and other renewable sources for electricity production. Dramatic increase in electricity production was found to be essential especially through decentralised power plants as the current electricity production services cover {proportional_to} 13 % of the population of Sudan. Biomass potential in Sudan justifies the use of agricultural residues as energy source; its potential was estimated by {proportional_to} 350000 TJ/a. Further, the urban centres of arid regions in western Sudan were identified as the target group for this study. In chapter 2, specific investigations for selected study area through field work using statistical tools such as questionnaires, interviews and field observation show that income is highly correlated to electricity consumption. The flat rate system did not result in higher consumption thus the assumption that this consumption will not drastically change in the next 10 years could be accepted. As orientation value for BGPP, 8000 tons of GN.S are available annually, the average electricity consumption is {proportional_to} 4 kWh/day/family while acceptable price could be 40 SDD/kWh (0.15 Euro). In chapter 3, literature review was carried to spot out the comparative merits of the gasification technology and the most optimum gasifying and electricity production system. As a result downdraft gasifier and ICE were suggested as suitable systems. In chapter 4, fuel properties and fuel properties of agricultural residues were studied, different samples were tested and the results were presented. The main conclusions derived were: fuel properties of agricultural residues are modifiable properties, so

  4. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass: feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 200 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a result of an additional study made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The report has as its basis the original 2000 tons of wood per day study generated from process development unit testing performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of this additional work was to determine the feasibility of a smaller scale plant one-tenth the size of the original or 200 tons of dry wood feed per day. Plant production based on this wood feed is 2.16 MM Scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per Scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $26,680,000 - September 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood prices represent the cost of unchipped wood delivered to the plant site. For utility financing, the gas production costs are, respectively, $14.34, $14.83, $15.86, and $17.84 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $18.76, $19.26, $20.28, and $22.31 per MM Btu for the corresponding wood costs. The costs calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for char is 57.4%.

  5. Two-stage dual fluidized bed gasification: Its conception and application to biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guangwen [Research Laboratory, IHI Corporation, Ltd., Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan); Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Haidian, Beijing 100080 (China); Murakami, Takahiro [Research Laboratory, IHI Corporation, Ltd., Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan); Clean Gas Group, National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Suda, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaw, Yoshiaki; Tani, Hidehisa [Research Laboratory, IHI Corporation, Ltd., Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    The quoted two-stage dual fluidized bed gasification (T-DFBG) devises the use of a two-stage fluidized bed (TFB) to replace the single-stage bubbling fluidized bed gasifier involved in the normally encountered dual fluidized bed gasification (N-DFBG) systems. By feeding fuel into the lower stage of the TFB, this lower stage functions as a fuel gasifier similar to that in the N-DFBG so that the upper stage of the TFB works to upgrade the produced gas in the lower stage and meanwhile to suppress the possible elutriation of fuel particles fed into the freeboard of the lower-stage bed. The heat carrier particles (HCPs) circulated from the char combustor enter first the upper stage of the TFB to facilitate the gas upgrading reactions occurring therein, and the particles are in turn forwarded into the lower stage to provide endothermic heat for fuel pyrolysis and gasification reactions. Consequently, with T-DFBG it is hopeful to increase gasification efficiency and decrease tar content in the produced gas. This anticipation was corroborated through gasifying dry coffee grounds in two 5.0kg/h experimental setups configured according to the principles of T-DFBG and N-DFBG, respectively. In comparison with the N-DFBG case, the test according to T-DFBG increased, the fuel C conversion and cold gas efficiency by about 7% and decreased tar content in the produced gas by up to 25% under similar reaction conditions. Test results demonstrated also that all these upgrading effects via adopting T-DFBG were more pronounced when a Ca-based additive was blended into the fuel. (author)

  6. Study of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass from the self-organization perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alevanau, Aliaksandr

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the analysis of kinetics of i) low-temperature pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbons, ii) high-temperature steam gasification of char of wood pellets (>700oC), iii) high temperature pyrolysis of straw pellets in an atmosphere of argon and steam, and iv) high temperature pyrolysis of slices of transversally cut wooden sticks. The results of the kinetic measurements in the high-temperature cases are approximated using a least-square based optimization software, which was s...

  7. Gasification of biomass wastes in an entrained flow gasifier: Effect of the particle size and the residence time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Juan J.; Aranda-Almansa, Guadalupe [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Departamento de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Edificio Politecnico), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Bula, Antonio [Universidad del Norte, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Km.5 Antigua Via Puerto Colombia, Barranquilla (Colombia)

    2010-06-15

    Experimental tests in an entrained flow gasifier have been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of the biomass particle size and the space residence time on the gasifier performance and the producer gas quality. Three types of biomass fuels (grapevine pruning and sawdust wastes, and marc of grape) and a fossil fuel (a coal-coke blend) have been tested. The results obtained show that a reduction in the fuel particle size leads to a significant improvement in the gasification parameters. The thermochemical characterisation of the resulting char-ash residue shows a sharp increase in the fuel conversion for particles below 1 mm diameter, which could be adequate to be used in conventional entrained flow gasifiers. Significant differences in the thermochemical behaviour of the biomass fuels and the coal-coke blend have been found, especially in the evolution of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio with the space time, mainly due to the catalytic effect of the coal-coke ash. The reaction temperature and the space time have a significant effect on the H{sub 2}/CO ratio (the relative importance of each of these parameters depending on the temperature), this value being independent of the fuel particle size. (author)

  8. Comparative evaluation of power generation systems with integrated gasification of biomass; Vergleich von Systemen zur Stromerzeugung mit integrierter Biomassevergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Gasification of biomass followed by power generation from the lean product gas can make a significant contribution to power generation without affecting the climate or environment. It is made even more interesting by the high efficiencies and promising pollution ratings that can be achieved. To make full use of this technology, some technical problems still require solving, and some non-technical obstacles need to be removed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zusammenfassend kann festgehalten werden, dass die Biomassevergasung mit anschliessender Verstromung des Schwachgases einen nennenswerten Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energiebereitstellung in Europa leisten kann. Dies gilt insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund der erreichbaren hohen Stromwirkungsgrade und der vielversprechenden Umweltkenngroessen, durch die diese Technik gekennzeichnet ist. Um die Vorteile der Biomassevergasung realisieren zu koennen, muessen jedoch noch verschiedene technische Probleme geloest und nicht technische Hindernisse aus dem Weg geraeumt werden. (orig./SR)

  9. High temperature corrosion in biomass incineration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthjaelp, K.; Broendsted, P. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Dept. (Denmark); Jansen, P.; Markussen, J. [The Force Inst., Div. for Materials and Maintenance (Denmark); Montgomery, M.; Maahn, E. [DTU, Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering, Corrosion and Surface Technology (Denmark)

    1997-03-15

    The aim of the present project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse-fired combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major number of biomass and refuse-fired combined heat and power plant boilers; Laboratory exposures and metallurgical examinations of material specimens with ash deposits in well-defined gas environments with HCl and SO{sub 2} in a furnace. In the first part of the project ash deposits were collected from the radiation chamber, superheater and economizer sections in both waste incineration and straw-fired/wood chip fired power plants. Thirteen plants participated in the investigations giving a total of 52 ash deposit samples. These were analysed using SEM-EDX. For refuse incineration, predominant elements are sodium, potassium, sulphur, chlorine, magnesium and calcium and in some cases zinc and lead. For straw or wood chip fired power plants, predominant elements are chlorine, sulphur,potassium and magnesium. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the electrically heated furnace rig for gaseous exposures. Two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sandvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo) were investigated at 600 deg. C and 800 deg. C flue gas temperature and at a 600 deg. C metal temperature for up to 300 hours. Specimens which were embedded in ash deposits from a straw fired power plant were exposed to HCl (200 ppm) and SO{sub 2} (300 ppm). (EG)

  10. Development and operation of a 30 ton/ day gasification and melting plant for municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the efforts to increase recycling rate of end of life vehicles enforcing by the governmental regulation, automobile shredder residue (ASR) was considered to treat by a thermal method with converting waste to energy. Gasification and melting experimental processes of lab (1 kg/ hour) and pilot (5 ton. day) scale were installed. ASR collected from a domestic shredding company was experimented at a lab-scale and pilot-scale gasification and melting process which is similar to the shaft type gasification melting furnace. The characteristics of syngas, tar and residue (slag) generated from a conversion process (gasification and melting) were analyzed to provide the information to further utilize them as fuel and recyclable materials in scaled up plants. A series of experiments have been conducted with various air equivalent ratios (ERs), and syngas compositions, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value of syngas, yield and characteristics of slag were analyzed. Finally, slags generated from the process were recycled with various alternative technologies. In summary, energy conversion technology of ASR with the least production of residue by gasification and slag utilization has been developed. The main components in product gas were H2, CO, CH4 and CO2; and concentrations of C2H4 and C2H6 were less. This can be used as clean fuel gas whose heating value ranged from 2.5 to 14.0 MJ/ m3. Most of slag generated from the process can further be fabricated to valuable and usable products. Such combined technology would result in achieving almost zero waste release from ELVs. (author)

  11. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Turegano, J.P.; Calama, G. [Area de Engenharia. Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao. Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, Lugar da Abadesa, Apartado 148, 7301 Portalegre Codex (Portugal); Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, 06071 (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 {sup o}C [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA

  12. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 oC [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA, located in Alto Alentejo, in the city of de Vale do Peso

  13. Biomass structure of exotic invasive plant Galinsona parviflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyan QI; Wenduo XU; Yan WEN

    2008-01-01

    Galinsona parviflora (Asteraceae) is a wide-spread annual weed that is invasive,colonizing new ground where it is able to persist.We studied the bio-mass structure of the G.Parviflora population at the module level by using the methods of field plot invest-igation and weighing at 10 sample plots.Modular bio-mass was calculated and used for analysis of relation-ships between various modules.The results show that there was a positive correlation between plant height and modular biomass,between stem biomass and root biomass,stem biomass and capitulum biomass,above-ground biomass and underground biomass,and lastly,stem biomass and leaf biomass.The preferred model which measured all the relationships was a power func-tion model with absolute coefficients(R2) ranging from 0.6303 to 0.9782.

  14. Modelling a Combined Heat and Power Plant based on Gasification, Micro Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    A system level modelling study on two combined heat and power (CHP) systems both based on biomass gasification. One system converts the product gas in a micro gas turbine (MGT) and the other in a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and MGT arrangement. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has...

  15. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk;

    increase of plant biomass under both water regimes, most likely due to reduced mechanical impedance to root growth. No positive effects on plant growth were achieved by addition of WGB. Our results suggest that SGB has a great global potential to increase crop productivity on coarser soil types changing...... was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amendment of straw (SGB) and wood (WGB) GB on shoot and root growth under two levels of water supply in a temperate sandy loam and coarse sandy soil. In the sandy loam, the reduced water regime significantly affected plant growth and water consumption......, whereas the effect was less pronounced in the coarse sand. Independent of the soil type, both GBs increased AWC, with the highest absolute effect in the coarse sand. In the sandy loam, soil application of GB had no effect on plant growth, however, the addition of SGB to coarse sand led to a substantial...

  16. Development and demonstration plant operation of an opposed multi-burner coal-water slurry gasification technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fuchen; ZHOU Zhijie; DAI Zhenhua; GONG Xin; YU Guangsuo; LIU Haifeng; WANG Yifei; YU Zunhong

    2007-01-01

    The features of the opposed multi-burner (OMB) gasification technology,the method and process of the research,and the operation results of a pilot plant and demon stration plants have been introduced.The operation results of the demonstration plants show that when Beisu coal was used as feedstock,the OMB CWS gasification process at Yankuang Cathy Coal Co.Ltd had a higher carbon conversion of 3%,a lower specific oxygen consumption of about 8%,and a lower specific carbon consumption of 2%-3% than that of Texaco CWS gasification at the Lunan Fertilizer Plant.When Shenfu coal was used as feedstock,the OMB CWS gasification process at Hua-lu Heng-sheng Chemical Co.Ltd had a higher carbon conversion of more than 3%,a lower specific oxygen consumption of about 2%,and a lower specific coal consumption of about 8% than that of the Texaco CWS gasification process at Shanghai Coking & Chemical Corporation.The OMB CWS gasification technology is proven by industrial experience to have a high product yield,low oxygen and coal consumption and robust and safe operation.

