WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass flash pyrolysis

  1. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass: The influence of biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Tom; Jans, M.; STALS, Mark; KUPPENS, Tom; Thewys, Theo; JANSSENS, Gerrit; Pastijn, H.; Yperman, Jan; REGGERS, Guy; SCHREURS, Sonja; Carleer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A high water content is one of the major drawbacks for the utilisation of bio-oil. One technology which shows the potential to satisfy the demand for bio-oil with a reduced water content is the flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymers. The influence of biopolymers on the pyrolysis yield of a biomass waste stream is investigated with a semi-continuous home-built pyrolysis reactor. Polylactic acid (PLA), corn starch, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), Biopearls, Eastar, Solanyl and potato starch ...

  2. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  3. FLASH PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS PARTICLES IN FLUIDIZED BED FOR BIO-OIL PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shurong; Wang; Mengxiang; Fang; Chunjiang; Yu; Zhongyang; Luo; Kefa; Cen

    2005-01-01

    Biomass utilization could relieve the pressure caused by conventional energy shortage and environmental pollution. Advantage should be taken of the abundant biomass in China as clean energy source to substitute for traditional fossil fuels. At present, flash pyrolysis appears to be an efficient method to produce high yields of liquids that could either be directly used as fuel or converted to other valuable chemicals. Experiments were carried out of pyrolyzing biomass particles in a hot dense fluidized bed of sand to obtain high-quality bio-oil. Among four kinds of biomass species adopted in our experiment, Padauk Wood had the best characteristics in producing bio-oil. GC-MS analysis showed bio-oil to be a complex mixture consisting of many compounds. Furthermore, an integrated model was proposed to reveal how temperature influences biomass pyrolysis. Computation indicated that biomass particles underwent rapid heating before pyrolysis.

  4. Flash pyrolysis of heavy metal contaminated biomass from phytoremediation: Influence of temperature, entrained flow and wood/leaves blended pyrolysis on the behaviour of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    STALS, Mark; THIJSSEN, Elsy; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Carleer, Robert; Schreurs, Sonja; Yperman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation crop disposal is a problem inhibiting the widespread use of the remediation technique. Flash pyrolysis as processing method for metal contaminated biomass is investigated: the rather low pyrolysis temperature prevents metal compounds from volatilisation while valuable pyrolysis oil is produced. Both plant stems and leaves are pyrolysed in a lab-scale semi-continuous reactor. Parameters under investigation are pyrolysis temperature (623, 723 and 823 K), the use of hot-gas filt...

  5. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polylactic acid. Part 1: Influence on bio-oil yield and heating value

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Tom; Yperman, Jan; REGGERS, Guy; Schreurs, Sonja; Carleer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    High amounts of water present in bio-oil are one of the major drawbacks for its utilisation as a fuel. One technology that shows the potential to satisfy the demand for bio-oil with a reduced water content is the flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polylactic acid, PLA. The influence of PLA on the pyrolysis of willow is investigated with a semi-continuous home-built pyrolysis reactor. Flash co-pyrolysis of willow/PLA blends (10: 1, 3: 1, 1:1 and 1:2) show synergetic interaction. ...

  6. Catalytic Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass Using Different Types of Zeolite and Online Vapor Fractionation

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2016-03-11

    Bio-oil produced from conventional flash pyrolysis has poor quality and requires expensive upgrading before it can be used as a transportation fuel. In this work, a high quality bio-oil has been produced using a novel approach where flash pyrolysis, catalysis and fractionation of pyrolysis vapors using two stage condensation are combined in a single process unit. A bench scale unit of 1 kg/h feedstock capacity is used for catalytic pyrolysis in an entrained down-flow reactor system equipped with two-staged condensation of the pyrolysis vapor. Zeolite-based catalysts are investigated to study the effect of varying acidities of faujasite Y zeolites, zeolite structures (ZSM5), different catalyst to biomass ratios and different catalytic pyrolysis temperatures. Low catalyst/biomass ratios did not show any significant improvements in the bio-oil quality, while high catalyst/biomass ratios showed an effective deoxygenation of the bio-oil. The application of zeolites decreased the organic liquid yield due to the increased production of non-condensables, primarily hydrocarbons. The catalytically produced bio-oil was less viscous and zeolites were effective at cracking heavy molecular weight compounds in the bio-oil. Acidic zeolites, H-Y and H-ZSM5, increased the desirable chemical compounds in the bio-oil such as phenols, furans and hydrocarbon, and reduced the undesired compounds such as acids. On the other hand reducing the acidity of zeolites reduced some of the undesired compounds in the bio-oil such as ketones and aldehydes. The performance of H-Y was superior to that of the rest of zeolites studied: bio-oil of high chemical and calorific value was produced with a high organic liquid yield and low oxygen content. H-ZSM5 was a close competitor to H-Y in performance but with a lower yield of bio-oil. Online fractionation of catalytic pyrolysis vapors was employed by controlling the condenser temperature and proved to be a successful process parameter to tailor the

  7. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis reactor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in an entrained flow pyrolysis reactor by feeding a premixed feedstock of the catalyst and biomass. Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 was very effective for de-oxygenation of the pyrolysis liquid and oxygen content of the bio-oil was decreased from 47.5 wt.% to 16.4 wt.%. An organic rich bio-oil was obtained with 5.8 wt.% water content and a higher heating value of 36.1 MJ/kg. Carboxylic acids were completely removed and the bio-oil had almost a neutral pH. This bio-oil of high calorific low, low water and oxygen content may be an attractive fuel precursor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor produced a very similar quality bio-oil compared to post treatment of pyrolysis vapors, and shows the possible application of Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 in a commercial type reactor system such as a fluidized bed reactor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 μm): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  9. Comparison between 'slow' and 'flash' pyrolysis oils from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggi, R.; Delmon, B. (Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium))

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in the characterization of different pyrolysis oils, five oils produced by carbonization and one by flash pyrolysis. Chemical and physical properties such as density, viscosity, elemental composition, char content, water content, solubility and heating value were first determined, then an in-depth chemical characterization was carried out by liquid-liquid fractionation. A diagram indicating the separation procedure, providing four fractions (acids, bases, polars and hydrocarbons), is presented. Polar molecules which were retained in the aqueous layer ('aqueous' fraction) are recuperated. Each fraction wassubsequently analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (g.c.-m.s.) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-i.r.). The acidic fraction was the most abundant and contained essentially phenolic structures. However, phenols were differently substituted in the two types of oils; alkyl and methoxy groups in the carbonization oils; methoxy, acidic, aldehydic and ketonic functions in the flash pyrolysis oil. The other fractions present a similar composition for all oils. The basic fraction was always very small; some aromatic N-containing compounds were identified. The 'polar' neutral fraction was also small and its characterization was very difficult. The hydrocarbon fraction, especially, was constituted of aromatics and cyclics, and some aliphatics were also identified. The 'aqueous' fraction contained mainly carboxylic esters, alcohols and ethers. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Flash pyrolysis at high temperature of ligno-cellulosic biomass and its components - production of synthesis gas; Pyrolyse flash a haute temperature de la biomasse ligno-cellulosique et de ses composes - production de gaz de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couhert, C

    2007-11-15

    Pyrolysis is the first stage of any thermal treatment of biomass and governs the formation of synthesis gas for the production of electricity, hydrogen or liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to establish a link between the composition of a biomass and its pyrolysis gas. We study experimental flash pyrolysis and fix the conditions in which quantities of gas are maximal, while aiming at a regime without heat and mass transfer limitations (particles about 100 {mu}m): temperature of 950 C and residence time of about 2 s. Then we try to predict gas yields of any biomass according to its composition, applicable in this situation where thermodynamic equilibrium is not reached. We show that an additivity law does not allow correlating gas yields of a biomass with fractions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin contained in this biomass. Several explanations are suggested and examined: difference of pyrolytic behaviour of the same compound according to the biomass from which it is extracted, interactions between compounds and influence of mineral matter. With the aim of industrial application, we study pyrolysis of millimetric and centimetric size particles, and make a numerical simulation of the reactions of pyrolysis gases reforming. This simulation shows that the choice of biomass affects the quantities of synthesis gas obtained. (author)

  11. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polyhydroxybutyrate: Part 1. Influence on bio-oil yield, water content, heating value and the production of chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Tom; Jans, M.; Yperman, Jan; REGGERS, Guy; Schreurs, Sonja; Carleer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Bio-oil obtained via flash pyrolysis shows potential to be applied as a renewable fuel. However, bio-oil often contains high amounts of water, which is a major drawback for its application. The influence of a biopolymer - polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on the pyrolysis of willow is investigated using a semi-continuous home-built pyrolysis reactor. The flash co-pyrolysis of willow/PHB blends (w/w ratio 7:1, 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1) clearly shows particular merits: a synergetic increase in pyrolysis yield,...

  12. Flash pyrolysis of rapeseed cake: Influence of temperature on the yield and the characteristics of the pyrolysis liquid

    OpenAIRE

    SMETS, Koen; Adriaensens, Peter; REGGERS, Guy; SCHREURS, Sonja; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Biomass waste is a promising source of renewable fuels and value-added chemicals. Rapeseed cake, the solid waste after pressing of rapeseed, is a biomass with such a potential. In this study, the possibilities of flash pyrolysis to convert rapeseed cake into a liquid form are investigated. Flash pyrolysis experiments are performed at four constant temperatures (350, 400, 450 and 550 degrees C) using a home-built lab-scale semi-continuous reactor. It is found that higher pyrolysis temperature ...

  13. Gasification of some tropical woods by flash pyrolysis. Comparison of flash pyrolysis and conventional slow pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.; Deglise, X.

    1982-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis was carried out on afforestation species and mixtures grouped as having high lignin, extractives or carbohydrate contents, at 500, 700, 900 and 1000 degrees C. As a control, temperate woods, cellulose and lignin were tested under the same conditions. The results showed that high temperature increased gasification, producing more CO and hydrocarbons. The addition of water or catalysts improved yields at high temperatures. Gas production was inversely correlated to lignin content of wood. A comparison between (a) slow pyrolysis and (b) flash pyrolysis showed (a) gave as much gas at 500 degrees C as (b) at 700 degrees C, but produced more CO2 than CO. At high temperature (b) gave the best gas yield and the worst charcoal yields. (Refs. 17).

  14. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different composition to and different properties from crude oil. This makes its direct use in those applications and conversion processes originally developed for fossil feeds problematic. Improvement of the ...

  15. Slow, fast and flash pyrolysis of rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onay, O.; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2003-12-01

    Pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of rapeseed to determine particularly the effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the pyrolysis product yields and their chemical compositions. The maximum oil yield of 73% was obtained at the final pyrolysis temperature of 550-600{sup o}C, particle size range of +0.6-1.25 mm, and sweep gas flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3}min{sup -1} (N{sub 2}) at flash pyrolysis conditions in 2 tubular transport reactor. Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies on the pyrolytic oil showed that the oil obtained from rapeseed can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  16. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  17. Evaluation of flash and slow pyrolysis applied on heavy metal contaminated Sorghum bicolor shoots resulting from phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment and/or disposal of metal contaminated biomass are still an unsolved problem. Knowledge of the metal distribution is of prime importance concerning the application of pyrolysis product streams. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench was cultivated in a semi-hydroponic system to assess its potential use in phytoremediation and biomass production. Plants were grown in a greenhouse using perlite as substrate, half-strength Hoagland's solution as control (CTR) and the same solution supplemented with a mixture of Ni and Zn (CTM; 10 g m−3 each). Shoot and root biomass were determined and analyzed for their metals content. Flash and slow pyrolysis were performed on S. bicolor shoots at 450 °C. Biomass and pyrolysis products were analyzed focusing on metal distribution. Mass and energy balances were determined. S. bicolor delivered good shoot biomass with relatively moderate concentrations of Ni and Zn. Metal concentrations in the pyrolysis oils were below detection limits and almost all metals accumulated in the char. In fact, 99% of Ni and 98% of Zn were recovered in the char when a slow pyrolysis process was applied, while in flash pyrolysis conditions both metals were found back in the char and in the heating transfer medium. Furthermore, the percentages of char and oil were higher in slow pyrolysis compared to flash pyrolysis. Energy recovery in the char from slow pyrolysis was higher than flash pyrolysis. Flash and slow pyrolysis can likely offer a valuable processing method for metal contaminated biomass, thus limiting the waste disposal problem associated with phytoremediation of metals. - Highlights: • Sorghum bicolor could be a good candidate for phytoremediation and biomass production. • Via pyrolysis, heavy metal contaminated biomass was reduced in weight and volume. • Heavy metals were mainly recovered in the char fraction. • In both pyrolysis processes produced oils were free of heavy metals. • Slow pyrolysis was more efficient than flash

  18. Desulphurization of a Turkish lignite by pyrolysis: comparison of slow and flash pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahan, H. (Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    To observe the effect of the heating rate on the desulphurization, Bolu-Mengen lignite was desulphurized in the temperature range of 450-750[degree]C using flash and slow pyrolysis methods. A reduction of 57.6% and 34.2% in the total sulphur was obtained for the slow and flash pyrolysis at a pyrolysis temperature of 750[degree]C, respectively. It was observed that the flash pyrolysis is shifted toward higher temperatures with respect to the slow pyrolysis. The flash pyrolysis having high thermal efficiency has a potential as a desulphurization process. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  20. Valorization of raspberry seed cake by flash and slow pyrolysis: Product yield and characterization of the liquid and solid fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Koen; Schreurs, Sonja; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The valorization of raspberry seed cake by flash and slow pyrolysis is investigated in this study. During flash pyrolysis, temperature significantly affects the yield and properties of the products. The highest liquid yield (53.6 wt%) is found at 450 degrees C. This liquid has a water content (26.2 wt%), a HHV (18.6 MJ/kg) and a pH-value (3.2) that are comparable to those of pyrolysis liquids produced by flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. In terms of added-value chemicals, levoglucos...

  1. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of Lignin Model Compounds: Reaction Pathways of Aromatic Methoxy Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C., III; Martineau, D.R.

    1999-03-21

    Currently, there is interest in utilizing lignin, a major constituent of biomass, as a renewable source of chemicals and fuels. High yields of liquid products can be obtained from the flash or fast pyrolysis of biomass, but the reaction pathways that lead to product formation are not understood. To provide insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds at 500 C. This presentation will focus on the FVP of {beta}-ether linkages containing aromatic methoxy groups and the reaction pathways of methoxy-substituted phenoxy radicals.

  2. Pyrolysis of chitin biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Yan; Chen, Shuai; Liu, Ying;

    2015-01-01

    The thermal degradation of chitin biomass with various molecular structures was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and the gaseous products were analyzed by connected mass spectroscopy (MS). The chemical structure and morphology of char residues collected at 750°C using the model...

  3. Production of bio-oils from wood by flash pyrolysis; Herstellung von Bio-Oelen aus Holz in einer Flash-Pyrolyseanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Ollesch, T. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes; Gerdes, C.; Kaminsky, W. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMCh)

    1998-09-01

    Flash pyrolysis is a medium-temperature process (around 475 C) in which biomass is heated up rapidly in the absence of oxygen. The pyrolysis products are cooled down rapidly, condensing into a reddish-brown liquid with around half the calorific value of a conventional heating oil. In contrast to conventional charcoal production, flash pyrolysis is a modern process whose process parameters enure high liquid yields. Modern fluidized-bed reactors for flash pyrolysis of biomass tend to have high heating rates and short times of residue. In the `Hamburg process`, fluidized-bed reactors are used successfully for pyrolysis of plastics. A flash pyrolysis plant for biomass treatment was constructed in cooperation with Hamburg University with funds provided by the `Bundesstiftung Umwelt`. This contribution describes the first series of experiments, mass balances and oil analyses using beech wood as material to be pyrolyzed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Flash-Pyrolyse ist ein Mitteltemperatur-Prozess (ca. 475 C), in dem Biomasse unter Sauerstoffausschluss sehr schnell erhitzt wird. Die entstehenden Pyrolyseprodukte werden schnell abgekuehlt und kondensieren zu einer roetlich-braunen Fluessigkeit, die etwa die Haelfte des Heizwertes eines konventionellen Heizoeles besitzt. Flash-Pyrolyse ist, im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Holzverkohlung, ein modernes Verfahren, dessen spezielle Verfahrensparameter hohe Fluessigausbeuten ermoeglichen. Hohe Aufheizraten, verbunden mit kurzen Verweilzeiten, werden mit stationaeren Wirbelbettreaktoren erzielt die gegenwaertig vorwiegend fuer die Flash-Pyrolyse von Biomasse eingesetzt werden. Im `Hamburger Verfahren` haben sich Wirbelbettreaktoren im Bereich der Kunststoffpyrolyse bewaehrt. Daher wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universitaet Hamburg und finanzieller Foerderung der Bundesstiftung Umwelt eine Flash-Pyrolyseanlage fuer Biomasse gebaut: In dieser Arbeit werden erste Versuchsreihen, Massenbilanzen und Oelanalysen aus der Pyrolyse von

  4. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  5. Bio-oil from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, N.B.

    2012-08-15

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). It has been the objective of the present work to investigate the influence of changed operation conditions on the yield of bio-oil, char and gas; as well as to investigate the composition and storage properties of some of the produced bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were investigated for straw and pine wood oil at different temperature and residence times. Temperature plays a major role in the pyrolysis process and it determines to a high degree the fate of the final product yields and also product composition. Higher temperature favors the formation of pyrolysis gas while lower temperatures increase the yield of char. Liquid oil, however increases with temperature up to certain point and thereafter it decreases at still higher temperature due to secondary cracking of the primary products. The presence of moisture in the feed stock may also influences the pyrolysis process. The influence of reaction temperature and the moisture content on the flash pyrolysis product yield has been reported in Paper I (Chapter 2). It was observed that the presence of moisture in the wheat straw with different moisture levels of 1.5 wt. %, 6.2 wt. % and 15.0 wt. % have shown no significant effect on the pyrolysis product distribution. The fraction of bio-oil, char and gases produced from pyrolysis of straw were in the range of 40-60 wt. %, 18-50 wt. % and 5-22 wt. %, respectively, regardless of the straw moisture levels. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was around 525 deg. C to 550 deg. C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in

  6. Flash pyrolysis properties of algae and lignin residue

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw(conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor. The product distributions and energyrecoveries were measured and compared among these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroalgae showed apromising result with on yield of 54 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 78% energy recovery in the bio-oil. Thephysiochemical properties of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to high...

  7. Market study for applications of flash pyrolysis oil. Full report plus annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the title study was to review the current state of technology development for flash pyrolysis of biomass or waste, to provide a survey of product applications and, to estimate the chances of commercialization of the technology within the next five years. The first two aims have been addressed by appropriate literature studies and by direct communications with pyrolysis specialists known from the Pyrolysis Network Europe (PYNE). The last item has been considered through economic evaluation of two relevant cases for energy application, and interviews with various market parties. 85 refs

  8. Dissolved phosphorus speciation of flash carbonization, slow pyrolysis, and fast pyrolysis biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of waste biomass is a promising technology to produce sterile and renewable organic phosphorus fertilizers. Systematic studies are necessary to understand how different pyrolysis platforms influence the chemical speciation of dissolved (bioavailable) phosphorus. This study employed solut...

  9. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  10. Flash pyrolysis properties of algae and lignin residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg;

    A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis...... of macroalgae showed a promising result with on yield of 54 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 78% energy recovery in the bio-oil. The physiochemical properties of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to higher heating value, molecular mass distribution, viscosity, pH, density and elemental compositions....... The lignin and macroalgae oil properties were quite different to those of the conventional oils....

  11. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces

  12. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  13. Modelling solid-convective flash pyrolysis of straw and wood in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Larsen, Morten Boberg; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2009-01-01

    the kinetics of the pyrolysis reactions the Broido-Shafizadeh scheme is employed with cellulose parameters for wood and modified parameters for straw to include the catalytic effect of its alkali-containing ash content. The model describes the presented experimental results adequately for engineering...... purposes for both wood and straw feedstock even though conditions for ablative pyrolysis from a reaction engineering point of view are not satisfied. Accordingly, even though the concept of an ablatively melting particle may constitute a limiting case, it can still be used to model flash pyrolysis provided...

  14. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  15. Lignin Sensor Based On Flash-Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Eug Y.; Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy

    1990-01-01

    New lignin sensor takes only few minutes to measure lignin content of specimen of wood, pulp, paper, or similar material. Includes flash pyrolizer and ion-trap detector that acts as mass spectrometer. Apparatus measures amount of molecular fragments of lignin in pyrolysis products of samples. Helpful in controlling digestors in paper mills to maintain required lignin content, and also in bleaching plants, where good control of bleaching becomes possible if quick determination of lignin content made.

  16. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of e

  17. Desulphurization of lignites by slow, fast, and flash pyrolysis and high intensity dry magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, H.; Kockar, O.M.; Koca, S. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Technical College

    2007-07-01

    Slow, fast and flash pyrolysis followed by high intensity dry magnetic (HIDM) separation experiments were conducted to obtain improved solid fuels. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in three different apparatus, and important parameters of processes, temperature, particle size, residence time and heating rate were studied to determine the optimum conditions. Desulphurization of lignites by flash pyrolysis is more successful than slow and fast pyrolysis. At optimum conditions of pyrolysis, up to 58.15, 60.24, and 62.31% sulphur reductions were obtained in slow, fast and flash pyrolysis, respectively. Char, obtained from the pyrolysis experiments, was further cleaned by a Permroll HIDM separator. Sulphur reduction enhanced up to 82.68, 84.40, and 86.55% in the char of slow, fast and flash pyrolysis, respectively.

  18. Pyrolysis of biomass. Rapid pyrolysis at high temperature. Slow pyrolysis for active carbon preparation.

    OpenAIRE

    Zanzi, Rolando

    2001-01-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass consists of heating solid biomass inthe absence of air to produce solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.In the first part of this thesis rapid pyrolysis of wood(birch) and some agricultural residues (olive waste, sugarcanebagasse and wheat straw in untreated and in pelletized form) athigh temperature (800ºC–1000ºC) is studied ina free fall reactor at pilot scale. These conditions are ofinterest for gasification in fluidized beds. Of main interestare the gas and char yields and ...

  19. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Norazana; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Denne PhD rapport beskriver produktionen af bio-olie via flash pyrolyse af biomasse udført på en Pyrolyse Centrifugal Reaktor (PCR). Via Pyrolysen på PCR enheden dannes bio-olie, koks og ikke kondenserbare gasser. Hovedformålet med projektet har været at undersøge indflydelsen af ændrede proces forhold på udbyttet af bio-olie, gas og koks; og at undersøge lagringsegenskaberne for producerede bio-olier. Indflydelsen af anvendt biomasse type (hvede halm, ris skaller og fyrretræ), biomasse vandi...

  20. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-07-14

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method comprising the steps of diluting the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil with a phenolic-containing diluent to form a diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is provided. The diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  1. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-06-30

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  2. Pyrolysis Model of Single Biomass Pellet in Downdraft Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛爱军; 潘继红; 田茂诚; 伊晓璐

    2016-01-01

    By coupling the heat transfer equation with semi-global chemical reaction kinetic equations, a one-dimensional, unsteady mathematical model is developed to describe the pyrolysis of single biomass pellet in the pyrolysis zone of downdraft gasifier. The simulation results in inert atmosphere and pyrolysis zone agree well with the published experimental results. The pyrolysis of biomass pellets in pyrolysis zone is investigated, and the results show that the estimated convective heat transfer coefficient and emissivity coefficient are suitable. The mean pyro-lysis time is 15.22%, shorter than that in inert atmosphere, and the pellet pyrolysis process in pyrolysis zone belongs to fast pyrolysis. Among the pyrolysis products, tar yield is the most, gas the second, and char the least. During pyrolysis, the temperature change near the center is contrary to that near the surface. Pyrolysis gradually moves inwards layer by layer. With the increase of pyrolysis temperature and pellet diameter, the total pyrolysis time, tar yield, char yield and gas yield change in different ways. The height of pyrolysis zone is calculated to be 1.51—3.51 times of the characteristic pellet diameter.

  3. Treatment of Lignin and Waste residues by Flash Pyrolysis:Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Knudsen, Niels Ole; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Lignin, sewage sludge and macroalg ae (nonconventional biomasses) fast pyrolysis properties has been studied through experimental investigations on a la boratory Pyrolysis Centrifugal Reactor (PCR) and a model on lignin pyrolysis have been developed. Fu rthermore the nonconventional biomass pyrolysis properties were compared with the pyrolysis properti es of wood and straw. The PCR treatment of sewage sludge provides an oil that can be used for energy pur poses and a solid residue rich in in ...

  4. A flexible model for biomass fast pyrolysis in Aspen+

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo; Järvinen, Mika

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the heat of condensation of fast pyrolysis product of woody biomass a model to be used in the chemical process simulation software Aspen+ has been developed based on the composition of wood fast pyrolysis product. A simulation model for biomass fast pyrolysis was developed. The results obtained are in good accordance with values found in the literature. With more specific data (e.g. from measurements) it should be possible to adjust the flexible model to other data. ...

  5. Fluid catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mante, Ofei Daku [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Biological Systems Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster A. [Utah State University, Biological Engineering, Logan, UT (United States); McClung, Ron [BASF Inc, Florham, NJ (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Catalytic cracking of pyrolysis oils/vapors offers the opportunity of producing bio-oils which can potentially be coprocessed with petroleum feedstocks in today's oil refinery to produce transportation fuel and chemicals. Catalyst properties and process conditions are critical in producing and maximizing desired product. In our studies, catalyst matrix (kaolin) and two commercial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts, FCC-H and FCC-L, with different Y-zeolite contents were investigated. The catalytic cracking of hybrid poplar wood was conducted in a 50-mm bench-scale bubbling fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactor at 465 C with a weight hourly space velocity of 1.5 h{sup -1}. The results showed that the yields and quality of the bio-oils was a function of the Y-zeolite content of the catalyst. The char/coke yield was highest for the higher Y-zeolite catalyst. The organic liquid yields decreased inversely with increase in zeolite content of the catalyst whereas the water and gas yields increased. Analysis of the oils by both Fourier-transform infrared and {sup 13}C-nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the catalyst with higher zeolite content (FCC-H) was efficient in the removal of compounds like levoglucosan, carboxylic acids and the conversion of methoxylated phenols to substituted phenols and benzenediols. The cracking of pyrolysis products by kaolin suggests that the activity of the FCC catalyst on biomass pyrolysis vapors can be attributed to both Y-zeolite and matrix. The FCC-H catalyst produced much more improved oil. The oil was low in oxygen (22.67 wt.%), high in energy (29.79 MJ/kg) and relatively stable over a 12-month storage period. (orig.)

  6. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    OpenAIRE

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of ether-linked alkyl chains. The relatively abundant presence of alkenes, alkadienes, alken-9-ones and alken-10-ones with chain lengths corresponding to those of the ether-bound alkyl chains indicated...

  7. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis; Biooeljyn tuotanto flash-pyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The target of the R and D work is to study the production of bio-oils using Flash-pyrolysis technology and utilisation of the bio-oil in oil-fuelled boilers. The PDU-unit was installed at VTT Energy in Otaniemi in April 1996. The first test were carried out in June. In the whole project Vapo Oy is responsible for: acquiring the 20 kg/h PDU-device for development; follow up of the engine tests; the investment of 5 MW demonstration plant; to carry on the boiler and engine tests with Finnish bio-oils. (orig.)

  8. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by...... ‘‘microwave dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  9. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensho Honma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds.

  10. Effect of catalytic pyrolysis conditions using pulse current heating method on pyrolysis products of wood biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800 °C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800 °C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  11. Numerical modeling of NOx reduction using pyrolysis products from biomass-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis products of biomass (bio-oils) have been shown to cause a reduction in NOx emissions when used as reburn fuel in combustion systems. When these bio-oils are processed with lime, calcium is ion-exchanged and the product is called BioLimeTM. BioLimeTM, when introduced into a combustion chamber, causes oils to pyrolyze and reduce NOx emissions through reburn mechanisms while simultaneously causing Ca to react with SO2. Thus NOx and SO2 emissions are reduced at the same time. The devolatilization rates of two biomass-based materials were studied using TGA and were related to the yield of pyrolysis gases and char during flash pyrolysis. Numerical simulations using CHEMKIN to model NO reduction through homogeneous gas phase reactions were reported. The numerical predictions were then compared to NOx emission levels from experiments in a down-fired combustor (DFC) to validate the model. A difference in NO reduction was observed by use of different bio-oils under similar operating conditions. This is believed to be due to the difference in yield of flash pyrolysis products of bio-oils. Also, different pyrolysis gases have different NOx reduction potentials. Knowledge of the relative contribution of pyrolysis gases in NO reduction will help choose a feedstock of biomass that will aid in increasing the yield of the desired species. A parametric analysis was done using the model to study the effect of varying concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO2, CO, and H2, and the results were then verified using a flow reactor. The analysis showed that hydrocarbons were mainly responsible for causing reduction in emissions of NO, whereas CO2, CO, and H2 have very little effect on NO reduction

  12. Flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues using a plasma heated laminar entrained flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the volatilization characteristics of biomass particles at flash heating rates, a plasma heated laminar entrained flow reactor (PHLEFR) was designed and built in our lab. Two agricultural residues, wheat straw and corn stalk, were chosen as feedstock for pyrolysis which were conducted on the PHLEFR with the aim of determining the extent of thermal decomposition at high heating rate (more than 104oCs-1). Based on the experimental data, a first order kinetic model was introduced and the relevant kinetic parameters (apparent active energy and apparent frequency factor) were determined for the two straws: E=31.51kJmol-1, A=1028s-1(wheat straw) and E=33.74kJmol-1, A=1013s-1(corn stalk). The predicted conversion of the fitted model to the experimental data provided general agreements when one considered the experimental errors

  13. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  14. Pyrolysis of biomass briquettes, modelling and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, B; Lammers, G; Beenackers, AACM; Kopetz, H; Weber, T; Palz, W; Chartier, P; Ferrero, GL

    1998-01-01

    Carbonisation of biomass briquettes was studied using a dedicated single briquette carbonisation reactor. The reactor enabled continuous measurement of the briquette mass and continuous measurement of the radial temperature profile in the briquette. Furthermore pyrolysis gas production and compositi

  15. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  16. Slow-pyrolysis and -oxidation of different biomass fuel samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykiri-Acma, Hanzade; Yaman, Serdar

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis and oxidation characteristics of some biomass samples such as almond shell, walnut shell, hazelnut shell, tobacco waste, and rapeseed were investigated using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) technique under slow heating conditions (20 K/min) from ambient to 1173 K. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under dynamic nitrogen atmosphere of 40 mL/min. Dry air was used at the same rate in the oxidation experiments. The rates of mass losses from the biomass samples regarding temperature were obtained from the Differential Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTG) curves, and these rates were interpreted according to the pyrolysis and oxidation characteristics of the biomass samples. Since the heating rate was relatively very slow, individual peaks on the DTG curves resulting from the pyrolysis or oxidation of the major constituents that forming the complex structure of the biomass samples could be survived and distinguished from the thermograms. The maximum rates of mass losses (dm/dt)max from the oxidation experiments were determined to be higher than those from the pyrolysis experiments. On the other hand, the (dm/dt)max values were determined at about 550 K for pyrolysis, whereas they were below 500 K in case of oxidation irrespective of the type of the biomass samples. PMID:16849135

  17. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Rice Husk and Coconut Pulp for Potential Bio fuel Production by Flash Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics and thermal degradation behavior of rice husk and coconut pulp for bio fuel production via flash pyrolysis technology. The elemental properties of the feedstock were characterized by an elemental analyzer while thermal properties were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The pyrolysis processes were carried out at room temperature up to 700 degree Celsius in the presence of nitrogen gas flowing at 150 ml/ min. The investigated parameters are particle sizes and heating rates. The particle sizes varied in the range of dp1 < 0.30 mm and 0.30= dp2 <0.50 mm. The heating rates applied were 50 degree Celsius/ min and 80 degree Celsius/ min. It was shown smaller particle size produces 2.11-3.59 % less volatile product when pyrolyzed at 50 degree Celsius/ min compared to 80 degree Celsius/ min. Higher heating rates causes biomass degrades in a narrow temperature range by 25 degree Celsius. It also increases the maximum peak rate by 0.01 mg/ s for rice husk at dp1 and 0.02 mg/ s at dp2. In case of coconut pulp, the change is not significant for dp1 but for dp2 a 0.02 mg/ s changes was recorded. (author)

  18. Pyrolysis pretreatment of biomass for entrained-flow gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomass for entrained-flow gasification needs to be pretreated to significantly increase its heating value and to make it more readily transportable. The pyrolysis pretreatment was conducted in a lab scale fixed-bed reactor; the reactor was heated to elevate the temperature at 5 °C/min before holding at the desired pyrolysis temperature for 1.5 h a fixed time. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the yield, composition and heating value of the gaseous, liquid and solid products were determined. The pyrolysis removed most oxygenated constituents of rice straw while significantly increased its energy density. Meantime, it changes the physical properties of biomass powders. The results show that the angle of repose, the angle of internal friction of semi-char decrease obviously; the bulk density of semi-char is bigger than that of biomass. This could favor the feeding of biomass. Considering yield and heating value of the solid semi-char product and the feeding problem, the best pyrolysis temperature was 400 °C. The results of this study have confirmed the feasibility of employing pyrolyzed biomass for entrained-flow gasification; they are useful for the additional studies that will be necessary for designing an efficient biomass entrained-flow gasification system.

  19. Structural and Compositional Transformations of Biomass Chars during Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Steibel, Markus; Spliethoff, Hartmut;

    In this work the physical and chemical transformations of biomass chars during fast pyrolysis, considered as a 2nd stage of combustion, has been investigated. Seven biomasses containing different amount of ash and organic components were reacted at up to 1673 K with high heating rates in a wire...

  20. Release of Chlorine and Sulfur during Biomass Torrefaction and Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Flensborg, Julie Pauline; Shoulaifar, Tooran Khazraie;

    2014-01-01

    The release of chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S) during biomass torrefaction and pyrolysis has been investigated via experiments in two laboratory-scale reactors: a rotating reactor and a fixed bed reactor. Six biomasses with different chemical compositions covering a wide range of ash content and ash...

  1. Catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours using faujasite zeolite catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-oil produced via fast pyrolysis of biomass has the potential to be processed in a FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) unit to generate liquid fuel. However, this oil requires a significant upgrade to become an acceptable feedstock for refinery plants due to its high oxygen content. One promising route to improve the quality of bio-oil is to pyrolyse the parent biomass in the presence of a catalyst. This work investigates the influence of faujasite catalysts on the pyrolysis of pinewood. Pyrolysis process with Na-faujasite, Na0.2H0.8-faujasite, and H-faujasite (Na-FAU, Na0.2H0.8-FAU, and H-FAU) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 500 °C. It is shown that, in the same condition, catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapour is superior to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis of biomass when it comes to quality of bio-oil. The yields of coke, gas and water increase while that of organic phase decreases proportional with the concentration of protons in catalysts. Compared to the other two catalysts, Na0.2H0.8-FAU removes the most oxygen from bio-oil, reduces amount of acids and aldehydes/ketones which result in a higher energy-contained and more stable oil with less corrosive property. However, the biggest contribution to the oxygen removal is via the formation of reaction water, which is not an optimum path. This leaves space for future development. -- Highlights: ► Upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours was carried out using faujasite catalysts. ► Catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapours is superior to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. ► Optimization of the amount of Na+ and H+ in faujasites is important. ► Losing high-energy hydrogen via the formation of reaction water is a drawback

  2. Flash pyrolysis of jatropha oil cake in electrically heated fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluidized bed flash pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of jatropha oil cake to determine particularly the effects of particle size, pyrolysis temperature and nitrogen gas flow rate on the pyrolysis yields. The particle size, nitrogen gas flow rate and temperature of jatropha oil cake were varied from 0.3 to 1.18 mm, 1.25 to 2.4 m3/h and 350 to 550 oC. The maximum oil yield of 64.25 wt% was obtained at a nitrogen gas flow rate of 1.75 m3/h, particle size of 0.7-1.0 mm and pyrolysis temperature of 500 oC. The calorific value of pyrolysis oil was found to be 19.66 MJ/kg. The pyrolysis gas can be used as a gaseous fuel.

  3. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    -oil was around 525 °C to 550 °C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in biomass composition influence pyrolysis products yields and the composition of char and bio-oils. Details about this investigation are explained in Paper II (Chapter 3). The used pine wood had a low ash...... content (0.5 wt. %), the wheat straw an intermediate ash level (6.0 wt. %) and the rice husk a high ash level (13.6 wt. %). The highest alkali content, potassium (1.53 wt. %) are present in straw and the lowest potassium content level is observed in pine wood (0.04 wt. %). The feedstocks were pyrolyzed at...... influenced by the reaction temperature and by feedstock ash composition. It have been the objective of the present work to investigate the influence of changed operation conditions on the yield of bio-oil, char and gas; as well as to investigate the composition and storage properties of some of the produced...

  4. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-10-20

    Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In one example, a method comprises the steps of separating a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent into a low-oxygen-pyoil organic phase stream and an aqueous phase stream. Phenolic compounds are removed from the aqueous phase stream to form a phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream. A biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is diluted and heated with the phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to deoxygenate the heated diluted pyoil feed stream.

  5. Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  6. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Sensho Honma; Toshimitsu Hata; Takashi Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions chan...

  7. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of methoxy-substituted lignin model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, P F; Buchanan, A C; Cooney, M J; Martineau, D R

    2000-03-10

    The flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of methoxy-substituted beta-O-4 lignin model compounds has been studied at 500 degrees C to provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways that occur under conditions of fast pyrolysis. FVP of PhCH(2)CH(2)OPh (PPE), a model of the dominant beta-O-4 linkage in lignin, proceeds by C-O and C-C cleavage, in a 37:1 ratio, to produce styrene plus phenol as the dominant products and minor amounts of toluene, bibenzyl, and benzaldehyde. From the deuterium isotope effect in the FVP of PhCD(2)CH(2)OPh, it was shown that C-O cleavage occurs by homolysis and by 1,2-elimination in a ratio of 1.4:1, respectively. Methoxy substituents enhance the homolysis of the beta-O-4 linkage, relative to PPE, in o-CH(3)O-C(6)H(4)OCH(2)CH(2)Ph (o-CH(3)O-PPE) and (o-CH(3)O)(2)-C(6)H(3)OCH(2)CH(2)Ph ((o-CH(3)O)(2)-PPE) by a factor of 7.4 and 21, respectively. The methoxy-substituted phenoxy radicals undergo a complex series of reactions, which are dominated by 1,5-, 1,6-, and 1,4-intramolecular hydrogen abstraction, rearrangement, and beta-scission reactions. In the FVP of o-CH(3)O-PPE, the dominant product, salicylaldehyde, forms from the methoxyphenoxy radical by a 1,5-hydrogen shift to form 2-hydroxyphenoxymethyl radical, 1,2-phenyl shift, and beta-scission of a hydrogen atom. The 2-hydroxyphenoxymethyl radical can also cleave to form formaldehyde and phenol in which the ratio of 1, 2-phenyl shift to beta-scission is ca. 4:1. In the FVP of o-CH(3)O-PPE and (o-CH(3)O)(2)-PPE, products (ca. 20 mol %) are also formed by C-O homolysis of the methoxy group. The resulting phenoxy radicals undergo 1,5- and 1,6-hydrogen shifts in a ratio of ca. 2:1 to the aliphatic or benzylic carbon, respectively, of the phenethyl chain. In the FVP of (o-CH(3)O)(2)-PPE, o-cresol was the dominant product. It was formed by decomposition of 2-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylbenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, which are formed from a complex series of reactions from the 2

  8. Flash pyrolysis, a process for utilizing contaminated wood; Flash-Pyrolyse - eine Moeglichkeit der stofflichen Verwertung von kontaminiertem Holz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Wehlte, S.; Faix, O. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes

    1996-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis of wood treated with common pesticides poses no technical probelms. Product yields, with a maximum oil yield at 475 C, are similar to those of untreated wood. Most of the heavy metals are retained by the coal while a small part aheres to the coal layer of the sand bed. The resulting pyrolysis oil contains neither chromium nor copper. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Flash-Pyrolyse der mit den gaengigsten Schutzmitteln behandelten Hoelzer bereitet verfahrenstechnisch keine Probleme. Auch die Produktausbeuten, mit einem oelmaximum bei 475 C, aehneln denen von naturbelassenem Holz. Der groesste Teil der Schwermetalle wurde an die Kohle gebunden, ein geringer Teil blieb auf der Kohleschicht des Sandes haften. Im Hauptprodukt Pyrolyseoel konnten weder Chrom noch Kupfer nachgewiesen werden. (orig)

  9. Relationships between biomass composition and liquid products formed via pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eLin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conversion of biomass is a rapid, low-cost way to produce a dense liquid product, known as bio-oil, that can be refined to transportation fuels. However, utilization of bio-oil is challenging due to its chemical complexity, acidity, and instability—all results of the intricate nature of biomass. A clear understanding of how biomass properties impact yield and composition of thermal products will provide guidance to optimize both biomass and conditions for thermal conversion. To aid elucidation of these associations, we first describe biomass polymers, including phenolics, polysaccharides, acetyl groups, and inorganic ions, and the chemical interactions among them. We then discuss evidence for three roles (i.e., models for biomass components in formation of liquid pyrolysis products: (1 as direct sources, (2 as catalysts, and (3 as indirect factors whereby chemical interactions among components and/or cell wall structural features impact thermal conversion products. We highlight associations that might be utilized to optimize biomass content prior to pyrolysis, though a more detailed characterization is required to understand indirect effects. In combination with high-throughput biomass characterization techniques this knowledge will enable identification of biomass particularly suited for biofuel production and can also guide genetic engineering of bioenergy crops to improve biomass features.

  10. Transportation fuels from biomass via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2013-09-21

    Biomass is a renewable source of carbon, which could provide a means to reduce the greenhouse gas impact from fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Biomass is the only renewable source of liquid fuels, which could displace petroleum-derived products. Fast pyrolysis is a method of direct thermochemical conversion (non-bioconversion) of biomass to a liquid product. Although the direct conversion product, called bio-oil, is liquid; it is not compatible with the fuel handling systems currently used for transportation. Upgrading the product via catalytic processing with hydrogen gas, hydroprocessing, is a means that has been demonstrated in the laboratory. By this processing the bio-oil can be deoxygenated to hydrocarbons, which can be useful replacements of the hydrocarbon distillates in petroleum. While the fast pyrolysis of biomass is presently commercial, the upgrading of the liquid product by hydroprocessing remains in development, although it is moving out of the laboratory into scaled-up process demonstration systems.