  17. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  18. Dynamic Modeling and Plantwide Control of a Hybrid Power and Chemical Plant: An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Coupled with a Methanol Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick J.

    Gasification has been used in industry on a relatively limited scale for many years, but it is emerging as the premier unit operation in the energy and chemical industries. The switch from expensive and insecure petroleum to solid hydrocarbon sources (coal and biomass) is occurring due to the vast amount of domestic solid resources, national security and global warming issues. Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of "clean coal" technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel gas for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate synthesis gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The coupling of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with a methanol plant can handle swings in power demand by diverting hydrogen gas from a combustion turbine and synthesis gas from the gasifier to a methanol plant for the production of an easily-stored, hydrogen-consuming liquid product. An additional control degree of freedom is provided with this hybrid plant, fundamentally improving the controllability of the process. The idea is to base-load the gasifier and use the more responsive gas-phase units to handle disturbances. During the summer days, power demand can fluctuate up to 50% over a 12-hour period. The winter provides a different problem where spikes of power demand can go up 15% within the hour. The following dissertation develops a hybrid IGCC / methanol plant model, validates the steady-state results with a National Energy Technical Laboratory study, and tests a proposed control structure to handle these significant disturbances. All modeling was performed in the widely used chemical process

  19. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  20. AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells. FINAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Di Donato, Antonello; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Velo García, Enrique; Nougués, José María; Pérez Fortes, María del Mar; Bojarski, Aarón David

    2010-01-01

    Informe Final del Projecte ECSC RFC-CR-04006: AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells

  1. Co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, L.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU funded, international, R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding co-utilisation of biomass and/or waste in advanced coal conversion processes. The project comprises three main programmes, each of which includes a number of smaller subprogrammes. The three main programmes are: Coal-biomass systems component development and design; Coal-biomass environmental studies; Techno-economic assessment studies. (orig)

  2. On-line measurement of raw gas elemental composition in fluidized bed biomass steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, D. [Dept. of Environment and Planning, Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies, Univ. of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal); Dept. of Energy and Environment, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Thunman, H.; Larsson, A.; Seemann, M. [Dept. of Energy and Environment, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Tarelho, L.; Matos, A. [Dept. of Environment and Planning, Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies, Univ. of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal)

    2012-11-01

    At the present stage of technology development pursuing to achieve unattended gasification processes, the available methods to determine the CHON composition of raw gas involve a great deal of laboratory tasks, making it unpractical, time-consuming and costly. For instance, there are available analyzers to measure the chemical composition of dry raw gas but offline methods are used to determine the liquids (organic compounds + water). An alternative that is investigated in this work is to convert the raw gas first into simple product species that are easily analyzed. The straightforward way to achieve this is to burn the gas with proper amount of oxygen to assure quantitative conversion into CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. This method is demonstrated here by monitoring the CHON composition of raw gas with high temporal resolution from Chalmers 2MW{sub th} FB gasifier.

  3. Bimodal and multimodal plant biomass particle mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.

    2013-07-09

    An industrial feedstock of plant biomass particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein the particles are individually characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L, wherein the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces, and wherein the particles in the feedstock are collectively characterized by having a bimodal or multimodal size distribution.

  4. Agglomeration behaviour of high ash Indian coals in fluidized bed gasification pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although gasification of high ash Indian coals is gaining importance, the resultant uncertainties associated with agglomerate formation are still unresolved. To address this, a suitable pilot scale Fluidized Bed Gasifier was utilized in this study. Stabilized operating conditions in terms of coal feed rate, air feed rate, bed temperature, etc., already identified for maximum possible carbon conversion, were maintained in all experiments and the steam flow rate was only varied. Though the ash fusion temperature of the coals were above 1200 °C, agglomerate was formed during gasification at 950 °C with ‘steam to coal ratio’ less than 0.15 (kg/kg). On increasing this ratio above 0.2 local heat-concentration and agglomeration could be avoided with certainty. Chemical composition alone was not sufficient to explain the relative strength of ash-agglomerates. Compositional variation and state of iron within the matrix were assessed through SEM-EDX and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study, respectively. The probing also required the ash-loading and iron-loading factors to be freshly defined in the context of gasification. Localized heat, large compositional variation, presence of iron in Fe2+ state, ash-loading/iron-loading factors influenced intensity of agglomerate formation. Finally, low temperature agglomerate formation was explained by SiO2–Al2O3–FeO phase diagram. - Highlights: • Pilot plant studies on agglomerate formation during high ash coal gasification. • AFT, chemical analysis of coal ash could not give proper indication. • Ash-/iron-loading factors, compositional variation, Fe2+ leads to agglomeration. • Steam to coal ratio was controlled judiciously to avoid agglomeration. • Cause for agglomeration investigated in depth and remedial adjustment was focused

  5. An experimental study on hydrogen-rich gas production via steam gasification of biomass in a research-scale fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Steam gasification via fluidized-bed is an interesting technology for hydrogen rich gas production. • The increase of steam/biomass ratio plays a major role on the hydrogen yield. • Hydrogen yield slightly increases as the biomass particle size decreases. • Tar yield strongly depends on reaction temperature. - Abstract: A research scale fluidized-bed reactor has been built and used to study the effect of steam/biomass ratio, time duration of experiments, reactor temperature, and biomass particle size on hydrogen yield and tar content in produced syngas during steam gasification of biomass. Batch experiments were performed with wood residue crushed into three different sizes of 0.5–1 mm (small), 1–2.5 mm (medium), and 2.5–5 mm (large), at reactor temperatures of 700, 800, and 900 °C. As the steam/biomass ratio increases, a decrease in formation of CO, accompanied by an increase in the hydrogen concentration, is observed. As expected, an increase in reactor temperature leads to a significant increase of H2 output and tar reforming. The obtained results show that hydrogen yield increases as time duration of the experiment is increased. It is also found that a reduction in particle diameter leads to a significant improvement in hydrogen yield

  6. Hydrogen production from co-gasification of coal and biomass in supercritical water by continuous flow thermal-catalytic reaction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qiuhui; GUO Liejin; LIANG Xing; ZHANG Ximin

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is a clean energy carrier.Converting abundant coal sources and green biomass energy into hydrogen effectively and without any pollution promotes environmental protection.The co-gasification performance of coal and a model compound of biomass,carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)in supercritical water (SCW),were investigated experimentally.The influences of temperature,pressure and concentration on hydrogen production from co-gasification of coal and CMC in SCW under the given conditions (20-25 MPa,650℃,15-30 s) are discussed in detail.The experimental results show that H2,CO2 and CH4 are the main gas products,and the molar fraction of hydrogen reaches in excess of 60%.The higher pressure and higher CMC content facilitate hydrogen production;production is decreased remarkably given a longer residence time.

  7. National renewable energy policy and local opposition in the UK: the failed development of a biomass electricity plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy developments in the UK are supported by central government but face considerable opposition from the public. The purpose of this study is to explore the causes and consequences of public opposition to biomass energy development in North Wiltshire where Ambient Energy Ltd. proposed the development of a 5 MWe wood gasification plant near the town of Cricklade. The case study was conducted through in-depth interviews, content analysis, person to person questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and participatory appraisal methods. Though biomass energy plants in general have fewer environmental impacts than plants which use fossil fuel, there could still be local impacts which give rise to concerns and local opposition to the development. The opposition could be partially explained by the fact that the general public is relatively unfamiliar with biomass energy. Public acceptance or rejection was mainly based on the public trust or mistrust. The case study demonstrates two distinctly rigid characteristics among the key stakeholders of biomass energy development. These are the 'not-in-my-back-yard' attitude from the public and the 'there-is-no-alternative' attitude of the developers. These rigid stances were widely contributing to the failure of the project to gain planning permission. The environmental justification of biomass energy at the national level is not always sufficient to convince the local residents. Winning public support to promote biomass energy requires an alternative approach of planning and action through interactive communication, public participation and collective learning among all the stakeholders

  8. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilised soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K.; Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    This presentation describes research carried out by VTT Energy and METLA during 1996, as part of the collaborative EU project involving Finland, Portugal and Spain. The main objectives of this project are to carry out experimental studies of both combustion and gasification under atmospheric (Portugal and Spain) and pressurised conditions (Finland) using biomass from different countries, namely Finland, Portugal and Spain. This was to determine the influence of biomass fertilising conditions on the process itself and the impact on the integrated energy production facilities, such as gas turbines. The aim of the research was carried out during 1996: (1) To complete the biomass collection, analyses and selection of the samples for combustion and gasification tests. This task has been carried out in co-operation with VTT and METLA, (2) To start the combustion and gasification tests under pressurised and atmospheric conditions. The combustion research in Finland is being performed in pressurised entrained flow reactor at VTT in Jyvaeskylae and the gasification research is being conducted at VTT in Espoo. The collection of biomass samples has been completed. The analyses of the samples show that for instance potassium and phosphorus content will be increased by about 30-50 % due to fertilisation. In the ash fusion tests, the ash from fertilised bark and branches and needles may start to soften already at 900 deg C under reducing conditions depending on the composition of the ash. In oxidising atmospheres the ash softening seems to occur at higher temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that the fertilisation may have an influence on the combustion process

  9. Feasibility study of a biomass-fired cogeneration plant Groningen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of the title plant is determined for district heating and electricity supply of more than 1,000 houses in Groningen, Netherlands. Also attention is paid to the feasibility of such installations in a planned area of the city. Prices and supply of several biomass resources are dealt with: prunings of parks, public and private gardens, clean wood wastes, wood wastes from forests, wood from newly planted forests, specific energy crops (willows in high densities and short cycles). Prices are calculated, including transport to the gate of the premises where the cogeneration installations is situated. For the conversion attention is paid to both the feasibility of the use of a conventional cogeneration installation (by means of a steam turbine) and the use of a new conversion technique: combined cycle of a gasification installation and a cogeneration installation. 5 figs., 5 ills., 22 tabs., 1 appendix, 33 refs

  10. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  11. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Safety assurance study of high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plants and process development units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Chen, R.G.; Coyle, D.A.; Ethridge, T.R.; Hubbard, D.A.; Scales, D.; Senules, E.A.; Shah, K.V.; Singer, D.L.; Smith, M.R.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risks and provide suggestions to improve and assure the safety of the high BTU coal gasification units (pilot plants and process development units) currently in the joint US Department of Energy and The Gas Research Institute (DOE/GRI) program. This was accomplished by performing a systematic detailed investigation of the gasifiers for each of the processes to identify operating conditions or equipment deficiences that could lead to potential hazards. This report documents the potential hazards identified to date. It is expected that the study will contribute to the improved safety aspect of larger scale production units by providing descriptions of the lessons learned. This safety assurance study involved a detailed systematic investigation of the gasifier area and related equipment of six different gasification units: Bell Aerosopace, BI-GAS, Exxon, Hygas, Rockwell and Westinghouse.