  11. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  12. Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass for renewable phenols and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Quan

    Bio-oil is an unstable intermediate and needs to be upgraded before its use. This study focused on improving the selectivity of bio-oilby catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using activated carbon (AC) catalysts. Firstly, the effects of process conditions on product quality and product yield were investigated by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass using AC as a catalyst. The optimized reaction condition for bio-oil and volatile was determined. Chemical composition analysis by GC/MS showed that phenols rich bio-oils were obtained. Furthermore, the effects of different carbon sources based AC catalysts on products yield and chemical composition selectivity of obtained bio-oils were investigated during microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellet. The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the AC catalysts can be used for 3-4 times with high concentration of phenolic compounds. The individual surface polar/acidic oxygen functional groups analysis suggested the changes of functional groups in ACs explained the reaction mechanism of this process. In addition, the potential for production of renewable phenols and fuels by catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using lignin as a model compound was explored. The main chemical compounds of the obtained bio-oils were phenols, guaiacols, hydrocarbons and esters. The thermal decomposition behaviors of lignin and kinetics study were investigated by TGA. The change of functional groups of AC catalyst indicated the bio-oil reduction was related to the reaction mechanism of this process. Finally, the effects of Fe-modified AC catalyst on bio-oil upgrading and kintic study of biomass pyrolysis were investigated. The catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using the Fe-modified AC catalyst may promote the occurrence of the fragmentation of cellulose, rather than repolymerization as in the non-catalytic pyrolysis which leads to partial of guaiacols derived from furans. Results showed that the main chemical compounds of bio

  13. Catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours using Faujasite zeolite catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.S.; Zabeti, M.; Lefferts, L.; Brem, G.; Seshan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-oil produced via fast pyrolysis of biomass has the potential to be processed in a FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) unit to generate liquid fuel. However, this oil requires a significant upgrade to become an acceptable feedstock for refinery plants due to its high oxygen content. One promising rout

  14. Fast pyrolysis of biomass thermally pretreated by torrefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrefied biomass samples were produced from hardwood and switchgrass pellets using the biochar experimenter’s kit (BEK) reactor and analyzed for their utility as pretreated feedstock for biofuels production via fast pyrolysis. The energy efficiency for the BEK torrefaction process with propane gas ...

  15. Dual fluidized bed design for the fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mechanism for the transport of solids between fluidised beds in dual fluidised bed systems for the fast pyrolysis of biomass process was selected. This mechanism makes use of an overflow standpipe to transport solids from the fluidised bed used for the combustion reactions to a second fluidised be...

  16. An analytical model for pyrolysis of a single biomass particle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Bidabadi; Mohammad Rastegar Moghaddam; Seyed Alireza Mostafavi; Farzad Faraji Dizaji; Hossein Beidaghy Dizaji

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing in emissions of greenhouse gases to confront the global warming needs to replace fossil fuels as the main doer of the world climate changes by renewable and clean fuels produced from biomass like wood waste which is neutral on the amount of CO2. An analytical and engineering model for pyrolysis process of a single biomass particle has been presented. Using a two-stage semi global kinetic model which includes both primary and secondary reactions, the effects of parameters like shape and size of particle as well as porosity on the particle temperature profile and product yields have been investigated. Comparison of the obtained results with experimental data shows that our results are in a reasonable agreement with previous researchers’ works. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is done to determine the importance of each parameter on pyrolysis of a single biomass particle which is affected by many constant parameters.

  17. Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R. H.; Ardiyanti, A. R.; Wildschut, J.; Oasmaa, A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited

  18. Effect of catalyst on yield of liquid products from biomass via pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullu, D. [Kocaeili University (Turkey). Izmit MYO

    2003-08-01

    The pyrolysis of biomass is a thermal treatment that results in the production of charcoal, liquid, and gaseous products. Among the liquid products, methanol is one of the most valuable products. Methanol can be used as one possible gasoline replacement for conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Methanol can be produced by pyrolysis of biomass. Methanol mainly arises from methoxyl groups of uronic acid and from the breakdown of methyl esters and/or ethers from decomposition of pectin-like plant materials. The maximum methanol yields (12.19% at 825 K) for hazelnut shell was obtained from a Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (30% of dried sample) catalytic flash pyrolysis run. The yields of liquid products from the samples increased with an increasing of the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} from 10% to 30%. The maximum liquid yield from yellow pine was 51.2% at 875 K. The yields of liquid products from the samples depended on the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and the temperature. The maximum liquid yield from yellow pine was 49.5% from a 30% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalytic run at 875 K. The catalytic effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was slightly higher than that of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for hazelnut shell, tea waste, and yellow pine samples. (author)

  19. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  20. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠益; 方梦祥; ANDRIES,J.; 骆仲泱; SPLIETHOFF,H.; 岑可法

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The ki-netic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into pri-mary products ( tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  1. Experimental investigation of flash pyrolysis oil droplet combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the combustion behaviour of a single droplet of pyrolysis oil derived from wheat straw and heavy fossil oil in a single droplet combustion chamber. The initial oil droplet diameters were in between 500 μm to 2500 μm. The experiments were performed...... at a temperature ranging between 1000 and 1400°C with an initial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s and oxygen concentration of 3%. The evolution of combustion of bio-oil droplets was recorded by a digital video camera. It was observed that the combustion behaviour of pyrolysis oil droplet differ from the heavy oil in terms...... both of ignition, devolatilisation and char oxidation. The pyrolysis oil is more difficult to ignite and has a shorter devolatilisation time and a longer char oxidation time. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l....

  2. Experimental investigation of flash pyrolysis oil droplet combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Hamid, Mohd.K.A.; Kasmani, Rafiziana M.; Ali, Roshafima R.; Hasbullah, Hasrinah

    2013-01-01

    at a temperature ranging between 1000 and 1400°C with an initial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s and oxygen concentration of 3%. The evolution of combustion of bio-oil droplets was recorded by a digital video camera. It was observed that the combustion behaviour of pyrolysis oil droplet differ from the heavy......The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the combustion behaviour of a single droplet of pyrolysis oil derived from wheat straw and heavy fossil oil in a single droplet combustion chamber. The initial oil droplet diameters were in between 500 μm to 2500 μm. The experiments were performed...... oil in terms both of ignition, devolatilisation and char oxidation. The pyrolysis oil is more difficult to ignite and has a shorter devolatilisation time and a longer char oxidation time. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l....

  3. A review on co-pyrolysis of biomass: An optional technique to obtain a high-grade pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The discussion emphasizes the use of biomass wastes in the co-pyrolysis process. • The co-pyrolysis can significantly improve the quantity and quality of pyrolysis oil. • Co-pyrolysis technique is more profitable than the pyrolysis of biomass alone. • By using this method, the volume of biomass wastes can be easily controlled. - Abstract: The oil produced by the pyrolysis of biomass has potential for use as a substitute for fossil fuels. However, the oil needs to be upgraded since it contains high levels of oxygen, which causes low caloric value, corrosion problems, and instability. Generally, upgrading the pyrolysis oil involves the addition of a catalyst, solvent and large amount hydrogen, which can cost more than the oil itself. In this regard, the co-pyrolysis technique offers simplicity and effectiveness in order to produce a high-grade pyrolysis oil. Co-pyrolysis is a process which involves two or more materials as feedstock. Many studies have shown that the use of co-pyrolysis is able to improve the characteristics of pyrolysis oil, e.g. increase the oil yield, reduce the water content, and increase the caloric value of oil. Besides, the use of this technique also contributed to reduce the production cost and solve some issues on waste management. This article tried to review the co-pyrolysis process through several points of view, including the process mechanism, feedstock, the exploration on co-pyrolysis studies, co-pyrolysis phenomena, characteristics of byproducts, and economic assessment. Additionally, several outlooks based on studies in the literature are also presented in this paper

  4. Treatment of Lignin and Waste residues by Flash Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    plant, and the bio-oil is sold for use on heavy oil burners. The macroalgae is a promising feedstock w ith a high bio-oil yield of 54 wt% daf and an energy recovery of 76 % in the liquid oil. Detailed characteriza tion of the pyrolysis products in the form of bio-oil, gas and char has been performed...

  5. On-line catalytic upgrading of biomass fast pyrolysis products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiang; ZHU XiFeng; LI WenZhi; ZHANG Ying; CHEN DengYu

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was employed to achieve fast pyrolysis of biomass and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Four biomass materials (poplar wood, fir wood, cotton straw and rice husk) were pyrolyzed to reveal the difference among their products. Moreover, catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors from cotton straw was performed by using five catalysts, including two microporous zeolites (HZSM-5 and HY) and three mesoporous catalysts (ZrO2&TiO2, SBA-15 and AI/SBA-15). The results showed that the distribution of the pyrolytic products from the four materials differed a little from each other, while catalytic cracking could significantly alter the pyrolytic products. Those important primary pyrolytic products such as levoglucosen, hydroxyacetaldehyde and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone were decreased greatly after catalysis. The two microporous zeolites were ef-fective to generate high yields of hydrocarbons, while the three mesoporous materials favored the formation of furan, furfural and other furan compounds, as well as acetic acid.

  6. Experimental Flash Pyrolysis of High Density PolyEthylene under Hybrid Propulsion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Fau, Guillaume; Gillard, Philippe; Mangeot, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    International audience The inert and oxidative flash pyrolysis of High Density Poly-Ethylene (HDPE) is studied up to 20 000 K.s-1, under pressure up to 3.0 MPa and at temperature ranging from 1000 K to 1500 K. These conditions are considered to represent those waited onboard a hybrid rocket engine using HDPE as solid fuel. Recycling applications may also find some interest. The pyrolysis products are quantified by Gas Chromatograph, Flame Ionisation Detector and Mass Spectrometer to determ...

  7. Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnes, Tom N.

    2015-12-29

    Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In one example, the method comprises of dividing a feedstock stream into first and second feedstock portions. The feedstock stream comprises the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil and has a temperature of about 60.degree. C. or less. The first feedstock portion is combined with a heated organic liquid stream to form a first heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The first heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form an intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent. The second feedstock portion is combined with the intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent to form a second heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The second heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a second deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form additional low-oxygen pyoil effluent.

  8. Detailed modelling of biomass pyrolysis: biomass structure and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research routes followed in the field of numerical modelling development for biomass devolatilization are here summarised. In this first paper a wide introduction concerning the description of the chemical nature of the main classes of compounds which constitute biomasses is reported, it is the starting point for the subsequent description of the developed models, described in the companion paper

  9. Bio-methane via fast pyrolysis of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis gases can efficiently be upgraded to bio-methane. ► The integration can increase energy efficiency and provide a renewable vehicle fuel. ► The biomass to bio-methane conversion efficiency is 83% (HHV). ► The efficiency is higher compared to bio-methane produced via gasification. ► Competitive alternative to other alternatives of bio-oil upgrading. - Abstract: Bio-methane, a renewable vehicle fuel, is today produced by anaerobic digestion and a 2nd generation production route via gasification is under development. This paper proposes a poly-generation plant that produces bio-methane, bio-char and heat via fast pyrolysis of biomass. The energy and material flows for the fuel synthesis are calculated by process simulation in Aspen Plus®. The production of bio-methane and bio-char amounts to 15.5 MW and 3.7 MW, when the total inputs are 23 MW raw biomass and 1.39 MW electricity respectively (HHV basis). The results indicate an overall efficiency of 84% including high-temperature heat and the biomass to bio-methane yield amounts to 83% after allocation of the biomass input to the final products (HHV basis). The overall energy efficiency is higher for the suggested plant than for the gasification production route and is therefore a competitive route for bio-methane production

  10. Plasma pyrolysis and gasification of biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Beijing: Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, CAS, 2008. s. 33-33. [Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology APCPST 9/9th./. 08.11.2008-11.11.2008, Huangshan] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  11. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  12. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  13. Electrocatalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils to chemical and fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Ho

    The present project's aim is to liquefy biomass through fast pyrolysis and then upgrade the resulting "bio-oil" to renewable fuels and chemicals by intensifying its energy content using electricity. This choice reflects three points: (a) Liquid hydrocarbons are and will long be the most practical fuels and chemical feedstocks because of their energy density (both mass and volume basis), their stability and relative ease of handling, and the well-established infrastructure for their processing, distribution and use; (b) In the U.S., the total carbon content of annually harvestable, non-food biomass is significantly less than that in a year's petroleum usage, so retention of plant-captured carbon is a priority; and (c) Modern technologies for conversion of sunlight into usable energy forms---specifically, electrical power---are already an order of magnitude more efficient than plants are at storing solar energy in chemical form. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) generates flammable gases, char, and "bio-oil", a viscous, corrosive, and highly oxygenated liquid consisting of large amounts of acetic acid and water together with hundreds of other organic compounds. With essentially the same energy density as biomass and a tendency to polymerize, this material cannot practically be stored or transported long distances. It must be upgraded by dehydration, deoxygenation, and hydrogenation to make it both chemically and energetically compatible with modern vehicles and fuels. Thus, this project seeks to develop low cost, general, scalable, robust electrocatalytic methods for reduction of bio-oil into fuels and chemicals.

  14. Influence of Partial Combustion on Rapid Pyrolysis of Wood Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hajime; Yamada, Osamu; Kaiho, Mamoru; Shinagawa, Takuya; Matsui, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Toshihiko; Shimada, Sohei

    A batch reactor was made and used in this work. In an actual rapid pyrolyzer/gasifier, each biomass is thrown into high temperature zone in the reactor. In order to simulate the reaction occurred in a fluidized bed rapid pyrolyzer/gasifier, the reactor was designed to inject samples into reaction zone directly and to control the reaction time optionally. Rapid pyrolysis of wood biomasses, such as Konara, bagasse, and EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch), was carried out at 1073K in nitrogen with the reaction time range of 2-20s. Difference in product distribution with varying reaction time was observed apparently among Konara, bagasse, and EFB. The difference in the reactivity among sorts of biomass should be considered even when their elemental composition and/or components ratio are similar. Rapid pyrolysis of wood biomass (Japanese cedar) with small amount of oxygen as gasification agent was also carried out. The amount of product gas was decreased through 1s to 2s and the decreasing rate was higher with increase in the amount of oxygen.

  15. Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Montane, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a pyrolytic oil which is a mixture of (a) carbohydrate-derived acids, aldehydes and polyols, (b) lignin-derived substituted phenolics, and (c) extractives-derived terpenoids and fatty acids. The conversion of this pyrolysis oil into H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} is thermodynamically favored under appropriate steam reforming conditions. Our efforts have focused in understanding the catalysis of steam reforming which will lead to a successful process at reasonable steam/carbon ratios arid process severities. The experimental work, carried out at the laboratory and bench scale levels, has centered on the performance of Ni-based catalysts using model compounds as prototypes of the oxygenates present in the pyrolysis oil. Steam reforming of acetic acid, hydroxyacetaldehyde, furfural and syringol has been proven to proceed rapidly within a reasonable range of severities. Time-on-stream studies are now underway using a fixed bed barometric pressure reactor to ascertain the durability of the catalysts and thus substantiate the scientific and technical feasibility of the catalytic reforming option. Economic analyses are being carried out in parallel to determine the opportunity zones for the combined fast pyrolysis/steam reforming approach. A discussion on the current state of the project is presented.

  16. The Evritania (Greece) demonstration plant of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabaniotou, A.A.; Karabela, A.J. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute

    1999-06-01

    This paper is focused on describing the Evritania demonstration plant for pyrolysis of forestry biomass. This plant was constructed in the village of Voulpi, district of Evritania, in central Greece, in 1995, with a threefold purpose; development of know-how, forest fire prevention and rural development. The products are charcoal and bio-oil. The plant capacity is 1200-1450 kg/h of wet biomass and the pyrolysis temperature is approx. 400 deg C. The raw material used is Arbutus unedo, which is an evergreen broad-leaf tree which covers the area. Other agricultural waste could also be used, such as olive pits and cuttings, almond shells and cotton kernels. The paper includes the conceptual process flow sheet, the changes and improvements made during the trial phase, data from the start-up phase, and product characteristics. Comparison of the process with the Alten process is presented. Additionally, comparisons are made of product characteristics with those from other pyrolysis processes. In general, the results obtained are encouraging even though several improvements of the pilot plant are required. (author)

  17. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. PMID:26298257

  18. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures. PMID:26773946

  19. Microvawe pyrolysis of biomass: control of process parameters for high pyrolysis oil yields and enhanced oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John; Dodds, Chris; Stavrinides, Alexander; Kingman, Sam; Katrib, Juliano; Wu, Zhiheng; Medrano, Jose; Overend, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The oil yield and quality of pyrolysis oil from microwave heating of biomass was established by studying the behaviour of Larch in microwave processing. This is the first study in biomass pyrolysis to use a microwave processing technique and methodology that is fundamentally scalable, from which the basis of design for a continuous processing system can be derived to maximise oil yield and quality. It is shown systematically that sample size is a vital parameter that has been overlooked by pr...

  20. Flash pyrolysis of sunflower oil cake for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoez, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2001-06-01

    Flash pyrolysis experiments of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) press oil cake were performed in a tubular transport reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the yields of products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges 450-700C, D{sub p}<0.224, 0.224-0.425, 0.425-0.850 mm and 25-600 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. The maximum oil yield of ca. 45% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550C, with the sweep gas flow rate of 300 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and particle size of 0.425-0.850 mm. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the pyrolysis oil were determined, and then the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC). The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower oil cake can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock.

  1. Phenols from pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of tobacco biomass components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2015-11-01

    Phenol and its derivatives (phenol, o-, m-, p-cresols, catechol, hydroquinone, methoxy substituted phenols, etc. referred to as phenolic compounds or phenols) are well-known toxicants that exist in the environment and affect both human and natural ecosystems. This study explores quantitatively the yields of phenolic compounds from the thermal degradation (pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis) of common tobacco biomass components (lignin, tyrosine, ethyl cellulose, sodium alginate, and laminarin) as well as some mixtures (lignin/tyrosine, ethyl cellulose/tyrosine and sodium alginate/tyrosine) considered important in high temperature cooking, tobacco smoking, and forest fires. Special attention has been given to binary mixtures including those containing tyrosine-pyrolysis of binary mixtures of tyrosine with lignin and ethyl cellulose results in significant reductions in the yields of majority phenols relative to those from the thermal degradation of tyrosine. These results imply that the significant reductions of phenol yields in mixtures are not only dependent upon the mass fractions of the components but also the synergetic inhibition effect of biomass components on the thermal degradation of tyrosine. A mechanistic description of this phenomenon is suggested. The results may also be implied in tobacco industry that the cigarette paper (as ethyl cellulose derivative) may play a critical role in reducing the concentration of phenolic compounds released during tobacco burning. PMID:26091866

  2. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  3. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MWe; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system

  4. Chaos Transfer in Fluidized Beds Accompanied with Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐松涛; 李定凯; 吕子安; 沈幼庭

    2003-01-01

    Experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a fiuidized bed, and dynamic signals of pressure and temperature were recorded. Correlation dimension was employed to characterize the chaotic behavior of pressure and temperature signals. Both pressure and temperature signals exhibit chaotic behavior, and the chaotic behavior of temperature signals is always weaker than that of pressure signals. Chaos transfer theory was advanced to explain the above phenomena. The discussion on the algorithm of the correlation dimension shows that the distance definition based on rhombic neighborhood is a better choice than the traditional one based on spherical neighborhood. The former provides a satisfactory result in a much shorter time.

  5. Decarbonisation of olefin processes using biomass pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Decarbonization of olefin processes using biomass pyrolysis oil was proposed. • The decarbonization is based on integrated catalytic processing of bio-oil. • The retrofitted process features significant economic and environmental advantages. - Abstract: An imperative step toward decarbonisation of current industrial processes is to substitute their petroleum-derived feedstocks with biomass and biomass-derived feedstocks. For decarbonisation of the petrochemical industry, integrated catalytic processing of biomass pyrolysis oil (also known as bio-oil) is an enabling technology. This is because, under certain conditions, the reaction products form a mixture consisting of olefins and aromatics, which are very similar to the products of naphtha hydro-cracking in the conventional olefin processes. These synergies suggest that the catalytic bio-oil upgrading reactors can be seamlessly integrated to the subsequent separation network with minimal retrofitting costs. In addition, the integrated catalytic processing provides a high degree of flexibility for optimization of different products in response to market fluctuations. With the aim of assessing the techno-economic viability of this pathway, five scenarios in which different fractions of bio-oil (water soluble/water insoluble) were processed with different degrees of hydrogenation were studied in the present research. The results showed that such a retrofit is not only economically viable, but also provides a high degree of flexibility to the process, and contributes to decarbonisation of olefin infrastructures. Up to 44% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions were observed in several scenarios. In addition, it was shown that hydrogen prices lower than 6 $/kg will result in bio-based chemicals which are cheaper than equivalent petrochemicals. Alternatively, for higher hydrogen prices, it is possible to reform the water insoluble phase of bio-oil and produce bio-based chemicals, cheaper than

  6. Novel sorbent materials for environmental remediation via Pyrolysis of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaniotou, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    One of the major challenges facing society at this moment is the transition from a non-sustainable, fossil resources-based economy to a sustainable bio-based economy. By producing multiple products, a biorefinery can take advantage of the differences in biomass components and intermediates and maximize the value derived from the biomass feedstock. The high-value products enhance profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet national energy needs, and the power production reduces costs and avoids greenhouse-gas emissions From pyrolysis, besides gas and liquid products a solid product - char, is derived as well. This char contains the non converted carbon and can be used for activated carbon production and/or as additive in composite material production. Commercially available activated carbons are still considered expensive due to the use of non-renewable and relatively expensive starting material such as coal. The present study describes pyrolysis as a method to produce high added value carbon materials such as activated carbons (AC) from agricultural residues pyrolysis. Olive kernel has been investigated as the precursor of the above materials. The produced activated carbon was characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, BET method and porosity estimation. Furthermore, its adsorption of pesticide compound in aqueous solution by was studied. Pyrolysis of olive kernel was conducted at 800 oC for 45min in a fixed reactor. For the production of the activated carbon the pyrolytic char was physically activated under steam in the presence of CO2 at 970oC for 3 h in a bench scale reactor. The active carbons obtained from both scales were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K, methyl-blue adsorption (MB adsorption) at room temperature and SEM analysis. Surface area and MB adsorption were found to increase with the degree of burn-off. The surface area of the activated carbons was found to increase up to 1500 m2/g at a burn-off level of 60-65wt.%, while SEM analysis

  7. Kinetic and heat transfer control in the slow and flash pyrolysis of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, C. Di [Univ. degli Studi di Napoli Federico 2 (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica

    1996-01-01

    The coupled effects of particle size and external heating conditions (reactor heating rate and final temperature) on cellulose pyrolysis are investigated by means of a computer model accounting for all main transport phenomena, variable thermophysical properties and primary, and secondary reaction processes. The dynamics of particle conversion are predicted, and final product distributions are favorably compared with experimental measurements. A map is constructed, in terms of particle size as a function of the reactor temperature, to identify the transition from a kinetically controlled conversion to a heat transfer controlled conversion (thermally thin and thermally thick regimes) and from flash to slow-conventional pyrolysis. Conditions for maximizing oil, gas, or char yields are also discussed.

  8. Conventional and catalytic pyrolysis of pinyon juniper biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yathavan, Bhuvanesh Kumar

    Pinyon and juniper are invasive woody species in Western United States that occupy over 47 million acres of land. The US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has embarked on harvesting these woody species to make room for range grasses for grazing. The major application of harvested pinyon-juniper (PJ) is low value firewood. Thus, there is a need to develop new high value products from this woody biomass to reduce the cost of harvesting. In this research PJ biomass was processed through pyrolysis technology to produce value added products. The first part of the thesis demonstrates the effect of PJ wood, bark and mixture biomass and temperature on the product yield and on the quality of the bio-oil produced. The second part focuses on the optimization of process parameters for maximum yield and the third part focuses on upgrading the bio-oil with an industrial catalyst (HZSM5) and an industrial waste product (red mud). The results obtained from the first part showed that PJ wood produced maximum bio-oil yield, followed by PJ mixture and bark. The bio-oil yield from PJ wood had low viscosity when compared to PJ mixture and PJ bark. The second part focused on studying the effect of process parameters (temperature, feed rate and the gas flow rate) on the total liquid, organic, water, char and gas yield. The results show that each response is affected by different factor level combinations, and maximum yield for each response was obtained at different factors level. The third part focused on catalytic pyrolysis of PJ biomass using both HZSM-5 catalyst and red mud. The mechanisms of catalysis by the two catalysts were quite different. Whereas the HZSM-5 rejected oxygen mostly as carbon monoxide and water and produced lower amounts of carbon dioxide, on the contrary the red mud produced more carbon dioxide and water and less carbon monoxide. The higher heating value of the red mud catalyzed oil (29.46 MJ/kg) was slightly higher than that catalyzed by HZSM-5 (28.55 MJ/kg). Thus

  9. Correlations of kinetic parameters in biomass pyrolysis with solid residue yield and lignin content

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Hasegawa, Isao; Hayashi, Junichi; Mae, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic analysis of the pyrolysis of various types of biomass (trunk, bark, leaf, shell, herbage, food dregs, and polysaccharide) as well as synthetic biomass consisting of cellulose and lignin was performed using thermogravimetric analysis data. The reaction rates of biomass pyrolysis were found to be expressed simply by a single nth-order reaction model. The kinetic parameters (frequency factor k0, activation energy E, and reaction order n) were estimated first by differentiating the ther...

  10. Conventional and microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass under different heating rates

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, C.; Budarin, VL; Gronnow, MJ; de Bruyn, M.; Onwudili, JA; Clark, JH; Williams, PT

    2014-01-01

    Biomass was subjected to conventional and microwave pyrolysis, to determine the influence of each process on the yield and composition of the derived gas, oil and char products. The influence of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate for the conventional pyrolysis and the microwave power was investigated. Two major stages of gas release were observed during biomass pyrolysis, the first being CO/CO and the second one CH/H. This two-stage gas release was much more obvious for the conventional p...

  11. Low temperature microwave-assisted vs conventional pyrolysis of various biomass feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Shuttleworth; Vitaliy Budarin; Mark Gronnow; James H. Clark; Rafael Luque

    2012-01-01

    A comparison between conventional pyrolysis and a novel developed low-temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis methodology has been performed for the valorisation of a range of biomass feedstocks including waste residues.Microwave pyrolysis was found to efficiently deliver comparable evolution of bio-gases in the system as compared with conventional pyrolysis at significantly reduced temperatures (120-180 ℃ vs 250-400 ℃).The gas obtained from microwave-assistet pyrolysis was found to contain CO2,CH4 and CO as major components as well as other related chemicals (e.g.acids,aldehydes,alkanes) which were obtained in different proportions depending on the selected feedstock.

  12. Spontaneous Aerosol Ejection: Origin of Inorganic Particles in Biomass Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andrew R; Gantt, Rachel; Joseph, Kristeen E; Maduskar, Saurabh; Paulsen, Alex D; Krumm, Christoph; Zhu, Cheng; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    At high thermal flux and temperatures of approximately 500 °C, lignocellulosic biomass transforms to a reactive liquid intermediate before evaporating to condensable bio-oil for downstream upgrading to renewable fuels and chemicals. However, the existence of a fraction of nonvolatile compounds in condensed bio-oil diminishes the product quality and, in the case of inorganic materials, catalyzes undesirable aging reactions within bio-oil. In this study, ablative pyrolysis of crystalline cellulose was evaluated, with and without doped calcium, for the generation of inorganic-transporting aerosols by reactive boiling ejection from liquid intermediate cellulose. Aerosols were characterized by laser diffraction light scattering, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and high-speed photography. Pyrolysis product fractionation revealed that approximately 3 % of the initial feed (both organic and inorganic) was transported to the gas phase as aerosols. Large bubble-to-aerosol size ratios and visualization of significant late-time ejections in the pyrolyzing cellulose suggest the formation of film bubbles in addition to the previously discovered jet formation mechanism. PMID:27125341

  13. Biomass pyrolysis processes: performance parameters and their influence on biochar system benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Brownsort, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on performance of biomass pyrolysis processes for use in biochar systems. Objectives are to understand the range of control of such processes and how this affects potential benefits of pyrolysis biochar systems, in particular for climate change mitigation. Slow, intermediate and fast pyrolysis processes are reviewed. Product yield distributions change depending on feedstock composition and preparation, control of temperature and material flows. These allow s...

  14. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    OpenAIRE

    Kunio Yoshikawa; Guangwen Xu; Hongfang Chen; Yin Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to ...

  15. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures. Part 3. Characterisation of heavy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx str., 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Membrado, L.; Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Marin, N.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2003-05-01

    The chemical composition of heavy liquids (b.p.>180C) obtained by co-pyrolysis of polyolefins/wood biomass mixtures in autoclave conditions under inert atmosphere was investigated by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, GC-MS, high performance TLC combined with densitometry techniques. The preliminary separation of heavy liquids into different fractions by open LC and TLC methods had been used. Some perspectives of polymer and biomass thermal conversion during co-pyrolysis process were discussed.

  16. Analytical Investigations of Kinetic and Heat Transfer in Slow Pyrolysis of a Biomass Particle

    OpenAIRE

    S.J Ojolo; C.A. Osheku; M.G Sobamowo

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of biomass for heat and power generation has aroused the interest of most researchers especially those of energy .In converting solid fuel to a usable form of energy,pyrolysis plays an integral role. Understanding this very important phenomenon in the thermochemical conversion processes and representing it with appropriate mathematical models is vital in the design of pyrolysis reactors and biomass gasifiers. Therefore, this study presents analytical solutions to the kinetic a...

  17. Flash pyrolysis of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). 1: Analysis and implications of the gaseous products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisawa, H.; Brill, T.B. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-01

    HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) is the most widely used polymeric binder/fuel in solid rocket propellants. Knowledge about the gaseous products and their rates of formation from pyrolysis of HTPB is needed to describe the fuel component of the diffusion flamelets of a composite solid propellant in terms of detailed chemistry. Flash pyrolysis of structurally different HTPB was conducted at 600 C/s to constant temperatures in the 450--609 C range under 2 and 11 atm of applied pressure. T-Jump/FTIR spectroscopy was used. With chemometric procedures based on the entire mid-IR spectrum, 13 gaseous products representing at least 70% of the polymer were identified and quantified. Contrary to previous indications that butadiene and 4-vinyl-l-cyclohexene dominate, the trans-butadiene oligomers are major products. These oligomers are probably responsible for smoke formation. The product concentrations are sensitive to the temperature below 500--530 C and 2 atm Ar, but are relatively insensitive to the temperature above 500--530 C.

  18. Flash Pyrolysis Study of MnTC and NiCT by Using T-Jump/FTIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuan-hua; ZHANG Tong-lai; ZHANG Jian-guo; QIAO Xiao-jing; YANG Li

    2007-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis of MnTC( [ Mn2 (TNR) 2 ( CHZ)2 (H2O)4 ]·2H2O) and NiCT( [ Ni(CHZ)3 ] ( TNR)·5H2O) is conducted by using T-jump/FTIR spectroscopy under 0.1 MPa Ar atmosphere.The mole fractions of the individual products in the pyrolysis gas mixture are described as a function of time.Results show that NiCT appears to produce more N2O,NH3 and HONO upon flash pyrolysis,thus secondary oxidation reduction reactions may take place to a certain extent during its thermal decomposition,which in turn leads to unsteady combustion and possibly to failure of the device.While H2O and CO2 are the major two gas products of flash pyrolysis of MnTC,it warrants further in-depth trials for the adoption in detonators as eco-friendly and chemically compatible primary explosive.The two compounds both liberate volatile metal carbonate,oxide and isocyanate compounds.

  19. Flash Pyrolysis Study of M2TNR (M: Carbohydrazide or Semicarbazide) by T-jump/FTIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuan-Hua; ZHANG Tong-Lai; ZHANG Jian-Guo; QIAO Xiao-Jing; YANG Li

    2006-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis of (CHZ)2TNR and (SCZ)2TNR was conducted by T-jump/FTIR spectroscopy under 0.1 MPa Ar atmosphere. The results show that eleven IR-active gas products obtained during flash pyrolysis process of the two title compounds are NO, CO, HCN, NH3, NO2, N2O, HNCO, HNO2, CO2, H2O and HCHO, of which NO and CO are the main gas products. The molar fraction of the individual product in the pyrolysis gas mixture was described as a function of time. At least some of the NO2, N2O and H2O can result from the oxidization reaction of NH3 during flash pyrolysis of (CHZ)2TNR. It can be concluded that the two compounds are not worthy of further in-depth consideration of the adoption in detonators as eco-friendly primary explosive, and should not be used as gas generation composition of automobile crash airbag system taking into account the toxicity.

  20. Biomass valorisation by staged degasification A new pyrolysis-based thermochemical conversion option to produce value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, P. J.; den Uil, H.; Reith, J. H.; Kiel, J. H. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass leads to an array Of useful solid, liquid and gaseous products. Staged degasification is a pyrolysis-based conversion route to generate value-added chemicals from biomass. Because of different thermal stabilities of the main biomass constituents hemicellulose. ce

  1. Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional biomass pyrolysis/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the operating parameters on biomass pyrolysis are investigated in a laboratory setup based on the principle of keeping the heating value of the gas almost unchanged. The studied parameters include reaction temperature, residence time of volatile phase in the reactor, physico-chemical pretreatment of biomass particles, heating rate of the external heating furnace and improvement of the heat and mass transfer ability of the pyrolysis reactor. The running temperature of a separate cracking reactor and the geometrical configuration of the pyrolysis reactor are also studied. However, due to time limits, different types of catalysts are not used in this work to determine their positive influences on biomass pyrolysis behaviour. The results indicate that product gas production from biomass pyrolysis is sensitive to the operating parameters mentioned above, and the product gas heating value is high, up to 13-15 MJ/N m3

  2. Porous structure and morphology of granular chars from flash and conventional pyrolysis of grape seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the influence of the operating conditions used in the pyrolysis of grape seeds on the morphology and textural properties of the chars resulting. Flash and conventional (283 K min−1 heating rate) pyrolysis have been used within a wide range of temperature (300–1000 °C). The effect of a pretreatment for oil extraction has also been studied. The porous structure of the chars was characterized by adsorption of N2 at 77 K, Ar at 77 K and 87 K, and CO2 at 273 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. All the materials prepared revealed an essentially microporous structure, with a poor or even negligible contribution of mesopores. Increasing pyrolysis temperature led to higher specific surface areas and lower pore size. The highest specific surface area values occurred within 700–800 °C, reaching up to 500 m2 g−1 with pore sizes in the 0.4–1.1 nm range. No significant morphological changes were observed upon carbonization so that the resulting chars were granular materials of similar size than the starting grape seeds. The hollow core structure of the chars, with most of the material allocated at the periphery of the granules can help to overcome the mass transfer limitations of most common (solid or massive) granular activated carbons. The chars showed a good mechanical strength during attrition tests. These chars can be potential candidates for the preparation of granular carbons molecular sieve or activated carbons raw materials. -- Highlights: •We use a raw material that has a very low price and a high availability. •Not very much attention has been paid to this waste for carbonaceous materials preparation. •The chars obtained have high specific surface area that is an interesting starting point for later activation processes. •The chars show a micro-macro porous bimodal distribution. •Pyrolysis does not affect to morphology or initial seed, leading a carbonized particles

  3. Evaluation of the production potential of bio-oil from Vietnamese biomass resources by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural activities in Vietnam generate about 62 million tonnes of biomass (rice straw, rice husk, bagasse, corn cob, corn stover, etc.) annually. In this work, four different types of biomass from Vietnam, namely rice straw, rice husk, factory bagasse, and corn cob, have been studied as potential raw materials to produce bio-oil by fast pyrolysis technology. Test runs were conducted in a fluidized-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C and residence time less than 2 s. Size and moisture content of the feed were less than 2 mm and 2%, respectively. It was found that yields of bio-oil as a liquid product obtained from pyrolysis of these feedstocks were more than 50% and that obtained from the bagasse was the highest. Bio-oil quality from Vietnamese biomass resources satisfies ASTM D7544-12 standard for pyrolysis liquid biofuels. These results showed the potential of using biomass in Vietnam to produce bio-oil which could be directly used as a combustion fuel or upgraded into transportation fuels and chemicals. - Highlights: • Four types of Vietnamese biomass were firstly analyzed in detail. • Optimal conditions for fast pyrolysis reaction for Vietnamese biomass types. • Bio-oil product adapted to the standard specification for pyrolysis liquid biofuel

  4. Product Characterization and Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis in a Three-Zone Free-Fall Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaya Punsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of biomass including palm shell, palm kernel, and cassava pulp residue was studied in a laboratory free-fall reactor with three separated hot zones. The effects of pyrolysis temperature (250–1050°C and particle size (0.18–1.55 mm on the distribution and properties of pyrolysis products were investigated. A higher pyrolysis temperature and smaller particle size increased the gas yield but decreased the char yield. Cassava pulp residue gave more volatiles and less char than those of palm kernel and palm shell. The derived solid product (char gave a high calorific value of 29.87 MJ/kg and a reasonably high BET surface area of 200 m2/g. The biooil from palm shell is less attractive to use as a direct fuel, due to its high water contents, low calorific value, and high acidity. On gas composition, carbon monoxide was the dominant component in the gas product. A pyrolysis model for biomass pyrolysis in the free-fall reactor was developed, based on solving the proposed two-parallel reactions kinetic model and equations of particle motion, which gave excellent prediction of char yields for all biomass precursors under all pyrolysis conditions studied.

  5. Flash pyrolysis of forestry residues from the Portuguese Central Inland Region within the framework of the BioREFINA-Ter project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutio, Maider; Lopez, Gartzen; Alvarez, Jon; Moreira, Rui; Duarte, Gustavo; Nunes, Joao; Olazar, Martin; Bilbao, Javier

    2013-02-01

    The feasibility of the valorization by flash pyrolysis of forest shrub wastes, namely bushes (Cytisus multiflorus, Spartium junceum, Acacia dealbata and Pterospartum tridentatum) has been studied in a conical spouted bed reactor operating at 500 °C, with a continuous biomass feed and char removal. High bio-oil yields in the 75-80 wt.% range have been obtained for all of the materials, with char yields between 16 and 23 wt.% and low gas yields (4-5 wt.%). Bio-oils are composed mainly of water (accounting for a concentration in the 34-40 wt.% range in the bio-oil), phenols, ketones, acids and furans, with lower contents of saccharides, aldehydes and alcohols. Although their composition depends on the raw material, the compounds are similar to those obtained with more conventional feedstocks. PMID:23266853

  6. Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

  7. Upgrading the rice husk char obtained by flash pyrolysis for the production of amorphous silica and high quality activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jon; Lopez, Gartzen; Amutio, Maider; Bilbao, Javier; Olazar, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The overall valorization of rice husk char obtained by flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR) has been studied in a two-step process. Thus, silica has been recovered in a first step and the remaining carbon material has been subjected to steam activation. The char samples used in this study have been obtained by continuous flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor at 500°C. Extraction with Na2CO3 allows recovering 88% of the silica contained in the rice husk char. Activation of the silica-free rice husk char has been carried out in a fixed bed reactor at 800°C using steam as activating agent. The porous structure of the activated carbons produced includes a combination of micropores and mesopores, with a BET surface area of up to 1365m(2)g(-1) at the end of 15min. PMID:25127010

  8. Flash pyrolysis of coal, coal maceral, and coal-derived pyrite with on-line characterization of volatile sulfur compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lake, M.A.; Griffin, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    A Pyroprobe flash pyrolysis-gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector was used to study volatile sulfur compounds produced during the thermal decomposition of Illinois coal, coal macerals and coal-derived pyrite. Maximum evolution of volatile organic sulfur compounds from all coal samples occurred at a temperature of approximately 700??C. At this temperature, the evolution of thiophene, its alkyl isomers, and short-chain dialkyl sulfide compounds relative to the evolution of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene compounds was greater from coal high in organic sulfur than from coal low in organic sulfur. The variation in the evolution of sulfur compounds observed for three separate coal macerals (exinite, vitrinite, and inertinite) was similar to that observed for whole coal samples. However, the variation trend for the macerals was much more pronounced. Decomposition of coal-derived pyrite with the evolution of elemental sulfur was detected at a temperature greater than 700??C. The results of this study indicated that the gas chromotographic profile of the volatile sulfur compounds produced during flash pyrolysis of coals and coal macerals varied as a function of the amount of organic sulfur that occurred in the samples. Characterization of these volatile sulfur compounds provides a better understanding of the behavior of sulfur in coal during the thermolysis process, which could be incorporated in the design for coal cleaning using flash pyrolysis techniques. ?? 1988.

  9. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis and the combustion of it; Biooeljyn tuotanto flashpyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The target of the research is to study the production of bio-oils using flash-pyrolysis and utilization of the bio-oil in oil-fueled boilers. The PDU-device was ordered in December 1994. The device was tested in Canada in the beginning of March 1996. The device will be mounted in Otaniemi in the research unit of VTT Energy. The device will by equipped, if possible, with a hot-filtering device in order to improve the purity and the quality of the oil. The capacity of the PDU-device is 20 kg/h of dry biomass of about 10 wt-% DS-content, with particle size less than 6 mm. The actual tests will be made in autumn 1996. The investment costs of the PDU are about 2.5 million FIM. The Canadian funding of the project is about 50 %. It has been planned that within the research project of Vapo oy, about 50 - 100 tons of bio-oil will be acquired from Canada for the engine tests carried out by Wartsilae Diesel, and the project will be responsible for planning and operation of the PDU and the demonstration plants. About 50 tons of wood-oil was received from Canada in January 1996 for the engine tests, the results of which will be reported separately by Wartsilae Diesel. The present costs of the tasks are about 1.2 million FIM, but the main part of the costs will be formed in 1996-1997

  10. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, E.A.; Seshan, K.; Brem, G.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatm

  11. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  12. Experimental Gasification of Biomass in an Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Surjosatyo; Fajri Vidian; Yulianto Sulistyo Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    The updraft gasifier is a simple type of reactor for the gasification of biomass that is easy to operate and has high conversion efficiency, although it produces high levels of tar. This study attempts to observe the performance of a modified updraft gasifier. A modified updraft gasifier that recirculates the pyrolysis gases from drying zone back to the combustion zone and gas outlet at reduction zone was used. In this study, the level of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone w...

  13. Performance assessment of biofuel production via biomass fast pyrolysis and refinery technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Shemfe, Mobolaji B.

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels have been identified as one of several GHG emission strategies to reduce the use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is one approach to producing second generation biofuels. The bio-oil product of fast pyrolysis can be upgraded into essential gasoline and diesel range products with conventional refinery technologies. Thus, it is important to assess their techno- economic and environmental performance at an early stage prior to commerci...

  14. Thermal behaviour study of demineralised Mukah Balingian coal and biomass blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khudzir Ismail; Zubri Zakaria; Mohd Azlan Mohd Ishak [University Technology MARA, Perlis (Malaysia). Fuel Combustion Research Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Thermal behaviour during pyrolysis of demineralised coal, biomass materials (rice husk, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse) and coal/biomass blends prepared at different weight ratios (90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 50:50) was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at different heating rates (10, 20, 40 and 60{sup o}C/min). The thermal events of demineralised rice husk and sugarcane bagasse during pyrolysis were mainly contributed by the appearance of cellulose, with exception to rice straw that revealed only hemicellulose as the major constituent. The thermal events of demineralised coal/biomass blends during pyrolysis, however, showed the domination of biomass pyrolysis at lower temperature, with the coal pyrolysis (i.e. volatile matter released) occurred at much higher temperature. Apparently, no interactions were seen between the demineralised coal and biomass during pyrolysis, indicating a general lack of synergistic effects. The amount of char yield produced from the pyrolysis of demineralised biomass materials and coal/biomass blends, however, is relatively lower with comparison to the untreated biomass materials, coal and biomass/coal blends. Further, an increased in the coal reactivity was observed with increasing heating rates as the coal ratio increases in the blends. First order equations were used to determine the biomass and coal component thermal decomposition kinetics. The results, thus far, showed that the 80:20, 70:30 and 50:50 blends, with respect to the coal volatile matter released, revealed the lowest activation energies of 170, 173 and 163 kJ/mol, respectively, and reaction rates of 2.37 x 109 min{sup -1}, 5.82 x 109, and 1.77 x 109 min{sup -1}, respectively, for coal/rice husk, coal/rice straw and coal/sugarcane bagasse blends, respectively. These findings may provide useful data for power generation industries for the development of co-firing options using demineralised coal/biomass blends and reduced ash deposits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of flash and slow pyrolysis applied on heavy metal contaminated Sorghum bicolor shoots resulting from phytoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Chami, Ziad; AMER, Nasser; Smets, Koen; Yperman, Jan; Carleer, Robert; Dumontet, Stefano; Vangronsueld, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Treatment and/or disposal of metal contaminated biomass are still an unsolved problem. Knowledge of the metal distribution is of prime importance concerning the application of pyrolysis product streams. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench was cultivated in a semi-hydroponic system to assess its potential use in phytoremediation and biomass production. Plants were grown in a greenhouse using perlite as substrate, half-strength Hoagland’s solution as control (CTR) and the same solution supplemented ...

  16. Kinetic study of Chinese biomass slow pyrolysis: Comparison of different kinetic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Hu; Andreas Jess; Minhou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-12-15

    The slow pyrolysis of six Chinese biomasses was studied by thermogravimetric experiments. Non-linear square fitting method is used to calculate DTG data. The analysis results show that it is not possible to exactly represent the biomass pyrolysis by a one-step model with different mechanisms. Thus, three-pseudocomponent models were used to simulate the biomass pyrolysis. It was found that the three-pseudocomponent model with n-order kinetics (model II) is more accurate than the model with first-order kinetics (model I). Activation energies of three-pseudocomponents in model II are bigger than the values in model I. It is shown that model II yields the best simulation results, especially with respect to describe accurately the pyrolysis of the first pseudocomponent (hemicellulose) and the last one (lignin). Nevertheless, with regard to a practical utilization, the three-pseudocomponent model with a reaction order of one could be used, because the accuracy to represent biomass pyrolysis is high enough. Unrealistic high values of the reaction order are avoided, and thus this model is more realistic with respect to the chemical interpretation of the reaction order. 19 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. BIOTC: An open-source CFD code for simulating biomass fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qingang; Aramideh, Soroush; Passalacqua, Alberto; Kong, Song-Charng

    2014-06-01

    The BIOTC code is a computer program that combines a multi-fluid model for multiphase hydrodynamics and global chemical kinetics for chemical reactions to simulate fast pyrolysis of biomass at reactor scale. The object-oriented characteristic of BIOTC makes it easy for researchers to insert their own sub-models, while the user-friendly interface provides users a friendly environment as in commercial software. A laboratory-scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor for biomass fast pyrolysis was simulated using BIOTC to demonstrate its capability.

  18. Acetic acid recovery from fast pyrolysis oil. An exploratory study on liquid-liquid reactive extraction using aliphatic tertiary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, F. H.; van Geel, F. P.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis oil or Bio-oil (BO), obtained by flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, is very acidic in nature. The major component responsible for this acidity is acetic acid, present in levels up to 2-10 wt%. Here, we report an exploratory study on BO upgrading by reactive extraction of ace

  19. Analytical Investigations of Kinetic and Heat Transfer in Slow Pyrolysis of a Biomass Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J Ojolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of biomass for heat and power generation has aroused the interest of most researchers especially those of energy .In converting solid fuel to a usable form of energy,pyrolysis plays an integral role. Understanding this very important phenomenon in the thermochemical conversion processes and representing it with appropriate mathematical models is vital in the design of pyrolysis reactors and biomass gasifiers. Therefore, this study presents analytical solutions to the kinetic and the heat transfer equations that describe the slow pyrolysis of a biomass particle. The effects of Biot number, temperature and residence time on biomass particle decomposition were studied. The results from the proposed analytical models are in good agreement with the reported experimental results. The developed analytical solutions to the heat transfer equations which have been stated to be “analytically involved” showed average percentageerror and standard deviations 0.439 and 0.103 from the experimental results respectively as compared with previous model in literature which gives average percentage error and standard deviations 0.75 and 0.106 from the experimental results respectively. This work is of great importance in the design of some pyrolysis reactors/units and in the optimal design of the biomass gasifiers.

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass: Effects of pyrolysis temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and MgO catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton seed, as a biomass source, is pyrolysed in a tubular fixed-bed reactor under various sweeping gas (N2) flow rates at different pyrolysis temperatures. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum bio-oil yield was attained as 48.30% at 550 oC with a sweeping gas flow rate of 200 mL min-1. At the optimum conditions, catalytic pyrolysis of biomass samples was performed with various amounts of MgO catalyst (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.% of raw material). Catalyst addition decreased the quantity of bio-oil yet increased the quality of bio-oil in terms of calorific value, hydrocarbon distribution and removal of oxygenated groups. It was observed that increasing the amount of catalyst used, decreased the oil yields while increased the gas and char yields. Bio-oils obtained at the optimum conditions were separated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar sub-fractions. After the application of column chromatography, bio-oils were subjected into elemental, FT-IR and 1H NMR analyses. Aliphatic sub-fractions of bio-oils were analyzed by GC-MS. It was deduced that the fuel obtained via catalytic pyrolysis mainly consisted of lower weight hydrocarbons in the diesel range. Finally, obtained results were compared with petroleum fractions and evaluated as a potential source for liquid fuels.

  1. STEPWISE ISOTHERMAL FAST PYROLYSIS (SIFP OF BIOMASS PART I. SIFP OF PINE SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López Rivilli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP, focusing on the search of reaction conditions to obtain chemicals in good yields from biomass. SIFP consists of successive isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions, where solid products obtained in the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis become the substrate of the subsequent reaction at a higher temperature. This article reports results obtained by SIFP of pine sawdust between 200 and 600°C using 100°C intervals under vacuum (0.2 mm, using nitrogen as carrier gas. Both sets of reactions made it possible to obtain most of the compounds that have been previously described in conventional fast pyrolysis experiments; however this system produces a smaller number of chemical compounds in each isothermal FP, making it easier to obtain determined chemicals with industrial or research value. Maximum yield of liquid products occurred at 300°C, giving around 30% of bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols and furan derivatives. Liquid-Liquid extraction led to a rich mixture of phenol derivatives. Results showed that SIFP is an interesting technique to obtain enriched fractions of products derived from biomass pyrolysis.

  2. Low-Order Modeling of Internal Heat Transfer in Biomass Particle Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Gavin M.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Daw, C. Stuart

    2016-06-16

    We present a computationally efficient, one-dimensional simulation methodology for biomass particle heating under conditions typical of fast pyrolysis. Our methodology is based on identifying the rate limiting geometric and structural factors for conductive heat transport in biomass particle models with realistic morphology to develop low-order approximations that behave appropriately. Comparisons of transient temperature trends predicted by our one-dimensional method with three-dimensional simulations of woody biomass particles reveal good agreement, if the appropriate equivalent spherical diameter and bulk thermal properties are used. We conclude that, for particle sizes and heating regimes typical of fast pyrolysis, it is possible to simulate biomass particle heating with reasonable accuracy and minimal computational overhead, even when variable size, aspherical shape, anisotropic conductivity, and complex, species-specific internal pore geometry are incorporated.

  3. A Theoretical Study on Levoglucosan Pyrolysis Reactions Yielding Aldehydes and a Ketone in Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Abella, Lorene; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Fukuda, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose composes most of domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes, forest products and indigenous plant materials valued as biomass resources. The immensity of these materials should be a driving force to efficiently exhaust them as energy sources and, in effect, offset environmental impact of wastes. This study focuses on the pyrolysis reactions of cellulose as a main component in biomass through thermal degradation of levoglucosan . an intermediate crucial to the formation of char an...

  4. Study on biomass catalytic pyrolysis for production of bio-gasoline by on-line FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Bo Lu; Jian Zhong Yao; Wei Gang Lin; Wen Li Song

    2007-01-01

    The pyrolysis of biomass is a promising way for production of bio-gasoline if the stability and quality problems of the bio-crudeoil can be solved by catalytic cracking and reforming. In this paper, an on-line infrared spectrum was used to study the characteristics of catalytic pyrolysis with the following preliminary results. The removal of C=O of organic acid is more difficult than that of aldehydes and ketones. HUSY/γ-Al2O3 and REY/γ-Al2O3 catalysts exhibited better deoxygenating activities while HZSM-5/γ-Al2O3 catalyst exhibited preferred selectivities for production of iso-alkanes and aromatics. Finally, possible mechanisms of biomass catalytic pyrolysis are discussed as well.

  5. Online upgrading of organic vapors from the fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-yu; YAN Yong-jie; REN Zheng-wei

    2008-01-01

    The online upgrading process that combined the fast pyrolysis of biomass and catalytic cracking of bio-oil was developed to produce a high quality liquid product from the biomass. The installation consisted of a fluidized bed reactor for pyrolysis and a packed bed reactor for upgrading. The proper pyrolysis processing conditions with a temperature of 500℃ and a flow rate of 4m3·h-1 were determined in advance. Under such conditions, the effects of temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) on both the liquid yields and the oil qualities of the online catalytic cracking process were investigated. The results showed that such a combined process had the superiority of increasing the liquid yield and improving the product quality over the separate processes. Furthermore, when the temperature was 500℃, with a WHSV of 3h-1, the liquid yield reached the maximum and the oxygenic compounds also decreased obviously.

  6. Modeling the combined impact of moisture and char shrinkage on the pyrolysis of a biomass particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth M. Bryden; Mathew J. Hagge [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (USA). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-09-01

    A detailed computational model of pyrolysis of a moist, shrinking biomass particle is presented. This model is used to examine the effect of varying the moisture content for a single shrinking biomass particle subjected to a constant external temperature. Particle half-thicknesses ranging from 5{mu} m to 2 cm, temperatures from 800 to 2000 K, moisture contents from 0 to 30% (dry basis), and shrinkage factors from 1.0 to 0.4 are examined. The impact of moisture content and shrinkage was found to be a function of pyrolysis regime. In general, coupling between moisture content and shrinkage was found to result in longer pyrolysis times than if they were considered separately. Additionally, coupling between moisture content and shrinkage increased tar yield and decreased light hydrocarbon yield compared to considering moisture and shrinkage separately. 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. H2CAP - Hydrogen assisted catalytic biomass pyrolysis for green fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, Trine Marie Hartmann; Høj, Martin; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass produces a high yield of condensable oil at moderate temperature and low pressure.This bio-oil has adverse properties such as high oxygen and water contents, high acidity and immiscibility with fossil hydrocarbons. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is a promising technology...... that can be used to upgrade the crude bio-oil to fuel-grade oil. The development of the HDO process is challenged by rapid catalyst deactivation, instability of the pyrolysis oil, poorly investigated reaction conditions and a high complexity and variability of the input oil composition. However......, continuous catalytic hydropyrolysis coupled with downstream HDO of the pyrolysis vapors before condensation shows promise (Figure 1). A bench scale experimental setup will be constructed for the continuous conversion of solid biomass (100g /h) to low oxygen, fuel-grade bio-oil. The aim is to provide a proof...

  8. Study on pyrolysis characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass impregnated with ammonia source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhu, Changpeng; Zhang, Liqiang; Zhu, Xifeng

    2016-06-01

    The current study presents the pyrolysis characteristics of rice husk impregnated with different kinds of ammonia source (ammonium acetate, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate) in a fixed bed reactor. The introduction of ammonia source in pyrolysis process achieved the conversation from carbonyl compounds to nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. The liquid product of urea-impregnated biomass has higher content of nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (8.35%) and phenols (30.4%). For ammonium sulfate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate-impregnated biomass, the quantity of compounds in liquid products reduces remarkably, and the gas products are rich in CO and H2. All the solid products of pyrolysis have great potential application in biochar-based fertilizer and activated carbon for their high N content. PMID:26967337

  9. Thermochemical behavior of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) during co-pyrolysis with biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ting-Ting; Li, De-Chang; Jiang, Hong

    2014-09-16

    Co-pyrolysis of plastic waste and wood biomass to recover valuable chemicals is a cost-effective waste-recycling technology. However, widely used organophosphate ester additives in plastic, such as tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), can form diverse phosphorus (P)-containing species. These P-containing compounds can pose new environmental challenges when the biochar is reused. In this study, a mixture of TBEP and lignin was used to simulate the feedstock of plastic waste and wood biomass, and the thermochemical behavior of TBEP in slow pyrolysis (20 K min(-1)) and fast pyrolysis at 400-600 °C was investigated. The results show that low temperature in fast pyrolysis favors the enrichment of P in char. Up to 76.6% of initial P in the feedstock is retained in the char resulting from 400 °C, while only 51% is retained in the char from 600 °C. Slow pyrolysis favors the formation of stable P species regardless of the temperature; only 7% of the P retained in the char is extractable from char from slow pyrolysis, while 20-40% of P can be extracted from char resulting from fast pyrolysis. The addition of CaCl2 and MgCl2 can significantly increase the fraction of P retained in the char by the formation of Ca, Mg-P compounds. Online TG-FTIR-MS analysis suggests that TBEP undergoes decomposition through different temperature-dependent pathways. The P-containing radicals react with the aromatic rings produced by the pyrolysis of lignin to form Ar-P species, which is an important factor influencing the distribution and stabilization of P in char. PMID:25154038

  10. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  11. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, Moreno L.; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Rossum, van G.; Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Kersten, S.R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the pro

  12. Influences of Temperature and Coal Particle Size on the Flash Pyrolysis of Coal in a Fast-entrained Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The experiments on the flash pyrolysis of a lignite were carried out in a fast-entrained bed reactor as a basic study on a so-called 'coal topping process'. The investigation focused on the effects of pyrolysis temperature and coal particle size on the product distribution and composition. The experimental results show that an increase in the pyrolysis temperature results in a higher yield of gaseous products while a larger particle size leads to a decrease of the liquid yield. An optimum temperature for the liquid yield was found to be 650 ℃. A certain amount of phenol groups was found in the liquid products, which may be used to produce high-valued fine chemicals. The FTIR analyses of the coal and chars show that aliphatic structures in the chars are gradually replaced by aromatic structures with the increasing of pyrolysis temperature and coal particle size. The results of this study provide fundamental data and optimal conditions to maximize light oils yields for the coal topping process.

  13. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Whole Field Pennycress Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Kidane, Yonas Afewerki

    2015-01-01

    Reports indicate that the worldwide energy consumption and fossil fuel energy production level will have an opposite trend in the coming two decades. The former will continue to increase while the later will decrease. Therefore, additional sources of energy need to be developed. Field pennycress (Thlaspi, arvense L.) has been found to be an ideal source of energy because it has prolific yield and has no value as food. We demonstrated conventional and catalytic fast pyrolysis of whole pennycre...

  14. Modeling and simulation of combined pyrolysis and reduction zone for a downdraft biomass gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper simulates the behavior of a global fixed bed biomass gasification reactor. The pyrolysis zone and reduction zone models are combined to simulate the global process of biomass gasification. The volatiles and gases released from the pyrolysis zone were assumed to crack into equivalent amounts of CO, CH4 and H2O. It is considered that the volatiles and gases leave the pyrolysis zone instantaneously and enter the reduction zone as initial gas concentrations. The numerical method applied is a Runge-Kutta fourth order method for solution of the pyrolysis zone model and finite differences for the reduction zone model to solve numerically the coupled ordinary differential equations. Simulations are performed for the varying pyrolysis temperature with a heating rate of 25 K/min and constant temperature of 1400 K as the initial reduction zone temperature at the same time. The simulation results for the temperature and concentrations of the gaseous species are in good agreement with published experimental data

  15. C15H10 and C15H12 Thermal Chemistry: Phenanthrylcarbene Isomers and Phenylindenes by Falling Solid Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of Tetrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentrup, Curt; Becker, Jürgen; Diehl, Manfred

    2015-07-17

    2-Phenyl-5-(phenylethynyl)tetrazole 44 provides a new entry to the C15H10 energy surface. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of 44 using the falling solid flash vacuum pyrolysis (FS-FVP) method afforded cyclopenta[def]phenanthrene 31 and cyclopenta[jk]fluorene 52 as the principal products. The products are explained in terms of the formation of N-phenyl-C-phenylethynylnitrile imine/(phenylazo)(phenylethynyl)carbene 45 and its cyclization to 3-(phenylethynyl)-3H-indazole 46b. Pyrolytic loss of N2 from 46b generates C15H10 intermediate 48. Cyclization of 48 to a dibenzocycloheptatetraene derivative and further rearrangements with analogies in the chemistry of phenylcarbene and the naphthylcarbenes leads to the final products. Similar pyrolysis of 2-phenyl-5-styryltetrazole 43 afforded 3-styrylindazole 58, which on further pyrolysis eliminated N2 to generate 3- and 2-phenylindenes 61 and 62 via C15H12 intermediates. PMID:26086716

  16. Problems and opportunities fr solar energy in biomass, pyrolysis, and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.

    1979-11-01

    Passive solar input for drying crops and wood already make a significant input to the US energy budget, and active solar drying, requiring temperatures below 200/sup 0/C, can easily make an important substitution for fossil fuels in drying. Pyrolysis of biomass typically requires less than 1.6 MBtu/dry ton at a temperature of 500/sup 0/C, and this could potentially be supplied by direct solar heating. The heat input is likely to be by indirect heating of a solid, liquid or gas heat-transfer agent. Fast pyrolysis requires modest heat inputs with high heat-transfer rates at temperatures over 900/sup 0/C and thus may be particularly suited to focusing collectors as energy sources. Char gasification, using steam or CO/sub 2/, requires large energy inputs at temperatures over 900/sup 0/C and thus is the least likely field of application of solar energy. Ultimately, the large scale application of solar energy to biomass pyrolysis and gasification will depend on the relative cost of direct solar versus biomass inputs. Biomass energy inputs now typically cost 1 to 3 $/MBtu; when direct solar heat costs begin to approach this level, we may begin to use direct solar process heat for biomass conversion.

  17. Tar Production from Biomass Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor: A Novel Turbulent Multiphase Flow Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, J.; Lathouwers, D.

    2000-01-01

    A novel multiphase flow model is presented for describing the pyrolysis of biomass in a 'bubbling' fluidized bed reactor. The mixture of biomass and sand in a gaseous flow is conceptualized as a particulate phase composed of two classes interacting with the carrier gaseous flow. The solid biomass is composed of three initial species: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. From each of these initial species, two new solid species originate during pyrolysis: an 'active' species and a char, thus totaling seven solid-biomass species. The gas phase is composed of the original carrier gas (steam), tar and gas; the last two species originate from the volumetric pyrolysis reaction. The conservation equations are derived from the Boltzmann equations through ensemble averaging. Stresses in the gaseous phase are the sum of the Newtonian and Reynolds (turbulent) contributions. The particulate phase stresses are the sum of collisional and Reynolds contributions. Heat transfer between phases, and heat transfer between classes in the particulate phase is modeled, the last resulting from collisions between sand and biomass. Closure of the equations must be performed by modeling the Reynolds stresses for both phases. The results of a simplified version (first step) of the model are presented.

  18. Influence of pyrolysis conditions on the structure and gasification reactivity of biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; B. Moghtaderi; R. Gupta; T.F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    The physical and chemical structure as well as gasification reactivities of chars generated from several biomass species (i.e. pinus radiata, eucalyptus maculata and sugar cane bagasse) were studied to gain insight into the role of heating rate and pressure on the gasification characteristics of biomass chars. Char samples were generated in a suite of reactors including a wire mesh reactor, a tubular reactor, and a drop tube furnace. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, digital cinematography and surface area analysis were employed to determine the impact of operating conditions on the char structure. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined for a range of pressures between 1 and 20 bar using pressurised thermogravimetric analysis technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. It was found that under high heating rates the char particles underwent plastic deformation (i.e. melted) developing a structure different to that of the virgin biomass. Pressure was also found to influence the physical and chemical structures of char particles. The difference in the gasification reactivities of biomass chars at pressure was found to correlate well with the effect of pyrolysis pressure on the graphitisation process in the biomass char structure. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Mild hydrothermal conditioning prior to torrefaction and slow pyrolysis of low-value biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, R; Nachenius, R W; Agbo, K E; Hensgen, F; Bühle, L; Wachendorf, M; Ok, Y S; Tack, F M G; Prins, W; Ronsse, F; Meers, E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to establish whether hydrothermal conditioning and subsequent thermochemical processing via batch torrefaction or slow pyrolysis may improve the fuel quality of grass residues. A comparison in terms of fuel quality was made of the direct thermochemical processing of the feedstock versus hydrothermal conditioning as a pretreatment prior to thermochemical processing. Hydrothermal conditioning reduced ash content, and particularly nitrogen, potassium and chlorine contents in the biomass. The removal of volatile organic matter associated with thermochemical processes can increase the HHV to levels of volatile bituminous coal. However, slow pyrolysis only increased the HHV of biomass provided a low ash content (<6%) feedstock was used. In conclusion, hydrothermal conditioning can have a highly positive influence on the efficiency of thermochemical processes for upgrading low-value (high-ash) biomass to a higher quality fuel. PMID:26976062

  20. Catalytic cracking of tar in biomass pyrolysis gas in the presence of calcined dolomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of decreasing the tar content of the fuel gas obtained by biomass pyrolysis was studied. Pyrolysis of mixed hardwood chips was carried out in a laboratory-scale cracking reactor using a dolomite catalyst, which showed a high catalytic activity. The effects of reaction variables such as temperature, and amount of catalyst and steam, were studied. The overall effect of the dolomite is to increase the gas yield by decreasing the tar yield. The dolomite and the steam used seem to affect the amount of naphthalene produced. By adjusting both the amounts of catalyst and steam, the amounts of naphthalene (13 mg/kg of dry biomass) and tar (164 mg/kg) were decreased significantly. The yields of hydrogen, CO and CO2 depended on the steam to biomass weight ratio in the range of 0 to 0.6 kg/kg. 18 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Effect of pyrolysis conditions and composition on the char structure and char yield of biomass chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Steibel, Markus; Spliethoff, Hartmut; Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    electron microscopy indicated different types of softening and melting of the biomass chars at all applied temperatures, heating rates and holding times, except for rice husks, which formed chars with a structure similar to the parent fuel. The char particles generated at high pyrolysis temperatures had......The char yield as well as physical and chemical structure of chars generated from different types of biomass divided into five different particle size fractions from 50μm to 1mm were studied to better understand the influences of holding time, final temperatures and heating rates on the pyrolysis...... structural changes. A significantly different char yield was observed between heating rates 10 K/s and 1000 K/s. For heating rates > 600 K/s a similar biomass char yield was obtained. Overall, it was found that the final temperature has more influence on the char yield than the heating rate. The scanning...

  2. A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J P [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

  3. Thermochemical conversion of raw and defatted algal biomass via hydrothermal liquefaction and slow pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardon, Derek R; Sharma, Brajendra K; Blazina, Grant V; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2012-04-01

    Thermochemical conversion is a promising route for recovering energy from algal biomass. Two thermochemical processes, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL: 300 °C and 10-12 MPa) and slow pyrolysis (heated to 450 °C at a rate of 50 °C/min), were used to produce bio-oils from Scenedesmus (raw and defatted) and Spirulina biomass that were compared against Illinois shale oil. Although both thermochemical conversion routes produced energy dense bio-oil (35-37 MJ/kg) that approached shale oil (41 MJ/kg), bio-oil yields (24-45%) and physico-chemical characteristics were highly influenced by conversion route and feedstock selection. Sharp differences were observed in the mean bio-oil molecular weight (pyrolysis 280-360 Da; HTL 700-1330 Da) and the percentage of low boiling compounds (bp<400 °C) (pyrolysis 62-66%; HTL 45-54%). Analysis of the energy consumption ratio (ECR) also revealed that for wet algal biomass (80% moisture content), HTL is more favorable (ECR 0.44-0.63) than pyrolysis (ECR 0.92-1.24) due to required water volatilization in the latter technique. PMID:22285293

  4. The major parameters on biomass pyrolysis for hyperaccumulative plants--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilks, R T; Monette, F; Glaus, M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the main phytoremediation techniques and it has often been described as a potentially feasible in situ soil decontamination method of large amounts of heavy metals, organic pollutants and explosive compounds. As this remediation technique is approaching extensive on-field experimentation and commercialization, research focus is on investigating new ways to achieve the valorisation of its by-products. Biomass pyrolysis represents a key step to numerous valorisation options and it is characterized by differential output products that are determined by the operating conditions of the process and the characteristics of the input. However, when used to valorise plants that have undergone significant metal uptake, this strategy involves some new aspects related to harvest, procedure and final product reutilization. This paper reviews the studies made on biomass pyrolysis of plants with emphasis on the differential quality and distribution of pyrolysis products in relation with the variables of the process and the metal-rich phytoextraction feedstock properties. By investigating these parameters, this survey provides indications on ways to optimize the valorisation of phytoremediation by-products through biomass pyrolysis. PMID:26741543

  5. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed

  6. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps

  7. Effect of fast pyrolysis conditions on biomass solid residues at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wood and straw was conducted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and compared with corresponding data from a wire mesh reactor (WMR) to study the influence of temperature (1000-1400)°C, biomass origin (pinewood, beechwood, wheat straw, alfalfa straw), and heating rate (103 °C/s, 104 °C...... decreased in its half-width with respect to the parental fuel, whereas the alfalfa straw char particle size remained unaltered at higher temperatures. Soot particles in a range from 60 to 300 nm were obtained during fast pyrolysis. The soot yield from herbaceous fuels was lower than from wood samples...

  8. Release of chlorine from biomass at pyrolysis and gasification conditions, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from pyrolysis experiment with some biomass materials and pure cellulose shows that the chlorine evaporates from different fuels in two steps. The second of these steps can be explained as evaporation of KCl or other volatile chlorides. The first step starts at temperature levels 300-400 deg C which is too low for salt volatilization. Anyhow, the materials releases up to 50% of the total fuel chlorine in this first step. To explain this first step a mechanism has been suggested in which the chlorine during pyrolysis can be transferred to hydrogen chloride 4 refs, 9 figs

  9. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  10. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Koponen, P.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  11. Non-isothermal Kinetics of Pyrolysis of Three Kinds of Fresh Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Fan-fei; ZHANG Ming-xu; CHEN Qing-ru

    2007-01-01

    The pyrolysis kinetics of three different kinds of fresh biomass (grass: triple A, wheat straw, com straw) in nitrogen flow were studied by thermogravimetric analysis at five different heating rates. The kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis process were calculated using the method of Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and the mechanism of reactions were investigated using the method of Popescu. It was found that the values of activation energy varied in different temperature ranges. The pyrolysis processes are well described by the models of Zhuravlev (Zh) and valid for diffusion-controlled between 200℃ and 280℃, by Ginstling-Brounshtein (G-B), valid for diffusion-control between 280℃ and 310℃, for first-order chemical reaction between 310℃ and 350℃, by Zhuravlev (Zh) valid for diffusion-control between 350℃ and 430℃ and by the one-way transport model when temperatures are over 430℃.

  12. TG-FTIR study on co-pyrolysis of municipal solid waste with biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui; Wu, Xin; Liang, Cai; Chen, Xiaoping; Shen, Jiezhong; Tang, Guoyong; Wang, Zheng

    2009-09-01

    Co-pyrolysis of cotton stalk, a representative agricultural biomass in China, mixed with municipal solid waste (MSW) with high ash content and low calorific value was carried out using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer in Ar atmosphere. Pyrolysis characteristic and pollutant emission performance from MSW and stalk blends at different mass proportions were studied. The results show that as the mass proportion of stalk added increases, the total weight loss of the blend during pyrolysis increases. The addition of stalk has substantial effects on the N-selectivity to HCN, NH(3) and HNCO. In the presence of stalk, lower concentrations of HCl are detected. PMID:19362817

  13. Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-Song Zhang; Guang-Xi Yang; Hong Jiang; Wu-Jun Liu; Hong-Sheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Production of renewable commodity chemicals from bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass has received considerable interests, but hindered by the presence of innumerable components in bio-oil. In present work, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated an innovative approach combining atmospheric distillation of bio-oil with co-pyrolysis for mass production of renewable chemicals from biomass, in which no waste was produced. It was estimated that 51.86 wt.% of distillate just containi...

  14. Chemical and physical characterisation of biomass-based pyrolysis oils. Literature view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    Biomass-based pyrolysis oils are complex mixtures of mainly organic compounds and water. The determination of their physical and chemical properties and chemical composition is a challenge for researchers. Characterisation of biomass pyrolysis oils has been studied at many universities in North America and Europe in the 1980s and 1990s. The existing literature on the analytical methods used for these oils is reviewed in this report. For characterising the chemical composition, the bio-oils have first been mainly fractionated into different classes. Solvent extraction and adsorption chromatography are the most general methods used. In adsorption chromatography, the oils have been fractionated into different hydrocarbon and polar fractions. The fractions obtained have been analysed with various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique is the analytical method most widely used and well adaptable for the fractions. For high-molecular-mass and highly polar compounds liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques as well as infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) spectroscopies are more suitable due to the low volatility of pyrolysis oils. For whole pyrolysis oils, LC techniques, primarily size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR and FT-NMR spectroscopies have proved to be useful methods

  15. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N.; Baryshnikov, S.V. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx Str., Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Weber, J.V.; Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France)

    2006-06-01

    The pyrolysis in a hydrogen atmosphere of pine wood and synthetic polymers (polyethylene and polypropylene) mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. The effects of reaction temperature, wood/polymers mixture composition and catalysts, on the mixtures conversion into liquids and gases were established and discussed. The used catalysts were pyrrhotite and haematite materials activated by mechanochemical treatment. In the co-liquefaction processes the interaction between fragments of wood and polymers thermal decomposition took place. This results in non-additive increase of the wood/polymers conversion degree by 10-15wt.% and of the yield of distillate fractions by 14-19wt.%. Iron ore materials were found catalytically active in the process of hydropyrolysis of wood/polymers mixtures. By using these catalysts a significant increase of the distillable liquids amounts (by 14-21wt.%) and a sharp decrease of olefins and cycloparaffins content (by approximately two to three times) were observed. (author)

  16. [Influence of urea formaldehyde resin on pyrolysis of biomass: a modeling study by TG-FTIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-jin; Mu, Jun; Zhang, Yu

    2014-06-01

    Pyrolysis is an efficient and recycling way to utilize waste wood-based panels, in which urea-formaldehyde resin (UF) is the main difference between wood-based board and other kinds of biomass. The present paper studied the three main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin) of poplar wood, in order to effectively and environmentally utilize or dispose of waste wood-based panels with pyrolysis technique, to study the influence of urea formaldehyde resin on pyrolytic characteristic of wood during the process of the pyrolysis of waste wood-based panels, and to in-depth explore the mechanism of the effect of UF on each component of wood. Innovatively, the weight-loss character and gas evolution rule of the model (made from cellulose, xylan and lignin, based on the chemical components stud of poplar wood), the main components as well as the ones mixed with UF were analyzed by TG-FTIR (thermogravimetric analyzer coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer). Results indicated that UF promoted the generation of water and carboxylic acid substances during the cellulose pyrolysis process. UF combined with lignin, formed some kind of unstable nitrogenous structure which produced a large amount of NH3, which took part in the low-temperature (200-300 degrees C) pyrolysis of lignin, and directly affected the production of pyrolysis products. It can be concluded that during the process of the pyrolysis of waste wood-based panels, lignin was the one that UF mainly impacted among the three main components of wood. PMID:25358153

  17. MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

    2001-12-23

    This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

  18. PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS BY PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS IN THERMAL PLASMA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Michal; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Konrád, Miloš; Kavka, Tetyana; Van Oost, G.; Beeckman, E.; Verstraeten, J.

    Bruges, Belgie, 2005, s. 230-234. ISBN 908086692X. [International Workshop on Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas: Sources and Applications/2nd./. Bruges (BE), 30.08.2005-02.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Keywords : syngas * biomass * plasma * gas composition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  19. Double Distribution Activation Energy Model as Suitable Tool in Explaining Biomass and Coal Pyrolysis Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo De Filippis; Benedetta de Caprariis; Marco Scarsella; Nicola Verdone

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and modeling of coal and biomass pyrolysis assume particular importance being the first step occurring in both gasification and combustion processes. The complex chemical reaction network occurring in this step leads to a necessary effort in developing a suitable model framework capable of grasping the physics of the phenomenon and allowing a deeper comprehension of the sequence of events. The aim of this work is to show how the intrinsic flexibility of a model based on a doubl...

  20. CFD Modelling of Heat Supply in Fluidized Bed Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Mellin, Pelle; Wu, Yueshi; Kantarelis, Efthymios; Yang, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the heat supply to the fast pyrolysis process, by addition of oxygen in the fluidizing gas. Since the technology will be further developed, a solution for the heat supply in a large-scale reactor must be conceived, which is one option to achieve the primary target: to operate with as little extra heat as possible. Corrections for the granular bed material and the biomass particles are implemented in the simulation. User Defined Functions (UDF) is extensively used to de...

  1. Prediction of pyrolysis kinetic parameters from biomass constituents based on simplex-lattice mixture design☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panusit Sungsuk; Sasiporn Chayaporn; Sasithorn Sunphorka; Prapan Kuchonthara; Pornpote Piumsomboon; Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the main chemical components of biomass:cel ulose, hemicel-lulose and lignin, on chemical kinetics of biomass pyrolysis. The experiments were designed based on a simplex-lattice mixture design. The pyrolysis was observed by using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The curves obtained from the employed analytical method fit the experimental data (R2 N 0.9). This indicated that this method has the potential to determine the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (Ea), frequency factor (A) and re-action order (n) for each point of the experimental design. The results obtained from the simplex-lattice mixture design indicated that cellulose had a significant effect on Ea and A, and the interaction between cellulose and lignin had an important effect on the reaction order, n. The proposed models were then proved to be useful for predicting pyrolysis behavior in real biomass and so could be used as a simple approximation for predicting the overall trend of chemical reaction kinetics.

  2. Production of hydrogen from biomass by catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernik, S.; Wang, D.; Chornet, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Renewable Chemical Technologies and Materials

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen is the prototype of the environmentally cleanest fuel of interest for power generation using fuel cells and for transportation. The thermochemical conversion of biomass to hydrogen can be carried out through two distinct strategies: (a) gasification followed by water-gas shift conversion, and (b) catalytic steam reforming of specific fractions derived from fast pyrolysis and aqueous/steam processes of biomass. This paper presents the latter route that begins with fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce bio-oil. This oil (as a whole or its selected fractions) can be converted to hydrogen via catalytic steam reforming followed by a water-gas shift conversion step. Such a process has been demonstrated at the bench scale using model compounds, poplar oil aqueous fraction, and the whole pyrolysis oil with commercial Ni-based steam reforming catalysts. Hydrogen yields as high as 85% have been obtained. Catalyst initial activity can be recovered through regeneration cycles by steam or CO{sub 2} gasification of carbonaceous deposits.

  3. Influence of fast pyrolysis conditions on yield and structural transformation of biomass chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass (wood, straw, rice husk) and its major components (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) was conducted in a wire mesh reactor. The aim of this study was to understand the influence of temperature (350-1400 ° C), heating rate (10-3000 ° C/s), particle size (0.05-2 mm) and hol......Fast pyrolysis of biomass (wood, straw, rice husk) and its major components (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) was conducted in a wire mesh reactor. The aim of this study was to understand the influence of temperature (350-1400 ° C), heating rate (10-3000 ° C/s), particle size (0.05-2 mm......) and holding time (1-4 s) on the char morphology and char yield. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis were conducted to determine the effect of operating conditions on char softening and melting during pyrolysis. The char yield decreased with heating rate for rates ≤ 600 ° C/s; above...... that the heat treatment temperature had a larger influence on the char yield than the heating rate. Scanning electron microscopy indicated different types of biomass char plasticization influenced by the applied temperatures, heating rates, particle sizes and holding times, except for the rice husk char...

  4. Biomass Pyrolysis: Comments on Some Sources of Confusions in the Definitions of Temperatures and Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lédé

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass pyrolysis is usually characterized on the basis of temperature and heating rate. Unfortunately, these parameters are badly defined in processing reactors as well as in laboratory devices. From the results of simplified models, the present paper points out the significant mistakes that can be made when assuming that the actual temperature and heating rate of reacting biomass particles are the same as those of the external heating medium. The difficulties in defining these two parameters are underlined in both cases of a heat source temperature supposed to be constant or to increase with time.

  5. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  6. NOx and N2O precursors from biomass pyrolysis: nitrogen transformation from amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui

    2012-04-01

    Large quantities of NO(x) and N(2)O emissions can be produced from biomass burning. Understanding nitrogen behavior during biomass pyrolysis is crucial. Nitrogen in biomass is mainly in forms of proteins (amino acids). Phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid were used as the model compounds for the nitrogen in biomass. Release behavior tests of nitrogen species from the three amino acids during pyrolysis in argon and gasification with O(2) and CO(2) were performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results indicate that although the influence of oxygen and CO(2) in the atmosphere on nitrogen behavior is different for the amino acids, it is interesting to find some phenomenon in common. The presence of oxygen promotes NO and HNCO formation for all the three amino acids; HCN and HNCO formation are suppressed by introduced CO(2) for all the three amino acids. This can reveal the N-conversion mechanism from biomass in depth under the same conditions. PMID:22439902

  7. Co-production of pyrolysis oil and district cooling in biomass-based CHP plants: Utilizing sequential vapour condensation heat as driving force in an absorption cooling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ever-increasing demand for cooling requires new and sustainable ways of producing it. Absorption cooling is one such well-known technique that can be employed, the driving force in which is heat. When a flash pyrolysis process, with sequential vapour condensation, is integrated into a biomass-based combined heat and power plant (CHP plant), excess heat may arise in the condensers. This study demonstrates the utilization of this excess heat in an absorption cooling machine for producing district cooling. The maximum boiler load in the used CHP plant was 80 MW: the excess condenser heat created during the period June–August was 6.4 MW, which resulted in the production of 5 MW district cooling. The production of electrical power increased by 8.6% on a yearly basis, with a base load production during June–August of 2.8 MW. Using an absorption cooling machine increases the energy conversion efficiency of the CHP plant with an integrated pyrolysis process by 1.3% on a yearly basis; the energy efficiency of the pyrolysis process alone increases by 6%. An increased utilization of the condenser heat for district cooling is possible at an almost constant overall energy conversion efficiency and is demonstrated with two additional cases. - Highlights: • Energy enhancement of a biomass-based CHP plant with integrated pyrolysis process. • Simulation of a single-stage absorption cooling cycle in CHEMCAD. • Utilizing waste condenser heat for district cooling production in three cases. • Simulation of a plant with productions of heat, power, cooling and bio-oil

  8. The effects of torrefaction on compositions of bio-oil and syngas from biomass pyrolysis by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shoujie; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Chen, Shulin; Wu, Joan; Julson, James; Ruan, Roger

    2013-05-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of torrefied Douglas fir sawdust pellet was investigated to determine the effects of torrefaction on the biofuel production. Compared to the pyrolysis of raw biomass, the increased concentrations of phenols and sugars and reduced concentrations of guaiacols and furans were obtained from pyrolysis of torrefied biomass, indicating that torrefaction as a pretreatment favored the phenols and sugars production. Additionally, about 3.21-7.50 area% hydrocarbons and the reduced concentration of organic acids were obtained from pyrolysis of torrefied biomass. Torrefaction also altered the compositions of syngas by reducing CO2 and increasing H2 and CH4. The syngas was rich in H2, CH4, and CO implying that the syngas quality was significantly improved by torrefaction process. PMID:22840200

  9. Microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for production of phenolic-rich bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaeva, Alisa; Tahmasebi, Arash; Tian, Lu; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-07-01

    Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of peanut shell (PT) and pine sawdust (PS) using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) for production of phenolic-rich bio-oil and nanotubes was investigated in this study. The effects of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature and biomass/catalyst ratio on the yields and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. Fast heating rates were achieved under microwave irradiation conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of bio-oil showed that activated carbon significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenolic compounds in bio-oil. The highest phenolics content in the bio-oil (61.19 %(area)) was achieved at 300°C. The selectivity of phenolics in bio-oil was higher for PT sample compared to that of PS. The formation of nanotubes in PT biomass particles was observed for the first time in biomass microwave pyrolysis. PMID:27030958

  10. Analysis of the effects of biomass on the co-pyrolysis of coal using TGA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 7.15 million and its economy is the 16th biggest in the world and 7th biggest in Europe (after Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, and Russia) with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of about 700 billion dollar. Low quality lignitic coals are the most significant primary energy resources of Turkey. Consequently, production of lignite in 2007 is 72 million tons, representing about 7.5% of lignite consumption of the world. However, undesirable characteristics of these lignites such as low calorific value, high ash, and high sulfur are some of serious drawbacks in the usage of them in conventional burning systems, regarding problematic deposit formations and polluting emissions. Therefore, alternative processes for these lignites such as pyrolysis and gasification to produce fuel gases and chemical are preferable. In this study, co-pyrolysis characteristics of Afsin-Elbistan lignite with biomass species such as hazelnut shells, sunflower seed shells, and hybrid poplar were investigated by Non-isothermal Thermogravimetry (TGA) technique. Structural differences in the physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied applying some methods such as X-Ray Diffractometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This study showed that addition of such biomass materials into lignite and then co-pyrolysis of these mixtures led to conversion levels that are seriously higher than the conversion level of the lignite alone under the same pyrolytic conditions. It is concluded that there are evident differences between the thermal reactivities of the lignite and the biomass materials, and the increase in the thermal reactivity when biomass was introduced may be explained by synergistic interactions between the constituents of lignite and biomass. (author)

  11. Poly generation property of agricultural straw based on biomass pyrolysis/gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A large mount of agricultural waste generated annually in China. The efficient and clean utilization of these biomass resources is seem to an opportunity not only enhancing the standard of living of peasant but also significantly reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Poly generation of biomass not only generating gas product with high heat value but also producing bio-char with high quality, is one of the most promising technology for Chinese rural. Currently, fixed bed pyrolysis technology is attracted major concern, however, it resulted a no-continuous and unstable production. In this paper, a novel pyrolysis technology is introduced, and the pyrolysis property of local typical agricultural straw was investigated under variant condition. A pyrolysis gases containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4, and trace of small-molecule hydrocarbon were produced, and the heat value was above 17 MJ/ m3. It is sufficient for the requirement of local resident. The tar yield is very low since it condensed on the heated materials in the low temperature zone and was further cracked to a lower molecule gases in the high temperature zone, and the main liquid product is wood vinegar. It contained above 80 % wt of water, 5-12 % wt of acetic acid and some furan and phonetic. The wood charcoal is another important product possessing rather higher benefits than gas product. The heat value of the charcoal is over 27 MJ/ kg and without smoke during combustion, so there is a huge market on the catering industry for the charcoal whose cost is lower than the charcoal form forests woods, simultaneously the char have a good porosity as the BET surface area about 100 m2/ g, so can be used as a lower cost adsorbent in the environment industry. As the commercialization of biomass poly generation technology, the high value conversion and utilization of wood vinegar and charcoal would bring considerable benefits for consumer. (author)

  12. Biomass pyrolysis: Thermal decomposition mechanisms of furfural and benzaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliou, AnGayle K.; Kim, Jong Hyun; Ormond, Thomas K.; Piech, Krzysztof M.; Urness, Kimberly N.; Scheer, Adam M.; Robichaud, David J.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Nimlos, Mark R.; Daily, John W.; Guan, Qi; Carstensen, Hans-Heinrich; Ellison, G. Barney

    2013-09-01

    The thermal decompositions of furfural and benzaldehyde have been studied in a heated microtubular flow reactor. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out by passing a dilute mixture of the aromatic aldehydes (roughly 0.1%-1%) entrained in a stream of buffer gas (either He or Ar) through a pulsed, heated SiC reactor that is 2-3 cm long and 1 mm in diameter. Typical pressures in the reactor are 75-150 Torr with the SiC tube wall temperature in the range of 1200-1800 K. Characteristic residence times in the reactor are 100-200 μsec after which the gas mixture emerges as a skimmed molecular beam at a pressure of approximately 10 μTorr. Products were detected using matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy, 118.2 nm (10.487 eV) photoionization mass spectroscopy and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. The initial steps in the thermal decomposition of furfural and benzaldehyde have been identified. Furfural undergoes unimolecular decomposition to furan + CO: C4H3O-CHO (+ M) → CO + C4H4O. Sequential decomposition of furan leads to the production of HC≡CH, CH2CO, CH3C≡CH, CO, HCCCH2, and H atoms. In contrast, benzaldehyde resists decomposition until higher temperatures when it fragments to phenyl radical plus H atoms and CO: C6H5CHO (+ M) → C6H5CO + H → C6H5 + CO + H. The H atoms trigger a chain reaction by attacking C6H5CHO: H + C6H5CHO → [C6H6CHO]* → C6H6 + CO + H. The net result is the decomposition of benzaldehyde to produce benzene and CO.