  12. Simulation of bio-syngas production from biomass gasification%生物质气化制取合成气的模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯飞; 宋国辉; 沈来宏; 肖军; 魏龙; 孟华剑

    2012-01-01

    The interconnected fluidized beds technology is described in this paper, which is used to produce bio-syngas from biomass gasification. This technology separates the gasification and combustion processes of biomass. The heat is transferred from combustor to gasifier by bed materials, while extra heat needed in gasification process is provided by additional biomass burning in combustor. ASPEN PLUS software is used to establish the model and simulate the process. The simulated and experimental results are compared to verify the feasibility of the simulation. The effects of gasification temperature and steam to biomass ratio (S/B) on bio-syngas production are studied. The results show that,to achieve higher carbon conversion, gasification proportion and yield of high-quality bio-syngas, the suitable gasification temperature is suitable around 650 -800℃ ,and the S/B is about 0. 2 - 1. 0.%阐述了利用串行流化床制取生物质合成气的技术,该技术将生物质气化过程与燃烧过程分开,气化反应器和燃烧反应器之间通过床料进行热量传递,并通过生物质补燃实现自供热.利用ASPEN PLUS软件建立了串行流化床制取合成气的模型,通过将模拟数值与实验结果相比较,验证了模拟研究的可行性.重点研究了气化温度、水蒸汽与生物质的质量配比(S/B)对制取生物质合成气的影响.结果表明,为获取较高品质的生物质合成气并得到较高的碳转化率、气化份额和合成气产率,气化温度以650~800℃为宜,S/B应在0.2~1.0之间.

  13. Biomass char as an in-situ catalyst for tar removal in gasification systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu El-Rub, Ziad Yousef Kamel

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of biomass to the world’s energy supply is presently estimated to be around 10 to 14 %. The European Union set a firm target of cutting 20% of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 - the EU will be willing to put this goal up to 30% if the US, China and India make similar commit

  14. The Effect of Biomass Physical Properties on Top-Lit Updraft Gasification of Woodchips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. James R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a top-lit updraft gasifier affected by biomass (pine wood particle size, moisture content and compactness was studied in terms of the biochar yield, biomass burning rate, syngas composition and tar content. The highest biochar yield increase (from 12.2% to 21.8% was achieved by varying the particle size from 7 to 30 mm, however, larger particles triggered tar generation that reached its maximum of 93.5 g/m3 syngas at 30-mm biomass particles; in contrast, the hydrogen content in syngas was at its minimum of 2.89% at this condition. The increase in moisture content from 10% to 22% reduced biochar yield from 12% to 9.9%. It also reduced the tar content from 12.9 to 6.2 g/m3 which was found to be the lowest range of tar content in this work. Similarly, the carbon monoxide composition in syngas decreased to its minimum of 11.16% at moisture content of 22%. Finally, the biomass compactness increased biochar yield up to 17% when the packing mass was 3 kg. However, the addition of compactness also increased the tar content in syngas, but little effect was noticed in syngas composition.

  15. Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, W.

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays m

  16. Technical comparison between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Andres Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Federal University of Itajuba - UNIFEI, MG (Brazil). Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation - NEST], e-mails: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Among the emerging clean coal technologies for power generation, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) systems are receiving considerable attention as a potentially attractive option to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The main reason is because these systems has high efficiency and low emissions in comparison with traditional power generation plants. Currently in IGCC and NGCC systems at demonstration stage is been considered to implement CCS technology. CO{sub 2} emissions can be avoided in a gasification-based power plant because by transferring almost all carbon compounds to CO{sub 2} through the water gas shift (WGS) reaction, then removing the CO{sub 2} before it is diluted in the combustion stage. The aim of this study is to compare the technical performance of an IGCC system that uses Brazilian coal and petroleum coke as fuel with a NGCC system, with the same fixed output power of 450 MW. The first section of this paper presents the plant configurations of IGCC systems. The following section presents an analysis of NGCC technology. (author)

  17. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  18. Staged air biomass gasification. Operation experiences and process optimisation. Final report; Trinopdelt forgasning. Erfaringsindhentning og optimering. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.; Kyster, L.

    2011-05-15

    The project's aim was to optimize the drying plant for wood chips, and to accumulate operating experience from the entire facility through a half year of operation. Based on theoretical considerations the potential for improving the drying process was evaluated. Possibilities to take into the flue gas humidity as a control parameter was studied, but after a few simple measurements it was concluded that the most relevant change was to seal of the plant to minimize the risk of ingress of cold air into the fuel. After finding the cause of the leaking a new fuel inlet to the dryer has been constructed, and the original, leaky rotary valve has been replaced. Both changes have led to a significant improvement of the drying plant. Operational experience from plant operation showed with clarity that the energy loss from charcoal in the ashes was significantly higher than desirable. The volume meant that the handling and disposal of charcoal in itself constituted a major operational cost. At the end of the project, promising experiments with incorporation of an extra step in the gasification process were carried out. It seems to be an effective method to convert the remaining carbon matter to flammable gas and increase gas generator efficiency. Work on reducing charcoal production now continues in a new project. (ln)

  19. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  20. Characterization of a spent Ru/C catalyst after gasification of biomass in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambach, J; Schubert, M; Döbeli, M; Vogel, F

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-supported ruthenium catalysts promote the gasification of aqueous organic feed with high efficiency to synthetic natural gas in supercritical water. Ruthenium metal was recently identified as the catalytically active species. [1] Occasionally deactivation is observed. To understand the deactivation, the fresh and several spent catalyst samples were investigated by RBS, ERDA, and XPS. The data revealed a massive reduction of the ruthenium concentration in toto and especially of the surface concentration. Of importance is the almost complete disappearance of the spectral features in the valance band region. Coverage of the ruthenium clusters e.g. with a thin 'carbonaceous' layer, i.e. a kind of fouling, or structural modifications of the ruthenium clusters might be the origin. Additionally, leaching of ruthenium might contribute, but is not considered a major effect, because ruthenium was never found in the liquid effluent of the reactor. The influence of additionally detected corrosion products (Ni, Cr, Fe, Ti) from the stainless steel and the titanium alloy walls seems to be small. No evidence for a deactivation by sulphur could be found. PMID:23211730

  1. Biomass to hydrogen-rich syngas via catalytic steam gasification of bio-oil/biochar slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Yao, Jingang; Liu, Jing; Yan, Beibei; Shan, Rui

    2015-12-01

    The catalytic steam gasification of bio-oil/biochar slurry (bioslurry) for hydrogen-rich syngas production was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor using LaXFeO3 (X=Ce, Mg, K) perovskite-type catalysts. The effects of elemental substitution in LaFeO3, temperature, water to carbon molar ratio (WCMR) and bioslurry weight hourly space velocity (WbHSV) were examined. The results showed that La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 gave the best performance among the prepared catalysts and had better catalytic activity and stability than the commercial 14 wt.% Ni/Al2O3. The deactivation caused by carbon deposition and sintering was significantly depressed in the case of La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 catalyst. Both higher temperature and lower WbHSV contributed to more H2 yield. The optimal WCMR was found to be 2, and excessive introducing of steam reduced hydrogen yield. The La0.8Ce0.2FeO3 catalyst gave a maximum H2 yield of 82.01% with carbon conversion of 65.57% under the optimum operating conditions (temperature=800°C, WCMR=2 and WbHSV=15.36h(-1)). PMID:26378962

  2. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen (ed.)

    2008-11-15

    In total 20 international and national experts were invited to give presentations (The PPT-presentations are collected in this volume).The seminar was divided into three parts: Production technologies; Applications - Gas turbines and gas Engines - Biomethane as vehicle fuel- Syngas in industrial processes; Strategy, policy and vision. Production of synthetic fuels through gasification of biomass is expected to develop rapidly due to political ambitions related to the strong fossil fuel dependency, especially within the transportation sector, security of supply issues and the growing environmental concern. Techniques that offer a possibility to produce high quality fuels in an efficient and sustainable way are of great importance. In this context gasification is expected to play a central part. The indirect gasification concept has been further developed in recent years and there are now pilot and demonstration plants as well as commercial plants in operation. The RandD activities at the semi-industrial plant in Guessing, Austria have resulted in the first commercial plant, in Oberwart. The design data is 8.5 MW{sub th} and 2.7 MW{sub e} which gives an electric efficiency of 32 % and the possibility to produce biomethane. In this scale conventional CHP production based on combustion of solid biomass and the steam cycle would result in a poor electric efficiency. Metso Power has complemented the 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden with a 2 MW{sub th} indirect gasifier. The gasifier is financed by Gothenburg Energy and built for RD purposes. Gothenburg Energy in collaboration with E.ON Sweden will in a first stage build a 20 MW plant for biomethane production (as vehicle fuel and for grid injection) in Gothenburg based on the indirect gasification technology. The plant is expected to be in operation in 2012. The next stage involves an 80 MW plant with a planned start of operation in 2015. Indirect gasification of biomass

  3. Effect of biomass particle size and air superficial velocity on the gasification process in a downdraft fixed bed gasifier. An experimental and modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinaut, Francisco V.; Melgar, Andres [Thermal Engines and Renewable Energies Group (MYER), School of Engineering, University of Valladolid (Spain); Perez, Juan F. [Group of Energy Efficient Management - GIMEL, Engineering Faculty, University of Antioquia (Colombia); Horrillo, Alfonso [CIDAUT Research and Development Center in Transport and Energy (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    A one-dimensional stationary model of biomass gasification in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier is presented in this paper. The model is based on the mass and energy conservation equations and includes the energy exchange between solid and gaseous phases, and the heat transfer by radiation from the solid particles. Different gasification sub-processes are incorporated: biomass drying, pyrolysis, oxidation of char and volatile matter, chemical reduction of H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O by char, and hydrocarbon reforming. The model was validated experimentally in a small-scale gasifier by comparing the experimental temperature fields, biomass burning rates and fuel/air equivalence ratios with predicted results. A good agreement between experimental and estimated results was achieved. The model can be used as a tool to study the influence of process parameters, such as biomass particle mean diameter, air flow velocity, gasifier geometry, composition and inlet temperature of the gasifying agent and biomass type, on the process propagation velocity (flame front velocity) and its efficiency. The maximum efficiency was obtained with the smaller particle size and lower air velocity. It was a consequence of the higher fuel/air ratio in the gasifier and so the production of a gas with a higher calorific value. (author)

  4. Removal and Conversion of Tar in Syngas from Woody Biomass Gasification for Power Utilization Using Catalytic Hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification has yet to obtain industrial acceptance. The high residual tar concentrations in syngas prevent any ambitious utilization. In this paper a novel gas purification technology based on catalytic hydrocracking is introduced, whereby most of the tarry components can be converted and removed. Pilot scale experiments were carried out with an updraft gasifier. The hydrocracking catalyst was palladium (Pd. The results show the dominant role of temperature and flow rate. At a constant flow rate of 20 Nm3/h and temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C the tar conversion rates reached 44.9%, 78.1% and 92.3%, respectively. These results could be increased up to 98.6% and 99.3% by using an operating temperature of 700 °C and lower flow rates of 15 Nm3/h and 10 Nm3/h. The syngas quality after the purification process at 700 °C/10 Nm3/h is acceptable for inner combustion (IC gas engine utilization.

  5. Biomass Gasification - Process analysis and dimensioning aspects for downdraft units and gas cleaning lines

    OpenAIRE

    Stoppiello, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In such territories where food production is mostly scattered in several small / medium size or even domestic farms, a lot of heterogeneous residues are produced yearly, since farmers usually carry out different activities in their properties. The amount and composition of farm residues, therefore, widely change during year, according to the single production process periodically achieved. Coupling high efficiency micro-cogeneration energy units with easy handling biomass conversion equipm...

  6. Criteria for selection of dolomites and catalysts for tar elimination from biomass gasification gas. Kinetic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chem. Eng.

    1996-12-31

    Calcined dolomites and commercial steam reforming catalysts are used downstream biomass gasifiers for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. To further compare these solids under a rigorous basis, a reaction network and a kinetic model are presented. The apparent kinetic constant for the tar reduction is here proposed as a basis of comparison. Tar sampling and analysis, and the units used for the space-time in the catalytic reactor affect the kinetic constants observed. (author) (2 refs.)

  7. Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility

  8. Biomass thermal conversion : pelletisation of lignocelluloses and the effect on the gasification process

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Kyriakos Xenofon

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural residues and energy crops constitute an important part of the energy chain although they are not being used extensively in the energy generation processes since they are associated with disadvantages such as low bulk and energy densities and handling problems. One solution is the pelletisation of these residues, which solves a great deal of these problems and enables the competition of biomass with other types of fuels. A large amount of work, concerning the combus...