  13. Membrane Fractionation of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil and Impact of its Presence on a Petroleum Gas Oil Hydrotreatment Fractionnement membranaire d’une huile de pyrolyse flash et impact de sa présence sur l’hydrotraitement d’un gazole atmosphérique

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro A.; Hudebine D.; Dupassieux N.; Charon N.; Geantet C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to limit the greenhouse effect causing climate change and reduce the needs of the transport sector for petroleum oils, transformation of lignocellulosic biomass is a promising alternative route to produce automotive fuels, chemical intermediates and energy. Gasification and liquefaction of biomass resources are the two main routes that are under investigation to convert biomass into biofuels. In the case of the liquefaction, due to the unstability of the liquefied products, one ...

  14. Studies on liquefaction and pyrolysis of peat and biomass at KTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the study on thermochemical conversion of solid fuels is done. The study have been performed in the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, since the outbreak of energy crisis in the seventies. The main problems connected with utilisation of peat for energy are: 90% moisture content in the deposits and 35-40% oxygen content in the dry substance. Simultaneous dewatering and liquefaction of peat have been achieved by the Bjoerbom method. The wet peat has been treated with CO and H2O without preliminary drying, using water as a medium agent. After treatment water has been phase-separated from the heavy oil product. Another approach is de-oxygenation of peat prior to liquefaction. A significant part of oxygen in peat and biomass can be removed by thermal decomposition of the fuels prior to liquefaction and removal of carbon dioxide and water from the organic matter in them. The products obtained after de-oxygenation demand low consumption of external hydrogenation agent because they are rich in hydrogen. Some criteria for selection of peat as a raw material for liquefaction are given. The equipment and experimental procedure for pyrolysis of peat and biomass are described. A free fall tubular reactor with max operating pressure of 5 MPa and temperature of 1100oC has been used. The effect of treatment conditions under the rapid pyrolysis in the free fall reactor on the yield and the reactivity of char obtained after the final pyrolysis is shown. Peat and wood are transformed into pyrolysis products for less than 1 second; 35-50% of the moisture- and ash-free peat and 70% of the wood have been converted into gaseous products.The char obtained in the rapid pyrolysis contains a fraction which can be further de-volatilized by slow pyrolysis for a few minutes - time much longer than the time for formation of primary products. High reactivity of char is favoured by lower pyrolysis temperature, shorter residence time and larger particle size of the fuel. 3

  15. Fast pyrolysis of biomass in the rotating cone reactor. Reactor development and operation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the design and characteristics of BTGs pyrolysis plant with a biomass throughput capacity of 50 kg per hour. The pilot plant has been developed for 2 reasons: to produce modest quantities of bio-oil for application purposes, and to generate know-how for the development of a larger 200 kg/hr pilot plant. The design of the 50 kg/hr plant continues the development line which started in 1995 when a similar unit was delivered to China. Major design improvements of the current pyrolysis unit are that it can be operated in a continuous mode and utilizes the combustion heat of the produced char to heat the pyrolysis process. A measurement program has meanwhile been executed as a means to characterize the pyrolysis plant. Results of the characterization study were the following: the pilot plant produces approx. 35 liters of bio-oil per hour and thus achieves a maximum oil yield of 70 weight percent. The bio-oil yield of the plant was inversely proportional with the reactor temperature and inversely proportional with the gas phase residence time. As a result of the pilot plant operation, a few tons of bio-oil have been produced; alongside with a bulk of know-how. All know-how has successfully been utilized in the development of the 200 kg per hour facility

  16. Report - Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valkenburg, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walton, C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, D. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevens, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this design case study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels.

  17. Pyrolysis in the Countries of the North Sea Region: Potentially available quantities of biomass waste for biochar production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der J.W.H.; Zwart, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Interreg IVB project Biochar: Climate Saving Soils is to assess the amount of available biomass that could be used for the production of biochar. In this publication the authors give an impression of the amounts of biomass available for pyrolysis.

  18. Optimization of Biofuel and Biochar Production from the Slow Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J.; Gao, B.; Nsf Reu in Water Resources

    2010-12-01

    Slow pyrolysis was performed on biomass samples (i.e., energy cane and air potato) to determine the most energy efficient conditions for producing biofuel and biochar. The potential of air potato as a source of fuel and char was also investigated. Dry biomass samples of 10, 15 and 20 g were heated in a reactor at a final temperatures of 300, 450, or 600 °C, and the minimum amount of time required to complete pyrolysis was recorded. Maximum biochar yield was obtained at 300°C for both energy cane and air potato at all masses, and maximum bio-oil yield was obtained at 450°C for all samples. Pyrolysis required the least amount of time at 450°C. Bio-oil yields for air potato were slightly lower than that of energy cane, while biochar yield was slightly higher. Since air potato showed similar product yields to energy cane, this indicates it has potential to be a good feedstock for biofuel and biochar productions.

  19. Three-dimensional simulation and experimental investigation of a novel biomass fast pyrolysis reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y.; Shao, S.S.; Xiao, R.; Pan, Q.W.; Chen, R.; Zhang, J.B. [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    A novel autothermal reactor, named internally interconnected fluidized beds (IIFB), was developed for biomass fast pyrolysis to produce liquid fuels and chemicals. The IIFB reactor includes a pyrolysis bed and a combustion bed to conduct biomass pyrolysis and char burning, respectively. In this study, numerical simulation and experimental studies on volume fraction of particles, solid circulation rate and pressure distribution of the IIFB are reported. The stable flow photographed from the simulations coincides with that in the experiments at the same operating conditions. At the same height, the velocity of gas is twice as larger as the velocity of solid, which is favorable for catalytic reactions. The particles move up unsteadily in the draft tube, and yet they fall down with an almost constant velocity 0.07 m/s in the dipleg. The pressure in the fluidization region is higher than that in the spouted region at H=10mm and it shows an opposite pressure distribution. It is also observed that the experimental value of pressure is in well agreement with that obtained from simulations on the bottom, and yet it shows very different characteristics on the two outlets. Simulation results show that solid circulation rate at different cross-sections converged to 110kg/h which is in well agreement with experimental data of 104.5kg/h.

  20. Biomass-to-hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming the pyroligneous oils is being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. Novel technologies for the rapid pyrolysis of biomass have been developed in the past decade. They provide compact and efficient systems to transform biomass into vapors that are condensed to oils, with yields as high as 75-80 wt.% of the anhydrous biomass. This {open_quotes}bio-oil{close_quotes} is a mixture of aldehydes, alcohols, acids, oligomers from the constitutive carbohydrates and lignin, and some water derived from the dehydration reactions. Hydrogen can be produced by reforming the bio-oil or its fractions with steam. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. The reforming facility can be designed to handle alternate feedstocks, such as natural gas and naphtha, if necessary. Thermodynamic modeling of the major constituents of the bio-oil has shown that reforming is possible within a wide range of temperatures and steam-to-carbon ratios. Existing catalytic data on the reforming of oxygenates have been studied to guide catalyst selection. Tests performed on a microreactor interfaced with a molecular beam mass spectrometer showed that, by proper selection of the process variables: temperature, steam-to-carbon ratio, gas hourly space velocity, and contact time, almost total conversion of carbon in the feed to CO and CO{sub 2} could be obtained. These tests also provided possible reaction mechanisms where thermal cracking competes with catalytic processes. Bench-scale, fixed bed reactor tests demonstrated high hydrogen yields from model compounds and carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis oil fractions. Reforming bio-oil or its fractions required proper dispersion of the liquid to avoid vapor-phase carbonization of the feed in the inlet to the reactor. A special spraying nozzle injector was designed and successfully tested with an aqueous fraction of bio-oil.

  1. A phenomenological energy model of biomass pyrolysis under autothermal fluidized bed conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, J.; Beaton, P. [University of the Orient, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Zanzi, R. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2006-06-15

    In Cuba a variety of types of biomass is being investigated for energy conversion through thermochemical processes into solid, liquid, and gas products. A continuous bench fluidized bed pyrolysis has been designed and is currently under testing. In this article, a transport model has been developed to simulate the axial temperature fields in a bench. The model and experimental results indicated that (1) two zones exist inside of the fluidization column, the dense bed where the exothermic and endothermic reactions are active, and the freeboard zone where the temperature of the pyrolysis product decreases continuously; (2) the bed temperature increases with an increase in the air factor. The predicted temperature is in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. (Author)

  2. Biomass Catalytic Pyrolysis on Ni/ZSM-5: Effects of Nickel Pretreatment and Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, Matthew M.; Starace, Anne K.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Crow, Allison M.; Leshnov, Marissa A.; Magrini, Kimberly A.

    2016-07-21

    In this work, Ni/ZSM-5 catalysts with varied nickel loadings were evaluated for their ability to produce aromatic hydrocarbons by upgrading of pine pyrolysis vapors. The effect of catalyst pretreatment by hydrogen reduction was also investigated. Results indicate that the addition of nickel increases the yield of aromatic hydrocarbons while simultaneously increasing the conversion of oxygenates, relative to ZSM-5, and these effects are more pronounced with increasing nickel loading. Additionally, while initial activity differences were observed between the oxidized and reduced forms of nickel on ZSM-5 (i.e., NiO/ZSM-5 versus Ni/ZSM-5), the activity of both catalysts converges with increasing time on stream. These reaction results coupled with characterization of pristine and spent catalysts suggest that the catalysts reach similar active states during catalytic pyrolysis, regardless of pretreatment, as NiO undergoes in situ reduction to Ni by biomass pyrolysis vapors. This reduction of NiO to Ni was confirmed by reaction results and characterization by NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, temperature-programmed reduction, and X-ray diffraction. This finding is significant in that the ability to reduce or eliminate the need for a pre-reaction H2 reduction of Ni-modified zeolite catalysts could reduce process complexity and operating costs in a biorefinery-based vapor-phase upgrading process to produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. The ability to monitor catalyst activity in real time with a molecular beam mass spectrometer used to measure uncondensed, hot pyrolysis vapors allows for an improved understanding of the mechanism for improved activity with Ni addition to ZSM-5, which is attributed to the ability to prevent deactivation by deposition of coke and capping of zeolite micropores.

  3. The influence of temperature and heating rate on the slow pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.T.; Besler, Serpil [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1996-10-01

    The slow pyrolysis of biomass in the form of pine wood was investigated in a static batch reactor at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 720{sup o}C and heating rates from 5 to 80 K min{sup -1}. The compositions and properties of the derived gases, pyrolytic oils and solid char were determined in relation to pyrolysis temperatures and heating rates. In addition, the wood and the major components of the wood - cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin - were pyrolysed in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) under the same experimental conditions as in the static batch reactor. The static batch reactor results showed that as the pyrolysis temperature was increased, the percentage mass of solid char decreased, while gas and oil products increased. There was a small effect of heating rate on product yield. The lower temperature regime of decomposition of wood showed that mainly H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CO were evolved and at the higher temperature regime, the main decomposition products were oil, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, hydrocarbon gases and lower concentrations of CO and CO{sub 2}. Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy and elemental analysis of the oils showed they were highly oxygenated. The TGA results for wood showed two main regimes of weight loss, the lower temperature regime could be correlated with the decomposition of hemicellulose and the initial stages of cellulose decomposition whilst the upper temperature regime correlated mainly with the later stages of cellulose decomposition. Lignin thermal decomposition occurred throughout the temperature range of pyrolysis. (author)

  4. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases and aqueous phases. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay and mouse skin tumorigenicity tests). These results are the first step of a longer term program to determine the properties, handling requirements, and utility of the condensates recovered from biomass gasification and pyrolysis. The analytical data demonstrates the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures. 56 refs., 25 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Hydrogen production from biomass pyrolysis gas via high temperature steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this work has been undertaken as part of the design of continuous hydrogen production using the high temperature steam reforming process. The steady-state test condition was carried out using syngas from biomass pyrolysis, whilst operating at high temperatures between 600 and 1200 degree Celsius. The main reformer operating parameters (e.g. temperature, resident time and steam to biomass ratio (S/B)) have been examined in order to optimize the performance of the reformer. The operating temperature is a key factor in determining the extent to which hydrogen production is increased at higher temperatures (900 -1200 degree Celsius) whilst maintaining the same as resident time and S/B ratio. The effects of exhaust gas composition on heating value were also investigated. The steam reforming process produced methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4) between 600 to 800 degree Celsius and enhanced production ethane (C2H6) at 700 degree Celsius. However carbon monoxide (CO) emission was slightly increased for higher temperatures all conditions. The results show that the use of biomass pyrolysis gas can produce higher hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming. In addition the increasing reformer efficiency needs to be optimized for different operating conditions. (author)

  6. Analytical pyrolysis of synthetic chars derived from biomass with potential agronomic application (biochar). Relationships with impacts on microbial carbon dioxide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of 20 biochar samples produced from the pyrolysis of different biomass feedstocks with potential applications as soil amendments were investigated by pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). The yields of 38 pyrolysis products representative of charred (e.g., benze...

  7. Kinetic Model of Biomass Pyrolysis Based on Three-component Independent Parallel First-order Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新运; 万新军; 陈明强; 王君

    2012-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of two kinds of typical biomass (pine wood and cotton stalk) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere at various heating rates by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages:evolution of moisture (<200 ℃),devolatilization (200~400 ℃) and carbonization (>400 ℃).The comparison of DTG curves of two biomass materials show that the higher the hemicellulose content of biomass,the more evident the shoulder peak of DTG curve.The weight loss process of two materials was simulated by the kinetic model assuming cellulose,hemicellulose and lignin pyrolyzing independently and in parallel,obeying first-order reactions.The pyrolysis kinetic parameters corresponding to the three components were estimated by the nonlinear least square algorithm.The results show that their fitting curves are in good agreement with the experimental data.Their activation energy values for pine wood and cotton stalk are in the range of 188~215,90~102,29~49 and 187~214,95~101,30~38 kJ/mol,respectively.The corresponding pre-exponential factors are in the range of 1.8×1015~2.0×1016,1.6×107~7.1×108,9.3×101~l.5×103 and 1.2× 1015~6.7×1017,1.2× 108~1.4×109,1.4× 102~4.6× 102 min-1,respectively.In addition,the activation energy of cellulose and lignin increased and their contributions to volatile tended to fall,whereas the activation energy of herricellulose decreased and its contribution to volatile tended to rise with increasing of heating rate.

  8. Styrene recovery from polystyrene by flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artetxe, Maite; Lopez, Gartzen; Amutio, Maider; Barbarias, Itsaso; Arregi, Aitor; Aguado, Roberto; Bilbao, Javier; Olazar, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Continuous pyrolysis of polystyrene has been studied in a conical spouted bed reactor with the main aim of enhancing styrene monomer recovery. Thermal degradation in a thermogravimetric analyser was conducted as a preliminary study in order to apply this information in the pyrolysis in the conical spouted bed reactor. The effects of temperature and gas flow rate in the conical spouted bed reactor on product yield and composition have been determined in the 450-600°C range by using a spouting velocity from 1.25 to 3.5 times the minimum one. Styrene yield is strongly influenced by both temperature and gas flow rate, with the maximum yield being 70.6 wt% at 500°C and a gas velocity twice the minimum one. PMID:26077230

  9. Development of Ni-Based Catalysts for Steam Reforming of Tar Derived from Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalin LI; Yoshinao NAKAGAWA; Keiichi TOMISHIGE

    2012-01-01

    Nickel catalysts are effective for the steam reforming of tar derived from biomass pyrolysis,but the improvement is needed in terms of activity,stability,suppression of coke deposition and aggregation,and regeneration.Our recent development of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of tar is reviewed including the modification with CeO2 (or MnO),trace Pt,and MgO.The role of additives such as CeO2,MnO,Pt,and MgO is also discussed.

  10. Pyrolysis kinetics investigation of Malaysian based biomass with non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Biomass is currently being used as a sustainable energy source. Otherwise the scarceness of fossil fuel sources and the demand for environmental responsibility force the industries to use biomass as an alternate source of energy. Pyrolysis is the first step of biomass conversion and well understanding of this process can develop the biomass conversion such as gasification, liquefaction, carbonization and combustion .TGA studies of Malaysian based biomass have been carried out. TGA studies provide important insight on the thermochemical behavior of specific solid waste. The results of non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis of palm kernel shell, coconut shell and bagasse, carried out at heating rates of 10 degree Celsius/ min, 20 degree Celsius/ min and 50 degree Celsius/ min, to ramp the temperature from 30 to 1000 were analysed. The TGA studies were carried out in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen. Arrhenius parameters were estimated by 3 different models namely Kissinger model, three-pseudo component and DEAM model the estimated values and the models were compared. The results show that the three-pseudo component model has a good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that ligno celluloses components in the mixture behave in the same way as they do separately. Also it is seen that the decomposition process shifts to higher temperatures at higher heating rates as a result of the competing effects of heat and mass transfer to the material. (Author)

  11. Experimental Gasification of Biomass in an Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Surjosatyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The updraft gasifier is a simple type of reactor for the gasification of biomass that is easy to operate and has high conversion efficiency, although it produces high levels of tar. This study attempts to observe the performance of a modified updraft gasifier. A modified updraft gasifier that recirculates the pyrolysis gases from drying zone back to the combustion zone and gas outlet at reduction zone was used. In this study, the level of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone was varied, and as well as measurements of gas composition, lower heating value and tar content. The results showed that an increase in the amount of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone resulted in a decrease in the amount of tar produced. An increase in the amount of recirculated gases tended to increase the concentrations of H2 and CH4 and reduce the concentration of CO with the primary (gasification air flow held constant. Increasing the primary air flow tended to increase the amount of CO and decrease the amount of H2. The maximum of lower heating value was 4.9 MJ/m3.

  12. Leaching behaviour and ecotoxicity evaluation of chars from the pyrolysis of forestry biomass and polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, M; Mendes, S; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Lopes, H

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental risk of chars derived from the pyrolysis of mixtures of pine, plastics, and scrap tires, by studying their leaching potential and ecotoxicity. Relationships between chemical composition and ecotoxicity were established to identify contaminants responsible for toxicity. Since metallic contaminants were the focus of the present study, an EDTA washing step was applied to the chars to selectively remove metals that can be responsible for the observed toxicity. The results indicated that the introduction of biomass to the pyrolysis feedstock enhanced the acidity of chars and promote the mobilisation of inorganic compounds. Chars resulting from the pyrolysis of blends of pine and plastics did not produce ecotoxic eluates. A relationship between zinc concentrations in eluates and their ecotoxicity was found for chars obtained from mixtures with tires. A significant reduction in ecotoxicity was found when the chars were treated with EDTA, which was due to a significant reduction in zinc in chars after EDTA washing. PMID:24905691

  13. Pyrolysis and gasification of single biomass particle – new openFoam solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new solver biomassGasificationFoam that extended the functionalities of the well-supported open-source CFD code OpenFOAM. The main goal of this development is to provide a comprehensive computational environment for a wide range of applications involving reacting gases and solids. The biomassGasificationFoam is an integrated solver capable of modelling thermal conversion, including evaporation, pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion, of various solid materials. In the paper we show that the gas is hotter than the solid except at the centre of the sample, where the temperature of the solid is higher. This effect is expected because the thermal conductivity of the porous matrix of the solid phase is higher than the thermal conductivity of the gases. This effect, which cannot be considered if thermal equilibrium between the gas and solid is assumed, leads to precise description of heat transfer into wood particles.

  14. In situ FTIR and flash pyrolysis/GC-MS characterization of Protosalvinia (Upper Devonian, Kentucky, USA): Implications for maceral classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, J.C.; Carmo, A.

    1998-01-01

    Protosalvinia from Devonian rocks in Kentucky has been analyzed using petrographic and in situ FTIR and flash pyrolysis/GC-MS techniques in order to discuss its origin and placement in organic matter classification. In reflected light, Protosalvinia resembles cutinite in shape, color and reflectance, whereas in fluorescent mode it reveals yellow-green fluorescence, reminiscent of alginite. Alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes, and n-alkanes are the principal compounds in the pyrolyzates, whereas alkylphenols and n-alk-l-enes are present in minor concentrations. FTIR results show that aliphatic bands (both in stretching and bending modes) are prominent. Protosalvinia also reveals well developed aromatic bands in the out-of-plane region. Such a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic components is not known in documented organic matter types of either marine or terrestrial origin. It is suggested that Protosalvinia might belong to rare marine organisms that yield aromatic pyrolyzates. Based on morphological features and optical properties Protosalvinia should be classified as a maceral of the liptinite group. It does not, however, fit precisely within any of the established categories of the liptinite macerals.Protosalvinia from Devonian rocks in Kentucky has been analyzed using petrographic and in situ FTIR and flash pyrolysis/GC-MS techniques in order to discuss its origin and placement in organic matter classification. In reflected light, Protosalvinia resembles cutinite in shape, color and reflectance, whereas in fluorescent mode it reveals yellow-green fluorescence, reminiscent of alginite. Alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes, and n-alkanes are the principal compounds in the pyrolyzates, whereas alkylphenols and n-alk-l-enes are present in minor concentrations. FTIR results show that aliphatic bands (both in stretching and bending modes) are prominent. Protosalvinia also reveals well developed aromatic bands in the out-of-plane region. Such a mixture of aliphatic and

  15. Hydrodynamics of a novel biomass autothermal fast pyrolysis reactor: flow pattern and pressure Drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y.; Pan, Q.W.; Song, Q.L. [Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Huang, H. [College of Life Science and Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); Xiao, R.

    2009-01-15

    A novel biomass, autothermal, fast pyrolysis reactor with a draft tube and an internal dipleg dividing the reactor into two interconnected beds is proposed. This internally interconnected fluidized beds (IIFB) reactor is designed to produce high-quality bio-oil using catalysts. Meanwhile, the pyrolysis by-products, i.e., char, coke and non-condensable gases, are expected to burn in the combustion bed to provide the heat for the pyrolysis. On the other hand, the catalysts can be regenerated simultaneously. In this study, experiments on the hydrodynamics of a cold model IIFB reactor are reported. Geldart group B and D sand particles were used as the bed materials. The effects of spouting and fluidizing gas velocities, particle size, static bed height and the total pressure loss coefficient of the pyrolysis bed exit, on the flow patterns and pressure drops of the two interconnected beds are studied. Six distinct flow patterns, i.e., fixed bed (F), periodic spouted/bubbling bed (PS/B), spouted bed with aeration (SA), spout-fluidized bed (SF), spout-fluidized bed with slugging (SFS) and spouted bed with backward jet (SBJ) are identified. The investigations on the pressure drops of the two beds show that both of them are seen to increase at first (mainly in the F flow pattern), then to decrease (mainly in the PS/B and SA flow patterns) and finally to increase again (mainly in the SA and SF flow patterns), with the increase of the spouting gas velocity. It is observed that a larger particle size and lower static bed height lead to lower pressure drops of the two beds. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Method for the determination of lignin content of a sample by flash pyrolysis in an atmosphere of hydrogen or helium and method therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy (Inventor); Kwack, Eug Y. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The lignin content of wood, paper pulp or other material containing lignin (such as filter paper soaked in black liquor) is more readily determined by flash pyrolysis of the sample at approximately 550.degree. C. in a reducing atmosphere of hydrogen or in an inert atmosphere of helium followed by a rapid analysis of the product gas by a mass spectrometer. The heated pyrolysis unit as fabricated comprises a small platinum cup welded to an electrically-heated stainless steel ribbon with control means for programmed short duration (1.5 sec, approximately) heating and means for continuous flow of hydrogen or helium. The pyrolysis products enter an electron-ionization mode mass spectrometer for spectral evaluation. Lignin content is obtained from certain ratios of integrated ion currents of many mass spectral lines, the ratios being linearly related to the Kappa number of Klason lignin.

  17. Comparison of biochar properties from biomass residues produced by slow pyrolysis at 500°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongwoon; Park, Jinje; Ryu, Changkook; Gang, Ki Seop; Yang, Won; Park, Young-Kwon; Jung, Jinho; Hyun, Seunghun

    2013-11-01

    Application of biochar from biomass pyrolysis to soil is gaining greater interest; this can ameliorate the soil quality, reduce fertilizer consumption, and sequestrate carbon. This study compares the characteristics of biochar produced by slow pyrolysis at 500°C for agricultural residues: sugarcane bagasse, cocopeat, paddy straw, palm kernel shell (PKS) and umbrella tree. In the biochar yield, the influence of the inert and lignin contents was significant. The wood stem, bagasse and paddy straw had biochar yields of 24-28 wt.% from the organic fraction while cocopeat had 46 wt.%. The carbon content of biochar ranged from 84 wt.% to 89 wt.%, which corresponded to 43-63% of carbon in the biomass. The biochar from wood stem and bagasse had well-developed pores of various sizes with large surface areas. Although the surface area was significant, PKS biochar had dense matrix with few large pores. The elemental composition and pH of biochars were also compared. PMID:24047681

  18. Relations between flash pyrolysis reactivity and oil/gas products from coals of different rank; Sekitankado no kotonaru shushu no sekitan no flash pyrolysis hannosei to gas oyobi eki seiseibutsu no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, T.; Kishino, M.; Sakanishi, K.; Korai, Y.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    Curie point flash pyrolysis (FP) reactivity was studied experimentally using three kinds of coals with different coal ranks such as Yallourn brown coal, Tanitoharum sub-bituminous coal and Wandoan sub-bituminous coal. Experiment was performed using a curie point pyrolyzer in carrier gas of 20ml/min in gas flow rate at 450, 590 and 740{degree}C for 5sec. The experimental results were as follows. Each gas component obviously increased at 450-590{degree}C, however, C4-C6 gases drastically decreased at 590-740{degree}C accompanying reduction of the whole gas quantity. All of each polar component remarkably increased at 450-590{degree}C. Yallourn brown coal with high Owt%, in particular, contained a large amount of alkyl-hydroxybenzene group. The amount of cresol of all of three coal specimens also increased at 740{degree}C. It was thus suggested that this is coal constituent molecules derived from cutting of methylene-ether bridged bond by higher-temperature FP. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. PYROLYSIS OF ALGAL BIOMASS OBTAINED FROM HIGH RATE ALGAE PONDS APPLIED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda eVargas E Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the pyrolysis of algal biomass obtained from high rate algae ponds treating sewage. The two high-rate algae ponds (HRAP were built and operated at the São João Navegantes Wastewater Treatment Plant. The HRAP A was fed with raw sewage while the HRAP B was fed with effluent from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB reactor. The HRAP B provided higher productivity, presenting total solids concentration of 487.3mg/l and chlorophyll a of 7735mg/l. The algal productivity in the average depth was measured at 41,8 gm-2day-1 in pond A and at 47.1 gm-2day-1 in pond B. Algae obtained from the HRAP B were separated by the process of coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. In the presence of alum, a separation efficiency in the range of 97% solids removal was obtained. After centrifugation the biomass was dried and comminuted. The biofuel production experiments were conducted via pyrolysis in a tubular quartz glass reactor which was inserted in a furnace for external heating. The tests were carried out in an inert nitrogen atmosphere at a flow rate of 60ml/min. The system was operated at 400°C, 500°C and 600°C in order to determine the influence of temperature on the obtained fractional yields. The studies showed that the pyrolysis product yield was influenced by temperature, with a maximum liquid phase (bio-oil and water production rate of 44% at 500°C, 45% for char and around 11% for gas.

  20. An experimental investigation of heat-transfer limitations in the flash pyrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzetta, M.; Blasi, C. Di; Buonanno, F. [Univ. degli Studi Napoli Federico II (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica

    1997-03-01

    A new experimental system is presented to investigate the fast pyrolysis of solid fuels, in the absence of heat- and mass-transfer limitations. It consists of an electrically heated furnace, where a thin layer of powdered solid is exposed, on both sides, to radiative heating. A PID temperature controller is programmed for two different working conditions: the usual constant furnace temperature (A) and a constant sample temperature (B). Cellulose pyrolysis is investigated in the temperature range 523--699 K. It is shown that significant heat-transfer limitations cannot be avoided with the modality A, unless very slow heating rates, as in the classical TGA systems, are applied. In the modality B (global heating rates 19--56 K/s), the independence of the char yields from the sample thickness, for values of this below a critical value, indicates negligible spatial temperature gradients and activity of intraparticle secondary reactions of primary vapors. External heat-transfer limitations, due mainly to endothermic reaction energetics, are also avoided through proper variation in the intensity of the external radiative heat flux. Consequently, conversion occurs under exactly determined temperature conditions. A cold helium flow carries away from the reaction environment volatile products so that the activity of extra-bed secondary reactions is hindered as well. Cellulose weight loss and temperature curves are applied to evaluate the global degradation kinetics and to study the influences of heat- and mass-transfer limitations.

  1. Main routes for the thermo-conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Part 1: Pyrolysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the energy crises of the 1970s, many countries have become interest in biomass as a fuel source to expand the development of domestic and renewable energy sources and reduce the environmental impacts of energy production. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The methods available for energy production from biomass can be divided into two main categories: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. There are several thermo-chemical routes for biomass-based energy production, such as direct combustion, liquefaction, pyrolysis, supercritical water extraction, gasification, air-steam gasification and so on. The pyrolysis is thermal degradation of biomass by heat in the absence of oxygen, which results in the production of charcoal (solid), bio-oil (liquid), and fuel gas products. Pyrolysis liquid is referred to in the literature by terms such as pyrolysis oil, bio-oil, bio-crude oil, bio-fuel oil, wood liquid, wood oil, liquid smoke, wood distillates, pyroligneous tar, and pyroligneous acid. Bio-oil can be used as a fuel in boilers, diesel engines or gas turbines for heat and electricity generation.

  2. Bio-oil production via co-pyrolysis of almond shell as biomass and high density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We investigate to see the effect of HDPE addition on thermal decomposition of lignocellulosic materials. • Increasing the proportion of HDPE in mixtures increases the oil yields. • After co-pyrolysis applied, obtained oil is more stable due to having lower oxygen content and higher heating value. • The addition of HDPE to aS has a positive effect on fuel properties of obtained oil. - Abstract: Biomass from almond shell (aS) was co-pyrolyzed with high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer to investigate the synergistic effects on the product yields and compositions. The pyrolysis temperature was selected as 500 °C, based on results of TGA-DTG. Co-pyrolysis of HDPE-biomass mixtures were pyrolysed with various proportions such as 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 0:1. The yield of liquids produced during co-pyrolysis enhanced 23%, as the weight ratio of HDPE in the mixture was doubled. Obtained bio-oils were analyzed with using column chromatography, 1H NMR, GC/MS, and FT-IR. According to analyses results, produced liquids by co-pyrolysis had higher carbon (26% higher) and hydrogen contents (78% higher), lower oxygen content (%86 less) with a higher heating value (38% higher) than those of biomass oil

  3. Successful scaling-up of self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass under pool-type reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Juferi; Shirai, Yoshihito; Andou, Yoshito; Mohd Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Yamamoto, Akio; Yasuda, Nobuhiko; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry. PMID:26612557

  4. Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report No. 1, October-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    UCC Research Corporation, along with most of the companies involved in coal development, initially was thinking in terms of high pressure systems, flash pyrolysis, and hydrogenation. Most goverment funding has also been provided for projects using these techniques. However, information from several sources, only recently available to UCC Research Corporation, has effected a change in our recommended direction on the subject project. First, information being obtained in-house at UCC Research on another project using low temperature/pressure pyrolysis looked very favorable. Secondly, the initial review of the design, cost and capabilities of the pyrolysis equipment originally proposed indicated that substantial advantages could be gained at only a modest increase in cost, by changing to a low pressure unit. Finally, it was discovered that a company in England, using almost identical pyrolysis conditions as those being used at UCC Research, was producing coal liquids commercially, and had been in business many years. In consideration of the above information, UCC Research is recommending that the pyrolysis system for the subject project be changed to a low pressure/temperature design, utilizing the information obtained via our in-house research and from the company in England.

  5. Sustainable production of bioenergy and bio-char from the straw of high biomass soybean lines via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The straws of two high-biomass soybean lines developed at ARS for bioenergy were subjected to thermochemical conversion by fast pyrolysis. The objective was to evaluate the potential use of the straw for the production of liquid fuel intermediates that can be burned “as is” and/or potentially upgra...

  6. Biological mineral range effects on biomass conversion to aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic fast pyrolysis over HZSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of 20 biomass samples, comprising 10 genotypes of switchgrass, sorghum and miscanthus grown in two different soils with high and low poultry manure input conditions, and having a wide biological range of mineral content, were subjected to catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) over HZMS-5 using py-G...

  7. The deleterious effect of inorganic salts on hydrocarbon yields from catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and its mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Alkali and alkali earth metals decreased hydrocarbon yields during catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. • The effect on reducing hydrocarbon yields followed the order: K+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+. • Metals enhanced cracking and dehydration reactions increasing thermally-derived COx. • Both acid-infusion and acid-washing increased yields of aromatic hydrocarbons. - Abstract: The effect of alkali and alkali earth metals (AAEMs) on yields of hydrocarbons from catalytic pyrolysis of biomass was investigated. Experiments were performed in a tandem micro-reactor that segregates the biomass from the zeolite catalyst (ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis). It was found that even trace amounts of AAEMs added to cellulose as acetate salts dramatically reduced the yields of hydrocarbons. Both the concentration and types of AAEM salts impacted product distribution. The yield of aromatics and olefins decreased monotonically with increasing concentration of AAEMs. The effect of AAEMs on reducing hydrocarbon yields followed the order: K+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+. Two pretreatments of biomass were investigated to alleviate the catalytic effects of AAEMs that naturally occurs in biomass: acid-washing and acid-infusion. It was found that pretreated biomass increased yields of hydrocarbons apparently by suppressing reactions that would otherwise convert carbohydrate to non-condensable gases and char

  8. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine

  9. Linking pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion (Py-AD) for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Daniele; Torri, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    Biogas is a mixture of CO2 and CH4 produced by a consortia of Bacteria and Archeae operating in anaerobic digestion (AD) plants. Biogas can be burnt as such in engines to produce electricity and heat or upgraded into biomethane. Biomethane is a drop-in fuel that can be injected in the natural gas grid or utilised as a transport fuel. While a wide array of biomass feedstock can be degraded into biogas, unconverted lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose end up in the co-product digestate leaving a large portion of chemical energy unutilised. Pyrolysis (Py) transforms in a single step and without chemical reagents the lignocellulose matrix into gaseous (syngas), liquid (bio-oil, pyrolysis oil) and solid (biochar) fractions for the development of renewable fuels and materials. The Py route applied downstream to AD is actively investigated in order to valorise the solid digestate presently destined only for soil applications. Coupling Py upstream to AD is an emerging field of research aimed at expanding the feedstock towards biologically recalcitrant substrates (wood, paper, sludge). The biomethanation potential was demonstrated for gaseous (H2/CO) and water soluble pyrolysis products, while the influence of insoluble pyrolytic lignin remains fairly unexplored. Biochar can promote the production of biomethane by acting as a support for microorganism colonisation, conductor for direct interspecies electron transfer, sorbent for hydrophobic inhibitors, and reactant for in situ biogas upgrading. Enhancing the advantages (carbon source) over the side effects (toxicity) of Py fractions represents the main challenge of Py-AD. This can be addressed by increasing the selectivity of the thermochemical process or improving the ecological flexibility of mixed bacterial consortia towards chemically complex environments. PMID:26948108

  10. Pyrolysis kinetics of biomass (herb residue) under isothermal condition in a micro fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Herb residual pyrolysis kinetics was studied under isothermal condition. • A micro fluidized bed was used as the reactor. • Pyrolysis reaction in the fluidized bed can be finished in around 10 s. • The values of activation energy for generating H2, CO, CO2 and CH4 were achieved. - Abstract: Herb residue is one of the most important industrial biomass in China in terms of availability and potential for use as a bioenergy resource. The kinetics of the thermal decomposition of this fuel in an inert atmosphere was evaluated using a micro fluidized bed. The isothermal differential analysis was applied for determination of kinetic parameters for the major gas components formation including reaction order, activation energy and pre-exponential factor. The temperature inside the micro fluidized bed was steady and the pyrolysis reaction of herb residue finished in around 10 s at 600–800 °C. The reaction time for complete releasing of individual gas components was shorter at higher temperature. Experimental results showed that under the conditions studied, the values of activation energy for generating H2, CO, CO2 and CH4 were 18.90, 12.05, 10.48 and 11.31 kJ/mol respectively, corresponding to the values of pre-exponential factor in the range of 0.88–1.38 s−1. The results indicated that H2 was the most difficult to form due to the highest activation energy, while generating CO was the easiest corresponding to the lowest activation energy. Compared with TGA and other analysis approaches, the kinetic parameters obtain by the micro fluidized bed were significantly lower benefiting from its quick reaction features

  11. Biomass Pyrolysis Solids as Reducing Agents: Comparison with Commercial Reducing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitziber Adrados

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the most suitable options to be used as renewable energy source due to its extensive availability and its contribution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under appropriate conditions (slow heating rate and high temperatures can produce a quality solid product, which could be applicable to several metallurgical processes as reducing agent (biocoke or bioreducer. Two woody biomass samples (olives and eucalyptus were pyrolyzed to produce biocoke. These biocokes were characterized by means of proximate and ultimate analysis, real density, specific surface area, and porosity and were compared with three commercial reducing agents. Finally, reactivity tests were performed both with the biocokes and with the commercial reducing agents. Bioreducers have lower ash and sulfur contents than commercial reducers, higher surface area and porosity, and consequently, much higher reactivity. Bioreducers are not appropriate to be used as top burden in blast furnaces, but they can be used as fuel and reducing agent either tuyére injected at the lower part of the blast furnace or in non-ferrous metallurgical processes where no mechanical strength is needed as, for example, in rotary kilns.

  12. Norms, Standards, and Legislation for Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Saari, Pia; Elliott, Douglas C.; Solantausta, Yrjo

    2015-04-16

    Fast pyrolysis of woody biomass is close to full maturity, with first-of-its-kind commercial size installations for fuel production being commissioned in Finland (Fortum) and in The Netherlands (Empyro), and in the design phase in Brazil (Ensyn). In the industrial-scale combustion tests, the use of fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO) has been demonstrated to be a viable option to replace heavy fuel oil in district heating applications. Commercially usable district heating boilers and burners suitable for FPBO are available. There is research on diesel-engine and gas-turbine applications but, so far, no proven demonstrations. FPBO is completely different from mineral oils; hence, standards are needed. Analytical methods have been systematically validated and modifications to the standards as well as completely new methods have been made. Two ASTM burner fuel standards already exist and European boiler fuel grades are being developed under CEN. The focus on CEN standardization is on boiler use, because of its commercial readiness.

  13. KINETIC STUDY OF COAL AND BIOMASS CO-PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping; Hedges, Sheila; Chaudharib, Kiran; Turtonb, Richard

    2013-10-29

    The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

  14. Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wu-Jun; Ding, Hong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Production of renewable commodity chemicals from bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass has received considerable interests, but hindered by the presence of innumerable components in bio-oil. In present work, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated an innovative approach combining atmospheric distillation of bio-oil with co-pyrolysis for mass production of renewable chemicals from biomass, in which no waste was produced. It was estimated that 51.86 wt.% of distillate just containing dozens of separable organic components could be recovered using this approach. Ten protogenetic and three epigenetic compounds in distillate were qualitatively identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography. Among them, the recovery efficiencies of acetic acid, propanoic acid, and furfural were all higher than 80 wt.%. Formation pathways of the distillate components in this process were explored. This work opens up a fascinating prospect for mass production of chemical feedstock from waste biomass.

  15. Change of physical and chemical properties of the solid phase during biomass pyrolysis; Aenderung der physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften des Feststoffs waehrend der Biomassepyrolyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, Wolfgang [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik; Rincon, Sonia; Gomez, Alexander [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica

    2009-01-15

    The effects of the final pyrolysis temperature on the development of the chemical composition and on the porosity of biomass undergoing pyrolysis are investigated through experiments in a thermobalance at laboratory scale of grams. Changes in the grain size of individual particles of biomass during pyrolysis are also investigated as a function of temperature in a microscope equipped with heating and camera. Oil palm shells are selected as raw materials due to their availability as biomass residue and their physical and chemical characteristics. These experiments are important for reactor design purposes in the field of thermochemical conversion, offering important information for the mathematical modelling of the processes. (orig.)