  9. Thermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a Biomass Gasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Aravind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with a power plant based on a biomass gasifier, SOFCs and a gas turbine are presented. The SOFC anode off-gas which mainly consists of steam and carbon dioxides used as a gasifying agent leading to an allothermal gasification process for which heat is required. Implementation of heat pipes between the SOFC and the gasifier using two SOFC stacks and intercooling the fuel and the cathode streams in between them has shown to be a solution on one hand to drive the allothermal gasification process and on the other hand to cool down the SOFC. It is seen that this helps to reduce the exergy losses in the system significantly. With such a system, electrical efficiency around 73% is shown as achievable.

  10. Biomass gasification and fuel cells: system with PEM fuel cell; Gaseificacao de biomassa e celula a combustivel: sistema com celula tipo PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordi, Alexandre; Lobkov, Dmitri D.; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Rodrigues, Jean Robert Pereira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: asordi@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: lobkov@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: danielg@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: jrobert@fem.unicamp.br; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin], e-mail: Lh2ennio@ifi.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the operation flow diagram of an electricity generation system based on the biomass integrated gasification fuel cell of the type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). The integration between the gasification and a fuel cell of this type consists of the gas methane (CH4) reforming contained in the synthesis gas, the conversion of the carbon monoxide (CO), and the cleaning of the gaseous flow through a PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) system. A preliminary analysis was carried out to estimate the efficiency of the system with and without methane gas reforming. The performance was also analyzed for different gasification gas compositions, for larger molar fractions of hydrogen and methane. The system electrical efficiency was 29% respective to the lower heating value of the gasification gas. The larger the molar fraction of hydrogen at the shift reactor exit, the better the PSA exergetic performance. Comparative analysis with small gas turbines exhibited the superiority of the PEMFC system. (author)

  11. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  12. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  13. History, challenge and solution of biomass gasification: a review%生物质气化技术的再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张齐生; 马中青; 周建斌

    2013-01-01

    Recently, as the widely application of biotechnology in the industry, agriculture and energy, it has been playing a great role in technology reform and economy growth. And currently, due to the problems of rapid depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution, people are looking for a renewable and green fuel and fuel processing technology that can partially replace the fossil fuel. Biomass gasification technology, regarding as a renewable and sustainable bio-energy conversion technology, has been developing rapidly. However, for the immature gasification system and ineffective recycling utilization of gasification byproducts (bio-char and bio-extract) , it hinders the commercialization and operation of gasification technology seriously. Biomass gasification poly-generation technology is defined as the comprehensive utilization of gas (producer gas) , solid (bio-char) and liquid (bio-extract) products from biomass downdraft fixed bed gasification system. The presentation of poly-generation methodology and the successful application of the associated e-quipment provide a new guideline for the further development of biomass gasification technology. This paper describes the history, challenge and solution of biomass gasification technology.%近现代,生物技术在工业、农业和能源领域得到广泛应用,对世界科技和经济发展起到重大的变革和促进作用.由于化石燃料资源性枯竭问题和环境污染问题,寻找一种清洁、可再生的替代燃料和燃料生产技术已迫在眉睫.生物质气化技术作为一种清洁的可再生能源利用技术得到了快速发展,然而由于气化设备自身不够成熟以及未对气化副产物(生物质炭和生物质提取液)加以有效利用等问题,严重阻碍了生物质气化技术的商业化推广和运行.生物质气化多联产技术是指基于生物质下吸式固定床气化的气、固、液三相产品多联产及其产品分相回收、利用技术.

  14. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen (ed.)

    2008-11-15

    In total 20 international and national experts were invited to give presentations (The PPT-presentations are collected in this volume).The seminar was divided into three parts: Production technologies; Applications - Gas turbines and gas Engines - Biomethane as vehicle fuel- Syngas in industrial processes; Strategy, policy and vision. Production of synthetic fuels through gasification of biomass is expected to develop rapidly due to political ambitions related to the strong fossil fuel dependency, especially within the transportation sector, security of supply issues and the growing environmental concern. Techniques that offer a possibility to produce high quality fuels in an efficient and sustainable way are of great importance. In this context gasification is expected to play a central part. The indirect gasification concept has been further developed in recent years and there are now pilot and demonstration plants as well as commercial plants in operation. The RandD activities at the semi-industrial plant in Guessing, Austria have resulted in the first commercial plant, in Oberwart. The design data is 8.5 MW{sub th} and 2.7 MW{sub e} which gives an electric efficiency of 32 % and the possibility to produce biomethane. In this scale conventional CHP production based on combustion of solid biomass and the steam cycle would result in a poor electric efficiency. Metso Power has complemented the 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden with a 2 MW{sub th} indirect gasifier. The gasifier is financed by Gothenburg Energy and built for RD purposes. Gothenburg Energy in collaboration with E.ON Sweden will in a first stage build a 20 MW plant for biomethane production (as vehicle fuel and for grid injection) in Gothenburg based on the indirect gasification technology. The plant is expected to be in operation in 2012. The next stage involves an 80 MW plant with a planned start of operation in 2015. Indirect gasification of biomass

  15. Screening of various low-grade biomass materials for low temperature gasification: Method development and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Ravenni, Giulia; Holm, Jens Kai;

    2015-01-01

    method and the subsequent use of the method to identify promising e but currently unproven, low-grade biomass resources for conversion in Pyroneer systems. The technical assessment is conducted by comparing the results from a series of physical-mechanical and thermochemical experiments to a set of proven...... references. The technical assessment is supplemented by an evaluation of practical application and overall energy balance. Applying the developed method to 4 references and 18 unproven low-grade potential fuels, indicated that one of these unproven candidates was most likely unsuited for Pyroneer...

  16. Biomass gasification systems in electric energy generation for isolated communities; Sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa na geracao de energia eletrica para comunidades isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortine Gonzales; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Basaglia, Fernando [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: omartins@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sandra@iee.usp.br, e-mail: basaglia@iee.usp.br; Ushima, Ademar Hakuo [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adidas@ipt.br

    2004-07-01

    The project 'Comparison Among Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification', agreement FINEP/CT-ENERG 23.01.0695.00, is a partnership between CENBIO - The Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass, BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil, IPT - Technology Research Institute and UA - Amazon University. The main objective of this project is to study a biomass gasifier system and its implantation, using a sustainable way, at isolated communities in the North Region, offering an alternative to replace fossil fuel. The system is composed by a gasifier from Indian Institute of Science - IISc, that can generate 20 kW of output energy, a generator (internal combustion engine), an ashes extractor, a water cooler and treatment system, a dryer and a control panel. The project, developed at IPT, intends to evaluate the operation conditions of the gasification system: gas cleaning, electric power generation and the technology transfer to Brazil, allowing the formation of human resources in the Brazilian North region and collaborating with the national institutions from this area. (author)

  17. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.;

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  18. Investigation of Continuous Gas Engine CHP Operation on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Torben Kvist;

    2005-01-01

    More than 2000 hours of gas engine operation with producer gas from biomass as fuel has been conducted on the gasification CHP demonstration and research plant, named “Viking” at the Technical University of Denmark. The gas engine is an integrated part of the entire gasification plant. The excess...

  19. The production of synthetic natural gas (SNG): A comparison of three wood gasification systems for energy balance and overall efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of Synthetic Natural Gas from biomass (Bio-SNG) by gasification and upgrading of the gas is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions and replace declining fossil natural gas reserves. Production of energy from biomass is approximately CO2 neutral. Production of Bio-SNG can even be CO2 negative, since in the final upgrading step, part of the biomass carbon is removed as CO2, which can be stored. The use of biomass for CO2 reduction will increase the biomass demand and therefore will increase the price of biomass. Consequently, a high overall efficiency is a prerequisite for any biomass conversion process. Various biomass gasification technologies are suitable to produce SNG. The present article contains an analysis of the Bio-SNG process efficiency that can be obtained using three different gasification technologies and associated gas cleaning and methanation equipment. These technologies are: (1) Entrained Flow, (2) Circulating Fluidized Bed and (3) Allothermal or Indirect gasification. The aim of this work is to identify the gasification route with the highest process efficiency from biomass to SNG and to quantify the differences in overall efficiency. Aspen Plus registered was used as modeling tool. The heat and mass balances are based on experimental data from literature and our own experience. Overall efficiency to SNG is highest for Allothermal gasification. The net overall efficiencies on LHV basis, including electricity consumption and pre-treatment but excluding transport of biomass are 54% for Entrained Flow, 58% for CFB and 67% for Allothermal gasification. Because of the significantly higher efficiency to SNG for the route via Allothermal gasification, ECN is working on the further development of Allothermal gasification. ECN has built and tested a 30 kWth lab scale gasifier connected to a gas cleaning test rig and methanation unit and presently is building a 0.8 MWth pilot plant, called Milena, which will be connected to the existing

  20. Degradation of gas turbine blade materials in integrated coal-gasification combined cycle plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, K.; Yan, L.; Takahashi, M.; Takaishi, K.; Furukawa, T. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan). Power & Industrial Systems Research & Development Center

    2001-07-01

    Interest in the integrated coal-gasification combined cycle plant (IGCC) has increased because of its high efficiency. However, degradation of gas turbine component materials has not been studied so far. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the corrosion behaviors of these materials in an actual coal gas combustion environment. The test facility was constructed near the coal-gasification test facility (CGT) at the Aioi works of Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. Several superalloy (Rene80H and FSX414) and coating systems (CoCrAlY, CoNiCrAlY and TBC) were exposed in the coal gas combustion environment at 1123, 1223 and 1323 K up to 350 h. After these tests, the weight change of each specimen was measured. Morphologies of products and element distributions at their surfaces were observed with SEM and EPMA. It is concluded that not only high- temperature oxidation and sulfidation but also ash deposition has a remarkable influence on the degradation of gas turbine blade materials.

  1. Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, R. E.

    1979-02-01

    A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the largest plant size; at $10/ton, it represents only 47% of product cost.

  2. Multi Staged Gasification Systems - A New Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M.B.; Koidl, F.; Kreutner, G.; Giovannini, A. (MCI - Univ. of Applied Science for Environmental-, Process- and Biotechnology, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)); Kleinhappl, M.; Roschitz, C.; Hofbauer, H. (Austrian Bioeneregy Centre, Graz (Austria)); Gruber, F. (GE Jenbacher, Jenbach (Austria)); Krueger, J. (SynCraft Engineering, Schwaz (Austria))

    2008-10-15

    Multi-staged fixed bed (MFB) gasification systems represent one of the most promising and effective methods of transforming solid biomass into power and heat (CHP). The underlying magic of this gasification process is, that a clean producer gas suitable for gas engines at high cold-gas efficiency rates can be produced. These two attributes allow multi-staged gasification systems to minimize the efforts for gas cleaning, while maximizing the energy retrieval out of the biomass. Though already demonstrated in small-scale, MFB gasification becomes a challenge when thinking of commercial-sized plants above 150kW{sub el}. In such a dimension especially the pressure loss over the char bed and bulk instabilities become the major process obstacles. After years of investigation the MCI developed a new process pathway which allows avoiding these bottle necks while maintaining the advantages of MFB systems. The core of the new staged alignment is the combination of a partial-oxidation-accelerator with a floating-bed-reduction-reactor. The process has already achieved technical proof of concept during ongoing investigations at a 250 kW{sub th} pilot plant in Jenbach and will be upscaled to demonstration plant size as soon as sufficient long time experience is gained

  3. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  5. Valuing flexibility: The case of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, L.M.; Chamorro, J.M. [University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper we analyze the choice between two technologies for producing electricity. In particular, the firm has to decide whether and when to invest either in a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plant or in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, which may burn either coal or natural gas. Instead of assuming that fuel prices follow standard geometric Brownian motions' here they are assumed to show mean reversion, specifically to follow an inhomogeneous geometric Brownian motion. First we consider the opportunity to invest in a NGCC power plant. We derive the optimal investment rule as a function of natural gas price and the remaining life of the right to invest. In addition, the analytical solution for a perpetual option to invest is obtained. Then we turn to the IGCC power plant. We analyse the valuation of an operating plant when there are switching costs between modes of operation, and the choice of the best operation mode. This serves as an input to evaluate the option to invest in this plant. Finally we derive the value of an opportunity to invest either in a NGCC or IGCC power plant, i.e. to choose between an inflexible and a flexible technology, respectively. Depending on the opportunity's time to maturity, we derive the pairs of coal and gas prices for which it is optimal to invest in NGCC, in IGCC, or simply not to invest. Numerical computations involve the use of one- and two-dimensional binomial lattices that support a mean-reverting process for coal and gas prices. Basic parameter values are taken from an actual IGCC power plant currently in operation. sensitivity of some results with respect to the underlying stochastic process for fuel price is also checked.