  16. Mixed-waste pyrolysis of biomass and plastics waste – A modelling approach to reduce energy usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal co-processing of waste mixtures had gained a lot of attention in the last decade. This is largely due to certain synergistic effects such as higher quantity and better quality of oil, limited supply of certain feedstock and improving the overall pyrolysis process. Many experiments have been conducted via TGA analysis and different reactors to achieve the stated synergistic effects in co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastic wastes. The thermal behaviour of plastics during pyrolysis is different from that of biomass because its decomposition happens at a high temperature range with sudden release of volatile compared to biomass which have a wide range of thermal decomposition. A properly designed recipe and operational strategy of mixing feedstock can ease the operational difficulties and at the same time decrease energy consumption and/or improve the product yield. Therefore it is worthwhile to study the possible synergistic effects on the overall energy used during co-pyrolysis process. In this work, two different modelling approaches were used to study the energy related synergistic effect between polystyrene (PS) and bamboo waste. The mass loss and volatile generation profiles show that significant interactions between the two feedstocks exist. The results also show that both modelling approaches give an appreciable synergy effect of reduction in overall energy when PS and bamboo are co-pyrolysed together. However, the second approach which allows interaction between the two feedstocks gives a more reduction in overall energy usage up to 6.2% depending on the ratio of PS in the mixed blend. - Highlights: • Proposed the mixed-waste pyrolysis modelling via two modelling approaches. • Study the energy related synergistic effects when plastics and biomass are pyrolysed together. • Mass loss and volatile generation profiles show the existence of significant interactions. • Energy usage can be reduced by up to 6.2% depending on the percentage of the plastic

  17. Thermochemical gas production from biomass - pyrolysis and gasification. Papers of a seminar organized by the Energy Research Project Manager in cooperation with the German Society for Technical Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrmann, J. (ed.)

    1981-11-01

    A collection of papers are presented which were given on November 12 and 13, 1981 at the Juelich Nuclear Research Institute. The topics include pyrolysis and vaporization from biomass, gas fuel production from biomass, energy production from biomass, and various concepts on energy supply and systems. Papers are accompanied by diagrams and illustrations.

  18. Enhancement of biomass conversion in catalytic fast pyrolysis by microwave-assisted formic acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Ning; Xiao, Bo; Li, Jian; Wang, Yujue

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated microwave-assisted formic acid (MW-FA) pretreatment as a possible way to improve aromatic production from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignocellulosic biomass. Results showed that short duration of MW-FA pretreatment (5-10min) could effectively disrupt the recalcitrant structure of beech wood and selectively remove its hemicellulose and lignin components. This increased the accessibility of cellulose component of biomass to subsequent thermal conversion in CFP. Consequently, the MW-FA pretreated beech wood produced 14.0-28.3% higher yields (26.4-29.8C%) for valuable aromatic products in CFP than the untreated control (23.2C%). In addition, the yields of undesired solid residue (char/coke) decreased from 33.1C% for the untreated control to 28.6-29.8C% for the MW-FA pretreated samples. These results demonstrate that MW-FA pretreatment can provide an effective way to improve the product distribution from CFP of lignocellulose. PMID:27176672

  19. Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The analyses were performed in order to provide more detailed data concerning these condensates for the different process research groups and to allow a determination of the differences in properties of the condensates as a function of reactor environment. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases, aqueous phases and, in some cases, both phases depending on the output of the particular reactor system. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay). The analytical data demonstrate the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures as a result of formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high concentrations. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M. M.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Daugaard, D. E.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study develops techno-economic models for assessment of the conversion of biomass to valuable fuel products via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading. The upgrading process produces a mixture of naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and diesel-range (diesel blend stock) products. This study analyzes the economics of two scenarios: onsite hydrogen production by reforming bio-oil, and hydrogen purchase from an outside source. The study results for an nth plant indicate that petroleum fractions in the naphtha distillation range and in the diesel distillation range are produced from corn stover at a product value of $3.09/gal ($0.82/liter) with onsite hydrogen production or $2.11/gal ($0.56/liter) with hydrogen purchase. These values correspond to a $0.83/gal ($0.21/liter) cost to produce the bio-oil. Based on these nth plant numbers, product value for a pioneer hydrogen-producing plant is about $6.55/gal ($1.73/liter) and for a pioneer hydrogen-purchasing plant is about $3.41/gal ($0.92/liter). Sensitivity analysis identifies fuel yield as a key variable for the hydrogen-production scenario. Biomass cost is important for both scenarios. Changing feedstock cost from $50-$100 per short ton changes the price of fuel in the hydrogen production scenario from $2.57-$3.62/gal ($0.68-$0.96/liter).

  1. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor: Co-feeding with methanol in a multi-zone fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Aromatics yield improved with increasing H/Ceff ratio of the feed. • HZSM-5 catalyst was an effective catalyst for in-situ bio-oil upgrading. • Biomass/methanol co-feeding attenuated the coke formation. • Methanol co-feeding enhanced the bio-oil quality. - Abstract: The in-situ catalytic upgrading of the biomass pyrolysis vapor and its mixture with methanol were conducted in a fixed bed multi-zone reactor. The steps were comprised; thermally converting the biomass in the pyrolysis reactor, passing its vapor in contact with the HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst in the presence of methanol vapor, and transformation of the resulting upgraded pyrolysis vapor into the liquid product. The biomass pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis vapor upgrading were performed at 500 °C. The highly valuable chemicals production was a function of the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio (H/Ceff) of the feed. This ratio was regulated by changing the relative amount of biomass and methanol. More aromatic hydrocarbons (50.02 wt.%) and less coke deposition on the catalyst (1.3 wt.%) were yielded from the biomass, when methanol was co-fed to the catalytic pyrolysis process (H/Ceff = 1.35). In this contribution, the deposited coke on the catalyst was profoundly investigated. The coke, with high contents of oxo-aromatics and aromatic compounds, was generated by polymerization of biomass lignin derived components activated by catalyst acid sites

  2. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on the Biomass Solid Residues at High Temperatures (1000-1400°C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    Fast pyrolysis of wood and straw was conducted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and compared with the experimental work on the wire-mesh reactor (WMR) to study the influence of temperature (1000-1400°C), biomass origin (softwood, hardwood, grass) and heating rate (1000°C/s, 10^4 °C/s) on the char yield...... and morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), elementary analysis, CAMSIZER XT, ash compositional analysis were applied to characterize the effect of operational conditions on the solid and gas products. Char yield from fast pyrolysis in the DFT setup was 2 to 6 % (daf) lower than in the WMR...... lower than from wood samples. During fast pyrolysis, additionally to the soot and char particles, spherical solid residues of particle size (60-300 nm) were obtained. Based on the previous studies, these smooth spherical particles are associated with the formation of condensed tars under fast heating...

  3. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis-derived compounds with chemical liquid deposition (CLD) modified ZSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Luo, Mengmeng; Xiao, Rui; Shao, Shanshan; Jin, Baosheng; Xiao, Guomin; Zhao, Ming; Liang, Junyu

    2014-03-01

    Chemical liquid deposition (CLD) with KH550, TEOS and methyl silicone oil as the modifiers was used to modify ZSM-5 and deposit its external acid sites. The characteristics of modified catalysts were tested by catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis-derived compounds. The effects of different modifying conditions (deposited amount, temperature, and time) on the product yields and selectivities were investigated. The results show KH550 modified ZSM-5 (deposited amount of 4%, temperature of 20°C and time of 6h) produced the maximum yields of aromatics (24.5%) and olefins (16.5%), which are much higher than that obtained with original ZSM-5 catalyst (18.8% aromatics and 9.8% olefins). The coke yield decreased from 44.1% with original ZSM-5 to 26.7% with KH550 modified ZSM-5. The selectivities of low-molecule-weight hydrocarbons (ethylene and benzene) decreased, while that of higher molecule-weight hydrocarbons (propylene, butylene, toluene, and naphthalene) increased comparing with original ZSM-5. PMID:24413482

  5. Modeling of biomass to hydrogen via the supercritical water pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divilio, R.J. [Combustion Systems Inc., Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A heat transfer model has been developed to predict the temperature profile inside the University of Hawaii`s Supercritical Water Reactor. A series of heat transfer tests were conducted on the University of Hawaii`s apparatus to calibrate the model. Results of the model simulations are shown for several of the heat transfer tests. Tests with corn starch and wood pastes indicated that there are substantial differences between the thermal properties of the paste compared to pure water, particularly near the pseudo critical temperature. The assumption of constant thermal diffusivity in the temperature range of 250 to 450 C gave a reasonable prediction of the reactor temperatures when paste is being fed. A literature review is presented for pyrolysis of biomass in water at elevated temperatures up to the supercritical range. Based on this review, a global reaction mechanism is proposed. Equilibrium calculations were performed on the test results from the University of Hawaii`s Supercritical Water Reactor when corn starch and corn starch and wood pastes were being fed. The calculations indicate that the data from the reactor falls both below and above the equilibrium hydrogen concentrations depending on test conditions. The data also indicates that faster heating rates may be beneficial to the hydrogen yield. Equilibrium calculations were also performed to examine the impact of wood concentration on the gas mixtures produced. This calculation showed that increasing wood concentrations favors the formation of methane at the expense of hydrogen.

  6. Steam reforming of toluene as model compound of biomass pyrolysis tar for hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam reforming of tar during biomass pyrolysis for hydrogen will not only avoid frequent equipment shutdown for maintenance and repair but also increase hydrogen yield. In this paper, the effects of temperature and steam/carbon molar ration on steam reforming of toluene as model compound of tar was studied by simulation of thermodynamic equilibrium and experiments using Ni/cordierite catalyst in a fixed bed reactor. The results of thermodynamic simulations indicate that the S/C molar ratio of 2 and the temperature range from 1023 K to 1173 K provide favorable operating conditions for steam reforming of toluene in order to get high hydrogen productivity. These operating parameters were adopted in the experiments using Ni/cordierite catalyst in a fixed bed reactor. H2 content remains about 66 mol% and slightly varies with the increasing temperature. Conversion efficiency of toluene increases with temperature, reaching 94.1% at 1173 K. The simulation was improved in order to be closer to experimental results. It is found that only a very small amount of toluene did not participate in the reaction. In the aromatic hydrocarbons of reactive system, benzene and naphthalene were the main products and the proportion of naphthalene decreases with increasing temperature while that of benzene increases.

  7. Bio-oils from biomass slow pyrolysis: a chemical and toxicological screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordella, Mauro; Torri, Cristian; Adamiano, Alessio; Fabbri, Daniele; Barontini, Federica; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-09-15

    Bio-oils were produced from bench-scale slow-pyrolysis of three different biomass samples (corn stalks, poplar and switchgrass). Experimental protocols were developed and applied in order to screen their chemical composition. Several hazardous compounds were detected in the bio-oil samples analysed, including phenols, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A procedure was outlined and applied to the assessment of toxicological and carcinogenic hazards of the bio-oils. The following hazardous properties were considered: acute toxicity; ecotoxicity; chronic toxicity; carcinogenicity. Parameters related to these properties were quantified for each component identified in the bio-oils and overall values were estimated for the bio-oils. The hazard screening carried out for the three bio-oils considered suggested that: (i) hazards to human health could be associated with chronic exposures to the bio-oils; (ii) acute toxic effects on humans and eco-toxic effects on aquatic ecosystems could also be possible in the case of loss of containment; and (iii) bio-oils may present a marginal potential carcinogenicity. The approach outlined allows the collection of screening information on the potential hazards posed by the bio-oils. This can be particularly useful when limited time and analytical resources reduce the possibility to obtain detailed specific experimental data. PMID:22790394

  8. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Spout-fluidized Bed Reactor--Analysis of Composition and Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Product from Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明强; 王君; 王新运; 张学才; 张素平; 任铮伟; 颜涌捷

    2006-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the fast pyrolysis mechanism of biomass and the relationship between bio-oil composition and pyrolysis reaction conditions, to assess the possibility for the raw bio-oil to be used as fuel, and to evaluate the concept of spout-fluidized bed reactor as the reactor for fast pyrolysis of biomass to prepare fuel oil, the composition and combustion characteristics of bio-oil prepared in a spout-fluidized bed reactor with a designed maximum capacity 5 kg/h of sawdust as feeding material, were investigated by GC-MS and thermogravimetry. 14 aromatic series chemicals were identified. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the bio-oil was liable to combustion, the combustion temperature increased with the heating rate, and only minute ash was generated when it burned. The kinetics of the combustion reaction was studied and the kinetic parameters were calculated by both Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Popsecu methods. The results agree well with each other. The most probable combustion mechanism functions determined by Popescu method are f(α)=k(1-α)2(400~406 ℃), f(α)=1/2k(1-α)3 (406~416 ℃) and f( α)=2k(1-α)3/2 (416~430 ℃) respectively.

  9. Biomass fast pyrolysis in fluidized bed : product cleaning by in-situ filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoquan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the subject of fast pyrolysis in a fluid bed reactor. A large part of the work is related to reactor design aspects of fast pyrolysis, a subject that has not been considered sufficiently. Past research efforts were focussed mainly on the kinetics of wood pyrolysis and the testing of different reactor types by measuring the bio-oil yield as a function of the reactor temperature.

  10. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kluska Jacek; Klein Marek; Kazimierski Paweł; Kardaś Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectromet...

  11. Study of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass from the self-organization perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alevanau, Aliaksandr

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the analysis of kinetics of i) low-temperature pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbons, ii) high-temperature steam gasification of char of wood pellets (>700oC), iii) high temperature pyrolysis of straw pellets in an atmosphere of argon and steam, and iv) high temperature pyrolysis of slices of transversally cut wooden sticks. The results of the kinetic measurements in the high-temperature cases are approximated using a least-square based optimization software, which was s...

  12. Kinetic and energy production analysis of pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass using a three-parallel Gaussian reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianju; Zhang, Jinzhi; Wu, Jinhu

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic and energy productions of pyrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass were investigated using a three-parallel Gaussian distribution method in this work. The pyrolysis experiment of the pine sawdust was performed using a thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) analyzer. A three-parallel Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM)-reaction model was used to describe thermal decomposition behaviors of the three components, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The first, second and third pseudocomponents represent the fractions of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively. It was found that the model is capable of predicting the pyrolysis behavior of the pine sawdust. The activation energy distribution peaks for the three pseudo-components were centered at 186.8, 197.5 and 203.9kJmol(-1) for the pine sawdust, respectively. The evolution profiles of H2, CH4, CO, and CO2 were well predicted using the three-parallel Gaussian distribution model. In addition, the chemical composition of bio-oil was also obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry instrument (Py-GC/MS). PMID:27035484

  13. Effects of several types of biomass fuels on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot from fast pyrolysis at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the effect of biomass origin on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot. Soot was produced from wood and herbaceous biomass pyrolysis at high heating rates and at temperatures of 1250 and 1400 °C in a drop tube furnace. The structure of solid residues was characterized...

  14. Integration of biomass fast pyrolysis and precedent feedstock steam drying with a municipal combined heat and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) is a promising pre-treatment technology for converting biomass to transport fuel and in the future also for high-grade chemicals. BFP can be integrated with a municipal combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This paper shows the influence of BFP integration on a CHP plant's main parameters and its effect on the energetic and environmental performance of the connected district heating network. The work comprises full- and part-load operation of a CHP plant integrated with BFP and steam drying. It also evaluates different usage alternatives for the BFP products (char and oil). The results show that the integration is possible and strongly beneficial regarding energetic and environmental performance. Offering the possibility to provide lower district heating loads, the operation hours of the plant can be increased by up to 57%. The BFP products should be sold rather than applied for internal use as this increases the district heating network's primary energy efficiency the most. With this integration strategy future CHP plants can provide valuable products at high efficiency and also can help to mitigate global CO2 emissions. - Highlights: • Part load simulation of a cogeneration plant integrated with biomas fast pyrolysis. • Analysis of energetic and environmental performance. • Assessment of different uses of the pyrolysis products

  15. Investigation on syngas production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air–steam gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Innovation in gasifier design. • Integration of pyrolysis and steam gasification processes. • Energy saving, improvement of gasifier efficiency, syngas and hydrogen yield. • Overall investigation on gasification parameters. • Optimization conditions of integration of pyrolysis and gasification process. - Abstract: Fuel production from agro-waste has become an interesting alternative for energy generation due to energy policies and greater understanding of the importance of green energy. This research was carried out in a lab-scale gasifier and coconut shell was used as feedstock in the integrated process. In order to acquire the optimum condition of syngas production, the effect of the reaction temperature, equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass (S/B) ratio was investigated. Under the optimized condition, H2 and syngas yield achieved to 83.3 g/kg feedstock and 485.9 g/kg feedstock respectively, while LHV of produced gases achieved to 12.54 MJ/N m3

  16. Bio-flex obtained from pyrolysis of biomass as fuel; Bio-flex obtido da pirolise de biomassa como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Viltre Rodriguez, Roberto Alfonso; Marin Mesa, Henry Ramon [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Samaniego, Manuel Raul Pelaez [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the BIOWARE experience in the bio fuel production from biomass residues. Fast pyrolysis of a mixture of sugar cane trash and elephant grass carried out in a fluidized bed reactor with capacity of 200 kg/h dry feed (12% w/w). The co-products particulate charcoal, acid extract, and bio-oil were obtained. The fast pyrolysis pilot plant PPR-200 belonged to UNICAMP and is operated by BIOWARE personnel. This paper presents the chemical rote to bio-flex production (a kind of bio diesel from acid esterification) from pyrolytic carboxylic acids. Both ethanol and methanol were used as reactant but higher yields were found with methanol. (author)

  17. Monitoring `Renewable fuels`. Gasification and pyrolysis of biomass. Second situation report; Monitoring ``Nachwachsende Rohstoffe``. Vergasung und Pyrolyse von Biomasse. Zweiter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.; Wintzer, D.

    1997-04-01

    The second situation report deals with gasification and pyrolysis as means of improving the energetic utilisation of wood and strawlike biomass and with various possibilities of utilising the gas produced in these processes. It also presents different gasification techniques, measures for gas purification, and ways of utilising gas for electricity generation. Out of the wide range of possible process combinations for producing energy from biomass the report only deals more closely with a few concepts that appear very promising from today`s viewpoint. Working from the current state and perspectives of technical development and from prospective operating conditions and potential market chances of pyrolysis and gasification the report deliberates on the future orientation of research, development, and demonstration activities. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im zweiten Sachstandsbericht werden die Vergasung und Pyrolyse zur besseren energetischen Nutzung von Holz und halmartiger Biomasse und verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zur Verwertung des dabei erzeugten Gases betrachtet. Es werden unterschiedliche Vergasungstechniken, Massnahmen zur Gasreinigung und Arten der Gasnutzung zur Stromgewinnung dargestellt. Aus der Vielzahl an moeglichen Kombinationen werden einige, aus gegenwaertiger Sichtweise besonders vielversprechende Konzepte zur Energieerzeugung ueber die Biomassevergasung naeher ausgefuehrt. Ausgehend vom Stand und von den Perspektiven der technischen Entwicklungen sowie den Einsatzbedingungen und potentiellen Marktchancen werden Schlussfolgerungen fuer die zukuenftige Ausrichtung im Bereich Forschung, Entwicklung und Demonstration Anstrengungen gezogen. (orig./SR)

  18. Investigation on thermochemical behaviour of low rank Malaysian coal, oil palm biomass and their blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, S.S.; Rahman, N.A.; Ismail, K.; Alias, A.B.; Rashid, Z.A.; Aris, M.J. [University of Teknol MARA Malaysia, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Chemical Engineering

    2010-06-15

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of Malaysian sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian), oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches (EFB), kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibre (PMF)) and their respective blends during pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coal/palm biomass blends were prepared at six different weight ratios and experiments were carried out under dynamic conditions using nitrogen as inert gas at various heating rates to ramp the temperature from 25 to 900{sup o}C. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) results show that thermal decomposition of EFB, PMF and PKS exhibit one, two and three distinct evolution profiles, respectively. Apparently, the thermal profiles of the coal/oil palm biomass blends appear to correlate with the percentage of biomass added in the blends, thus, suggesting lack of interaction between the coal and palm biomass. First-order reaction model were used to determine the kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis of coal, palm biomass and their respective blends.

  19. Biomass pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: Effects of pyrolysis parameters on product yields and characterization of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slow pyrolysis of eastern giant fennel (Ferula orientalis L.) stalks has been performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor with (ZnO, Al2O3) and without catalyst at six different temperatures ranging from 350 °C to 600 °C with heating rates of 15, 30, 50 °C/min. The amounts of bio-char, bio-oil and gas produced, as well as the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by FT-IR and GC–MS. The effects of pyrolysis parameters such as temperature, catalyst and ratio of catalyst, particle size (Dp) and sweeping gas flow rate on product yields were investigated. According to results, temperature and catalyst seem to be the main factors effecting the conversion of F. orientalis L. into solid, liquid and gaseous products. The highest liquid yield (45.22%) including water was obtained with 15% zinc oxide catalyst at 500 °C temperature at a heating rate of 50 °C/min when 0.224 > Dp > 0.150 mm particle size raw material and 100 cm3/min of sweeping gas flow rate were used. - Highlights: • Ferula orientalis L. stalks were converted to solid, liquid and gaseous products. • Effects of various parameters on product yields were investigated. • 500 °C of temperature, heating rate of 50 °C/min and zinc oxide provide the optimum conditions for bio-oil formation. • 81 different compounds were identified by GC–MS in the bio-oils obtained at 500 °C

  20. Optimization of process parameters in flash pyrolysis of waste tyres to liquid and gaseous fuel in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Non-recyclable, hazards, under-utilized waste tyre was converted to useful fuel. ► Design of experiment was used to optimize the process parameters. ► Fuel compatibility for IC engines was tested by standard fuel testing procedures. ► Optimized process parameters were tested and the empirical model validated. - Abstract: Pyrolysis process offers solution to utilize huge quantity of worn out automobile tyres to produce fuel for energy needs. Shredded tyre wastes were subjected to pyrolysis at atmospheric pressure under inert gas atmosphere in a fluidized bed combustion setup. The shredded tyre particle size, the feed rate of the feed stock, and the pyrolysis temperature were varied systematically as per the designed experiment to study their influence on product yield. Maximizing the oil yield and subduing the gas and char yield is the objective to optimize the process parameters. A low pyrolysis temperature of 440 °C with low feed rate increases the residence time in the combustion reactor yielding maximum oil. The physical properties of raw pyrolysis oil, distilled oil and the evolved gases were done to find its suitability to utilize them as alternatives to the conventional fuels

  1. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.; Meyer, P.; Snowden-Swan, L.; Padmaperuma, A.; Tan, E.; Dutta, A.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  2. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Tan, Eric; Dutta, Abhijit; Jacobson, Jacob; Cafferty, Kara

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  3. Release of K, Cl, and S during Pyrolysis and Combustion of High-Chlorine Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Joakim Myung; Jakobsen, Jon Geest; Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The release of critical ash-forming elements during the pyrolysis and combustion of corn stover has been investigated through controlled lab-scale experiments supported by multicomponent and multiphase thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Fuel samples were treated under isothermal conditions ranging from 500 to 1150 °C, under both pyrolysis and combustion atmospheres. The volatilized material was quantified by means of mass balances based on char and ash elemental analysis, compared to a c...

  4. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluska Jacek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  5. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluska, Jacek; Klein, Marek; Kazimierski, Paweł; Kardaś, Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  6. Release of K, Cl, and S during Pyrolysis and Combustion of High-Chlorine Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Joakim Myung; Jakobsen, Jon Geest; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2011-01-01

    The release of critical ash-forming elements during the pyrolysis and combustion of corn stover has been investigated through controlled lab-scale experiments supported by multicomponent and multiphase thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Fuel samples were treated under isothermal conditions...... ranging from 500 to 1150 °C, under both pyrolysis and combustion atmospheres. The volatilized material was quantified by means of mass balances based on char and ash elemental analysis, compared to a corresponding feedstock fuel analysis. Close relations between the observed K and Cl release are found...

  7. Pyrolysis as a technique for separating heavy metals from hyperaccumulators. Part 3: Pilot-scale pyrolysis of synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppolu, Lakshmi [Nebraska Univ., Biological Systems Engineering, Lincoln, NE (United States); Prasad, Ramakrishna [Jefferson Pilot Financial, Omaha, NE (United States); Clements, L. Davis [Renewable Products Development Labs., Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass (SHB) feed impregnated with Ni, Zn or Cu was used to conduct six experiments in a pilot-scale, spouted bed gasifier. Two runs each using corn stover with no metal added (blank runs) were also conducted. The reactor was operated in an entrained mode in an oxygen free (N{sub 2}) environment at 873 K and 1 atm. The apparent gas residence time in the heated zone of the pilot-scale reactor was 1.4 s at 873 K. The material balance closure for the eight experiments on an N{sub 2}-free basis varied between 79% and 92 %. Nearly 99 % of the metal recovered in the product stream was concentrated in the char formed by pyrolyzing the SHB in the reactor. The metal concentration in the char varied between 6.6 % and 16.6 %, depending on the type of metal and whether the char was collected in the cyclone or ashbox. The metal component was concentrated by 3.2-6 times in the char, compared to the feed. (Author)

  8. Pyrolysis as a technique for separating heavy metals from hyperaccumulators. Part III: pilot-scale pyrolysis of synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppolu, Lakshmi; Prasad, Ramakrishna; Davis Clements, L

    2004-05-01

    Synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass (SHB) feed impregnated with Ni, Zn or Cu was used to conduct six experiments in a pilot-scale, spouted bed gasifier. Two runs each using corn stover with no metal added (blank runs) were also conducted. The reactor was operated in an entrained mode in an oxygen free (N{sub 2}) environment at 873 K and 1 atm. The apparent gas residence time in the heated zone of the pilot-scale reactor was 1.4 s at 873 K. The material balance closure for the eight experiments on an N{sub 2}-free basis varied between 79% and 92%. Nearly 99% of the metal recovered in the product stream was concentrated in the char formed by pyrolyzing the SHB in the reactor. The metal concentration in the char varied between 6.6% and 16.6%, depending on the type of metal and whether the char was collected in the cyclone or ashbox. The metal component was concentrated by 3.2-6 times in the char, compared to the feed.

  9. Energy use of residues and biomass - pyrolysis oil and gasification; Pyrolyysioeljy ja kaasutus jaetteiden ja biomassan energiakaeyttoeoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Commission of European Union aims to triple the use of bioenergy from the present level by the year 2010. Finland is the leading user of bioenergy in industrialized countries. In Finland there are more than 120 multi-fuel boilers cogeneration power and heat. By the year 2010 the utilization of biomass as fuel could grow by 25-40%. However, this depends on development of the price and the taxes of competing energy sources. The utilization of wood fuels is mainly based on the combustion technology. New gasification power plants are being developed in Finland for utilization of wood and in Europe for utilization of field biomasses. In this plants the purified product gas is led either into a gas-engine or into gasturbines to produce power. VTT Energy is developing in cooperation with Condens Oy a new small-scale gas-engine power plant. VTT Energy participates also in development of Vaernamo gasification combined cycle power plant in Sweden by the side of Foster Wheeler Oy, and with Carbona Oy in development of a test facility in the USA. It is possible to produce pyrolysis oil from wood dust by using fast heating. It is possible to used the method, by small modifications, also for oil- fired boilers of large real estate houses. About 800 grams of pyrolysis oil is obtained from a kilogram of dry wood. About 15 000 liters of wood oil has been imported in Finland in the research projects coordinated by VTT Energy. Fortum Oil and Gas Oy and Oilon Oy are testing the utilization of pyrolysis oil in the oil-fired boilers. VTT Energy and Vapo Oy have developed in Finland a process, by which it is possible to produce pyrolysis oil in traditional power plants. The objective is to construct a pilot-scale facility in the year 2000. The objective of waste management in Finland is to develop material and energy utilization of wastes. Hereby Technology Development Centre TEKES started in autumn 1998 a technology program for energy use of residues. The objective of the program is to

  10. Chemical and ecotoxicological properties of three bio-oils from pyrolysis of biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Tiziana; Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Barbera, Giuseppe; Foschini, Anna; Kiwan, Alisar; Galletti, Paola; Tagliavini, Emilio; Pasteris, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    In view of the potential use of pyrolysis-based technologies, it is crucial to understand the environmental hazards of pyrolysis-derived products, in particular bio-oils. Here, three bio-oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of pine wood and intermediate pyrolysis of corn stalk and poultry litter. They were fully characterized by chemical analysis and tested for their biodegradability and their ecotoxicity on the crustacean Daphnia magna and the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata. These tests were chosen as required by the European REACH regulation. These three bio-oils were biodegradable, with 40-60% of biodegradation after 28 days, and had EC50 values above 100mgL(-1) for the crustacean and above 10mgL(-1) for the alga, showing low toxicity to the aquatic life. The toxic unit approach was applied to verify whether the observed toxicity could be predicted from the data available for the substances detected in the bio-oils. The predicted values largely underestimated the experimental values. PMID:27285282

  11. Effect of Temperature in Fluidized Bed Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: Oil Quality Assessment in Test Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, R.J.M.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed fast pyrolysis reactor that allows a residence time of pine wood particles up to 25 min. The reactor temperature was varied between 330 and 580 °C to study the effect on product yields and oil composition. Apart from the physical−chemical analysis, a

  12. Effect of biomass ash in catalytic fast pyrolysis of pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildiz, G.; Ronsse, F.; Venderbosch, R.H.; Duren, van R.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Prins, W.

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis experiments of pine wood have been performed in a continuously operated mechanically stirred bed reactor at 500 °C. The effects of the pine wood ash were studied by comparing non-catalytic and catalytic experiments (using a ZSM-5 based catalyst) with their ash-added counterparts. To s

  13. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic pyrolysis of biomass over fe-modified HZSM-5 zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron modified HZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by partial ion exchange of NH4ZSM-5 with Fe (II) at three different loadings (1.4, 2.8 and 4.2 wt%), and their effectiveness for producing aromatic hydrocarbons from cellulose, cellobiose, lignin and switchgrass by catalytic pyrolysis were screened using ...

  14. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  15. Gasification furnace in a entrained bed flash pyrolysis facility of coal; Kiryuso sekitan kyusoku netsubunkai sochi deno gas ka ro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsuru, H.; Kawamura, T.; Iida, H.

    1994-07-05

    This invention aims to present a gasification furnace which gives effectively heat required for coal pyrolysis and secure a sufficient reaction time in the gasification furnace. This invention present a coal gasification furnace to burn char or coal partially with oxygen-containing gas in the coal pyrolysis reactor of a mixture of pulverized coal and a high temperature gas, in which a gas outlet is equipped at the upper part and a slag exhaust is equipped at the lowest part of the cylindrical gasification furnace, more than two blowing inlets for char (or coal) and oxygen-containing gas on the side wall of the furnace symmetrically, and these blowing inlets are arranged to the downward direction more than 5{degree} and less than 30{degree} with a rotating angle more than 5{degree} and less than 50{degree}. The nozzle angle in the gasification furnace of this invention secures the residence time of the particles in the gasification furnace and improves the gasification efficiency. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Effects of Post-Pyrolysis Air Oxidation of Biomass Chars on Adsorption of Neutral and Ionizable Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Pignatello, Joseph J

    2016-06-21

    This study was conducted to understand the effects of thermal air oxidation of biomass chars experienced during formation or production on their adsorptive properties toward various compounds, including five neutral nonpolar and polar compounds and seven weak acids and bases (pKa = 3-5.2) selected from among industrial chemicals and the triazine and phenoxyacetic acid herbicide classes. Post-pyrolysis air oxidation (PPAO) at 400 °C of anoxically prepared wood and pecan shell chars for up to 40 min enhanced the mass-normalized adsorption at pH ∼ 7.4 of all test compounds, especially the weak acids and bases, by up to 100-fold. Both general and specific effects were identified. The general effect results from "reaming" of pores by the oxidative removal of pore wall matter and/or tarry deposits generated during the pyrolysis step. Reaming creates new surface area and enlarges nanopores, which helps relieve steric hindrance to adsorption. The specific effect results from creation of new acidic functionality that provides sites for the formation of very strong, charge-assisted hydrogen bonds (CAHB) with solutes having comparable pKa. The CAHB hypothesis was supported by competition experiments and the finding that weak acid anion adsorption increased with surface carboxyl content, despite electrostatic repulsion from the growing negative charge. The results provide insight into the effects of air oxidation on pollutant retention. PMID:27152745

  17. Universal model of slow pyrolysis technology producing biochar and heat from standard biomass needed for the techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, Dušan

    2016-04-01

    Biochar as a soil amendment and carbon sink becomes in last period one of the vast, interesting product of slow pyrolysis. Simplest and most used industrial process arrangement is a production of biochar and heat at the same time. Proposed mass and heat balance model consist of heat consumers (heat demand side) and heat generation-supply side. Direct burning of all generated uncondensed volatiles from biomass provides heat. Calculation of the mass and heat balance of both sides reveals the internal distribution of masses and energy inside process streams and units. Thermodynamic calculations verified not only the concept but also numerical range of the results. The comparisons with recent published scientific and vendors data prove its general applicability and reliability. The model opens the possibility for process efficiency innovations. Finally, the model was adapted to give more investors favorable results and support techno-economic assessments entirely. PMID:26851894

  18. Lignin-rich biomass of cotton by-products for biorefineries via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Liang, Jiajin; Wu, Shubin

    2016-10-01

    Pyrolysis was demonstrated to investigate the thermal decomposition characteristics and potential of lignin-rich cotton by-products cotton exocarp (CE) and spent mushroom substrate consisted of cotton by-products (MSC) for biorefineries. The chemical component and structure alteration of CE and MSC was found to affect their thermochemical behaviors. The bio-oil yield from CE was 58.13wt% while the maximum yield from MSC was 45.01% at 600°C. The phenolic compounds obtained from CE and MSC were 33.9% and 39.2%, respectively. The yield of acetic acid from MSC between 400 and 600°C was about 30-38% lower than that from CE, which suggests the high quality of bio-oil was obtained. Biochar from MSC via slow pyrolysis had a high mass yield (44.38wt%) with well-developed pore structure. PMID:27393830

  19. Leaching behaviour and ecotoxicity evaluation of chars from the pyrolysis of forestry biomass and polymeric materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Maria S.; Mendes, S.; Lapa, N.; Gonçalves, Margarida; Mendes, Benilde; Pinto, Filomena; Lopes, M. Helena

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental risk of chars derived from the pyrolysis of mixtures of pine, plastics, and scrap tires, by studying their leaching potential and ecotoxicity. Relationships between chemical composition and ecotoxicity were established to identify contaminants responsible for toxicity. Since metallic contaminants were the focus of the present study, an EDTA washing step was applied to the chars to selectively remove metals that can be responsibl...

  20. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on Structural Transformation and Reactivity of Herbaceous Biomasses at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    particle size on the char yield. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), N-adsorption (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis (CAMSIZER XT), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (29Si NMR; 13C NMR) and electron spinning resonance spectroscopy (ESR) were conducted to investigate the effect...... results, emphasizing its excellent properties as an ash tracer for the more precise recovery of elemental mass balances in pyrolysis....

  1. Reactivities of acid and/or tetralin pretreated Wandoan coal for a Curie point flash pyrolysis; Sanzen shori, tetralin yobaimae shori Wandoan tan no kyusoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishino, M.; Sakanishi, K.; Korai, Y.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    Discussions were given on effects of acid pretreatment and tetralin swelling in Wandoan coal on a Curie point flash pyrolysis (which used a Curie point pyrolyzer). Residue yield loss effects were obtained at 3.9% in hydrochloric acid pretreatment, and 6.2% in acetic acid pretreatment. The effects of tetralin swelling pretreatment were compared in the similar manner in terms of the residue yield loss. The effects were 4.0% in untreated coal, 2.0% in the hydrochloric acid pretreatment, and 0.6% in the acetic acid pretreatment. It is thought that components that can be activated by acetic acid have already been activated, but the remaining components would not be activated by tetralin. Average microporosity (area) in the remaining particle as a whole shows very little difference both in acetic acid pretreated coal and untreated coal. However, with the acetic acid pretreatment, pores smaller than 4{mu}m{sup 2} disappeared, and pores as large as 205 to 411{mu}m{sup 2} increased largely. This phenomenon was observed as an increase in foaming degree under microscopic observation, even if the average microporosity remains equal. Thermoplasticity of the coal increased, and so did volatilization reactivity as a result of the acetic acid pretreatment, resulting in appearance of a large number of large pores. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Selectively improving the bio-oil quality by catalytic fast pyrolysis of heavy-metal-polluted biomass: take copper (Cu) as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Song; Ding, Hong-Sheng; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-07-17

    Heavy-metal-polluted biomass derived from phytoremediation or biosorption is widespread and difficult to be disposed of. In this work, simultaneous conversion of the waste woody biomass into bio-oil and recovery of Cu in a fast pyrolysis reactor were investigated. The results show that Cu can effectively catalyze the thermo-decomposition of biomass. Both the yield and high heating value (HHV) of the Cu-polluted fir sawdust biomass (Cu-FSD) derived bio-oil are significantly improved compared with those of the fir sawdust (FSD) derived bio-oil. The results of UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectra of bio-oil indicate pyrolytic lignin is further decomposed into small-molecular aromatic compounds by the catalysis of Cu, which is in agreement with the GC-MS results that the fractions of C7-C10 compounds in the bio-oil significantly increase. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of the migration and transformation of Cu in the fast pyrolysis process show that more than 91% of the total Cu in the Cu-FSD is enriched in the char in the form of zerovalent Cu with a face-centered cubic crystalline phase. This study gives insight into catalytic fast pyrolysis of heavy metals, and demonstrates the technical feasibility of an eco-friendly process for disposal of heavy-metal-polluted biomass. PMID:22708628

  3. Review of fuel oil quality and combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oils from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Review of state-of-the-art fast pyrolysis oil combustion in burner applications. • Fast pyrolysis oil has been found to be suitable for industrial scale utilization. • Curves for NOx-emissions for air-assisted atomization burners are presented. • Quality control, combined with standards and specifications is recommended. - Abstract: Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are completely different from petroleum fuels and other bio-fuels available in the market, as regards both to their physical properties and chemical composition. When the unusual properties of these bio-oils are carefully taken into account in system and burner design, their combustion without a pilot flame or support fuel is possible on an industrial scale. The aim of the paper is to review the work done on combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and highlight the latest and most important findings of its combustion from laboratory fundamentals to industrial scale. The main focus of the paper is on the bio-oil burner applications. In recent industrial scale bio-oil combustion tests, bio-oil has been found to be technically suitable for replacing heavy fuel oil in district heating. In addition, it has also been found out that limited possibilities for further lowering particulate emissions exist, since the majority of the particulates are typically incombustible matter. Curves for NOx-emissions of fast pyrolysis bio-oil combustion for air-assisted atomization burners are presented in the paper. Current burner designs are quite sensitive to the changes in the quality of the bio-oil, which may cause problems in ignition, flame detection and flame stabilization. Therefore, in order to be able to create reliable bio-oil combustion systems that operate at high efficiency, bio-oil grades should be standardized for combustion applications. Careful quality control, combined with standards and specifications, all the way from feedstock harvesting through production to end-use is recommended in order to

  4. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. PMID:26282766

  5. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymer mixtures. Part 1. Influence of experimental conditions on the evolution of solids, liquids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, 42 Karl Marx Street, Academgorodok, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Marin, N.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, Rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of wood biomass and synthetic polymer mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. Beech wood, pine wood, cellulose, hydrolytic lignin, medium density polyethylene, isotactic and atactic polypropylene were selected as starting materials. The effects of reaction conditions, biomass and polymers' origins on the degree of mixture conversion as well as on the yields of liquid and gaseous products were established and discussed. A preliminary thermogravimetric investigation has shown that biomass is thermally degraded at a lower temperature than the studied polyolefins. As described in the literature, independent thermal behaviors were, in all cases, observed for each component of biomass/plastic mixtures (1:1 weight ratio). Co-pyrolysis of the different types of natural and synthetic polymer mixtures in an inert atmosphere has led to high yield of light distillate fraction and benzene soluble products. The optimum temperature for biomass/plastic mixture conversion which corresponds to the maximum yield of light liquids was 400C. The origins of both biomass and plastic had significant influences on the co-pyrolysis products' distribution. In some cases non-additive effects were observed. This effect, generally, took place at biomass/plastic ratio lower then 1 (weight ratio) and resulted in high yields of distillate liquid fraction.

  6. Investigation of pulverised biomass combustion : detailed modelling of particle pyrolysis and experimental analysis of ash deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Blondeau, Julien,

    2013-01-01

    Among the renewable sources of energy, biomass solid fuels hold a special place. They are indeed at the crossroads between the need for renewable sources on the one hand, and the established know-how on solid fuel combustion on the other hand. Moving from coal to biomass (co-)combustion in an existing pulverised-fuel utility boiler is therefore an effective way to get closer to the current environmental targets. However, biomass and coal present important differences. The size of the par...

  7. Distribution and structure of hydrocarbons and heterocyclic sulphur compounds released from four kerogens of Ordovician age by means of flash pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Douglas, A.G.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Eglinton, T.I.; Fowler, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    Kerogen concentrates prepared from four rocks of Ordovician age have been analysed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography using a sulphur-specific flame photometric detector and by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  8. Flash pyrolysis of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). 2: Implications of the kinetics to combustion of organic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisawa, H.; Brill, T.B. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-01

    The first semi-micro kinetics analysis is described for rapid pyrolysis of an organic polymer. T-Jump/FTIR spectroscopy and structurally different hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene polymers (HTPB) were used. The rates of formation were determined for the six most prevalent volatile products from HTPB heated at 600 C/s to constant temperatures in the 450--609 C range under 2 and 11 atm of applied pressure. The resulting Arrhenius parameters reveal that mildly exothermic, bulk-phase, heterogeneous decomposition reactions control the rate of gaseous product evolution at T < 500--530 C under 2 atm Ar. The exact temperature depends on the product and the polymer microstructure. The rate evolution of most of the gaseous products at T > 500--530 C is controlled by desorption of fragments of the polymer rather than bulk-phase decomposition. When P = 11 atm Ar, the formation and desorption of these fragments controls the rate of product of evolution over the entire 460--600 C range. These individual rate constants combined into a single rate yield macro kinetics of gas evolution from R45M as follows: E{sub a} = 51 kcal/mol, ln A (s{sup {minus}1}) = 31 for 2 atm and 450--530 C; E{sub a} = 18 kcal/mol, ln A (S{sup {minus}1}) = 11 for 2 atm and 530--609 C; E{sub a} = 12 kcal/mol, ln A (s{sup {minus}1}) = 6.6 for 11 atm and 460--600 C. A generalized equation that qualitatively matches the kinetics of gaseous product evolution as a function of pressure is given.