  6. 浅析流化床生物质与煤共气化技术方案%Briefly Analyzing Scheme for Biomass and Coal Co-gasification Technology of Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕可军; 毛少祥; 孔北方; 柏林红

    2012-01-01

    In allusion to problems that the biomass was difficult to gasity independently, author has discussed the co-complemented technical scheme of biomass with coal co-gasification; has introduced the physical property of biomass and its gasification features; has discussed the technical features and process flow for pulverized coal gasification technology with fluidized bed of ash meh collection ; has presented the technical scheme to make co-gasification of biomass with coal on basis of pulverized coal gasification technology with fluidized bed of ash meh collection ; and also has presented the relative solution measures for existing problems.%针对生物质能源难以单独气化的问题,探讨了生物质与煤共气化的互补性技术方案;介绍了生物质的物理性质和气化特性;论述了灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术的特点和工艺流程;提出了在灰融聚流化床粉煤气化的基础上进行生物质与煤共气化技术方案,对存在的问题提出了相关解决措施。

  7. Thermo-economic analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell and steam injected gas turbine plant integrated with woodchips gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a thermo-economic analysis of an integrated biogas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for electric power generation. Basic plant layout consists of a gasification plant (GP), an SOFC and a retrofitted steam-injected gas turbine (STIG). Different system configurations...... and simulations are presented and investigated. A parallel analysis for simpler power plants, combining GP, SOFC, and hybrid gas turbine (GT) is carried out to obtain a reference point for thermodynamic results. Thermodynamic analysis shows energetic and exergetic efficiencies for optimized plant above 53% and 43...

  8. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass fired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Owing to Denmark's pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is being increasingly utilised as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and development projects, especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers, have been undertaken to make biomass a viable...... fuel resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can...

  9. Electric power generation using biomass gasification systems in nature in isolated communities of the Amazon region: project GASEIBRAS; Geracao de eletricidade utilizando sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa in natura em comunidades isoladas da regiao amazonica: projeto GASEIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortini Goncalves; Santos, Sandra M. Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, sandra@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper will present the pioneering project of electric energy generation from renewable sources 'GASEIBRAS - Nationalization of the Biomass Gasification Technology and Formation of Human Resources in the Amazon Region', recently approved by the National Advice of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and for the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The GASEIBRAS project intends to use the experience previously acquired in the project GASEIFAMAZ - Comparison between Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification in Brazil and Exterior and Formation of Human Resources in the North Region, sponsored by FINEP/CTENERG, to develop and construct a 20 kWe biomass gasification system, with total national technology, easy to operate and to maintain, and fed with local available biomass residues. Apart from contributing for the development of the national technology, this project will provide the sustainable development of the isolated communities in the Amazon region. The ongoing development of this project will enable to consolidate the national biomass gasification technology for electricity generation. The implemented prototype will allow the response of this project in other regions of the country, due its tailor made characteristic to attend to small isolated communities, thus supplying decentralized energy from renewable sources, to Amazon region. (author)

  10. Potential electrical energy generation in Brazil with biomass waste by gasification process; Potencial para geracao de energia eletrica no Brasil com residuos de biomassa atraves da gaseificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, Rachel Martins

    2009-01-15

    The adoption of new technologies for generating electricity is based on technical, economic and environmental analysis. An important factor for choose the technology to be adopted is the raw material available for this purpose. Given the energy application below the potential of agricultural and urban solid waste, the growing demand for energy and the existence of environmental concerns, this thesis aims to emphasize the technology of gasification as an alternative for energy use of agricultural and urban solid waste. Thus, it describes the technology's state of the art, its maturity and improvement. Of great importance for understanding this process, it is needed to add the conclusions derived from experience in the gasification pilot plant at the University of Louvain la Neuve, Belgium. Considering the waste selected, the quantity available and the technology chosen, it is estimated the potential for electric energy that could be generated if the inputs were gasified. (author)

  11. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas......Wh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214$/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity...

  12. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  13. Plant population and row spacing on biomass sorghum yield performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Biomass sorghum is one of the most promising crops for the production of electricity through the burning in high-pressure boilers, due to its high calorific value, high yield, seed propagation, short cycle, and to the possibility of full mechanization of its agricultural processes. However, there is still a lack of information about its cultural practices. To this end, this research aimed to evaluate the influence of row spacing and plant population on the yield performance of biomass sorghum. The experimental design was a randomized block, in factorial scheme of 4 x 4, with four row spacings (0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1m, and four plant populations (80,000; 100,000; 120,000 and 140,000 plants ha-1, with three replications. The characteristics evaluated were: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, number of tillers per plant, fresh weight per plant and biomass. Total biomass yield was greatly influenced by the row spacing, showing a sharp reduction when row spacing increased, in the two years of study, changing from 180.27 to 114.42t ha-1 in the 2012/13 crop year, and from 146.50 to 102.56t ha-1 in the 2013/14 crop year, for 0.5 and 1.1m between rows, respectively. The lowest yields observed in the second year of the study were due to unfavorable weather conditions in the period.

  14. Unlocking the potential of lignocellulosic biomass through plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Poppy E; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of producing sustainable liquid biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass remains high on the sustainability agenda, but is challenged by the costs of producing fermentable sugars from these materials. Sugars from plant biomass can be fermented to alcohols or even alkanes, creating a liquid fuel in which carbon released on combustion is balanced by its photosynthetic capture. Large amounts of sugar are present in the woody, nonfood parts of crops and could be used for fuel production without compromising global food security. However, the sugar in woody biomass is locked up in the complex and recalcitrant lignocellulosic plant cell wall, making it difficult and expensive to extract. In this paper, we review what is known about the major polymeric components of woody plant biomass, with an emphasis on the molecular interactions that contribute to its recalcitrance to enzymatic digestion. In addition, we review the extensive research that has been carried out in order to understand and reduce lignocellulose recalcitrance and enable more cost-effective production of fuel from woody plant biomass.

  15. Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental

  16. Influence of system integration options on the performance of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Jun; Kim, Young Sik; Cha, Kyu Sang [Graduate School, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea); Kim, Tong Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea); Sohn, Jeong L. [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-741 (Korea); Joo, Yong Jin [IGCC Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-760 (Korea)

    2009-09-15

    An IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) plant consists of a power block and a gasifier block, and a smooth integration of these two parts is important. This work has analyzed the influences of the major design options on the performance of an IGCC plant. These options include the method of integrating a gas turbine with an air separation unit and the degree of nitrogen supply from the ASU to the gas turbine combustor. Research focus was given to the effect of each option on the gas turbine operating condition along with plant performance. Initially, an analysis adopting an existing gas turbine without any modifications of its components was performed to examine the influence of two design options on the operability of the gas turbine and performance of the entire IGCC plant. It is shown that a high integration degree, where much of the air required at the air separation unit is supplied by the gas turbine compressor, can be a better option considering both the system performance and operation limitation of the gas turbine. The nitrogen supply enhances system performance, but a high supply ratio can only be acceptable in high integration degree designs. Secondly, the modifications of gas turbine components to resume the operating surge margin, such as increasing the maximum compressor pressure ratio by adding a couple of stages and increasing turbine swallowing capacity, were simulated and their effects on system performance were examined. Modification can be a good option when a low integration degree is to be adopted, as it provides a considerable power increase. (author)

  17. Development of staged gasification plant for heat and power production based on wood pellers. Final report; Udvikling af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarmeproduktion paa traepiller (Castoranlaegget i Graested). Afsluttende rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.

    2009-11-15

    The present project is associated to the EU Concerto project Green Solar Cities, contract no. TREN07/FP6EN/S07.70755/038573. The scope of the EU Concerto project is demonstration of efficient supply of solar energy and biomass in areas of the cities Salzburg in Austria and Copenhagen in Denmark. Further information about the EU project is available at www.greensolarcities.com. As a development task in this project BioSynergi Proces ApS has worked with development and test of a fixed bed down draft gasification pilot plant with the purpose of conducting small scale combined heat and power production based on wood pellets. The development and test activities has taken place and utilised the resources at an already existing complete forest wood chips fired gasification plant in the town of Graested, Denmark. This plant has already shown good long term operational results. The heart of this plant is air staged open core down draft gasifier covered by an international patent. During the development task the gasification process has been tested in about 750 hours running at wood pellets. Of these 130 hours has been with engine operation and combined heat and power production. Stable gas production from the gasifier has been obtained, while the stability of gas engine operation not fulfilled the expectations of long term stable operation. Due to another size distribution of the dust particles in the raw producer gas from the gasifier, the gas cleaning stage of the plant did not work as satisfying with wood pellet as commonly experienced with wood chips. This matter resulted in a negative impact at the stability of the gas engine operation. A changed design of the gas cleaning stage may solve this matter. In the EU Concerto project the planned new bio gasification plant in Valby area is based on the present project results and experiences from the already implemented biomass CHP plant in Graested north of Copenhagen. However, impact from rising wood pellets prices during

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT-DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced into a fi......A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations...... of state). A genetic algorithm is employed to select the optimal working fluid and the maximum pressure for the bottoming cycle. Thermodynamic and physical properties, environmental impacts and hazard specifications are also considered in the screening process. The results suggest that efficiencies...

  20. Intrinsic reactivity of biomass-derived char under steam gasification conditions. Potential of wood ash as catalyst.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanou, Pavlina; Gutierrez Murillo, Hector E.; Swaaij, van Wim P.M.; Rossum, van Guus; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of ash on the steam gasification rate of pine wood derived char particles in the temperature range 600–800 °C is investigated. Ash derived from pine wood or specific ash components were added to the pine-wood (before pyrolysis) or to the produced char (after pyrolysis) via physical mix

  1. A Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment of Nonrenewable Energy and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions of a Village-Level Biomass Gasification Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Pang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale bio-energy projects have been launched in rural areas of China and are considered as alternatives to fossil-fuel energy. However, energetic and environmental evaluation of these projects has rarely been carried out, though it is necessary for their long-term development. A village-level biomass gasification project provides an example. A hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA of its total nonrenewable energy (NE cost and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is presented in this paper. The results show that the total energy cost for one joule of biomass gas output from the project is 2.93 J, of which 0.89 J is from nonrenewable energy, and the related GHG emission cost is 1.17 × 10−4 g CO2-eq over its designed life cycle of 20 years. To provide equivalent effective calorific value for cooking work, the utilization of one joule of biomass gas will lead to more life cycle NE cost by 0.07 J and more GHG emissions by 8.92 × 10−5 g CO2-eq compared to natural gas taking into consideration of the difference in combustion efficiency and calorific value. The small-scale bio-energy project has fallen into dilemma, i.e., struggling for survival, and for a more successful future development of village-level gasification projects, much effort is needed to tide over the plight of its development, such as high cost and low efficiency caused by decentralized construction, technical shortcomings and low utilization rate of by-products.

  2. Viability analysis of electric energy cogeneration in combined cycle with sugar-cane biomass gasification and natural gas; Analise de viabilidade da cogeracao de energia eletrica em ciclo combinado com gaseificacao de biomassa de cana-de-acucar e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Neto, Vicente

    2001-03-15

    The objective of this thesis is evaluate the technical and economic viability of electric energy generation projects using as fuel the biomass produced in the sugar cane Brazilian industry, specifically the cane trash, the straw and the leaves of the plant, as complemental option to the expansion of the Brazilian electric system, hour in phase of deep modification in the institutional scenery, through the sale of electric energy for direct consumers or utilities, characterizing the business possibilities for the ethanol distilleries already integrated into the energy reality of the country. The analyzed technology is thermoelectric generation with combined cycle, operating in cogeneration, integrated to biomass gasification systems for the production of combustible gas, with and without addition of natural gas. The considered technology is known by the acronym BIG/GTCC, originated in Biomass Integrate Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Turbine. The economic analysis is made herself through a modeling and construction of economy project curves based on the prices of the electric energy, of the natural gas and in the costs of the retired biomass in an mechanized way.(author)

  3. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair. The objective of the program was to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The separation technology module is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The program developed and evaluated composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules were fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed Ion Conducting Ceramic Membrane (ICCM) approach, including system integration issues, were also assessed. This resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of integration schemes of ICCM hydrogen separation technology within Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Several results and conclusion

  4. Combined heat and power production based on gas turbine operation with biomass by gasification or powder firing; Kraftvaermeproduktion baserad paa gasturbindrift med biobraensle genom foergasning alternativt pulvereldning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marbe, Aasa; Colmsjoe, Linda

    2006-12-15

    Combined heat and power (CHP) technique is relatively less extended in the Swedish energy system. There is a production of 56,2 TWh in district heating meanwhile only 7,6 TWh electricity comes from CHP. This only corresponds to 6 % of all electricity produced in Sweden (132 TWh). Based on the existing district heating system the amount of electricity produced in CHP-plants could rise from today 7,6 to 20 TWh. The Swedish government has decided to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} released to atmosphere with 4 % by the year 2012. Furthermore there is a government decision that the nuclear power in a long time perspective will be phased out, so the amount of biofuelled heat and power plants has a huge potential to increase. To be competitive, the technique is to be efficient; hence the amount electricity produced should be as high as possible. Gasification of biofuel where the gas is used in a combined-cycle provides a higher efficiency compared to the traditional steam-cycle technique. To increase the electrical efficiency, an alternative method such as integration of a gas turbine with combustion of powder shape bio fuel in an external combustion chamber could be used. The concept is known as PFBC- technique in which the coal powder is combusted in a pressurised fluidised bed, the warm flue gases are cleaned up and expanded in a gas turbine. The objectives of this project have been to investigate the technical and economical conditions for gasification of bio fuel and for powder combustion in gas turbine for production of heat and power in different districts heat systems. Respectively technique has been studied in two different cases, Boraas Energi AB and ENA Energi AB. In Boraas the existing CHP-plant has been replaced by a bio fuelled gasification plant (IGCC) meanwhile at ENA Energi the existing CHP-plant has been complemented white a powder fuelled (bio) gas turbine. The task group for this report are decision makers of Energy Companies and the report will help

  5. Leaching behaviour of bottom ash from RDF high-temperature gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the physical properties, the chemical composition and the leaching behaviour of two bottom ash (BA) samples from two different refuse derived fuel high-temperature gasification plants, as a function of particle size. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the materials contained large amounts of glass. This aspect was also confirmed by the results of availability and ANC leaching tests. Chemical composition indicated that Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr were the most abundant metals, with a slight enrichment in the finest fractions. Suitability of samples for inert waste landfilling and reuse was evaluated through the leaching test EN 12457-2. In one sample the concentration of all metals was below the limit set by law, while limits were exceeded for Cu, Cr and Ni in the other sample, where the finest fraction showed to give the main contribution to leaching of Cu and Ni. Preliminary results of physical and geotechnical characterisation indicated the suitability of vitrified BA for reuse in the field of civil engineering. The possible application of a size separation pre-treatment in order to improve the chemical characteristics of the materials was also discussed.

  6. TIE for cyanides in groundwater at a former coal gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater remediation efforts are underway at a former coal gasification plant site in British Columbia because the concentrations of cyanide and other substances were found to exceed aquatic life guidelines. Hemmera and Nautilus Environmental examined whether that groundwater was toxic to a variety of sensitive marine aquatic life species, and whether cyanide was the primary toxicant. Untreated groundwater containing cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide and free cyanide was tested for toxicity on bivalve larval survival, kelp zoospore germination, sea urchin gamete fertilization, and larval topsmelt survival and growth. The untreated groundwater was found to be toxic to kelp zoospores and sea urchin gametes, but relatively non-toxic to bivalve larvae and topsmelt. The following 4 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) treatments were conducted on site groundwater: (1) acidification/aeration of the sample, (2) filtration of the sample through anion exchange media, (3) filtration of the sample through activated carbon, and (4) exposure of the sample to UV light. Both the cyanide concentration and the toxicity to kelp decreased considerably when the anion exchange treatment was applied. The results suggest that the toxicity may be attributed to cyanides in the groundwater. The information obtained from this study will be used to plan excavation water treatment strategies during site remediation as part of an ecological risk assessment for the site.

  7. TIE for cyanides in groundwater at a former coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeay, M.; Cameron, M. [Hemmeram, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Elphick, J. [Nautilus Environmental Co., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Groundwater remediation efforts are underway at a former coal gasification plant site in British Columbia because the concentrations of cyanide and other substances were found to exceed aquatic life guidelines. Hemmera and Nautilus Environmental examined whether that groundwater was toxic to a variety of sensitive marine aquatic life species, and whether cyanide was the primary toxicant. Untreated groundwater containing cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide and free cyanide was tested for toxicity on bivalve larval survival, kelp zoospore germination, sea urchin gamete fertilization, and larval topsmelt survival and growth. The untreated groundwater was found to be toxic to kelp zoospores and sea urchin gametes, but relatively non-toxic to bivalve larvae and topsmelt. The following 4 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) treatments were conducted on site groundwater: (1) acidification/aeration of the sample, (2) filtration of the sample through anion exchange media, (3) filtration of the sample through activated carbon, and (4) exposure of the sample to UV light. Both the cyanide concentration and the toxicity to kelp decreased considerably when the anion exchange treatment was applied. The results suggest that the toxicity may be attributed to cyanides in the groundwater. The information obtained from this study will be used to plan excavation water treatment strategies during site remediation as part of an ecological risk assessment for the site.

  8. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilized soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Project has started 1995 by determination of fertilized areas in Finland, Portugal and Spain. According to the results obtained from the analysis proper amount of pine and eucalyptus samples were selected for combustion and gasification tests. After that atmospheric and pressurized combustion and gasifications tests, including few series of gas clean up tests, have been performed by INETI and VTT. The 1 MW-scale long term test, were conducted by CIEMAT. The results are indicating that fertilization increases the potassium content in trees up to 50% or more depending upon the climate and conditions in soil. Alkali release seems to be an inverse function of the pressure indicating that the highest alkali release take place under atmospheric conditions corresponding to 111 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is over 25 wt.-% of total potassium in pine and 214 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is 32 wt.-% of total potassium in eucalyptus as received in the 1 MW ABFBC-tests. The potassium release is higher than allowed for the gas turbine process. Therefore the flue gas need to be cleaned up before it enters the gas turbine. For alkali removal at the operation conditions in oxidizing environment, the sorbent technology looks promising. According to the gasification tests the alkali release seems to be somewhat lower. Using for example filter system such as ceramic cancel filter the alkali emissions can be kept below requirements for gas turbine process using temperatures between 460-480 deg C. The research conducted here shows that fertilized biomass accumulate nutrients such potassium more than the non fertilized biomasses. Also the soil conditions has an effect to that. Due to the fact that alkalies in biomass are bonded differently than that of coal, the release is also higher. It could be shown that in combined gas turbine process the release of potassium is too high and need to be removed from the flue gas. It could also be shown that alkalies can be captured between 95-100 % at high temperature

  9. Marine macroscopic plants as biomass sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of marine plants, recent and current research, and studies at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and California Institute of Technology are reviewed. The latter program including laboratory and field studies on giant kelp is discussed. The use of deep ocean water and the nutrient requirements of giant kelp were studied. Test farm structure and problems are presented. (MHR)

  10. Biomass Yield of Different Plants for Biogass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Balodis, Oskars; Bartuševics, Jānis; Gaile, Zinta

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate yield potential of plants probably suitable for biogas production preliminary field trials were carried out at Research and Study farm “Vecauce” in 2010 using eight annual plant species: maize, winter oil-seed rape, oil radish, sunflower, foxtail millet, millet, hemp and amaranth. All species (except oil radish) were represented with several varieties, and some species were harvested at 2-3 development stages. Obtained fresh biomass yield was from 33.05 (millet „Rudes‟...

  11. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Draft EIS was published in the Federal Register at 76 FR 20624, on April 13, 2011, and in local... (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in... on an approximately 343-acre site located three-fourths mile east of the city limit of...

  12. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Prepare an EIS and Hold a Scoping Meeting was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 30520, on June 26... Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities... Proposal would be constructed on an approximately 343-acre site located three-fourths mile east of the...

  13. Controversy over Biomass Plant at Florida State Heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that Florida State University officials are gearing up for what could be another bruising battle this month over a proposed biomass plant that could bring the campus cleaner, cheaper energy and monetary support for alternative-energy research. Or, it could bring noise and pollution to a nearby neighborhood, according to…

  14. Exposure of boiler materials at the PRENFLO coal gasification plant: Second series, cooled samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leferink, R.G.I.; Kip, J.B.M.; Bouma, J.S. [KEMA Inspecties en Materialen, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    A number of alloys, coatings and welds are exposed in the PRENFLO coal gasification test facility to determine their applicability in heat exchangers of coal gasification installations. The corrosion of the materials is analyzed by means of optical microscopy and electron microscopy. The tested materials, arranged according to increasing suitability, are 15Mo3, T91, chromated 10CrMo9.10, chromated/vanadated T22Nb, Incoloy 800LC, SS310 and Sanicro 28

  15. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass and U.S. northeast forest residuals gasification for electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Gardner, Kevin H; Jambeck, Jenna R

    2013-04-01

    With the goal to move society toward less reliance on fossil fuels and the mitigation of climate change, there is increasing interest and investment in the bioenergy sector. However, current bioenergy growth patterns may, in the long term, only be met through an expansion of global arable land at the expense of natural ecosystems and in competition with the food sector. Increasing thermal energy recovery from solid waste reduces dependence on fossil- and biobased energy production while enhancing landfill diversion. Using inventory data from pilot processes, this work assesses the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of plasma gasification as a route capable of transforming construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass (CDDB) and forest residues into electricity. Results indicate that the environmental burdens associated with CDDB and forest residue gasification may be similar to conventional electricity generation. Land occupation is lowest when CDDB is used. Environmental impacts are to a large extent due to coal cogasified, coke used as gasifier bed material, and fuel oil cocombusted in the steam boiler. However, uncertainties associated with preliminary system designs may be large, particularly the heat loss associated with pilot scale data resulting in overall low efficiencies of energy conversion to electricity; a sensitivity analysis assesses these uncertainties in further detail. PMID:23496419

  16. Chemical-looping gasification of biomass in a 10k Wth interconnected fluidized bed reactor using Fe2 O3/Al2 O3 oxygen carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUSEYIN Sozen; WEI Guo-qiang; LI Hai-bin; HE Fang; HUANG Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to design and operate a 10 kW hot chemical-looping gasification ( CLG) unit using Fe2 O3/Al2 O3 as an oxygen carrier and saw dust as a fuel. The effect of the operation temperature on gas composition in the air reactor and the fuel reactor, and the carbon conversion of biomass to CO2 and CO in the fuel reactor have been experimentally studied. A total 60 h run has been obtained with the same batch of oxygen carrier of iron oxide supported with alumina. The results show that CO and H2 concentrations are increased with increasing temperature in the fuel reactor. It is also found that with increasing fuel reactor temperature, both the amount of residual char in the fuel reactor and CO2 concentration of the exit gas from the air reactor are degreased. Carbon conversion rate and gasification efficiency are increased by increasing temperature and H2 production at 870 ℃reaches the highest rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET-surface area tests have been used to characterize fresh and reacted oxygen carrier particles. The results display that the oxygen carrier activity is not declined and the specific surface area of the oxygen carrier particles is not decreased significantly.