  9. Investigation on thermochemical behaviour of low rank Malaysian coal, oil palm biomass and their blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Abd Rahman, Norazah; Ismail, Khudzir; Alias, Azil Bahari; Abd Rashid, Zulkifli; Aris, Mohd Jindra

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of Malaysian sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian), oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches (EFB), kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibre (PMF)) and their respective blends during pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coal/palm biomass blends were prepared at six different weight ratios and experiments were carried out under dynamic conditions using nitrogen as inert gas at various heating rates to ramp the temperature from 25 degrees C to 900 degrees C. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) results show that thermal decomposition of EFB, PMF and PKS exhibit one, two and three distinct evolution profiles, respectively. Apparently, the thermal profiles of the coal/oil palm biomass blends appear to correlate with the percentage of biomass added in the blends, thus, suggesting lack of interaction between the coal and palm biomass. First-order reaction model were used to determine the kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis of coal, palm biomass and their respective blends. PMID:20153633

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of high ligno-cellulosic biomass pyrolysis coupled with anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Serena; Bandini, Vittoria; Marazza, Diego; Baioli, Filippo; Torri, Cristian; Contin, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    A Life Cycle Assessment is conducted on pyrolysis coupled to anaerobic digestion to treat corn stovers and to obtain bioenergy and biochar. The analysis takes into account the feedstock treatment process, the fate of products and the indirect effects due to crop residue removal. The biochar is considered to be used as solid fuel for coal power plants or as soil conditioner. All results are compared with a corresponding fossil-fuel-based scenario. It is shown that the proposed system always enables relevant primary energy savings of non-renewable sources and a strong reduction of greenhouse gases emissions without worsening the abiotic resources depletion. Conversely, the study points out that the use of corn stovers for mulch is critical when considering acidification and eutrophication impacts. Therefore, removal of corn stovers from the fields must be planned carefully. PMID:27107341

  11. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons through catalytic pyrolysis of γ-valerolactone from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Fu, Yao; Guo, Qing-Xiang

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, γ-valerolactone (GVL) is firstly reported to be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons through catalytic pyrolysis. The catalysts and reaction conditions are both critical in maximizing the hydrocarbon selectivity. Four zeolites, i.e. MCM-41, β-zeolite, ZSM-5 and HZSM-5 were tested in this work, among which HZSM-5 (Si/Al=25) was found to be the most effective catalyst in both reactivity and selectivity. Under the reaction temperature of 500 °C, the highest carbon yield of 56.71% of aromatics was achieved from GVL with HZSM-5 (Si/Al=25) as catalyst. Moreover, the HZSM-5 catalyst was recycled for five times without significant decrease in product selectivity. PMID:22507905

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapours over Sodium-Based Catalyst; A Study on teh State of Sodium on the Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tang Son; Lefferts, Leon; Gupta, K.B. Sai Sankar; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2015-01-01

    In situ upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours over Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts was studied in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor at 500 °C. Catalytic oil exhibits a significant improvement over its non-catalytic counterpart, such as lower oxygen content (12.3 wt % compared to 42.1 wt %), higher ener

  13. Slow pyrolysis for rural small biomass energy by joint project developments of Brazil and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampegowda, Rajesh; Chandayot, Pongchan [Asian University, Chonburi (Thailand)], email: rkempegowda@asianust.ac.th; Pannirselvam, Pagandai V.; Humberto, Maricy; Santos, Joao Matias [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEQ/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos], email: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The efficiency for carbonization by slow pyrolysis is still low in the current method studied using rice straw in Thailand and cashewnut shell in Brazil, however direct heating process yields better char yield of 17% as compared to indirect heating with 15% process using horizontal metal drum kiln.where as vertical kiln were mainly used in Brazil. Higher yield is made possible from Brasilian cashew nut shell to make oil and char. Carbon and energy balance was also carried out and the results were compared for the direct and indirect process. Burning by indirect draft gives better results like more char, faster process. Direct draft gives less char, but higher quality (higher C and H2). Also a lot of straw is left unburnt in the direct draft kiln, because of bad temperature distribution and flow inside. The kiln design is found to be more suitable for indirect draft rather than direct draft. Both methods still give rice straw charcoal that has low calorific value with an output char LHV of 4337 kcal/kg as compared to fresh rice straw of 3412 kcal/kg. In the direct heating method output char is enriched to 45% with a still unburnt rice straw left out as compared to indirect heating method with carbon enrichment of 39%. There is a loss of 13% of carbon through the ash in the both the methods. The carbon content in the condensate is in the order of 18.5% for the indirect process as compared to 13.9% in the direct process due to less exhaust and carbon enrichment inside the kiln. There is a loss of 43% of carbon in the exhaust from indirect heating process as compared to direct heating process which is reduced to 26%. The energy balance predicts a heat loss of 14% in exhaust gases. A practical small scale slow pyrolysis project was developed to meet rural energy and heat requirements. to make the clean energy from waste resources possible by the joint project. (author)

  14. Pyrolysis of wetland biomass waste: Potential for carbon sequestration and water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; He, Zhenli; Stoffella, Peter J; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-05-15

    Management of biomass waste is crucial to the efficiency and sustainable operation of constructed wetlands. In this study, biochars were prepared using the biomass of 22 plant species from constructed wetlands and characterized by BET-N2 surface area analysis, FTIR, TGA, SEM, EDS, and elemental compositions analysis. Biochar yields ranged from 32.78 to 49.02%, with mesopores dominating the pore structure of most biochars. The biochars had a R50 recalcitrance index of class C and the carbon sequestration potential of 19.4-28%. The aquatic plant biomass from all the Chinese constructed wetlands if made into biochars has the potential to sequester 11.48 Mt carbon yr(-1) in soils over long time periods, which could offset 0.4% of annual CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in China. In terms of adsorption capacity for selected pollutants, biochar derived from Canna indica plant had the greatest adsorption capacity for Cd(2+) (98.55 mg g(-1)) and NH4(+) (7.71 mg g(-1)). Whereas for PO4(3-), Hydrocotyle verticillata derived biochar showed the greatest adsorption capacities (2.91 mg g(-1)). The results from this present study demonstrated that wetland plants are valuable feedstocks for producing biochars with potential application for carbon sequestration and contaminant removal in water remediation. PMID:26978731

  15. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters determination of biomass fuel powders by differential thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The sugarcane bagasse powder has better energy value compared to the cotton stalks. • Bagasse moisture is entrained in its cell walls and its evaporation needs more energy. • The cotton stalks is more reactive and readily combustible than the bagasse powders. • A lower E and A0 has been found for bagasse compared with cotton stalks powders. • Calculated E of bagasse and cotton stalks by direct and integral methods are different. - Abstract: The kinetics of the thermal decomposition of the two biomass materials (sugarcane bagasse and cotton stalks powders) were evaluated using a differential thermo-gravimetric analyzer under a non-isothermal condition. Two distinct reaction zones were observed for the two biomasses. The direct Arrhenius plot method and the integral method were applied for determination of kinetic parameters: activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and order of reaction. The weight loss curve showed that pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and cotton stalks took place mainly in the range of 200–500 °C. The activation energy of the sugarcane bagasse powder obtained by the direct Arrhenius plot method ranged between 43 and 53.5 kJ/mol. On the other side, the integral method shows larger values of activation energy (77–87.7 kJ/mol). The activation energy of the cotton stalks powder obtained by the direct Arrhenius plot method was ranged between 98.5 and 100.2 kJ/mol, but the integral method shows larger values of activation energy (72.5–127.8 kJ/mol)

  16. The influence of recycling non-condensable gases in the fractional catalytic pyrolysis of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mante, Ofei D; Agblevor, F A; Oyama, S T; McClung, R

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the effect of recycling the non-condensable gases (NCG) in the catalytic pyrolysis of hybrid poplar using FCC catalyst was investigated. A 50mm bench scale fluidized bed reactor at 475°C with a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 2h(-1) and a gas recycling capability was used for the studies. Model fluidizing gas mixtures of CO/N(2), CO(2)/N(2), CO/CO(2)/N(2) and H(2)/N(2) were used to determine their independent effects. Recycling of the NCG in the process was found to potentially increase the liquid yield and decrease char/coke yield. The model fluidizing gases increased the liquid yield and the CO(2)/N(2) fluidizing gas had the lowest char/coke yield. The (13)C-NMR analysis showed that recycling of NCG increases the aromatic fractions and decreases the methoxy, carboxylic and sugar fractions. Recycling of NCG increased the higher heating value and the pH of the bio-oil as well as decreased the viscosity and density. PMID:22382295

  17. Mechanistic evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran and naphthalene isomer fingerprints in microwave pyrolysis of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuju; Cieplik, Mariusz K; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Gronnow, Mark; Jansson, Stina

    2016-05-01

    Isomer distribution patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and naphthalenes (PCNs) were investigated in microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP) products of woody biomass. The feedstocks included bark and impregnated wood. The results indicated that isomer distributions in MAP are more selective compared to those reported from wood burning and waste incineration. Favored formation of 4-MoCDF and highly selective chlorine substitution at the 2,4-position observed during MAP suggested a preferred formation pathway of PCDFs involving (chloro)phenol precursors followed by subsequent chlorination. The PCDD distribution was dominated by isomers typically formed from chlorophenol condensation at relatively low temperature. The PCN isomer distributions showed a tendency for sequential chlorination from non-substituted naphthalene at successive positions. The presence of isomers such as 1-MoCDD, 4-MoCDF, 1,2,3-TriCN with low thermodynamic stability indicates that kinetic factors may be important in the MAP process. PMID:26901473

  18. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  19. Biomass based combined heat and power plant with integrated biomass drying and subsequent pyrolysis : steady-state simulation with multiperiod district heating model and environmental performance in Eropean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert Waldemar Hadera

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and green energy policies are driving the pursuit for environmentally friendly and thermodynamically efficient technologies. This research work combines renewable energy with the energy efficient concept of combined heat and power (CHP) and the emerging technology of biomass fast pyrolysis. The latter produces valuable bio-oil that can be further upgraded to e.g. transportation fuels or be used in heavy fuel oil boilers. This thesis focuses on developing steady-state simul...

  20. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 deg. C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 deg. C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating.

  1. Identification and classification of components in flash pyrolysis oil and hydrodeoxygenated oils by two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, J. H.; Wildschut, J.; Evers, P.; Heeres, H. J.; Koning de, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oils (HDO) are considered promising renewable liquid energy carriers. To gain insights in the various reaction pathways taking place during the hydrodeoxygenation reaction of pyrolysis oil, two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses

  2. Time resolved pyrolysis of char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    pyrolysis, and slow heating in direct combination with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection, respectively. Characteristic ions derived from the flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data enable the release of volatiles to be time and, hence...

  3. Production of bio-oil from biomass: slow pyrolysis of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) in a fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onay, O. [Anadolu University (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2003-09-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size, and pyrolysis atmosphere on pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 51.7% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C with particle sizes in the range of +0.6 to 1.8 mm in a sweeping gas atmosphere (100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} N{sub 2}) and a heating rate of 30{sup o}C min{sup -1}. The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from rapeseed may be potentially valuable as fuels and chemical feedstocks. (author)

  4. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  5. Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report No. 2, January-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    In consideration of favorable information received via pyrolysis laboratory tests at UCC Research and from Coalite Chemicals in England, it is recommended that the pyrolysis system for the subject project be changed to a low pressure/temperature design. A very considerable effort was expended at UCC Research Corporation during the quarter on justification and documentation for the proposed new system. The preliminary design of the proposed unit was essentially completed. Industrial Machine Company was approved as the subcontractor by DOE and the final furnace design was finished. Based on a trip to Coalite Chemicals, tapered reactor tubes will be used initially in the pyrolysis system.

  6. Modelling of pyrolysis of peat and biomass under combustion and gasification; Pyrolyysimalli turpeen ja biomassan poltolle ja kaasutukselle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Haukka, P.; Vehmaan-Kreula, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Technology

    1997-10-01

    In the model developed during the research the chemical kinetics of pyrolysis is described with `the two competing reactions model`. Heat transfer in particle consists of convection and conduction. With the help of the model all the kinetic parameters of the two pyrolysis reactions are fitted with measured values. Also simple correlations for pyrolysis of peat under fluidized bed and pulverised flame conditions are given. The effect of the heating rate can be taken into account by using two competing Arrhenius-type reactions. In this model pyrolysis is modelled by using two reactions; one for the low temperature level and the other for the high temperature level. Both of these reactions consume the same unreacted fuel and this model is able to describe the pyrolysis at different temperature levels. Pyrolysis takes place in the heating stage of the particle before heterogeneous combustion and therefore temperature and density profiles inside the particle have to be solved simultaneously. The energy and mass balance equations of the particle form a set of partial differential equations (PDE), which is solved numerically by using so called method of lines, by converting PDE into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE). The final solution of ODEs is received by using LSODE algorithm of Hindmash. An user friendly interface for the pyrolysis model is programmed by using Visual Basic enabling convenient variation of the conditions and observation of the results

  7. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  8. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Sahir, A.; Tan, E.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Meyer, P.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  9. Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria of binary systems containing butyl acetate for the separation of methoxy aromatic compounds (anisole and guaiacol) from biomass fast pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The two binary systems related to pyrolysis oil have been reported. • The VLE data were correlated well by the activity coefficient models. • The UNIFAC (Do) model was applied to predict the experimental VLE data. • The interaction parameter (ACOCH3–CH3COO) was obtained and proved to be reliable. • The obtained interaction parameters by NRTL model were used in the separation process design for the ternary mixture. - Abstract: Developing value-added chemicals from pyrolysis oil has been gaining increasing attention. Thus effective separation and purification of the pyrolysis oil are important and the phase equilibrium data are essential for the design and simulation of the processes. In this study, isobaric vapour–liquid equilibrium (VLE) for the two binary mixtures (butyl acetate + anisole) and (butyl acetate + guaiacol) have been determined at 101.33 kPa, a knowledge of which is essential for the separation of methoxy aromatic compounds (anisole and guaiacol) from biomass fast pyrolysis oil using butyl acetate as a solvent. All the experimental values were confirmed to be thermodynamically consistent using the van Ness method. The NRTL, UNIQUAC, and Wilson activity coefficient models were applied to regress the experimental values. The calculated results agreed well with the measured values. Furthermore, the results were calculated by the UNIFAC (Do) method (modified UNIFAC model) in which aromatic methoxyl is treated as a group (ACOCH3). The new interaction parameter (ACOCH3–CH3COO) was obtained and proved to be reliable. Based on the preceding results, a feasible separation process for the ternary mixture (butyl acetate + anisole + guaiacol) has been designed to obtain the required products

  10. 生物质快速热解液化技术研究进展%Progresses in Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass to Liquid Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锡锋; 李明

    2013-01-01

    总结了生物质热解液化技术在原料预处理、热解工艺和生物油精制3个方面的最新研究成果.在原料预处理方面,介绍了干燥、烘焙、压缩成型和酸洗4种方法;在热解工艺方面,列举了国内外具有代表性的热解反应器类型,重点介绍了催化热解和混合热解两种新工艺;在生物油精制方面,介绍了包括催化加氢、催化裂解、催化酯化和乳化等几种常用的生物油精制方法,并分析了各精制技术发展的关键问题.%The recent progresses in raw materials pretreatment,pyrolytic process and biooil upgrading for the fast pyrolysis of biomass to liquid fuel were reviewed.In the raw materials pretreatment,drying,torrefaction,compression moulding and acid-washing were introduced.In the pyrolytic process,typical fast pyrolysis reactors are enumerated and two novel pyrolytic processes,namely fast catalytic pyrolysis and co-liquefaction of both biomass and coal,were discussed.Finally,some upgrading methods were discussed,which included catalytic hydroprocessing,catalytic cracking,catalytic esterification,and emulsification with diesel.The key problems involved in these upgrading methods were also analyzed.

  11. Biomass fast pyrolysis for bio-oil production in a fluidized bed reactor under hot flue atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wang, Xiang; Bai, Xueyuan; Li, Zhihe; Zhang, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Fast pyrolysis experiments of corn stalk were performed to investigate the optimal pyrolysis conditions of temperature and bed material for maximum bio-oil production under flue gas atmosphere. Under the optimized pyrolysis conditions, furfural residue, xylose residue and kelp seaweed were pyrolyzed to examine their yield distributions of products, and the physical characteristics of bio-oil were studied. The best flow rate of the flue gas at selected temperature is obtained, and the pyrolysis temperature at 500 degrees C and dolomite as bed material could give a maximum bio-oil yield. The highest bio-oil yield of 43.3% (W/W) was achieved from corn stalk under the optimal conditions. Two main fractions were recovered from the stratified bio-oils: light oils and heavy oils. The physical properties of heavy oils from all feedstocks varied little. The calorific values of heavy oils were much higher than that of light oils. The pyrolysis gas could be used as a gaseous fuel due to a relatively high calorific value of 6.5-8.5 MJ/m3. PMID:26964339

  12. Comments on 'Organic sulphur compounds produced by flash pyrolysis of Timhadit oil shale' by M. Ishiwatari, H. Sakashita, T. Tatsumi and H-O. Tominaga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Since we have analysed three different stratigraphic units of the Timhadit oil shale for sulphur compounds by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Eglinton and Sinninghe DamstC, unpublished results), we believe that the identification by Ishiwatari et al. is not correct. In a recent paper we demon

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis-gc/ms of spirulina: evaluation of a highly proteinaceous biomass source for production of fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of microalgae offers a pathway towards the production of compounds derived from the thermal decomposition of triglycerides, proteins as well as lignocelluloses and their combinations thereof. When catalytically induced, this could lead to the production of fuels and chemicals including aro...

  14. Kinetics Analysis of Coconut Shell Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xue-mei; JIANG; Jian-chun; SUN; Kang; XU; Fan; XU; Yu

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper aimed to study kinetics analysis of coconut shell pyrolysis. [Method] Thermo gravimetric analysis was used to study the pyrolysis characteristic of coconut shell at different pyrolysis rates (5, 10, 20 K/min). [Result] The pyrolysis process included 3 stages, water loss, pyrolysis, and thermal condensation. The pyrolysis process can be described through first-order reaction model. With the increasing pyrolysis rate, activation energy in the first stage rose, but activation energy in the second stage reduced. [Conclusion] The study provided theoretical basis for the promotion and application of biomass energy.

  15. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured metal oxides for application to biomass upgrading Polar (111) metal oxide surfaces for pyrolysis oil upgrading and lignin depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil, or bio-oil, is one of the most promising methods to upgrade a variety of biomass to transportation fuels. Moving toward a more "green" catalytic process requires heterogeneous catalysis over homogeneous catalysis to avoid extraction solvent waste. Nanoscale catalysts are showing great promise due to their high surface area and unusual surfaces. Base catalyzed condensation reactions occur much quicker than acid catalyzed condensation reactions. However, MgO is slightly soluble in water and is susceptible to degradation by acidic environments, similar to those found in fast-pyrolysis oil. Magnesium oxide (111) has a highly active Lewis base surface, which can catalyze Claisen-Schmidt condensation reactions in the organic phase. It has been shown previously that carbon coating a catalyst, such as a metal oxide, provides integrity while leaving the catalytic activity intact. Here, carbon-coated MgO(111) will be discussed with regards to synthesis, characterization and application to bio-oil upgrading through model compounds. Raman spectroscopy and HR-TEM are used to characterize the thickness and carbon-bonding environment of the carbon coating. Propanal self-condensation reactions have been conducted in the aqueous phase with varying amounts of acetic acid present. Quantitative analysis by gas chromatography was completed to determine the catalytic activity of CC-MgO(111). ICP-OES analysis has been conducted to measure the magnesium concentration in the product solution and give insight into the leaching of the catalyst into the reaction solution.

  16. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  17. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of straw biomass in an internally interconnected fluidized bed to produce aromatics and olefins: effect of different catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Xiao, Rui; Jin, Baosheng; Shen, Dekui; Chen, Ran; Xiao, Guomin

    2013-06-01

    A novel reactor, named internally interconnected fluidized bed (IIFB), was specially designed for catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of straw biomass. Catalytic characteristics of four types of catalysts (ZSM-5, LOSA-1, Gamma-Al2O3 and spent FCC catalysts) for producing aromatics and olefins were investigated in this reactor. The results show that IIFB reactor can realize CFP process. The maximum carbon yields of aromatics (12.8%) and C2-C4 olefins (10.5%) were obtained with ZSM-5. ZSM-5 shows the highest selectivity of naphthalene (12.1%), whereas spent FCC catalyst presents the highest selectivity of benzene (45.5%). The selectivity of ethylene and propylene are equal in the present of ZSM-5 and LOSA-1. Gamma-Al2O3 and spent FCC catalysts show a higher selectivity of ethylene than that of propylene. This paper provides a new reactor for CFP process and some suggestions for choosing catalyst. PMID:23587812

  18. Investigation on the quality of bio-oil produced through fast pyrolysis of biomass-polymer waste mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourabchi, S. A.; Ng, H. K.; Gan, S.; Yap, Z. Y.

    2016-06-01

    A high-impact poly-styrene (HIPS) was mixed with dried and ground coconut shell (CS) at equal weight percentage. Fast pyrolysis was carried out on the mixture in a fixed bed reactor over a temperature range of 573 K to 1073 K, and a nitrogen (N2) linear velocity range of 7.8x10-5 m/s to 6.7x10-2 m/s to produce bio-oil. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics of the pyrolysis process inside the reactor was visualised by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The CFD modelling was validated by experimental results and they both indicated that at temperature of 923 K and N2 linear velocity of 7.8x10-5 m/s, the maximum bio-oil yield of 52.02 wt% is achieved.

  19. CFD analysis of combustion of natural gas and syngas from biomass pyrolysis in the combustion chamber of a micro gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Laranci, Paolo; D' Alessandro, Bruno [University of Perugia (DII/UNIPG) (Italy). Dept. of Industrial Engineering], Emails: fanto@unipg.it, paolo.laranci@unipg.it, dalessandro@bio-net.it

    2009-07-01

    Micro gas turbines (MGT) can be profitably used for the production of distributed energy (DE), with the possibility to use gaseous fuels with low BTU derived from biomass or waste through the pyrolysis or gasification processes. These synthesis gases (SG) show significant differences with respect to natural gas (NG), in terms of composition, calorific value, content of hydrogen, tar and particulate matter content; such differences can be turn into problems of ignition, instability burning, difficulties in controlling the emissions and fouling. CFD analysis of the combustion process is an essential tool for identifying the main critical arising in using these gases, in order to modify existing geometries and to develop new generation of combustor for use with low BTU gases. This paper describes the activities of experimental and numerical analysis carried out to study the combustion process occurring inside an existing annular Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) Combustion Chamber (CC) of a 80 kW MGT. In the paper some results of a CFD study of the combustion process performed with an original developed chemical models are reported in terms of temperature and velocity distributions inside the CC and in terms of compositions of turbine inlet gas and of its thermodynamic parameters (mass flow, temperature, pressure). An evaluation of pollutant emissions of CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx and a comparison with the available experimental data relating to the case of combustion of NG is also provided in the paper. Moreover, the carried out investigation concerns the case of operation with a SG fuel derived from biomass in an Integrated Pyrolysis Regenerated Plant (IPRP). (author)

  20. Comparative Study on Pyrolysis Characteristic of Energy Crops and Traditional Biomass%能源作物与传统生物质热解特性对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 金晶; 索娅; 赵兵涛; 张建民

    2009-01-01

    The pyrolysis characteristic of three kinds of traditional biomass is studied and two kinds of energy crops are divided into four types of biomass according to the chemical composition. The weight loss characters of energy crops and traditional biomass are studied by thermogravimetric analyzer, and then the kinetics parameter is figured out. In addition, the emitted gas component from biomass pyrolysis is analyzed by gas chromatograph and tube furnace. The results indicate that the activation energy of energy crops was bigger than traditional biomass, but the pyrolysis degree is deeper than traditional biomass obviously, simultaneously the quantity of pyrolysis fuel gas is the biggest.%研究了3种具有代表性的传统生物质以及两种能源作物,按化学组成不同分为4种不同类型的生物质.利用热天平研究了它们在氮气气氛下的热解失重特性,并进行了动力学参数的求取.另外通过固定床和气相色谱仪研究了四类生物质的热解气相产物析出规律.结果表明,能源作物相比传统生物质发生热解反应时活化能较大,但热解程度最高,同时热解后的可燃气相产物析出量明显大于传统生物质.

  1. 桉树类生物质热解及产物释放特性研究%Study on pyrolysis of eucalyptus biomass and releasing characteristics of products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 宋景慧; 马晓茜; 湛志钢

    2013-01-01

    The pyrolysis processing of eucalyptus biomass including branch and bark in different heating rates and their releasing characteristics of products were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) system, the difference of pyrolysis mechanism between two eucalyptus biomass was further analyzed. The results indicate that there are mainly three stages during the processing of eucalypt branch pyrolysis which are drying process, pyrolysis process and carbonating process. During the process of pyrolysis, many kinds of gaseous organic compounds are released, with faster rate of pyrolysis reaction compare to eucalypt brak. The pruducts mainly are many organic gas and little CO2 and CO. The processing of eucalypt brak pyrolysis is more complicated, which main has five stages including drying, deeply drying, pyrolysis, carbonating and deeply carbonating processing in higher temperature, with lower pyrolysis rate. It has similar gaseous products during the processing of pyrolysis compared with eucalypt branch. However, there exited vigorously carbonating reaction during the temperature range of 450~550 ℃ and 650~800 ℃, with CO2 and CO as the main gaseous products.%采用热重红外联用方法研究不同升温速率下桉树枝和桉树皮的热解特性和热解气体产物的释放特性,对比分析两者的差异性及差异机理.结果表明:桉树枝热解过程主要分为干燥、热解和碳化3个阶段,热解速率较快,气体产物释放主要集中在热解阶段进行,主要气体产物有烷烃、醇、酚、醛、羧酸、酮等多种有机气体产物和少量CO,CO2;桉树皮热解过程分为干燥、进一步干燥、热解反应、碳化及高温持续碳化5个阶段,相比桉树枝热解速率明显较低.桉树皮热解反应阶段在450~550℃和650~800℃两个高温区间存在较为剧烈的碳化反应过程,主要气体产物为CO2和CO.

  2. Pyrolysis Behavior of Paper-base of Paper-making Process Reconstituted Tobacco with Different Physical Parameters under Flash Pyrolysis Conditions%不同物理参数造纸法再造烟叶纸基在闪速热解环境下的热解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周顺; 陶丰; 何庆; 徐迎波; 胡源; 王程辉; 葛少林; 舒俊生; 田振峰; 王平军; 周明华

    2012-01-01

    为考察造纸法再造烟叶纸基物理参数改变对其热解特性的影响,利用闪速热解-红外联用( FPy-FTIR)法研究了4种不同物理参数纸基热解气相产物的形成规律,采用闪速热解结合高效液相色谱针对性地分析了热解气相产物中8种羰基化合物(甲醛、乙醛、丙酮、丙烯醛、丙醛、巴豆醛、2-丁酮和丁醛)的生成情况.结果表明:①纸基热解主要生成H2O、CO2、CO、甲醇、羰基化合物、炔烃类(主要是乙炔)、烯烃类(主要是乙烯)和烷烃类(主要是甲烷)化合物.纸基透气度的提高有利于热解释放出更多的气相产物.②透气度、定量以及烟草浆和木浆相对比例的改变并不会影响甲烷的形成,而透气度的提高会降低CO的生成量,并产生更多的CO2.③木浆相对比例的提高是导致羰基化合物和乙烯生成强度减弱的主要原因.④4种纸基闪速热解所形成的羰基化合物中都是乙醛的生成量最多,其次是丙酮和丙醛.%In order to investigate the influences of the physical parameters of the paper-base in paper-making process reconstituted tobacco on its pyrolysis behavior, the formation of pyrolyzed gas phase products of 4 paper-bases with different physical parameters were investigated by flash pyrolysis-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FPy-FTIR). Moreover, the evolution of 8 carbonyl compounds (including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, butanone and butyraldehyde) were analyzed by flash pyrolysis-high performance liquid chromatography (FPy-HPLC). The results showed that: 1) The pyrolyzed gas phase products mainly included water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol, carbonyl compounds, alkynes (mainly acetylene), alkenes (ethylene) and alkanes (methane) compounds. The increase of permeability of paper-base was beneficial to the formation of gas phase products. 2) The changes of permeability, grammage and ratio of tobacco

  3. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy con

  4. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sallevelt, Johan Leonard Hendrik Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to conventional fossil fuels. This can lead to various problems in case biofuels are directly used in existing installations. This thesis aims to provide better insight into the combustion of biomass-derived pyr...

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sahir, A. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis. Both the in situ and ex situ conceptual designs, using the underlying assumptions, project MFSPs of approximately $3.5/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE). The performance assumptions for the ex situ process were more aggressive with higher distillate (diesel-range) products. This was based on an assumption that more favorable reaction chemistry (such as coupling) can be made possible in a separate reactor where, unlike in an in situ upgrading reactor, one does not have to deal with catalyst mixing with biomass char and ash, which pose challenges to catalyst performance and maintenance. Natural gas was used for hydrogen production, but only when off gases from the process was not sufficient to meet the needs; natural gas consumption is insignificant in both the in situ and ex situ base cases. Heat produced from the burning of char, coke, and off-gases allows for the production of surplus electricity which is sold to the grid allowing a reduction of approximately 5¢/GGE in the MFSP.

  6. Utilization possibilities of palm shell as a source of biomass energy in Malaysia by producing bio-oil in pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture residues such as palm shell are one of the biomass categories that can be utilized for conversion to bio-oil by using pyrolysis process. Palm shells were pyrolyzed in a fluidized-bed reactor at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 oC with N2 as carrier gas at flow rate 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 L/min. The objective of the present work is to determine the effects of temperature, flow rate of N2, particle size and reaction time on the optimization of production of renewable bio-oil from palm shell. According to this study the maximum yield of bio-oil (47.3 wt%) can be obtained, working at the medium level for the operation temperature (500 oC) and 2 L/min of N2 flow rate at 60 min reaction time. Temperature is the most important factor, having a significant positive effect on yield product of bio-oil. The oil was characterized by Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. -- Highlights: → This study reports the results of experimental investing of conversion palm shell into bio-oil by using pyrolysis and to find the optimum condition to produce the highest yield of bio-oil. → Several parameters which have effect to the process such as temperature, N2 flow rate, reaction time and particle size is will be investigated in this study. → The outcome of this result will be important for abatement and control of increasingly waste palm shell storage problems any energy source to the world.

  7. Lignin pyrolysis products, lignans, and resin acids as specific tracers of plant classes in emissions from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvaleis, OR (United States)); Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)); Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Standley, L.J. (Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States)); Hildemann, L.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Biomass smoke aerosols contain thermally unaltered and partially altered biomarker compounds from major vegetation taxa. These compounds range from C[sub 8] to C[sub 31] and include phytosterols, lignans, phenolic products from lignin, and diterpenoids from resins. Certain of the higher molecular weight biomarkers are vaporized from the parent plant material and subsequently condense unaltered into the particle phase. Other compounds undergo pyrolytic alteration and possibly dimerization. In both cases it is possible to assign many of these compounds to the plant taxa of the unburned fuel. The diterpenoids are good indicators for smoke from burning of gymnosperm wood. The relative distribution of the OH/OCH[sub 3] substituent patterns on the phenolic products indicates the plant class of the biomass that was burned. Application of these relationships to the interpretation of ambient smoke aerosols may permit further evaluation of the sources that contribute to regional biomass burning. 80 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Biomass thermochemical conversion - overview of results; Biomassan jalostus - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    In this Bioenergy research program the thermochemical conversion activities are mainly concentrated in three fields (1) flash pyrolysis and the use of wood oil in boilers and engines (2) biomass gasification for gas engine power plants and finally (3) conversion of black liquor and extractives in a pulp mill to various liquid fuels. Parallel to activities in Finland also significant work has been done in EU-Joule and Apas projects and in the IEA Bioenergy Agreement. In the area of flash pyrolysis technology, three new laboratory and PDU-units have been installed to VTT in order to produce various qualities of bio oils from wood and straw. The quality of pyrolysis oils have been characterized by physical and chemical methods supported by EU and IEA networks. Several companies are carrying out pyrolysis activities as well: Neste Oy is testing the wood oil in a 200 kW boiler, Waertsilae Diesel Oy is testing Canadian wood oil in a 1.5 MWe diesel power plant engine and Vapo Oy is carrying out investigations to produce pyrolysis oils in Finland. The biomass gasification coupled to a gas engine is an interesting alternative for small scale power production parallel to existing fluid bed boiler technology. VTT has installed a circulating fluid bed gasifier with advanced gas cleaning system to test various technologies in order to feed the gas to an engine. In order to produce liquid fuels at a pulp mill, the laboratory work has continued using crude soap as a raw material for high pressure liquid phase treatment and atmospheric pyrolysis process. The quality of the oil is like light fuel oil or diesel fuel, possibilities to use it as a lubricant will be investigated

  9. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, Johan Leonard Hendrik Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to conventiona

  10. Synthesis gas from biomass for fuels and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Making H2 and CO (syngas) from biomass is widely recognised as a necessary step in the production of various second generation biofuels. There are two major ways to produce a biosyngas: fluidised bed gasification with catalytic reformer or entrained flow gasification. The latter option requires extensive pre-treatment such as flash pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis, torrefaction, or fluidized bed gasification at a low temperature. Cleaned and conditioned biosyngas can be used to synthesize second generation biofuels such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels, methanol, DME, mixed alcohols, and even pure hydrogen. The report describes the different technical options to produce, clean and condition bio-syngas. Furthermore, issues related to scale and biomass transport are covered shortly

  11. Fast pyrolysis of biomass in fluidized bed reactor UNICAMP, Brazil: problems, causes and solutions; Pirolise rapida de biomassa em reator de leito fluidizado UNICAMP-Brasil: problemas, causas e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Marin Mesa, Henry Ramon [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio; Olivares Gomez, Edgardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Shimabukuro, Fabio Rodrigo; Vallin, Marco Jim Gui [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2006-07-01

    The fluidized bed reactor developed by the researchers of the UNICAMP in the installations of the Sugar Cane Technology Center (CTC), in Piracicaba-SP, is the first reactor of biomass fast pyrolysis in Brazil to produce bio-oil. In this work the problems of operation with the reactor in functioning are presented as the emptying of gases produced in the pyrolysis by means of the biomass feeding system, the block of the thread of biomass feeding, the inert material sintering in the bed, etc. The possible causes are described. Thus it, the first ones could be solved, either by the reduction of the height of the inert bed, or by the increase of the wadding percentage of the thread, among others. These results of the exploratory tests make possible the steady work of the plant, greater knowledge of the phenomena that occur during the fast pyrolysis in flutizide bed, as well as the establishment of adjusted levels for the identified independent factors during the remaining experimental works. (author)

  12. Results of a demonstration experiment: Hydrogenation of pyrolysis oils from biomass; Ergebnisse eines Demonstrationsversuchs zur Hydrierung von Pyrolyseoelen aus Biomassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, M. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sump phase hydrogenation is a technique specially developed for coal liquefaction; it provides a possibility of processing the liquid products of biomass pyrolyis into high-grade carburettor fuels. A demonstration experiment was carried out at the hydrogenation plant of DMT. The plant has a capacity of 10 kg/h. The technical feasibility of hydrogenation of biomass oils was demonstrated in a continuous experiment. The contribution describes the experimental conditions, yields, and product qualities. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die fuer die Kohleverfluessigung entwickelte Sumpfphasenhydrierung bietet die Moeglichkeit, die Fluessigprodukte der Pyrolyse von Biomassen zu hochwertigen Vergaserkraftstoffen zu veredeln. Im Hydriertechnikum der DMT wurde hierzu ein Demonstrationsversuch durchgefuehrt. Die Anlage ist fuer einen Kohledurchsatz von 10 kg/h ausgelegt. In einem kontinuierlichen Versuchslauf wurde mit dieser Anlage die technische Machbarkeit der Hydrierung von Bio-Oelen demonstriert. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Versuchsbedingungen, Ausbeuten und Produktqualitaeten vorgestellt. (orig.)

  13. Plasma Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass for Syngas Production, Int. Round Table on Thermal Plasma Applications, invited lecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Sharm el Sheikh: University Sherbrook, 2007 - (Boulos, M.; Heberlein, J.; Fauchais, P.), s. 3-4 [Intternational Round Table on Thermal Plasma Applications. Sharm El Sheikh (EG), 14.01.2007-18.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : gasification * Biomass * thermal plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  14. Development of tubular hybrid direct carbon fuel cell and pyrolysis of biomass for production of carbon fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano

    2013-01-01

    This study involved two avenues of investigation: a new concept of Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) and the production of carbon from biomass. The new concept of DCFC merges a solid oxide electrolyte and a molten carbonate electrolyte called the “hybrid direct carbon fuel cell” using tubular geometry. The tubular cell was chosen for several reasons, such as sealing process, reduction of stress during the sintering process and reduction of the final size of the stack. In addition, it makes th...

  15. Slow pyrolysis of poultry litter and pine woody biomass: impact of chars and bio-oils on microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K C; Garcia-Perez, M; Bibens, B; Melear, N

    2008-06-01

    Accidental or prescribed fires in forests and in cultivated fields, as well as primitive charcoal production practices, are responsible for the release of large amounts of gases, char and condensable organic molecules into the environment. This paper describes the impact of condensable organic molecules and chars resulting from the slow pyrolysis of poultry litter, pine chips and pine pellets on the growth of microbial populations in soil and water. The proximate and elemental analyses as well as the content of proteins, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash for each of these bio-materials are reported. The yields and some properties of char and condensable liquids are also documented. The behavior of microbial populations in soil and water is followed through respiration studies. It was found that biological activity was highest when aqueous fractions from poultry litter were applied in water. Cumulative oxygen consumption over a 120-h period was highest in the aqueous phases from poultry litter coarse fraction (1.82 mg/g). On average the oxygen consumption when oily fractions from poultry litter were applied represented 44 to 62% of that when aqueous fractions were applied. Pine chip and pine pellet derived liquids and chars produced respiration activity that were an order of magnitude lower than that of poultry litter liquid fractions. These results suggest that the growth observed is due to the effect of protein-derived molecules. PMID:18444073

  16. Chemical evaluation of chars produced by thermochemical conversion (gasification, pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization) of agro-industrial biomass on a commercial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technologies for agro-industrial feedstock utilization such as pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization at industrial scale develop rapidly. The thermochemically converted biomasses of these production technologies have fundamentally different properties controlled by the production technology. This is reflected by general properties such as pH or elemental composition. The 13C NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and black carbon results confirmed these observations showing that hydrochars have lower proportions of aromatic compounds than biochars (less stable) but are rich in functional groups (higher cation exchange capacity) than biochars. Analyses of pollutants indicate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as dioxin contents of most samples were under the threshold values recommended by International Biochar Initiative and European Biochar Certificate. In conclusion, biochars and hydrochars are entirely different from each other and these materials will probably have a complementary reaction in a soil environment. -- Highlights: • Production technologies influences fundamentally chemical properties of chars. • Carbonized materials have different behaviour in soil environment. • Environmental risk of chars is low with respect to PAH and dioxin contents. • Certification standard for biochars is not suitable for hydrochars. • Commercial scale reactors are able to produce high quality biochars according to the regulations of the EBC or IBI

  17. Microwave-assisted catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production using chemical vapor deposition modified HZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-12-01

    Chemical vapor deposition with tetra-ethyl-orthosilicate as the modifier was applied to deposit the external acid sites of HZSM-5, and the modified HZSM-5 samples were used for the microwave-assisted catalytic fast pyrolysis (MACFP) of biomass for bio-oil production. The experimental results showed that the external acid sites of HZSM-5 decreased significantly when SiO2 deposited amount increased from 0% to 5.9%. For product distribution, the coke yield decreased, the oil fraction yield decreased at first and then increased, and the yields of water and gas first increased and then decreased over the range of SiO2 deposited amount studied. For chemical compositions in oil fraction, the relative contents of aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing aromatic compounds first increased to maximum values and then decreased, while the relative content of oxygen-containing aliphatic compounds first decreased and then increased with increasing SiO2 deposited amount. PMID:26318925

  18. Flash floods

    OpenAIRE

    Grubač, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    The thesis presents flash floods phenomenon and the differences between flash floods and other types of floods. Flooding is usually caused by intense or long-lasting rainfall event. These kinds of events are more often in the last years and climate changes could cause even more natural disasters. Flash floods are quite known phenomenon in Slovenia which is situated in many upper parts of river basins. Flash floods and erosion are most common in northwestern hilly landscape of ...

  19. Proceedings of the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting, 26-28 September 1994, Estes Park, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing scale-up of fast pyrolysis in North America and Europe, as well as the exploration and expansion of markets for the energy use of biocrude oils that now needs to take place, suggested that it was timely to convene an international meeting on the properties and combustion behavior of these oils. A common understanding of the state-of-the-art and technical and other challenges which need to be met during the commercialization of biocrude fuel use, can be achieved. The technical issues and understanding of combustion of these oils are rapidly being advanced through R&D in the United States. Canada, Europe and Scandinavia. It is obvious that for the maximum economic impact of biocrude, it will be necessary to have a common set of specifications so that oils can be used interchangeably with engines and combustors which require minimal modification to use these renewable fuels. Fundamental and applied studies being pursued in several countries are brought together in this workshop so that we can arrive at common strategies. In this way, both the science and the commercialization are advanced to the benefit of all, without detracting from the competitive development of both the technology and its applications. This United States-Canada-Finland collaboration has led to the two and one half day specialists meeting at which the technical basis for advances in biocrude development is discussed. The goal is to arrive at a common agenda on issues that cross national boundaries in this area. Examples of agenda items are combustion phenomena, the behavior of trace components of the oil (N, alkali metals), the formation of NOx in combustion, the need for common standards and environmental safety and health issues in the handling, storage and transportation of biocrudes.

  20. Upgrading of the liquid fuel from fast pyrolysis of biomass over MoNi/γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrotreatment of bio-oil, which obtained from fast pyrolysis of pine sawdust, was investigated over MoNi/γ-Al2O3 catalyst under mild conditions (373 K, 3 MPa hydrogen pressure). Acetic acid was taken as a model compound to investigate the effects of Mo promoter contents and reducing temperatures of catalysts on the catalysts activity under the condition of 473 K and 3 MPa hydrogen pressure. X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed reduction showed that the addition of Mo promoter benefited the uniformity of nickel species and inhibited the formation of NiAl2O4 spinel in the catalysts. The GC spectrum of liquid products showed the mechanism of the model reaction. The maximum conversion of acetic acid (33.20%) was attained over 0.06MoNi/γ-Al2O3 catalysts being reduced at 873 K. This catalyst was chosen for the upgrading of raw bio-oil. After the upgrading process, the pH value of the bio-oil increased from 2.33 to 2.77. The water content increased from 35.52 wt.% to 41.55 wt.% and the gross calorific value increased from 13.96 MJ/kg to 14.17 MJ/kg. The hydrogen content in the bio-oil increased from 6.25 wt.% to 6.95 wt.%. The product properties of the upgraded bio-oil, particularly the hydrogen content and the acidity were considerably improved. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that both hydrotreatment and esterification had happened over 0.06MoNi/γ-Al2O3 (873) catalyst during the upgrading process.

  1. Steam reforming and gasification of pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Rossum, van, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mankind needs sustainable energy to adjust its footprint so the earth can support a growing and economically developing population. Biomass is a special sustainable energy source since, besides heat and power, it can also be used for the production of chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. To convert relatively dry biomass (waste) streams, pyrolysis of biomass is proposed as an intermediate step to create a ‘renewable crude oil’ (called pyrolysis oil) for refining. To do this, technology ...

  2. Effects of Biomass Feedstock on the Yield and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter A.; Glarborg, Peter;

    that of beechwood soot (from 33.2 to 102 nm) and wheat straw soot (from 11.5 to 165.3 nm). In addition, pinewood soot particles contained mainly multi-core structures at 1250°C. The potassium content played a more important role on the soot reactivity than the particle size and nanostructure.......This study investigated the effect of feedstock on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot. Woody and herbaceous biomass were pyrolyzed at high heating rates and temperatures of 1250 and 1400°C in a drop tube furnace. The collected solid residues were structurally characterized by electron...... respect to the alkali content, particle size and nanostructure. Potassium was incorporated in the soot matrix and to a significant extent influenced the soot reactivity. The particle size distribution of pinewood soot produced at 1250°C was in the range from 27.2 to 263 nm which was broader compared to...

  3. A Comparison of Lignin, Macroalgae, Wood and Straw Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor at pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among...... these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroalgae showed a promising result with a bio-oil yield of 65 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 76 % energy recovery in the bio-oil while the lignin fast pyrolysis provides a bio-oil yield of 47 wt% daf and energy recovery in bio-oil of 45 %. The physiochemical properties...

  4. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy content of pyrolysis oil is approximately half of fossil crude. Just like for crude oil, further reprocessing is necessary to arranged pyrolysis oil as fuel in e.g. combustion engines. This thesis des...

  5. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  6. A review of biomass energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews some recent development in biomass utilisation systems in Malaysia. The technology reviewed are direct combustion of biomass , wood briquetting technology, pyrolysis of biomass and gasification of wood in Malaysia

  7. Study of the slow batch pyrolysis of mixtures of plastics, tyres and forestry biomass wastes. Effect of experimental conditions in the liguid compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Paradela, Filipe; Pinto, Filomena; Ramos, Ana M.; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    In this work was studied the effect of experimental conditions in the production of liquid compounds from slow batch pyrolysis of mixtures of plastics, tires and pines wastes. The major compounds formed were toluene, ethylbenzene, and linear alkanes from C5 to C10 (each reaching yields around 5% w/w of the initial waste mixture). The pyrolysis reaction time and temperature improved the production of those species, while decreasing heavier alkanes formation. An increase of plast...

  8. Influence of preparation conditions on the combustion reactivity of chars produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass%生物质焦制备条件对其燃烧反应特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯凯湖; J A DRAHUN; A V BRIDGWATER

    2005-01-01

    The influence of preparation conditions, such as pyrolysis temperature and feed moisture content, on the combustion reactivity of chars produced from spruce wood by the flash pyrolysis has been investigated using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The chars were wood feed containing different moisture contents of 0, 7.0% and 11.3%. It was found that the reactivity of a char in chemical kinetic control regime increased with decreasing pyrolysis temperature, and the volatile matter (VM) content and H/C ratio in chars also increased with decreasing pyrolysis temperature. There may have a direct relationship between the reactivity of chars and the combination of VM and H/C. In addition, chars produced under lower pyrolysis temperature possess higher activation energy and are more sensitive to combustion temperature, compared with those produced under higher pyrolysis temperature. It was found that feed moisture content has only a minor influence on char reactivity but has a significant effect on the volatile material content of chars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. Finally, a simple power-law kinetic model that has been employed to properly describe the char combustion.%在热重分析仪上,研究了生物质焦的制备条件对其燃烧反应特性的影响.生物质焦由闪速裂解技术制得,裂解温度为 748K、773K和823K;原料含水质量分数为 0、7.0%和11.3%.研究发现,生物质焦中挥发性物质的质量分数和H/C质量比随裂解温度的增加而降低,其燃烧反应性随裂解温度的增加而降低;与高裂解温度条件下制得的生物质焦相比,低裂解温度条件下制得的生物质焦具有较高的反应活化能和对燃烧温度更敏感.原料含水量对生物质焦的燃烧反应特性影响很小;但对高裂解温度条件下制得的生物质焦中的挥发性组分含量有较大的影响.简化的生物质焦本征燃烧反应幂函数动力学模型可以很好地描述其燃烧行为.

  9. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the fast pyrolysis process has been explored to produce bio-oil from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is a thermal conversion technology that is performed at a temperatures of 450 - 600 ºC, high biomass heating ratess (100 - 2000 K/s), a short gas residence time (less than 2 s) with no presence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis can convert a large fraction of the biomass to bio-oil, and smaller fractions of char and gas. The pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) has been developed at th...

  10. Energy from biomass and wastes V; Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium, Lake Buena Vista, FL, January 26-30, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papers are presented in the areas of biomass production and procurement, biomass and waste combustion, gasification processes, liquefaction processes, environmental effects and government programs. Specific topics include a water hyacinth wastewater treatment system with biomass production, the procurement of wood as an industrial fuel, the cofiring of densified refuse-derived fuel and coal, the net energy production in anaerobic digestion, photosynthetic hydrogen production, the steam gasification of manure in a fluidized bed, and biomass hydroconversion to synthetic fuels. Attention is also given to the economics of deriving alcohol for power applications from grain, ethanol fermentation in a yeast-immobilized column fermenter, a solar-fired biomass flash pyrolysis reactor, particulate emissions from controlled-air modular incinerators, and the DOE program for energy recovery from urban wastes.

  11. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  12. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  13. Method and a Mobile Unit for Collecting Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A method for collecting biomass, such as straw, and for producing a pyrolysis liquid, such as oil or tar, from the biomass, comprises the step of collecting the biomass from a growth site, e.g. a field, by means of a mobile unit. The biomass is continuously fed into a pyrolysis apparatus (200) ac...... forcing biomass towards a reactive surface in a pyrolysis reactor. The mobile unit may be self-propelled....

  14. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2012 State of Technology and Projections to 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-08-27

    This report summarizes the economic impact of the work performed at PNNL during FY12 to improve fast pyrolysis oil upgrading via hydrotreating. A comparison is made between the projected economic outcome and the actual results based on experimental data. Sustainability metrics are also included.

  15. Design of biomass directive fast pyrolysis installation Ⅰ: system design and process analysis%生物质定向热裂解液化装置的研发Ⅰ:系统设计与工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任学勇; 司慧; 王文亮; 常建民; 车颜喆

    2012-01-01

      To explore the directive transformation mechanism and regulation technology of biomass pyrolysis liquefaction, a biomass directive fast pyrolysis installation with feeding rate of 1 kg/h was designed. It includes feed system, fluidized bed reactor, fixed bed reactor, charcoal removal system, condensing system, online analysis system and monitoring system. This installation is an innovation and integration of several features, such as continuous feeding of solid powder, grading controlled condensation, two catalytic cracking, online real-time analysis, non-condensable gas recycling. It can be used to carry out researches on conversion characteristics of biomass pyrolysis, catalytic mechanism and technology process and selection and evaluation of catalysts, which has great scientific meaning and practical value for the study and development of the bio-energy.%  为了探索生物质热裂解液化过程中的定向转化机制和调控技术,设计开发了一套处理量为1kg/h的生物质定向热裂解液化装置。该装置包括进料系统、流化床反应器、固定床反应器、除炭系统、冷凝系统、在线分析系统、监控系统等。设计和试运行工作表明,本装置实现了固相粉末连续进料、分级可控冷凝、两级催化裂解、在线实时分析、尾气循环利用等功能的创新和集成。该装置可用于研究生物质热裂解转化特性、催化剂遴选与评价、催化机理及工艺、中间产物分析等,对于生物质能源技术发展具备较强的科学意义和实用价值。

  16. A Review of Thermal Co-Conversion of Coal and Biomass/Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime Hilaire Tchapda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is relatively cleaner than coal and is the only renewable carbon resource that can be directly converted into fuel. Biomass can significantly contribute to the world’s energy needs if harnessed sustainably. However, there are also problems associated with the thermal conversion of biomass. This paper investigates and discusses issues associated with the thermal conversion of coal and biomass as a blend. Most notable topics reviewed are slagging and fouling caused by the relatively reactive alkali and alkaline earth compounds (K2O, Na2O and CaO found in biomass ash. The alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM present and dispersed in biomass fuels induce catalytic activity during co-conversion with coal. The catalytic activity is most noticeable when blended with high rank coals. The synergy during co-conversion is still controversial although it has been theorized that biomass acts like a hydrogen donor in liquefaction. Published literature also shows that coal and biomass exhibit different mechanisms, depending on the operating conditions, for the formation of nitrogen (N and sulfur species. Utilization aspects of fly ash from blending coal and biomass are discussed. Recommendations are made on pretreatment options to increase the energy density of biomass fuels through pelletization, torrefaction and flash pyrolysis to reduce transportation costs.

  17. 生物质富氮热解联产高值含氮油炭的理化特性%Physicochemical properties of nitrogen rich in oil and char during biomass nitrogen-rich pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻明; 张世红; 邵敬爱; 陈应泉; 冯磊; 王贤华; 陈汉平

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most important renewable resources. Pyrolysis for producing high value added products provides additional value for biomass energy utilization. Through the introduction of exogenous nitrogen in biomass pyrolysis in nitrogen-rich conditions, it can get high value of nitrogen-containing products, i.e. nitrogen-rich char and oil. In this study, wood chips were used as raw materials. The experiment was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at 350 to 850℃, and the effect of temperature and impregnation ratio(5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) on products yields, compositions and characteristics were investigated. Firstly, wood chips were immersed in different mass fractions of urea solution, stirred for 12 hours with a magnetic mixer at room temperature. The woodchips was then separated from solution by filtration and was dried after for 24 hours in an oven. The dried woodchips was then gone through pyrolysis and the bio-oil obtained at different temperatures was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Derived bio-oil and char were also analyzed for their compositions to trace nitrogen mass transfer. The surface physicochemical property of the char under nitrogen-rich conditions was characterized using a diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With the rise of impregnation ratio, the yield of char and bio-oil had little change. Temperature had a remarkable effect on the yield and nitrogen content of boichar and bio oil. Change of product yields was mainly due to the three components (cellulose, ligin and semicellulose) decomposing at different temperatures, and to the volatilization of the secondary cracking at high temperature. The GC-MS results indicated that after treated with urea solution, biomass pyrolysis oil contains large amounts of nitrogen-containing chemicals that can be used to refine high value-added chemical products. The nitrogen-containing chemicals in the bio-oil mainly include aromatic amine

  18. 内循环串行流化床生物质催化热解试验研究%Experimental Investigation on Biomass Catalytic Pyrolysis in an Internal Interconnected Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶江明; 潘其文; 张会岩; 王邓惠; 何光莹; 肖睿

    2011-01-01

    在处理量为0.2 kg/h的新型内循环串行流化床(IIFB)上进行了生物质催化热解制油的试验研究.以木屑为原料、石英砂为热载体,研究了在没有催化剂条件下反应温度对热解产物分布的影响;以HZSM-5催化剂与石英砂混合物为床料进行了催化热解试验,并对热解产物和反应后的催化剂进行了表征分析.结果表明:反应温度为515℃时,液体产物的收率最高.HZSM-5催化剂的加入促进了气体以及焦炭的生成,使液体产物的收率降低,且催化剂体积分数越大,影响越显著.催化荆表面的积炭经燃烧反应后被除去,催化剂的稳定性得到改善.热解不可冷凝气体的主要成分为CO和CO2,随着热解温度的升高,CO2产量下降,CO和CH4的产量增加.经HZSM-5催化热解后,生物油中的酸、醛和酮类物质含量明显减少,而小分子的烃类与酚类物质含量明显增加,表明催化剂具有明显的脱氧效果.%Experimental study on biomass catalytic pyrolysis for oil production was carried out on a new type internal interconnected fluidized bed (IIFB) with capacity of 0.2 kg/h. Using sawdust as the raw material and quartz sand as the heat carrier, the effect of reaction temperature on distribution of pyrolysis products was studied without catalyst. Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were carried out by using the mixture of HZSM-5 catalyst and quartz sand as the bed material, after which corresponding pyrolysis products and the used catalyst were characterized and analyzed. Results show that the liquid production is the largest at a reaction temperature of 515 ℃. Addition of catalyst HZSM-5 promotes the formation of gas and char, thus reducing the production of liquids. The more volumetric fraction of catalyst is, the more obvious the effect will be. The deposit char on surface of the catalyst is removed by combustion reaction, and the stability of the catalyst is improved. The main compositions of incondensable

  19. Biomass thermochemical conversion. Overview of results; Biomassan jalostus. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The BIOENERGY Programme comprised two research institute projects, one enterprise project and two demonstration projects in 1996. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of the storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants. Development of biomass gasification/gas engine concepts suitable for diesel power plants was also initiated. In addition to techno-economic assessments, experimental work was carried out focusing on the cleaning of gasification gas for engine use. Conversion of by-products from the pulping industry, in particular crude soap, into liquid fuels was studied by laboratory tests. Results obtained within IEA Bioenergy Agreement are also surveyed and a new three-year work plan is presented in the overview. (orig.)

  20. Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere with Conventional and Microwave-Assisted Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Bo-Jhih; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  1. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Jhih eLin; Wei-Hsin eChen

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  2. Torrefaction/biochar production by microwave and conventional slow pyrolysis - comparison of energy properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gronnow, Mark; Budarin, Vitaly; MASEK, Ondrej; Crombie, Kyle; Brownsort, Peter; Shuttleworth, Peter; Hurst, Peter; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    The energy efficiency of torrefaction/pyrolysis of biomass to fuel/biochar was studied using conventional (slow) and microwave (low temperature) pyrolysis. Conventional pyrolysis is approximately three times as energy efficient as microwave pyrolysis, in terms of the energy required to process a unit of feedstock. However, this is more than compensated for by the higher energy content of the condensable and gaseous coproducts from microwave pyrolysis, as these can be utilized to generate the ...

  3. Design of Liner Type Double Heated Biomass Pyrolysis Reactor%新型内胆式双热型生物质热解反应器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李三平; 王述洋; 孙雪; 曹有为

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the cost of the device for preparing bio-oil is very high with low durability. On the other hand, the reactor usually needs exogenous heating. This results in high energy consumption in preparation of bio-oil clean fuel. On the basis of the existing types of fluidized bed reactor design experience, this paper presented a calculation model for designing fluidized biomass pyrolysis reactor. By using the model, a kind of liner type double heated biomass pyrolysis reactor is designed in this paper. Then the main parameters of the reactor are optimized using VB. The optimal reactor is bed diameter 0. 221 m with the height 1.445 m.%为了解决目前生物质制生物燃油清洁燃料装置造价高、需要外源燃料供热、寿命低及生物质制生物燃油清洁燃料能耗高等问题,结合各类流化床反应器的设计经验公式,提出一种流化式生物质热解主反应器设计的计算模型;利用该模型研究并设计了一种内胆式双热型生物质热解主反应器;利用VB对主反应器的主要参数进行了优化设计,得到其主要设计参数为床径为0.221 m,床高为1.445 m,并通过冷态实验进行了验证。

  4. Challenges and perspectives for catalysis in production of diesel from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Søndergaard, Helle; Fehrmann, Rasmus;

    2011-01-01

    oils or waste fats with methanol is the most prominent and has been applied industrially for a decade. Homogeneous acid and base catalysis is normally used, but solid acids, solid bases, ionic liquids and lipases are being developed as replacements. Hydrodeoxygenation of vegetable oils has likewise...... been commercialized. Diesel from biomass may also be produced by catalytic upgrading of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis, by aqueous-phase reforming of carbohydrates into non- or mono-functionalized hydrocarbons via consecutive reduction-condensation reactions, or by gasification of biomass to synthesis...... gas of CO and H2 and liquefaction to alkanes via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Here, the current challenges and perspectives regarding catalysis and raw materials for diesel production from biomass are surveyed. © Future Science Ltd....

  5. Exergy analysis of transportation fuel production via biomass fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing%生物质热解加氢制汽柴油系统的火用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 肖军; 沈来宏; 袁言言

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Aspen Plus simulation of transportation fuels (BTPF)production via biomass fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing,both the flow balance of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen and the exergy analysis of BTPF production system were carried out.Moreover,the parameter sensitivity on the exergy efficiency was also studied.The results indicate that the yield of BTPF is 0.122 kg/kg (dry biomass)and the atom utilization efficiency of carbon converting the biomass into BTPF reaches 24.74%,while 19.79% of the total consumed hydrogen is converted into BTPF.Nearly 38.2% of the total oxygen in bio-oil is removed as CO2 ,and the remaining eliminated in the form of H2 O.The exergy efficiencies of the total system (η+)is 5 9 .9%,while the exergy efficiencies converting biomass into BTPF (η-)reaches 32.8%.The exergy loss of the whole system is mainly caused by the internal irreversibility,approaching nearly 30% and the largest exergy loss occurs in the pyrolysis subsystem. In addition,the pyrolysis temperature is proposed to be 500-550 ℃.Furthermore,the optimal reforming temperature is 750-800 ℃ and the reforming pressure should not be too large.The maximums ofη+ andη- can reach 63.1% and 42.6% respectively with self-supplied hydrogen.%基于生物质热解加氢制汽柴油系统的Aspen Plus模拟,分析了全系统碳氢氧元素的平衡转化过程,并基于火用理论对全系统及各单元进行了用能分析,研究了参数变化对系统火用效率的影响。结果表明:模拟条件下汽柴油产率为0.122 kg/kg生物质(干基);生物质碳的24.74%转化到汽柴油;转化到汽柴油的氢占实际总氢消耗的19.79%;加氢过程生物油氧38.2%以CO2脱除,其余以 H2 O 脱除。全系统总火用效率(η+)和产品火用效率(η-)分别为59.9%和32.8%;全系统火用损以内部不可逆火用损为主,比例达约30%,热解单元是全系统火用损最大的部位。热解适宜温度为450~550℃;重整适宜温度为750~800℃,

  6. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  7. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur; Bijl, Anton; Alst, van Niek; Bramer, Eddy; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been perform

  8. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of pine wood: Effect of successive catalyst regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildiz, Guray; Lathouwers, Tom; Toraman, Hilal Ezgi; Geem, van Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.; Ronsse, Frederik; Duren, van Ruben; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, Wolter

    2014-01-01

    The main product of biomass fast pyrolysis is a liquid mixture of numerous organic molecules with water that is usually called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil. The research discussed in this paper was meant (1) to validate a new, semicontinuously operated pyrolysis setup and (2) to investigate the effect o

  9. Pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil by the steam-iron process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, Mariken Francisca

    2009-01-01

    The steam-iron process is an old process, which was used for the production of hydrogen from cokes at the beginning of the twentieth century. In this thesis the steam-iron process is used to produce pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil. Pyrolysis oil, obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass, is used to f

  10. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O' Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  12. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    This thesis explores the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of pyrolysis oils to syngas and chemicals. First, an exploration of model compounds and their chemistries under CPO conditions is considered. Then CPO experiments of raw pyrolysis oils are detailed. Finally, plans for future development in this field are discussed. In Chapter 2, organic acids such as propionic acid and lactic acid are oxidized to syngas over Pt catalysts. Equilibrium production of syngas can be achieved over Rh-Ce catalysts; alternatively mechanistic evidence is derived using Pt catalysts in a fuel rich mixture. These experiments show that organic acids, present in pyrolysis oils up to 25%, can undergo CPO to syngas or for the production of chemicals. As the fossil fuels industry also provides organic chemicals such as monomers for plastics, the possibility of deriving such species from pyrolysis oils allows for a greater application of the CPO of biomass. However, chemical production is highly dependent on the originating molecular species. As bio oil comprises up to 400 chemicals, it is essential to understand how difficult it would be to develop a pure product stream. Chapter 3 continues the experimentation from Chapter 2, exploring the CPO of another organic functionality: the ester group. These experiments demonstrate that equilibrium syngas production is possible for esters as well as acids in autothermal operation with contact times as low as tau = 10 ms over Rh-based catalysts. Conversion for these experiments and those with organic acids is >98%, demonstrating the high reactivity of oxygenated compounds on noble metal catalysts. Under CPO conditions, esters decompose in a predictable manner: over Pt and with high fuel to oxygen, non-equilibrium products show a similarity to those from related acids. A mechanism is proposed in which ethyl esters thermally decompose to ethylene and an acid, which decarbonylates homogeneously, driven by heat produced at the catalyst surface. Chapter 4

  13. Clean fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  16. Bitumen pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past bitumen was a preferred matrix for the embedding of low and intermediate level radioactive waste: its geological history promised long term stability in final repositories. A great variety of waste has been embedded: technological waste, spent ion exchange resins, concrete, rubble, etc. Liquid waste like evaporator concentrates can be dried and embedded simultaneously in extruders, allowing simple processes and equipment. Unfortunately, during long term intermediate storage the bituminized waste drums proved out being not as stable as expected: a significant number turned out to be no longer acceptable for final disposal, and some of them even needed repacking to enable further intermediate storage. A method to rework such drums with bituminized radioactive waste seems to be urgently needed. Pyrolysis and pyro-hydrolysis (= pyrolysis with water steam added) have a long history for the treatment of organic waste: spent solvent (TBP), spent ion exchange resins, alpha waste (predominantly PVC), etc. Due to its low process temperature and the endothermic character, such processes offer significant safety advantages, as compared to incineration or dissolving in organic solvents. Results of lab-scale investigations and concepts for facilities are presented. (authors)

  17. Substitution of fossil fuels by using low temperature pyrolysis of agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Externally heated rotary kiln pyrolysis reactor is used as a new process technology for the conversion of biomass into useful primary energy products. A 3 MW pyrolysis pilot plant is being operated for a period of two years using agricultural residues. Several analytical methods are applied to provide an insight into the complex process of pyrolysis. Fundamentals for an advanced pyrolysis model approach will be obtained by the results of the pilot plant. (author)

  18. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient light to biomass conversion in photobioreactors is crucial for economically feasible microalgae production processes. It has been suggested that photosynthesis is enhanced in short light path photobioreactors by mixing-induced flashing light regimes. In this study, photosynthetic efficienc

  19. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  20. Sustainable Production of Bio-Combustibles from Pyrolysis of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Volpe; Carmelo D'Anna; Simona Messineo; Roberto Volpe; Antonio Messineo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the sustainability of biomass pyrolysis requires a thorough assessment of the product yields and energy densities. With this purpose, a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor (FBR) was adapted from the standard Gray-King (GK) assay test on coal to conduct fixed bed pyrolysis experiments on agricultural and agro-industrial by-products. The present study provides results on the pyrolysis of two types of biomass: chipped olive tree trimmings (OT) and olive pomace (OP). Solid (char) and...

  1. PYROLYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES FOR OIL AND ACTIVATED CARBON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Occidental Research Corporation (formerly Garrett Research and Development Company, Inc.) has developed a new Flash Pyrolysis process which can produce up to two barrels of synthetic fuel oil from a ton of dry cellulosic solids. This report presents the results of a four-phas...

  2. PYROLYSIS OF MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper provides a historical overview of some 21 U.S. research and development activities associated with municipal/industrial waste and biomass conversion-to-energy pyrolysis technologies. The history begins in the early 1970's and is brought forward to the present. Of the 21...

  3. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esin Apaydin-Varol; Ersan Putun; Ayse E. Putun [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  5. Review of Study on Character and Development of Spouted Circulating Fluidized Bed Equipments for Biomass Fast Pyrolysis%喷动循环流化床生物质快速热解设备的特性分析与发展研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任学勇; 常建民; 王鹏起; 苟进胜; 张立塔; 佟立成

    2009-01-01

    Present situations of domestic and foreign researches on biomass fast pyrolysis devices are summarized.Detailed accounts on spouted bed and circulating fluidized bed are stated and more in-depth analysis on spouted circulating fluidized bed is given.The orientation of research on spouted circulating fluidized bed fast pyrolysis devices is explored.%简要综述了生物质快速热解设备研究的国内外现状,继而详述了喷动床和循环流化床,重点对喷动循环流化床作了较深入的探析,探讨了喷动循环流化床快速热解设备研究的发展方向.

  6. Application of thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence scanning densitometry for analysing saturates in heavy liquids derived from co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebolla, V.L. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain); Matt, M. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences; Membrado, L. [Universite de Metz, Saint-Avold (FR). Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications] [and others

    2002-01-01

    Two alternative methods, based on Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) with Fluorescence Scanning Densitometry have been developed for characterization of heavy liquids from copyrolysis of different kinds of biomass and plastics in autoclaves under inert atmosphere. A conventional TLC system, which includes a vertical developing tank, and a High Performance TLC (HPTLC) system, with a horizontal developing chamber and the use of HPTLC plates, have been used. The analytical method involves in both cases the measurement of two chromatograms per sample: the first, on a silica gel berberine-impregnated plate, for detection of saturates using the phenomenon of berberine-induced fluorescence; and the second, on a silica gel plate, for detection of aromatic-polars and polars, by native fluorescence. Although the HPTLC system is more sensitive and faster, both techniques represent an improvement with regard to current methods for analyzing these kinds of products. However their application depends on the particular solubility of each sample and on its slope of the fluorescent response-sample load regression. (orig.)

  7. Optical Flashes Preceding GRBs

    OpenAIRE

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    2001-01-01

    Only one optical flash associated with a gamma-ray burst has been detected so far by ROTSE. There are also upper limits obtained by several groups for several bursts. Recent model calculations indicate a possibility that optical flash may precede the main GRB. Such flashes are undetectable in the currently popular observing mode, with optical instruments responding to GRB triggers. There is a need to develop all sky optical monitoring system capable of recognizing flashes in real time, and mo...

  8. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  9. Valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae via pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoni, Andrés I; Zunino, Josefina; Piccolo, María C; Volpe, María A

    2016-09-01

    The valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae through pyrolysis for obtaining bio-oils is studied in this work. The reaction is carried out at 400°C, at high contact time. The bio-oil has a practical yield of 35% and is rich in phytol. Besides, it is simpler than the corresponding to lignocellulosic biomass due to the absence of phenolic compounds. This property leads to a bio-oil relatively stable to storage. In addition, heterogeneous catalysts (Al-Fe/MCM-41, SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15), in contact with algae during pyrolysis, are analyzed. The general trend is that the catalysts decrease the concentration of fatty alcohols and other high molecular weight products, since their mild acidity sites promote degradation reactions. Thus, the amount of light products increases upon the use of the catalysts. Particularly, acetol concentration in the bio-oils obtained from the catalytic pyrolysis with SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15 is notably high. PMID:27253478

  10. Comparative Study on the Pyrolysis Behaviors of Corn Stalk and Pine Sawdust Using TG-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云鹏; 丁曼; 窦有权; 樊星; 王月伦; 魏贤勇

    2014-01-01

    The pyrolysis behaviors of corn stalk (CS) and pine sawdust (PS) were investigated with thermogravim-etry-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS). The peak temperature of PS was higher and the main decomposition region shifted to higher temperature compared with CS, which implied that the hemicellulose and cellulose of PS were more ther-mally stable than those of CS. However, the hemicellulose and cellulose of PS were more easily decomposed into gaseous products than those of CS during pyrolysis. The pyrolysis process of biomass can be described by a two-step independent first-order kinetic model. This fundamental study provides a basic insight into the biomass pyrolysis, which is beneficial for understanding the pyrolysis mechanism of biomass and developing an advanced thermal proc-ess for effective utilization of biomass.

  11. Avaliação de biocombustível derivado do bio-óleo obtido por pirólise rápida de biomassa lignocelulósica como aditivo para gasolina Evaluation of biofuel derived from lignocellulosic biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil for use as gasoline addictive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luisa Barbosa Guedes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biofuel was prepared from acid aqueous fraction (pH = 2 of bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis (Bioware Technology of lignocellulosic biomass (sugar cane residue and tested in blends (2, 5, 10 e 20% v/v with gasoline type C (common marketed in Brazil. The specification tests made in the Refinery President Getúlio Vargas (PETROBRAS showed increasing in the octane number (MON and antiknock index (AKI with reduction in the residue generation during the combustion. The physicochemical characteristics of the biofuel were similar that combustible alcohol allowing its use as gasoline additive.

  12. Foundation Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Goralski, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to Flash Catalyst for designers with intermediate to advanced skills. It discusses where Catalyst sits within the production process and how it communicates with other programs. It covers all of the features of the Flash Catalyst workspace, teaching you how to create designs from scratch, how to build application designs and add functionality, and how to master the Catalyst/Flex workflow. * Introduces Flash Catalyst * Focuses on production process * Covers the interrelation between Flash Catalyst and Photoshop/Illustrator/Flex/Flash What you'll learn Starting f

  13. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica;

    2014-01-01

    can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed by dehy-dration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of the product are mostly de-pendent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass consists of various com-ponents such as......Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided into...... biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass into...

  14. Influence of oily wastes on the pyrolysis of scrap tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hazardous oily wastes generated from ships was converted to useful fuel. • Fuel characteristic of oil derived scrap tire was improved. • Co-pyrolysis of scrap tire with oily wastes showed an environmental alternative to direct combustion. - Abstract: The co-pyrolysis of scrap tires with oily wastes from ships (bilge water oil and oily sludge) was studied to investigate the effect of oily wastes on the pyrolysis of scrap tire. Co-pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor in the absence and the presence of catalyst at 500 °C. The catalysts used in the pyrolysis were a commercial refinery catalyst and an industrial by-product containing iron. The fuel characteristics and chemical compositions of pyrolysis products were characterized by means of chromatographic, spectroscopic and standard ASTM methods. Although, the oily wastes did not affect the product yields from the pyrolysis of scrap tire, they improved the fuel characteristics of scrap tire derived oils. The fuel characteristics of co-pyrolysis oils (except flash point and sulfur content) had similar fuel characteristic with the commercial diesel. It was also found that the amounts of metal impurities in all pyrolytic oils were smaller than 0.3 ppm, which was a significantly low amount compared with those in the original oily wastes. Gross calorific values of pyrolysis gases were found to be in the range of 20.4–26.4 MJ Nm−3. It was concluded that co-pyrolysis of scrap tire with oily wastes could be an environmentally friendly way for the conversion of disposable and hazardous wastes such as scrap tires, bilge water oil and oily sludge into fuels

  15. Comparison of combustion and pyrolysis for energy generation in a sugarcane mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biomass to energy processes for sugarmills via combustion and pyrolysis are modelled. • Models compared based on technical and economic performance for two mill efficiencies. • Combustion more suited for sugar mill energy supply. • Pyrolysis based models have higher overall process efficiencies. • Pyrolysis contributes more towards environmental mitigation but is less profitable. - Abstract: The study focusses on the comparison of biomass to energy conversion process (BMECP) models to convert sugar mill biomass (bagasse) into energy products via combustion and pyrolysis as thermochemical pathways. Bagasse was converted to steam and electricity via combustion using 40 bar, 63 bar and 82 bar Condensing Extraction Steam Turbines (CEST) systems and a 30 bar back pressure steam turbine (BPST) system. Two BMECPs, namely partial fast pyrolysis and pure fast pyrolysis systems, were modeled for the pyrolysis pathway. In the Pure Fast Pyrolysis BMECP all the input bagasse stream was converted to pyrolysis products, with subsequent combustion of some of these products to generate steam and electricity for sugar mill operations. In the partial fast pyrolysis BMECP, a fraction of the bagasse is combusted directly to supply steam and electricity to the sugar mill, while the remaining fraction is pyrolyzed to generate pyrolysis products. All process models were simulated in AspenPlus® and were assessed on their ability to supply the energy requirement of to two sugar mill scenarios: More efficient mill and less efficient mill. The economic viability of BMECPs was determined using Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Both combustion based and pyrolysis based BMECPs were capable of meeting the energy requirement of the sugar mill, although the pyrolysis based BMECP had limited steam and electricity production rates due to the accumulation of energy in pyrolysis products. High energy valued pyrolysis products resulted in higher overall process efficiencies of 85

  16. Slow pyrolysis in a rotary kiln reactor : optimization and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Luka Zajec

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is the fourth largest source of energy worldwide after coal, oil and natural gas. Among the various technologies encompassing biomass energy conversion, some may be considered to have reached a level of technological development which allows use on an industrial scale while others require further testing to increase yields and reduce costs of energy conversion and management. The thermochemic conversion of biomass (pyrolysis, gasification, combustion) represents the most promising te...

  17. Life cycle assessment of electricity generation using fast pyrolysis bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiqing; Alward, Matthew; Klinger, Jordan; Sadehvandi, Adam; Shonnard, David R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Kalnes, Tom N. [UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, 25 East Algonquin Road, Des Plaines 60016, IL (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Biomass is expected to become an important energy source in U.S. electricity generation under state-lead renewable portfolio standards. This paper investigated the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for energy generated from forest resources through pyrolysis-based processing. The GHG emissions of producing pyrolysis bio-oil (pyrolysis oil) from different forest resources were first investigated; logging residues collected from natural regeneration mixed hardwood stands, hybrid poplar cultivated and harvested from abandoned agricultural lands, short rotation forestry (SRF) willow plantations and waste wood available at the site of the pyrolysis plant. Effects of biomass transportation were investigated through a range of distances to a central pyrolysis facility through road transport by semi-truck. Pyrolysis oil is assumed to be converted to electrical power through co-combustion in conventional fossil fuels power plants, gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) and diesel generators. Life cycle GHG emissions were compared with power generated using fossil fuels and power generated using biomass direct combustion in a conventional Rankine power plant. Life cycle GHG savings of 77%-99% were estimated for power generation from pyrolysis oil combustion relative to fossil fuels combustion, depending on the biomass feedstock and combustion technologies used. Several scenario analyses were conducted to determine effects of pyrolysis oil transportation distance, N-fertilizer inputs to energy crop plantations, and assumed electricity mixes for pyrolysis oil production. (author)

  18. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Adilah Shariff; Nurhayati Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS) and cassava rhizome (CR). The...

  19. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  1. Fast Pyrolysis of Agricultural Wastes in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. H.; Chen, H. P.; Yang, H. P.; Dai, X. M.; Zhang, S. H.

    Solid biomass can be converted into liquid fuel through fast pyrolysis, which is convenient to be stored and transported with potential to be used as a fossil oil substitute. In China, agricultural wastes are the main biomass materials, whose pyrolysis process has not been researched adequately compared to forestry wastes. As the representative agricultural wastes in China, peanut shell and maize stalk were involved in this paper and pine wood sawdust was considered for comparing the different pyrolysis behaviors of agricultural wastes and forestry wastes. Fast pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The bio-oil yieldsof peanut shell and maize stalk were obviously lower than that ofpine sawdust. Compared with pine sawdust, the char yields of peanut shell and maize stalk were higher but the heating value of uncondensable gaswas lower. This means that the bio-oil cost will be higher for agricultural wastes if taking the conventional pyrolysis technique. And the characteristic and component analysis resultsof bio-oil revealed that the quality of bio-oil from agricultural wastes, especially maize stalk, was worse than that from pine wood. Therefore, it is important to take some methods to improve the quality of bio-oilfrom agricultural wastes, which should promote the exploitation of Chinese biomass resources through fast pyrolysis in afluidized bed reactor.

  2. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  3. Pro Android Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Stephen; Campesato, Oswald

    2011-01-01

    Did you know you can take your Flash skills beyond the browser, allowing you to make apps for Android, iOS and the BlackBerry Tablet OS? Build dynamic apps today starting with the easy-to-use Android smartphones and tablets. Then, take your app to other platforms without writing native code. Pro Android Flash is the definitive guide to building Flash and other rich Internet applications (RIAs) on the Android platform. It covers the most popular RIA frameworks for Android developers - Flash and Flex - and shows how to build rich, immersive user experiences on both Android smartphones and tablet

  4. Slow catalytic pyrolysis of rapeseed cake: Product yield and characterization of the pyrolysis liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Koen; Roukaerts, A.; Czech, Jan; REGGERS, Guy; Schreurs, Sonja; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The performance of three catalysts during slow catalytic pyrolysis of rapeseed cake from 150 to 550 degrees C over a time period of 20 min followed by an isothermal period of 30 min at 550 degrees C was investigated. Na2CO3 was premixed with the rapeseed cake, while gamma-Al2O3 and HZSM-5 were tested without direct biomass contact. Catalytic experiments resulted in lower liquid and higher gas yields. The total amount of organic compounds in the pyrolysis liquid was considerably reduced by the...

  5. A review of recent laboratory research and commercial developments in fast pyrolysis and upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Eoin; Devlin, Ger; Meier, Dietrich; McDonnell, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Robust alternative technology choices are required in the paradigm shift from the current crude oil-reliant transport fuel platform to a sustainable, more flexible transport infrastructure. In this vein, fast pyrolysis of biomass and upgrading of the product is deemed to have potential as a technology solution. The objective of this review is to provide an update on recent laboratory research and commercial developments in fast pyrolysis and upgrading techniques. Fast pyrolysis is a relativel...

  6. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  7. Challenges for sustainable biomass utilisation. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiete, Michael; Ludwig, Jens; Bidart, Christian; Schultmann, Frank (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The energetic use of biomass can provide solutions for the growing worldwide demand for energy and fuel. This book contains the contributions for the final workshop of the ''Biociclo'' research exchange between the Universidad de Concepcion and the Universitaet Karlsruhe. It reflects interdisciplinarity of the workshop's participants with contributed papers about Biomass Utilization Paths in Chile, Pyrolysis and Life-Cycle Assessment of Biomass and Logistic Concepts of Biomass Utilization Concepts. (orig.)

  8. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsudin Syamsudin; Herri Susanto; Subagjo Subagjo

    2014-01-01

    Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis), this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been ...

  9. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  10. Simultaneous fast pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of lignin to obtain a marine diesel fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng

    The topic of this Ph.D. project is to convert lignin, a by-product from a 2nd generation bio-ethanol plant, into a marine diesel fuel by fast pyrolysis followed with catalytic upgrading of the pyrolysis vapor. Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is underutilized in the 2nd...

  11. Effects of various reactive gas atmospheres on the properties of bio-oil using microwave pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass produces organic liquids (bio-oil), bio-char, water, and non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gas component typically contains syngas (H2, CO and CO2) as well as small hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, and C3H8). Tail Gas Reactive Pyrolysis (TGRP), a patent p...

  12. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  13. Model-free pyrolysis kinetics of sunflower seed and its de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower seed wastes from oil production are a potential biomass source for bio- energy production due to extensive and excessive oil production from sunflower seeds. Considering global energy requirement, pyrolysis seems a promising route for utilisation of such industrial biomass wastes. To develop, scale-up and operate pyrolysis plants efficiently, a fundamental understanding of pyrolysis behaviour and kinetics is essential. In this study, sunflower seeds and their waste cakes after extraction were evaluated as a potential biomass feedstock in pyrolysis process. In order to enlighten pyrolytic degradation behaviours, samples were pyrolysed under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C using multiple heating rates. The main degradation regimes of the structures were characterized by high weight loss rates. Reaction kinetics was investigated with respect to conversion degree. It is anticipated that this study will be beneficial in optimizing the thermochemical processes, which may be utilize industrial biomass wastes. (full text)

  14. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    incineration capacity, but also a better ability of gasification over incineration to preserve the chemical energy of the waste is important. This chapter provides an overview of pyrolysis and gasification processes related to waste, the technology involved, energy recovery options, and important environmental......Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall...

  15. Pyrolysis oil upgrading for Co-processing in standard refinery units

    OpenAIRE

    De Miguel Mercader, Ferran

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the route that comprises the upgrading of pyrolysis oil (produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass) and its further co-processing in standard refineries to produce transportation fuels. In the present concept, pyrolysis oil is produced where biomass is available and then transported to a central upgrading unit. This unit is located next or inside a standard petroleum refinery, enabling the use of existing facilities. The obtained product can be further distributed using exi...

  16. Fractional Catalytic Pyrolysis Technology for the Production of Upgraded Bio-oil using FCC Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Mante, Nii Ofei Daku

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis technology is one of the thermochemical platforms used to produce high quality bio-oil and chemicals from biomass feedstocks. In the catalytic pyrolysis process, the biomass is rapidly heated under inert atmosphere in the presence of an acid catalyst or zeolite to promote deoxygenation and cracking of the primary vapors into hydrocarbons and small oxygenates. This dissertation examines the utilization of conventional fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst in the fractiona...

  17. PYROLYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES: INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE YIELDS AND COMPOSITION OF GASEOUS PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Azri Sukiran; Loh Soh Kheang; Nasrin Abu Bakar; Choo Yuen May

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing concern on fossil fuel depletion and environmental problems, the utilization of renewable biomass resources is expected to play an important role in the future. Biomass can be converted into a variety of fuels and chemicals by different processes; one of which is pyrolysis that has been subjected to extensive research in recent years. In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) was investigated using a quartz fluidised-fixed bed reactor. The effects of p...

  18. Contributions at the DGMK conference ''conversion of biomass''. Conference report; Beitraege zur DGMK-Fachbereichstagung ''Konversion von Biomassen''. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference from 19th to 21st March 2012 in Rotenburg a.d. Fulda (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Biorefineries in the context of the considerations on a future bio economy (K. Wagemann); (2) Characterisation of ethylene glycol - pyrolysis coke slurries, the model fuel of bioliq {sup registered} gasifier (T. Nicoleit); (3) Additional gas generation from fermentation residues amounting to 25 % of the balanced yield of biogas due to the energy content (T. Lehmann); (4) Production of phenols from lignin by means of flash pyrolysis in a circulating fluidised bed - process development and product analytics (M. Franck); (5) Impact of the conditions of torrefication on the temporal decrease in mass of single particles of biomass (A. Becker); (6) Lignins to Aromatic compounds. The Base catalysed degradation in continuous reactors - a tentative review (D. Schmiedl); (7) Thermogravimetric investigations of the pyrolytic degradation of different residues of biomass (G. Pena Chipatecua); (8) Field test campaign for SOFC units with gasification product gas as a preliminary for the SOFC based cogeneration (S. Martini); (9) One-zone-model for pour reactors of industrial size (U. Hellwig); (10) On the actual state of the thermochemical gasification of biomass in Germany at the beginning of 2012 (D. Braekow); (11) Production of green hydrogen based on syngas from biomass gasification (H. Tautz); (12) The BioSyn process - biomass gasification for the generation of syngas free of tar (L. Rochlitz); (13) Efficiency and framework conditions of AER biomass gasification (J. Breilochs); (14) Processing and cleaning of syngas from biomass (S. Vodegel); (15) Processing of product gas from gasification of biomass by means of heat extraction with hot gas cooler with integrated structure pipes and tar extraction with quenching and wet electro filter (C. Hamel); (16) Comparing tests of catalyst for reforming tar and methane in product gases

  19. Understanding Green Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  20. Water content of pyrolysis oil: Comparison between Karl Fischer titration, GC/MS-corrected azeotropic distillation and H-1 NMR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Koen; Adriaensens, Peter; VANDEWIJNGAARDEN, Jens; STALS, Mark; Cornelissen, Tom; Schreurs, Sonja; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis converts biomass waste mainly into pyrolysis oil, which is a possible source of renewable energy and/or value-added chemicals. A very important characteristic of pyrolysis oil is its water content. Karl Fischer titration and azeotropic distillation by the Dean-Stark method are two common techniques for water determination. In this study, the water content is determined for several pyrolysis oil samples with a wide range in water content and/or originating from different types of bio...