  17. Gasification - Status and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2012-06-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect gasification and pressurized oxygen-blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them are based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others, more advantageous solutions, still need further development.

  18. Reequipment of a GST-power plant operating with natural gas for the adaptation to coal gas - gasification of residual substances. Umruestung eines GuD-Erdgaskraftwerkes auf Kohlegas - Vergasung von Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelich, W. (Babcock Lentjes Kraftwerkstechnik GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)); Klauke, F. (Babcock Lentjes Kraftwerkstechnik GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)); Koenig, D. (Babcock Lentjes Kraftwerkstechnik GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    The paper deals with the possibility of readjusting a planned GST gas-fired power station to brown coal gasification plant to be installed at a later date. It comments on measures to be taken into consideration for the natural gas power plant project with regard to a subsequent reequipment of the plant. In addition to this, the article describes the gasification technology as well as the components needed for gasification quoting data on the efficiency, availability and experience gained from the operation of existing plants. In conclusion, the paper gives a brief description of the disposal of residues by gasification. (orig.)

  19. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  20. The formation of impurities in fluidized-bed gasification of biomass, peat and coal; Epaepuhtauksien muodostuminen leijukerroskaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Kurkela, M.; Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T.; Oesch, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Alen, R. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this three-year-long project was to study the effects of different process parameters and bed materials on the formation of impurities in pressurized fluidized-bed gasification. The main emphasis of the project was focused on the formation of tars and nitrogen compounds in wood, peat and coal gasification. The aims of the research were to find out such operating conditions, where the formation of problematic high-molecular-weight tars can be minimised and to create a better understanding on the fate of fuel nitrogen in fluidized-bed gasifiers. Main part of the research was carried out in a bench-scale pressurised fluidized-bed reactor (ID 30 mm), where the effects of pressure, temperature, gas atmosphere and bed material were studied with different feedstocks. Most of the test series were carried out using the same feedstocks as earlier used in the PDU-scale fluidized-bed gasification tests of VTT (pine wood, pine bark, wheat straw, two peats, Rhenish brown coal, Polish and Illinois No.6 bituminous coals). The effects of operating parameters on the product yields (gas components, tars, char) were first studied under inert nitrogen atmosphere. The conversion of fuel nitrogen into ammonia and HCN were also determined for the different feedstocks over the different operating conditions. These studies showed that ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen compound of fluidized-bed pyrolysis with all the feedstocks studied. The conversions of fuel nitrogen into ammonia and HCN was highest with the high volatile fuels and lowest with the two hard coals. Gas atmosphere had a dramatic effect on the conversion of fuel nitrogen; much higher ammonia yields were determined in real gasification gas atmosphere than in inert pyrolysis carried out in N{sub 2} or Argon atmosphere. In addition to the pressurised fluidized-bed pyrolysis tests, laboratory scale pyrolysis research was carried out in order to compare the pyrolysis behaviour of the different feedstocks

  1. Updraft biomass gasification reactor evaluation of fuel; Reator de gaseificacao de biomassa em fluxo contra corrente para aquecimento de ar de secagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ivanildo da S. dos; Silva, Jadir N. da; Martins, Marcio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: ivanildomt@gmail.com, jadir@ufv.br, aredes@ufv.br

    2010-07-01

    Searching for a clean hot air from biomass for on farm applications, a gasification/combustion system was designed, built and evaluated. The system consisted of a countercurrent gasifier, coupled with a combustion chamber that burns the producer gas, and eucalyptus firewood was used as a fuel. Willing to reduce heat losses from the unit as well as to prevent thermal hazardous the unit was totally covered with brick's wall. Initial unit thermal efficiency was of about 56% and it reaches up to 71% at recharge. It was concluded that this system attended the proposed objectives, producing clean hot air that can be used for drying purposes as well as ambient space heating. (author)

  2. Análisis Exergético de la Gasificación de Biomasa Exergy Analysis of Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar el análisis exergético de la gasificación de biomasa residual con la finalidad de obtener energía útil. Se desarrolló un modelo para la gasificación de biomasa basado en el equilibrio químico de las reacciones. Este modelo permite predecir la evolución de la composición del gas de síntesis en función de la temperatura, las presiones y la composición elemental de los residuos del proceso de extracción de aceite de palma y orujo de lavado de uva (hidrogeno, oxigeno, carbono y nitrógeno, como también hacer un análisis exergético. Se encontró que independiente del agente gasificante, la concentración de monóxido de carbono e hidrógeno tienden a incrementar significativamente a altas presiones y elevadas temperaturas. Además, se muestra que la eficiencia exergética incrementa con la temperatura y disminuye con el aumento de la relación aire/combustible.This paper shows the exergy analysis applied to the gasification process of residual biomass with the purpose of obtaining useful energy. A model for the biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium of the reactions is proposed. The model allows predicting the syngas composition as a function of temperature, pressure and ultimate analysis of palm oil and grapevine pruning waste (determining hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen. It was found that the carbon monoxide and hydrogen concentration significantly increase at high pressure and temperature independently of the gasifying agent. Furthermore, it was also noticed that the exergy efficiency increases as temperature increases, and decreases as the relative fuel/air ratio increases.

  3. Aruscular mycorhizal fungi alter plant allometry and biomass - density relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lu; Weiner, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    mycorrhizal levels were obtained by applying benomyl (low AMF) or not (high AMF). Experiment 1 investigated the effects of AMF on plant growth in the absence of competition. Experiment 2 was a factorial design with two mycorrhizal levels and two plant densities (6000 and 17 500 seeds m-2). Shoot biomass, root......Background and Aims Plant biomass–density relationships during self-thinning are determined mainly by allometry. Both allometry and biomass–density relationship have been shown to vary with abiotic conditions, but the effects of biotic interactions have not been investigated. Arbuscular mycorrhizal...... fungi (AMF) can promote plant growth and affect plant form. Here experiments were carried out to test whether AMF affect plant allometry and the self-thinning trajectory. Methods Two experiments were conducted on Medicago sativa L., a leguminous species known to be highly dependent on mycorrhiza. Two...

  4. Preliminary forest plant biomass inventory in monsoon tropical forest in Cat Tien National park (South Vietnam)

    OpenAIRE

    Novichonok, A.; Evdokimova, E.; Markovskaya, E.; J. Kurbatova

    2012-01-01

    The results of forest plant biomass inventory in monsoon tropical forest in Cat Tien National Park are presented. The study demonstrates the differences in plant biomass production between forest areas with different levels of anthropogenic disturbance.

  5. Analyzing the possibility of constructing the air heating system for an integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, V. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.; Val'tsev, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Combined-cycle power plants operating on solid fuel have presently been implemented only in demonstration projects. One of possible ways for improving such plants consists in making a shift to hybrid process circuits of integrated gasification combined-cycle plants with external firing of solid fuel. A high-temperature air heater serving to heat compressed air is a key element of the hybrid process circuit. The article describes application of a high-temperature recuperative metal air heater in the process circuit of an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant (IGCC). The available experience with high-temperature air heating is considered, and possible air heater layout arrangements are analyzed along with domestically produced heat-resistant grades of steel suitable for manufacturing such air heater. An alternative (with respect to the traditional one) design is proposed, according to which solid fuel is fired in a noncooled furnace extension, followed by mixing the combustion products with recirculation gases, after which the mixture is fed to a convective air heater. The use of this design makes it possible to achieve considerably smaller capital outlays and operating costs. The data obtained from thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the high-temperature air heater with a thermal capacity of 258 MW for heating air to a temperature of up to 800°C for being used in the hybrid process circuit of a combined-cycle power plant are presented.

  6. Materials of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  7. Corrosion behavior of Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center; Kim, Min Jung [Sungkyunkwan Univ, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Materials Technology Research Center

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes {sup registered} 556 {sup registered}.

  8. Corrosion behavior of Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes registered 556 registered.

  9. Study tour to biomass gasifiers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study trip to a biomass gasification plant in Germany took place from 13-15 November 2000. The goal of the trip was to obtain information on German developments, experience, and possibilities in the field of biomass gasification. The participants were representatives of Dutch parties in the energy sector: waste sector, manufacturers, producers, policy makers and consultants. The most important feature was the visit to plants that were in operation. Due in particular to the new EEG (Emeuerbare-Energien-Gesetz/Renewable Energy) legislation, German policy makers have created an initial market for sustainable energy with a degree of success. The key feature is that EEG makes projects 'bankable' by guaranteeing a return delivery compensation. An EEG-type scheme designed to accelerate the development of sustainable energy could be an interesting instrument also for the Netherlands. The plan was to visit four plants and have a number of presentations in a period of three days. Preference was for relatively new plants with differing concepts. The following plants were visited and/or presented: 200-kWe CHP wood gasification plant, based on AHT technology, located at Domsland in Eckenfoerde; a 10,000 tonnes/year wood gasification plant, based on 'cupola furnace' technology of blast furnaces, located at Holzhausen near Leipzig; a 1-MWe wood gasification plant, based on Carbo-V technology, located at Freiberg; and finally a 23-MWe CBP wood gasification plant, also based on Juch technology, located at Siebenlehn. In clearly appears that Germany is ahead of the Netherlands in the realisation of gasification plants. Still, there are certain problems with the reliability of operation. The plants selected were relatively new (with the possible exception of Espenhain) and they are having too many teething problems. Sound insight has been obtained into the various concepts of decentralised energy generation from biomass and how this can be fitted into the existing infrastructure

  10. Power generation in small scale from gasification of biomass; Geracao eletrica em pequena escala a partir da gaseificacao de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Aradas, Maria Eugenia Corria [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida (NEST)

    2004-07-01

    This paper present a review about biomass gasifier technology and discuss its advantages, disadvantages and applications as well as shows some succeeded experiences in this area. The paper also presents an analysis of the biomass gas use in alternative engines and in new distributed generation technology such as Stirling engines and microturbines. (author)

  11. Interrelationships among plant biomass, plant surface area and the interception of particulate deposition by grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interrelationships among plant biomass, plant surface area and interception fraction were determined for the interception by corn of 238Pu-bearing particles released to the atmosphere from the H-Area nuclear fuels chemical separations facility on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant in Barnwell County, South Carolina. The relationship between interception fraction and corn biomass was accurately approximated by a filtration model with an absorption coefficient of 3.60 m2 kg-1. A filtration model with an absorption coefficient of 2.91 m2 kg-1 accurately approximated the relationship between biomass and interception fraction for data compiled from the literature for a variety of grass species. A linear regression model accurately approximated the relationship between interception fraction and surface area, but was not a better predictor of interception fraction than the filtration model for biomass

  12. Demonstration of a 1 MWe biomass power plant at USMC Base Camp Lejeune. Report for July 1994-May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.; Purvis, C.R.

    1998-06-01

    The paper discusses a biomass energy conversion project being sponsored by EPA to demonstrate an enviromentally and economically sound electrical power option for government installations, industrial sites, rural cooperatives, small municipalities, and developing countries. Wood gasification combined with internal combustion engines was chosen because of (1) recent improvements in gas cleaning, (2) simple economical operation for units < 10 MW, and (3) the option of a clean cheap fuel for the many existing facilities generating expensive electricity from petroleum fuels with reciprocating engines. The plant incorporates a downdraft, moving-bed gasifier utilizing hogged waste wood from the Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, NC. A moving-bed bulk wood dryer and both spark ignition and diesel engines are included. Unique process design features are described briefly, relative to the gasifier, wood drying, tar separation, and process control. A test plan for process optimization and demonstration of reliability, economics, and environmental impact is outlined.

  13. Photoreceptor effects on plant biomass, resource allocation, and metabolic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deyue; Seaton, Daniel D; Krahmer, Johanna; Halliday, Karen J

    2016-07-01

    Plants sense the light environment through an ensemble of photoreceptors. Members of the phytochrome class of light receptors are known to play a critical role in seedling establishment, and are among the best-characterized plant signaling components. Phytochromes also regulate adult plant growth; however, our knowledge of this process is rather fragmented. This study demonstrates that phytochrome controls carbon allocation and biomass production in the developing plant. Phytochrome mutants have a reduced CO2 uptake, yet overaccumulate daytime sucrose and starch. This finding suggests that even though carbon fixation is impeded, the available carbon resources are not fully used for growth during the day. Supporting this notion, phytochrome depletion alters the proportion of day:night growth. In addition, phytochrome loss leads to sizeable reductions in overall growth, dry weight, total protein levels, and the expression of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE genes. Because cellulose and protein are major constituents of plant biomass, our data point to an important role for phytochrome in regulating these fundamental components of plant productivity. We show that phytochrome loss impacts core metabolism, leading to elevated levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids, sugar derivatives, and notably the stress metabolites proline and raffinose. Furthermore, the already growth-retarded phytochrome mutants are less responsive to growth-inhibiting abiotic stresses and have elevated expression of stress marker genes. This coordinated response appears to divert resources from energetically costly biomass production to improve resilience. In nature, this strategy may be activated in phytochrome-disabling, vegetation-dense habitats to enhance survival in potentially resource-limiting conditions. PMID:27330114

  14. Switching to biomass co-firing in European coal power plants: Estimating the biomass and CO 2 breakeven prices

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of biomass co-firing in European coal power stations. We propose a tractable and original method, that enables us to get expressions of biomass and CO2 breakeven points for co-firing in different types of coal plants. We call them carbon switching price and biomass switching price. They correspond to carbon and biomass prices that make coal plants equally attractive under co-firing or classical conditions (i.e. when coal is the only input). The carbon switchin...

  15. Biomass from agriculture in small-scale combined heat and power plants - A comparative life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass produced on farm land is a renewable fuel that can prove suitable for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants in rural areas. However, it can still be questioned if biomass-based energy generation is a good environmental choice with regards to the impact on greenhouse gas emissions, and if there are negative consequences of using of agricultural land for other purposes than food production. In this study, a simplified life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted over four scenarios for supply of the entire demand of power and heat of a rural village. Three of the scenarios are based on utilization of biomass in 100 kW (e) combined heat and power (CHP) systems and the fourth is based on fossil fuel in a large-scale plant. The biomass systems analyzed were based on 1) biogas production with ley as substrate and the biogas combusted in a microturbine, 2) gasification of willow chips and the product gas combusted in an IC-engine and 3) combustion of willow chips for a Stirling engine. The two first scenarios also require a straw boiler. The results show that the biomass-based scenarios reduce greenhouse gas emissions considerably compared to the scenario based on fossil fuel, but have higher acidifying emissions. Scenario 1 has by far the best performance with respect to global warming potential and the advantage of utilizing a byproduct and thus not occupying extra land. Scenario 2 and 3 require less primary energy and less fossil energy input than 1, but set-aside land for willow production must be available. The low electric efficiency of scenario 3 makes it an unsuitable option.

  16. Combating corrosion in biomass and waste-fired plant

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Pamela; Hjörnhede, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Many biomass- or waste-fired plants have problems with high temperature corrosion especially if the steam temperature is greater than500°C.  An increase in the combustion of waste fuels means that an increasing number of boilers have had problems. Therefore, there is great interest in reducing the costs associated with high temperature corrosion and at the same time there exists a desire to improve the electrical efficiency of a plant by the use of higher steam temperatures.  Assuming that th...

  17. Gasification-based energy production systems for different size classes - Potential and state of R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Conference paper). Different energy production systems based on biomass and waste gasification are being developed in Finland. In 1986-1995 the Finnish gasification research and development activities were almost fully devoted to the development of simplified IGCC power systems suitable to large-scale power production based on pressurized fluid-bed gasification, hot gas cleaning and a combined-cycle process. In the 1990's the atmospheric-pressure gasification activities aiming for small and medium size plants were restarted in Finland. Atmospheric-pressure fixed-bed gasification of wood and peat was commercialized for small-scale district heating applications already in the 1980's. Today research and development in this field aims at developing a combined heat and power plant based on the use of cleaned product gas in internal combustion engines. Another objective is to enlarge the feedstock basis of fixed-bed gasifiers, which at present are limited to the use of piece-shaped fuels such as sod peat and wood chips. Intensive research and development is at present in progress in atmospheric-pressure circulating fluidized-bed gasification of biomass residues and wastes. This gasification technology, earlier commercialized for lime-kiln applications, will lead to co-utilization of local residues and wastes in existing pulverized coal fired boilers. The first demonstration plant is under construction in Finland and there are several projects under planning or design phase in different parts of Europe. 48 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Gasification for fuel production in large and small scale polygeneration plants; Foergasning foer braensleproduktion i stor- och smaaskaliga energikombinat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodin, Jennie; Wennberg, Olle

    2010-09-15

    This report investigates the possibility of integrating biofuel production through gasification with an existing energy production system. Previous work within Vaermeforsk (report 904, 1012) has concluded that gasification for motor fuel production as a part of a polygeneration plant seems promising when looking at the energy efficiency. However, comparable data between different types of integration, energy plants and fuels was found to be needed in order to get a better understanding of how a gasifier would affect an energy system. The systems studied are the heat- and power production of a bigger city (Goeteborg) and a medium sized city (Eskilstuna), and a pulp mill (Soedra Cell Vaeroe). The latter already runs a commercial gasifier for burner gas production, where the gas is used in the lime kiln. The different types of polygeneration plants have been studied by setting up and evaluating mass- and energy balances for each system. The fuel products that are looked upon in this project are DME, methane, methanol and burner gas. The burner gas is used on site. The case studies have been evaluated based on energy efficiency for fuel production, electricity and district heating. The efficiency is foremost calculated for the higher heating value. In the case of the boiler integrated gasifier in Eskilstuna, the efficiencies have been calculated on the marginal fuel. We have also let the district heating remain unchanged

  19. Meat loaf, snuff and wood chips. The company Agnion builds wood gasification plants according to an innovative concept; Leberkaes, Schnupftabak und Hackschnitzel. Die Firma Agnion baut Holzvergasungs-Anlagen nach einem innovativen Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A flagship project in the Bavarian Achental (Federal Republic of Germany) wants to leverage the wood gasification: The local gasification plant with a so-called heat-pipe reformer transmits the technology and efficiency of large-scale power plants on the scale of smaller communities.

  20. Unified modeling and feasibility study of novel green pathway of biomass to methanol/dimethylether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Biomass-to-methanol/DME synthesis process layout. - Highlights: • Design, simulation, and control of the direct-storage concentrating solar plant. • Feasibility study of the low-temperature biomass gasification. • First-principles model of biomass gasifier. • First-principles model of one-step methanol/dimethylether synthesis reactor. • Integrated numerical platform for total plant simulation. - Abstract: A novel, integrated and unified process is proposed, modeled and studied for converting biomass to methanol (MeOH)/dimethylether (DME) to demonstrate its feasibility and applicability for the global industrial sector. The unified process consists of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, which supplies the produced steam to the biomass gasification process as well as to the downstream conversions to chemical commodities and energy carriers. To preserve the effectiveness of the biomass gasification with low-temperature solar-powered generated steam (approximately 400–410 °C), the gasification process is studied by means of a multi-complex (multi-scale, multi-phase, and multi-component) model and adapted to the novel proposed conditions. The syngas generated in the biomass gasification unit is then converted into MeOH/DME by means of one-step synthesis technology to improve the overall yield of the biomass-to-methanol process

  1. Design of efficient catalysts for gasification of biomass-derived waste streams in hot compressed water. Towards industrial applicability.

    OpenAIRE

    Vlieger, de, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The energy required for the globalized living standards of our society depends currently on fossil fuels. The availability and use of fossil fuels were taken for granted during the last century, but depletion of cheap oil and the environmental concerns related to combustion of fossil fuels force us to shift to alternative energy sources. Biomass is believed to be a promising renewable energy source for the future. Conversion of biomass waste to liquid fuels or hydrogen is projected to provide...

  2. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO{sub 2}-capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, Mathias

    2014-04-17

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  3. Gasification processes study of biomass and industrial wastes integrated to a type IGCC cogeneration system. Scientific report PE 5-1, 2003 - BIOCOGAZ; Etude des procedes de gazeification de la biomasse et de residus industriels integres a un systeme de co-generation de type IGCC. Rapport scientifique PE 5-1, 2003 - BIOCOGAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Most, J.M. [Poitiers Univ., Lab. de Combustion et Detonique (LCD) UPR 9028, 86 (France); Lede, J. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 (France)

    2004-07-01

    The exploratory program objective was to define the characteristics of a thermochemical process of pyrolysis-gasification of the biomass or wastes, which can be connected to a direct energy generation application (gas turbines, boilers, engines). This document presents the program methodology. (A.L.B.)

  4. Sugar catabolism in Aspergillus and other fungi related to the utilization of plant biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosravi, Claire; Benocci, Tiziano; Battaglia, Evy; Benoit, Isabelle; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are found in all natural and artificial biotopes and can use highly diverse carbon sources. They play a major role in the global carbon cycle by decomposing plant biomass and this biomass is the main carbon source for many fungi. Plant biomass is composed of cell wall polysaccharides (cellulos

  5. Effects of coal gasification slag as a substrate for the plant Cyperus esculentus and the worm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenner, H.A.; Janssen-Mommen, J.P.M.; Koeman, J.H. (KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands). Environmental Research Dept., R D Division)

    1992-08-01

    A further development of the coal gasification process will result in an increase of the amount of coal gasification slag (CGS). As yet little is known about the effects of storage in uncovered dumps. If there are any environmental effects, they are most likely caused by accumulation of metals from the CGS or by unacceptable physical properties of the CGS. Growth inhibition, mortality, and metal accumulation were analyzed for the plant [ital Cyperus esculentus] and the worm [ital Eisenia fetida] on CGS substrate. Pulverized fuel ash (PFA) was used as a reference. Both in the substrate and in tissues the concentrations of the cations Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn and the anions As, B, Cr, Mo, Sb, and Se were determined. The availability of anions for [ital C. esculentus] and for [ital E. fetida] is greater in PFA than in CGS. The extent and rate of uptake of anionic metals by the plants is on the whole higher in the wetland situation. The availability of metals, expressed as the concentration factor (CF), in most cases appears to be smaller than 1 for nearly all elements. In [ital E. fetida] a CF [gt] 1 was found only for the element As, in PFA substrate and 50% CGS. In [ital C. esculentus] a CF [gt] 1 was found for B and Mo in the PFA substrate as well. 21 refs., 7 tabs.

  6. Effects of coal gasification slag as a substrate for the plant Cyperus esculentus and the worm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, H A; Janssen-Mommen, J P; Koeman, J H

    1992-08-01

    A further development of the coal gasification process will result in an increase of the amount of coal gasification slag (CGS). As yet little is known about the effects of storage in uncovered dumps. If there are any environmental effects, they are most likely caused by accumulation of metals from the CGS or by unacceptable physical properties of the CGS. Growth inhibition, mortality, and metal accumulation were analyzed for the plant Cyperus esculentus and the worm Eisenia fetida on CGS substrate. Pulverized fuel ash (PFA) was used as a reference. Both in the substrate and in tissues the concentrations of the cations Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn and the anions As, B, Cr, Mo, Sb, and Se were determined. The availability of anions for C. esculentus and for E. fetida is greater in PFA than in CGS. The extent and rate of uptake of anionic metals by the plants is on the whole higher in the wetland situation. The availability of metals, expressed as the concentration factor (CF), in most cases appears to be smaller than 1 for nearly all elements. In E. fetida a CF greater than 1 was found only for the element As, in PFA substrate and 50% CGS. In C. esculentus a CF greater than 1 was found for B and Mo in the PFA substrate as well. PMID:1385078