  1. Effect of torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis on the pyrolysis poly-generation of pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Deng, Minsi; Wang, Jiayang; Chen, Miao; Yan, Bei; Yuan, Qiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Torrefaction of pine wood was performed in a tube furnace at three temperatures (220, 250, and 280°C) for 30min. Then catalytic pyrolysis of raw and torrefied pine wood was performed using HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor at 550°C for 15min. Torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis have an very important effect on the yield, property, and energy distribution of pyrolysis products. The results showed that the yield of biochar rapidly increased, while that of bio-oil decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature. The oxy-compound content of bio-oil, such as acids and aldehydes, sharply decreased. However, the aromatic hydrocarbon content not only increased but also further promoted by HZSM-5 catalyst. With highest mass yields and energy yields, biochar was also the very important product of pyrolysis. The oxygen content in biomass was mainly removed in the form of CO2 and H2O, leading to increasing CO2 content in non-condensable gas. PMID:27183238

  2. 基于TG-FTIR的杨木热解过程中脲醛树脂影响机理的模型物研究%Influence of Urea Formaldehyde Resin on Pyrolysis of Biomass:A Modeling Study by TG-FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思锦; 母军; 张宇

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an efficient and recycling way to utilize waste wood-based panels,in which urea-formaldehyde resin (UF) is the main difference between wood-based board and other kinds of biomass.The present paper studied the three main compo-nents (cellulose,hemicelluloses,lignin)of poplar wood,in order to effectively and environmentally utilize or dispose of waste wood-based panels with pyrolysis technique,to study the influence of urea formaldehyde resin on pyrolytic characteristic of wood during the process of the pyrolysis of waste wood-based panels,and to in-depth explore the mechanism of the effect of UF on each component of wood.Innovatively,the weight-loss character and gas evolution rule of the model (made from cellulose,xylan and lignin,based on the chemical components stud of poplar wood),the main components as well as the ones mixed with UF were analyzed by TG-FTIR (thermogravimetric analyzer coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer).Results indicated that UF promoted the generation of water and carboxylic acid substances during the cellulose pyrolysis process.UF combined with lignin,formed some kind of unstable nitrogenous structure which produced a large amount of NH3 ,which took part in the low-temperature (200~300 ℃)pyrolysis of lignin,and directly affected the production of pyrolysis products.It can be conclu-ded that during the process of the pyrolysis of waste wood-based panels,lignin was the one that UF mainly impacted among the three main components of wood.%热解是废弃人造板高效回收利用的方式,人造板中所含胶黏剂是其不同于生物质的主要特征。为了有效环保地利用热解技术处理废弃人造板,解明人造板热解过程中其所含脲醛树脂胶黏剂(UF)对木材热解特性的影响,深入探索UF对人造板中木材各组分的作用机制,以杨木及木材的三种主要组分(纤维素、半纤维素、木素)为研究对象,创新性地依据杨木的化

  3. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  4. Review of the Pyrolysis Platform for Producing Bio-oil and Biochar: Technology, Logistics, and Potential Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Water Quality, Soil Quality, and Agricultural Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and robust thermochemical technology for transforming biomass into bio-oil, biochar, and syngas. The robust nature of the pyrolysis technology, which allows considerable flexibility in both the type and quality of the biomass feedstock, combined with a ...

  5. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  6. Calorimetry with flash chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flash chambers used in the Fermilab E594 neutrino experiment are described, and their use in a calorimeter discussed. Resolutions obtained with a calibration beam are presented, and comments made about the pattern recognition capabilities of the calorimeter

  7. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... In Europe during World War II, wood-fueled gasifiers (or ‘gas generators’) were used to power cars during shortages of oil-based fuels. Sparked by oil price crises in 1970s and 1980s, further development in gasification technologies focused mainly on coal as a fuel to substitute for oil...

  8. Impact of thermal pretreatment on the fast pyrolysis conversion of Southern Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler L. Westover; Manunya Phanphanich; Micael L. Clark; Sharna R. Rowe; Steven E. Egan; Christopher T Wright; Richard D. Boardman; Alan H. Zacher

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thermal pretreatment of biomass ranges from simple (nondestructive) drying to more severe treatments that cause devolatization, depolymerization and carbonization. These pretreatments have demonstrated promise for transforming raw biomass into feedstock material that has improved milling, handling, storage and conversion properties. In this work, southern pine material was pretreated at 120, 180, 230 and 270 degrees C, and then subjected to pyrolysis tests in a continuous-feed bubbling-fluid bed pyrolysis system. Results: High pretreatment temperatures were associated with lower specific grinding energies, higher grinding rates and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents. Higher pretreatment temperatures were also correlated with increased char production, decreased total acid number and slight decrease in the oxygen content of the pyrolysis liquid fraction. Conclusion: Thermal pretreatment has both beneficial and detrimental impacts on fast pyrolysis conversion of pine material to bio-oil, and the effect of thermal pretreatment on upgrading of pyrolysis bio-oil requires further attention.

  9. Pyrolysis of wood in arc plasma for syngas production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Hlína, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2006), s. 557-570. ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma pyrolysis * gasfication * syngas * thermal plasma * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.343, year: 2006

  10. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  11. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  12. FAST PYROLYSIS OF LIGNINS

    OpenAIRE

    Sedat Beis; Saikrishna Mukkamala; Nathan Hill; Jincy Joseph; Cirila Baker; Bruce Jensen; Elizabeth Stemmler; Clayton Wheeler; Brian Frederick; Adriaan van Heiningen; Alex Berg; William Joseph DeSisto

    2010-01-01

    Three lignins: Indulin AT, LignoboostTM, and Acetocell lignin, were characterized and pyrolyzed in a continuous-fed fast pyrolysis process. The physical and chemical properties of the lignins included chemical composition, heat content, ash, and water content. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was used to describe the pyrolysis of each lignin. Activation energy distributions of each lignin were quite different and generally covered a broad range of energies, typically found in li...

  13. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  14. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  15. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel

  16. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  17. Effect of dry torrefaction on kinetics of catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyanto, Sutijan, Deendarlianto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Decreasing world reserve of fossil resources (i.e. petroleum oil, coal and natural gas) encourage discovery of renewable resources as subtitute for fossil resources. Biomass is one of the main natural renewable resources which is promising resource as alternate resources to meet the world's energy needs and raw material to produce chemical platform. Conversion of biomass, as source of energy, fuel and biochemical, is conducted using thermochemical process such as pyrolysis-gasification process. Pyrolysis step is an important step in the mechanism of pyrolysis - gasification of biomass. The objective of this study is to obtain the kinetic reaction of catalytic pyrolysis of dry torrified sugarcane bagasse which used Ca and Mg as catalysts. The model of kinetic reaction is interpreted using model n-order of single reaction equation of biomass. Rate of catalytic pyrolysis reaction depends on the weight of converted biomass into char and volatile matters. Based on TG/DTA analysis, rate of pyrolysis reaction is influenced by the composition of biomass (i.e. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) and inorganic component especially alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM). From this study, it has found two equations rate of reaction of catalytic pyrolysis in sugarcane bagasse using catalysts Ca and Mg. First equation is equation of pyrolysis reaction in rapid zone of decomposition and the second equation is slow zone of decomposition. Value of order reaction for rapid decomposition is n > 1 and for slow decomposition is npyrolysis of dry-torrified sugarcane bagasse with presence of Ca tend to higher than that's of presence of Mg.

  18. Aqueous extractive upgrading of bio-oils created by tail-gas reactive pyrolysis to produce pure hydrocarbons and phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tail-gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP) of biomass produces bio-oil that is lower in oxygen (~15 wt% total) and significantly more hydrocarbon-rich than traditional bio-oils or even catalytic fast pyrolysis. TGRP bio-oils lend themselves toward mild and inexpensive upgrading procedures. We isolated oxyge...

  19. Hydrotreatment of wood-based pyrolysis oil using zirconia-supported mono- and bimetallic (Pt, Pd, Rh) catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyanti, A. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Honkela, M. L.; Krause, A. O. I.; Heeres, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis oil (PO), the liquid product of fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, requires upgrading to extent its application range and for instance to allow for co-feeding in an existing oil-refinery. Catalytic hydrotreatment reactions (350 degrees C, 20 MPa total pressure, and 4h reaction

  20. Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin Using a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sárossy, Zsuzsa;

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of lignin from an ethanol plant was investigated on a lab scale pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) with respect to pyrolysis temperature, reactor gas residence time, and feed rate. A maximal organic oil yield of 34 wt % dry basis (db) (bio-oil yield of 43 wt % db) is obtained at...

  1. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  2. Theory of optical flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of optical flashes created by x- and γ-ray burst heating of stars in binaries is reviewed. Calculations of spectra due to steady-state x-ray reprocessing and estimates of the fundamental time scales for the non-steady case are discussed. The results are applied to the extant optical data from x-ray and γ-ray bursters. Finally, I review predictions of flashes from γ-ray bursters detectable by a state of the art all-sky optical monitor

  3. Releasing behavior of chlorine and fluorine during agricultural waste pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The releasing behavior of chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F) during agricultural waste pyrolysis was investigated using a fixed-bed pyrolysis system with pyrohydrolytic-ion chromatography and thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. Agricultural waste contains a large amount of Cl-bearing species, among which approximately 30% is easily released with biomass drying. During biomass pyrolysis, Cl-bearing species evolve out rapidly to the gas phase, and higher temperature is favorable for the releasing. The releasing process can be divided into two ranges: the fast evaporating range (200–600 °C) and slow evaporating range (600–1000 °C). F shows similar transforming behavior. However, higher temperature is preferred for the release. Thermodynamic simulation shows that Cl mainly exists as KCl(g) at higher temperatures (>600 °C) with some HCl(g) and K2Cl2(g) as intermediate species at lower temperatures (<600 °C), whereas F mainly releases as SiF4 at higher temperatures (>500 °C) with SF5Cl being the dominant F-bearing species at lower temperatures (<500 °C). - Highlights: • The releasing behavior of fluorine during biomass pyrolysis was first studied. • The proportions of Cl and F in different products were examined. • Experiment and simulation were conducted to study the in-depth mechanism

  4. Comparison of the pyrolysis behavior of lignins from different tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shurong; Wang, Kaige; Liu, Qian; Gu, Yueling; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa; Fransson, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of biomass pyrolysis, little is known about the pyrolysis behavior of lignin--one of the main components of biomass--due to its structural complexity and the difficulty in its isolation. In the present study, we extracted lignins from Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandschurica) and Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) using the Bjorkman procedure, which has little effect on the structure of lignin. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry was used to characterize the microstructure of the Bjorkman lignins, i.e., milled wood lignins (MWLs), from the different tree species. The pyrolysis characteristics of MWLs were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer, and the release of the main volatile and gaseous products of pyrolysis were detected by FTIR spectroscopy. During the pyrolysis process, MWLs underwent thermo-degradation over a wide temperature range. Manchurian ash MWL showed a much higher thermal degradation rate than Mongolian Scots pine MWL in the temperature range from 290-430 degrees C. High residue yields were achieved at 37 wt.% for Mongolian Scots pine MWL and 26 wt.% for Manchurian ash MWL. In order to further investigate the mechanisms of lignin pyrolysis, we also analyzed the FTIR profiles for the main pyrolysis products (CO(2), CO, methane, methanol, phenols and formaldehyde) and investigated the variation in pyrolysis products between the different MWLs. PMID:19393737

  5. Solar Assisted Fast Pyrolysis: A Novel Approach of Renewable Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Joardder, Mohammad U. H.; Halder, P. K.; A. Rahim; Paul, N

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel produced by fast pyrolysis from biomass is a promising candidate. The heart of the system is a reactor which is directly or indirectly heated to approximately 500°C by exhaust gases from a combustor that burns pyrolysis gas and some of the by-product char. In most of the cases, external biomass heater is used as heating source of the system while internal electrical heating is recently implemented as source of reactor heating. However, this heating system causes biomass or other conve...

  6. Learning Flash CS4 Professional

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, Rich

    2009-01-01

    Learning Flash CS4 Professional offers beginners and intermediate Flash developers a unique introduction to the latest version of Adobe's powerful multimedia application. This easy-to-read book is loaded with full-color examples and hands-on tasks to help you master Flash CS4's new motion editor, integrated 3D system, and character control using the new inverse kinematics bones animation system. No previous Flash experience is necessary.

  7. Perspectives for pyrolysis oil production and market in Scandinavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial power production from biomass is mainly based on various combustion technologies, new gasification technologies being on pilot and demonstration scale in Europe. From the market viewpoint, there will be an attractive and large market volume for small and medium-scale combined heat and power production (CHP) and for liquid bioenergy products in order to meet the Kyoto challenges in Europe by the year 2010. Biomass pyrolysis technology offers a novel method of converting solid biomass to a liquid product which can easily be transported, stored and utilised for electricity production by diesel engines and gas turbines. The overall efficiency in pyrolysis oil production can be increased from 65 to 90 % (LHV) by integrating the big-oil production to a conventional boiler plant, the-system identified by VTT. A modern diesel power plant has an efficiency of 40 - 44 % with a high power-to-heat ratio. Parallel to diesel power plants, the big-oil can be used in existing heating oil boilers with minor burner modifications. The paper comprises an overview of market assessments in Scandinavia and a summary of pyrolysis oil production, stability and properties tests. The challenge of today is to understand and improve the properties of pyrolysis oils in order to reach a 12-month storage time without any changes in the homogeneity of pyrolysis oils. Reliable operation of oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants has to be demonstrated. As soon as these problems have been solved, biomass pyrolysis technologies will offer new attractive bioenergy market opportunities where a huge potential can be reached by conversing existing petroleum-fired boilers, 0.1 - 10 MW to big-oils and followed by combined heat and power production with high-efficiency diesel power plants in 0.1 - 10 MW scale. Pyrolysis technology is clearly the most attractive method for producing liquid biofuels, compared to bioalcohols and biodiesel. With the present price structure, pyrolysis oil can be

  8. A steady state model of agricultural waste pyrolysis: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninić, M; Jovović, A; Stojiljković, D

    2016-09-01

    Agricultural waste is one of the main renewable energy resources available, especially in an agricultural country such as Serbia. Pyrolysis has already been considered as an attractive alternative for disposal of agricultural waste, since the technique can convert this special biomass resource into granular charcoal, non-condensable gases and pyrolysis oils, which could furnish profitable energy and chemical products owing to their high calorific value. In this regard, the development of thermochemical processes requires a good understanding of pyrolysis mechanisms. Experimental and some literature data on the pyrolysis characteristics of corn cob and several other agricultural residues under inert atmosphere were structured and analysed in order to obtain conversion behaviour patterns of agricultural residues during pyrolysis within the temperature range from 300 °C to 1000 °C. Based on experimental and literature data analysis, empirical relationships were derived, including relations between the temperature of the process and yields of charcoal, tar and gas (CO2, CO, H2 and CH4). An analytical semi-empirical model was then used as a tool to analyse the general trends of biomass pyrolysis. Although this semi-empirical model needs further refinement before application to all types of biomass, its prediction capability was in good agreement with results obtained by the literature review. The compact representation could be used in other applications, to conveniently extrapolate and interpolate these results to other temperatures and biomass types. PMID:27281226

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock

  11. Jaan Toomik Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1999. a. mai-juuni 'Flash Artis' on ajakirja Eesti korrespondendi Ando Keskküla artikkel Jaan Toomikust. Jaan Toomik on kutsutud esinema Londoni The Photographers' Gallery grupinäitusele, tema videot 'Father and Son' näidatakse Londonis avataval näitusel 'Near and Elsewhere' 11.-24. juunini

  12. Inessa Josing Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    'Flash Art'i' 1998. a. nov.-dets. numbris Rosa Martínezi artiklis suvisest Manifesta II näitusest Luxembourg'is on positiivselt mainitud ka Inessa Josingut. Illustratsiooniks toodud seitsmest fotost ühel on I. Josingu aknakujundus 'What Must I Do to be Saved?'

  13. Flashes and Floaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as being hit by a fist, a ball, etc). Signs and Symptoms Although you cannot see floaters or flashes just by looking at the eye, you know you have them when you see: Sparks of light. Shooting stars of light. Lightening-like bolts of ...

  14. Flashpunk: videojuegos en Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Matilla, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Memoria del proyecto Flashpunk: videojuegos en Flash que explica cómo funciona y da una opinión de su utilidad, así como un análisis. También se incluyen los archivos de un juego hecho con Flashpunk a modo de ejemplo.

  15. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared with the...

  16. The pyrolytic mechanism of the main components in woody biomass and their interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    The global demand of the volume of woody biomass (such as wood, logging residue, sawdust and so on) is huge and increased annually, due to its new application for the energy/fuel production during recent years. Pyrolysis is termed as a promising thermo-chemical technology to convert woody biomass to liquid, gas and solid fuels/chemicals. The better understanding of the pyrolysis mechanism of woody biomass is demanding considering the thermal performance of individual components (hemicellul...

  17. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: PYROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere; actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of...

  18. Solid Fuel Blend Pyrolysis-Combustion Behavior and Fluidized Bed Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    As a carbon neutral and renewable source of energy, biomass carries a high potential to help sustain the future energy demand. The co-firing of coal and biomass mixtures is an alternative fuel route for the existing coal based reactors. The main challenges associated with co-firing involves proper understanding of the co-firing behavior of blended coal-biomass fuels, and proper understanding of advanced gasification systems used for converting such blended fuels to energy. The pyrolysis a...

  19. TG-FTIR Study of the Influence of potassium Chloride on Wheat Straw Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wójtowicz, M.A.;

    1998-01-01

    The interest in utilizing biomass as a CO2 neutral fuel by combustion, gasification or pyrolysis processes is increasing due to concern about the emission of green house gases from fossil fuel combustion. In thermal fuel conversion, pyrolysis is an important step which determines the split of...... biomass. Combustion of the char remaining after pyrolysis showed that char combustion is catalyzed by the minerals present in wheat straw. Char from the washed straw with KCl added burned with two peaks in the derivative weight loss curve corresponding to a catalyzed and non-catalyzed part, indicating...... products into char, tar and gas. In this work, a combination of thermogravimetry and evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared analysis (TG-FTIR) has been applied to study the influence of potassium chloride (KCl) on wheat straw pyrolysis. Raw straw, washed straw and washed straw impregnated with...

  20. The IPRP (Integrated Pyrolysis Regenerated Plant) technology: From concept to demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► IPRP technology development for distributed conversion of biomass and wastes. ► IPRP demonstrative unit combines a rotary kiln pyrolyzer to a 80 kWe microturbine. ► Main performances and critical issues are pointed out for different residual fuels. -- Abstract: The concept of integrated pyrolysis regenerated plant (IPRP) is based on a Gas Turbine (GT) fuelled by pyrogas produced in a rotary kiln slow pyrolysis reactor, where waste heat from GT is used to sustain the pyrolysis process. The IPRP plant provides a unique solution for microscale (below 250 kW) power plants, opening a new and competitive possibility for distributed biomass or wastes to energy conversion systems. The paper summarizes the state of art of the IPRP technology, from preliminary numerical simulation to pilot plant facility, including some new available data on pyrolysis gas from laboratory and pilot plants.

  1. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. PMID:27367811

  2. Autothermal fluidized bed pyrolysis of Cuban pine sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, J.; Beaton, P. [University of the Orient, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Zanzi, R.; Grimm, A. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2006-06-15

    Oxidative pyrolysis of Cuban pine sawdust was investigated using an autothermal fluidized bed reactor. Biomass particles were fed continuously (8.13 Kg/h) in a bed, fluidized by air gas. Experiments were conduced at three different dimensionless air factors 1, 1.5, and 2 (defined as ratio of actual air flow rate to stoichiometric air flow rate). The various physical and chemical characteristics of the pyrolysis products acquired in these conditions were identified. The results indicated that (1) the operating temperature can be correlated with the air factor; (2) the higher air factor promotes high temperature and contributes to the secondary reactions, which lead to less liquid; (3) the physicochemical characterization of the pyrolysis products indicated that the air factor, in the range studied, does not have a notable influence in their properties; (4) the liquid and char products obtained may be a potentially valuable source of chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  3. Biomass thermo-conversion. Research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is studied the state of the art in order to identify the main trends of the processes of thermo conversion of biomass into fuels and other chemicals. In Cuba, from total supply of biomass, wood is the 19% and sugar cane bagasse and straw the 80%, is why research in the country, should be directed primarily toward these. The methods for energy production from biomass can be group into two classes: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. The technology of thermo-chemical conversion includes three subclasses: pyrolysis, gasification, and direct liquefaction. Although pyrolysis is still under development, in the current energy scenario, has received special attention, because can convert directly biomass into solid, liquid and gaseous by thermal decomposition in absence of oxygen. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, where great quantities of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash are produced. In Cuba, studies of biomass thermo-conversion studies are limited to slow pyrolysis and gasification; but gas fuels, by biomass, are mainly obtained by digestion (biogas). (author)

  4. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  5. Pyrolysis oil from carbonaceous solid wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agro-industrial sector of Malaysia produces a huge amount of oil palm and paddy rice. These generate a significant amount of renewable biomass solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rice husk. Apart from this a huge quantity of scrap tyre is generated from the country's faster increasing usage of transportation vehicles like motorcycle, car, bus and lorries. These wastes are producing pollution and disposal problems affecting the environment. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used for pyrolysis liquid oil production. Pyrolysis at present is deemed to be a potential method for the conversion of carbonaceous solid wastes into upgraded liquid products which can either be tried for liquid fuel or value-added chemical. A fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis system was employed for this thermochemical conversion process of solid wastes. Silica sand was used as fluidized bed material and nitrogen gas as the fluidising medium. The products obtained were liquid oil, solid char and gas. The liquid oil and solid char were collected separately while the gas was flared. The maximum liquid product yield was found to vary with feedstock material fluidized bed temperature. The maximum liquid product yield was found to be 58, 53 and 40 wt. % of biomass fed at fluidized bed temperature at 500, 525 and 4500C respectively for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk. The solid char yield was 25, 36 and 53 wt. % of biomass fed at the condition of maximum liquid product yield for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk respectively. The oil products were subjected to FTIR, GC and GC/MS analysis for their group composition and detailed chemical compositions. The pyrolysis oil from scrap tyre was found to contain highest percentage of pure hydrocarbons (25 wt. % of total feed) with esters and oxygenated

  6. FPGA Implementation of NOR Flash Storage Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkuwar Kanase*,; Prof.Shivdas.S.S

    2014-01-01

    Flash storage memory devices are Nand and NOR types which are widely used in data storage application in computers and solid states drives. Flash are nonvolatile and electrically erased and reprogrammed. A flash memory controller (or flash controller) manages the data stored on flash memory and communicates with a computer or electronic device. When the system or device needs to read data from or write data to the flash storage, it will communicate with the flash controller. F...

  7. Characterization of Pakistani coal by pyrolysis gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flash pyrolysis were carried out for two samples of Shariagh Top Seam and Middle Seam coal in flowing NItrogen. The influence of temperature on the hydrocarbon yields was explored from 500-800 C with vapour product residence time of 0.46 sec. The principal products observed were methane, ethane hydrocarbon/3, hydrocarbon/4, cyclo pentane, benzene and toluene. The effect of changing particle size (30-50 mesh) and sample size (2-8 mg) on the yield of observed products was studied at 700 C. (author)

  8. Production of phenol-rich bio-oil during catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoriyekomwan, Joy Esohe; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) as catalysts and microwave receptors are investigated. The effects of process parameters including temperature and biomass:catalyst ratio on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were studied. The addition of catalyst increased the bio-oil yield, but decreased the selectivity of phenol in fixed-bed. Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of PKS significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenol production. The highest concentration of phenol in bio-oil of 64.58 %(area) and total phenolics concentration of 71.24 %(area) were obtained at 500°C using AC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated that concentration of OH, CH, CO and CO functional groups in char samples decreased after pyrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis clearly indicated the development of liquid phase in biomass particles during microwave pyrolysis, and the mechanism is also discussed. PMID:26890793

  9. 灰化温度及热解气氛对生物质灰灼烧失重特性的影响%Influence of ashing temperature and pyrolysis atmosphere on weight loss properties of biomass ash obtained by combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚锡文; 许开立

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, sustainable development and increasing fuel demand necessitate the identification of possible energy resources. Biomass resource is regarded as a green renewable energy and will be more important in the future, which attracts the worldwide attention regarding their renewable nature, carbon dioxide-neutral characteristic, and world-wide availability. Consequently, many countries are putting great emphasis on the exploration of bio-energy. However, the use of biomass as fuel generates a large amount of residual ash, which causes serious environmental problems and has great passive influence on the chemical conversion of biomass. The biomass ash is easy to melt and volatilize, and it can not only reduce the utilization efficiency of equipment but also shorten their service life. Moreover, the inorganic species existing in biomass such as alkali oxides and salts can aggravate agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion problems on boiler’s heat transfer surfaces. So during the combustion or gasification processing, the ash with complex composition and high volatility often leads to slugging and erosion/corrosion in thermal conversion processing systems. Rice husk (RH) and rice straw (RS) are the main by-products during the process of rice processing, and they are the clean and renewable energy. Especially, in comparison to other agricultural wastes, the ash content of RH is much higher. So far, a series of studies have been carried out to investigate the characteristics of biomass ash through experiment. But the studies on the influence of ashing temperature and pyrolysis atmosphere on the properties of biomass ash are limited. In this paper, in order to investigate the weight loss regularities of biomass ash at different ashing temperature and pyrolysis atmosphere, thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to comparatively study the pyrolysis weight loss mechanism of rice husk ash (RHA) and rice straw ash (RSA) ashing at 600 and 815℃ in air and nitrogen. The

  10. Techno-Economic Assessment of Pyrolysis Char Production and Application – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    KUPPENS, Tom; VAN DAEL, Miet; Vanreppelen, Kenny; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan; SCHREURS, Sonja; Van Passel, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Many organic residue streams such as pig manure are not or inefficiently used, although they can be converted into valuable materials, as well as energy, using pyrolysis. The yield of the pyrolysis products (i.e. oil, gas and char) is dependent on the process conditions and the feedstock used. Char as a soil amendment or activated carbon are interesting options for valorization of biomass residues. Here, a review is presented of the techno-economic potential of both valorization options based...

  11. Kinetic modeling of solid yields formation in the fast pyrolysis of mahogany wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, W.; Sasongko, M. N.

    2016-03-01

    There have been many research of biomass pyrolysis not only in heat transfer point of view but also in chemical reaction point of view. In the present study, the rate of reaction (kinetic rate) formation of solid yield was calculated by varying the pyrolysis temperature that gives a chance of 250 °C, 350 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C, until 800°C with heating rate around 700 °C/hour. The heating rate used was the fast pyrolysis in which the heating rate for heating furnaces takes place quickly. Pyrolysis was accomplished by direct pyrolysis process in which each process was conducted at the certain pyrolysis temperature variation that took over 3 hours. Biomass used was mahogany wood, while the inert gas used to hold in order to avoid combustion was nitrogen gas. The decreasing of solid yields formation obtained was used to calculate the kinetic rate of the pyrolysis process. It was calculated by using the similar Arrhenius equation that considering the temperature changes during the process and the decreasing mass of solid yield formation occurred. The kinetic rate results showed the decomposition of biomass occurs tended in two stages, namely a stage of water evaporation and degradation of biomass solid yield coal followed by a stage of constant formation. The decomposition is expressed by the magnitude of the rate of reaction at 25˚C-517˚C temperature range with a reaction rate constant k1 = 2151.67 exp (-2141/Tp). While at pyrolysis temperatures above 517˚C, the reaction rate constant is expressed with k2 = 32.20 exp (-127.8 / Tp).

  12. Coherent imaging at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out high-resolution single-pulse coherent diffractive imaging at the FLASH free-electron laser. The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of an object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. In particular we are developing imaging of biological specimens beyond conventional radiation damage resolution limits, developing imaging of ultrafast processes, and testing methods to characterize and perform single-particle imaging.

  13. The lightning flash

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    With contributions from today's leading lightning engineers and researchers, this updated 2nd edition of Vernon Cooray's classic text, The Lightning Flash provides the reader with an essential introduction to lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment. Providing the reader with a thorough background into almost every aspect of lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment, this new edition is updated throughout and features eight new chapters that bring the science up to date.

  14. Physics Flash August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Physics Flash is the newsletter for the Physics Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This newsletter is for August 2016. The following topics are covered: "Accomplishments in the Trident Laser Facility", "David Meyerhofer elected as chair-elect APS Nominating Committee", "HAWC searches for gamma rays from dark matter", "Proton Radiography Facility commissions electromagnetic magnifier", and "Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks."

  15. Investigation of the parameters on the fast pyrolysis of wheat straw for production of bio-oil

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Kamal Zafar,; Syed Hassan Javed Naqvi; Atif Khan

    2015-01-01

    Due to increase in energy demand, alternative energy resources are needed to be explored. Among these, biomass is one of the most promising, sustainable and renewable energy resources for power generation especially in agricultural countries. Several technologies are available for biomass conversion into energy but fast pyrolysis is the emerging and reliable technology among all for energy generation through biomass. Due to the continuous and abundant supply of biomass such as whe...

  16. Pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil by the steam-iron process

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, Mariken Francisca

    2009-01-01

    The steam-iron process is an old process, which was used for the production of hydrogen from cokes at the beginning of the twentieth century. In this thesis the steam-iron process is used to produce pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil. Pyrolysis oil, obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass, is used to facilitate transportation and to simplify gasification and combustion processes, before being processed to hydrogen. The benefit of the steam-iron process compared to other thermo-chemical routes of...

  17. Liquid-phase processing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil using platinum/HZSM-5 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    Recent developments in converting biomass to bio-chemicals and liquid fuels provide a promising sight to an emerging biofuels industry. Biomass can be converted to energy via thermochemical and biochemical pathways. Thermal degradation processes include liquefaction, gasification, and pyrolysis. Among these biomass technologies, pyrolysis (i.e. a thermochemical conversion process of any organic material in the absence of oxygen) has gained more attention because of its simplicity in design, construction and operation. This research study focuses on comparative assessment of two types of pyrolysis processes and catalytic upgrading of bio-oil for production of transportation fuel intermediates. Slow and fast pyrolysis processes were compared for their respective product yields and properties. Slow pyrolysis bio-oil displayed fossil fuel-like properties, although low yields limit the process making it uneconomically feasible. Fast pyrolysis, on the other hand, show high yields but produces relatively less quality bio-oil. Catalytic transformation of the high-boiling fraction (HBF) of the crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was therefore evaluated by performing liquid-phase reactions at moderate temperatures using Pt/HZSM-5 catalyst. High yields of upgraded bio-oils along with improved heating values and reduced oxygen contents were obtained at a reaction temperature of 200°C and ethanol/HBF ratio of 3:1. Better quality, however, was observed at 240 °C even though reaction temperature has no significant effect on coke deposition. The addition of ethanol in the feed has greatly attenuated coke deposition in the catalyst. Major reactions observed are esterification, catalytic cracking, and reforming. Overall mass and energy balances in the conversion of energy sorghum biomass to produce a liquid fuel intermediate obtained sixteen percent (16 wt.%) of the biomass ending up as liquid fuel intermediate, while containing 26% of its initial energy.

  18. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  19. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  20. Optimalizace Flash aplikací

    OpenAIRE

    Jahoda, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to characterize and describe methods which are used to optimize performance of Flash applications designed for desktop and mobile devices. These optimizations are based on Adobe AIR and Adobe Flash Player applications for all platforms such as desktops, mobile devices, tablets and TVs. These techniques cannot be used on all Flash projects and also most of the optimizations require advanced knowledge of ActionScript 3.0 language, which is powerful object-oriented pro...

  1. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro- d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro- d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.

  2. Pyrolysis products of PCBs.

    OpenAIRE

    Paasivirta, J.; R. Herzschuh; Humppi, T; Kantolahti, E; Knuutinen, J; Lahtiperä, M; Laitinen, R; Salovaara, J; Tarhanen, J; Virkki, L

    1985-01-01

    Model compound studies which were previously done for impurities and environmental residues of chlorophenols and for wastes of chlorination processes were extended to the impurities and pyrolysis products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Model compounds were commercial products or synthesized and their structures proven by spectroscopic methods. These models were used as analytical reference substances in GC/ECD and GC/MS studies of the pyrolyzed PCB samples. In addition to previously kno...

  3. Pyrolysis and Gasification of Industrial Waste Towards Substitution Fuels Valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Céline Gisèle

    2010-01-01

    Industrial waste is usually sorted in order to valorise most of minerals, polymers and metals. This sorting does generate a sorting residue with a rather high calorific value. The present study shows the opportunities of producing gaseous or liquid substitution fuels by pyrolysis or gasification of industrial sorting residues. By the use of the predictive model, it is possible to evaluate, for various inputs (tyres, fluffs, mixed plastics and biomass residues), the mass en energy balance for ...

  4. Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge. • We evaluate the temperature range for different process. • Product gas compositions during gasification at different temperature ranges. • Appropriate temperature range assessed for gasification with efficient carbon conversion. • Kinetic constant estimation using Friedman and Coats and Redfern method. - Abstract: The energetic conversion of biomass into syngas is considered as reliable energy source. In this context, biomass (miscanthus) and sewage sludge have been investigated. A simultaneous thermal analyzer and mass spectrometer was used for the characterization of samples and identified the volatiles evolved during the heating of the sample up to 1100 °C under combustion and gasification conditions. The TG and DTA results were discussed in argon, oxygen, steam and steam blended gas atmospheres. Different stages of pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples have been examined. It was shown that the combustion and gasification of char were occurred in two different temperature zones. The DTA–MS profile of the sample gives information on combustion and gasification process of the samples (ignition, peak combustion and burnout temperatures) and gases released (H2, O2, CO and CO2). The results showed that the different processes were mainly dependent on temperature. The evolution of the gas species was consistent with the weight loss of the samples during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification process. The effect of the ambiences during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples were reported. The appropriate temperature range to the sludge and miscanthus gasification was evaluated. The kinetic parameters of the biomass and sewage sludge were estimated for TGA using two models based on first-order reactions with distributed activation energies. The presence of ash in the biomass char was more influential during the gasification

  5. Pyrolysis of secondary raw material from used frying oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Billaud, Francis; Gornay, Julien; Coniglio, Lucie

    2007-01-01

    International audience Limitation of oil resources leads to the development of new technologies that can more fully exploit renewable energies such as biomass and derived products, like food-grade vegetable oils (rapeseed or sunflower oils). A totally green chemistry alternative that would lead both to energy production from renewable feedstocks and to solutions of parts of ecological problems related to waste disposals would be very attractive. Pyrolysis of used frying oils seems to be on...

  6. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T. [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  7. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Jhih eLin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product is bio-oil and its yield is in the range of 51-54 wt%, whereas biochar is the major product in microwave-assisted heating and its yield ranges from 61 to 84 wt%. Two different absorber blending ratios of 0.1 and 0.3 are considered in the microwave pyrolysis. The solid yield decreases when the absorber blending ratio decreases from 0.3 to 0.1, while the gas and liquid yields increase. This is attributed to more energy consumed for bagasse pyrolysis at the lower blending ratio. Hydrogen is produced under the microwave pyrolysis and its concentration is between 2 and 12 vol%. This arises from the fact that the secondary cracking of vapors and the secondary decomposition of biochar in an environment with microwave irradiation is easier than those with conventional heating.

  8. Fast pyrolysis of hardwood residues using a fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of rubber and Meranti wood was conducted by using a drop-type pyrolyzer. • As temperature increase, char yield decrease, but bio-oil and gas yield increase. • Maximum pyrolysis temperature for pyrolysis of RWS is 550 °C and 600 °C for MWS. • Calorific value of bio-char is very high and potential to be used as a solid fuel. • CO and CO2 are the major gas components in the non-condensable gases by-product. - Abstract: In this research, rubber wood sawdust (RWS) and Meranti wood sawdust (MWS) were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer under an inert condition. The first part of the study is to determine the influence of pyrolysis temperature (450, 500, 550, 600, 650 °C) on the yield of pyrolysis products. Pyrolysis of these different residues generate an almost identical maximum amount of bio-oil close to 33 wt.%, but at different maximum temperature (550 °C for pyrolysis of RWS and 600 °C for pyrolysis of MWS). To evaluate the effect of biomass type on the composition and characterization of pyrolysis products, the second part involves the analyses of pyrolysis products from the maximum pyrolysis temperature. Acetic acid, tetrahydrofuran, and benzene were the main bio-oil components. The bio-oil contained high percentage of oxygen and hydrogen, indicating high water content in the bio-oil. High amount of water in bio-oil significantly reduced its calorific value. Under extensive heating, particle size of the bio-char from SEM images decreased due to breakage and shrinkage mechanisms. The major components of non-condensable gases were CO and CO2

  9. On methane pyrolysis special applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toncu, D. C.; Toncu, G.; Soleimani, S.

    2015-11-01

    Methane pyrolysis represents one of the most important processes in industrial use, with applications rising from the chemical and petrochemical industry, combustion, materials and protective coatings. Despite the intense research, experimental data lack kinetic aspects, and the thermodynamics involved often leads to inaccurate results when applied to various systems. Carrying out a comparative analysis of several available data on methane pyrolysis, the paper aims to study the phenomenon of methane pyrolysis under different environments (combustion and plasma), concluding on the most possible reaction pathways involved in many of its applications. Computer simulation using different database underlines the conclusion, helping to the understanding of methane pyrolysis importance in future technologies.

  10. Flash evaporator systems test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    A flash evaporator heat rejection system representative of that proposed for the space shuttle orbiter underwent extensive system testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine its operational suitability and to establish system performance/operational characteristics for use in the shuttle system. During the tests the evaporator system demonstrated its suitability to meet the shuttle requirements by: (1) efficient operation with 90 to 95% water evaporation efficiency, (2) control of outlet temperature to 40 + or - 2 F for partial heat load operation, (3) stability of control system for rapid changes in Freon inlet temperature, and (4) repeated dormant-to-active device operation without any startup procedures.

  11. Methods of flash sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.

  12. An exergy based assessment of the production and conversion of switchgrass, equine waste and forest residue to bio-oil using fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resource efficiency of biofuel production via biomass pyrolysis is evaluated using exergy as an assessment metric. Three feedstocks, important to various sectors of US agriculture, switchgrass, forest residue and equine waste are considered for conversion to bio-oil (pyrolysis oil) via fast pyro...

  13. Flash Animation Project: Written Report

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A written report about a Flash animation project to include the 3 headings of Animation Techniques, Story Telling and Audio along with a critique and an appendix. The Flash animation project is based upon one of Aesop's fables entitled 'The King's Son & the Painted Lion'.

  14. Characterization of Free Radicals By Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy in Biochars from Pyrolysis at High Heating Rates and at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker Degn; Larsen Andresen, Mogens;

    reactions is important in order to achieve the high fuel conversion at short residence times. However, little is known about the extent of free radical reactions in pulverized biomass at fast pyrolysis conditions.The concentration and type of free radicals from the decay (termination stage) of pyrolysis at......Understanding fast pyrolysis of biomass-derived materials is an important step in optimization of combustion processes. Similar to coal combustion, the fuel burn out is known to be influenced by the yield and reactivity of chars, produced during pyrolysis. The rapid heating of small biomass...... particles and the short residence time at high temperatures minimize the char yield and increase char reactivity. The differences in chemical composition of organic and inorganic matter between wood and herbaceous biomass affect the operational flexibility of power plants, and increase the complexity of...

  15. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 10 and biomass conversion 6. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2- 0.3 million toe/a till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small-scale combustion concepts, but large-scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilisation of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe/a by the year 2000 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  16. Guayule (parthenium argentatum) pyrolysis biorefining: production of hydrocarbon compatible bio-oils from guayule bagasse via tail-gas reactive pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a woody desert shrub grown in the southwestern United States as a source of natural rubber, organic resins, and high energy biofuel feedstock from crop residues. We used guayule bagasse, the residual biomass after latex extraction as feedstock in a pyrolysis proces...

  17. Microwave Heating Applied to Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Yolanda; Arenillas, Ana; Menendez, J. Angel

    2011-01-01

    the MW pyrolysis as an original thermochemical process of materials is presented. This chapter comprises a general overview of the thermochemical and quantifying aspects of the pyrolysis process, including current application togethe with a compilation of the most frequently used materials

  18. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  19. Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biochar from slow pyrolysis of biomass is a promising carbon negative procedure since it removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar production can vary significantly with the pyrolysis parameter. This study investigated the impact of temperature and heating rate on the yield and properties of biochar derived from cassava plantations residues which are cassava stem (CS and cassava rhizome (CR. The pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 400°C to 600°C while the heating rate parameter was varied from 5°C/min to 25°C/min. The experiment was conducted using the lab scale slow pyrolysis system. The increment of temperature and heating rate of slow pyrolysis for both cassava wastes had raised the fixed carbon content of the biochar but decreased the biochar yield. More biochar was produced at lower temperature and lower heating rate. Temperature gave more influence on the biochar yield as compared to the heating rate parameter. The highest biochar yield of more than 35 mf wt. % can be obtained from both CS and CR at 400°C and heating rate of 5°C/min. From the proximate analysis, the results showed that cassava wastes contain high percentage of volatile matter which is more than 80 mf wt. %. Meanwhile, the biochar produced from cassava wastes contain high percentage of fixed carbon which is about 5−8 times higher than their raw samples. This suggested that, it is a good step to convert CS and CR into high carbon biochar via slow pyrolysis process that can substantially yield more biochar, up to 37 mf wt. % in this study. Since the fixed carbon content for both CS and CR biochar produced in any studied parameter were found to be more than 75 mf wt. %, it is suggested that biochar from cassava wastes is suitable for carbon sequestration.

  20. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.R. Muniz

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane. An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a maximum pressure of 30 atm was used. Following the reactor, a flash separator, which was operated at atmospheric pressure, partially condensed and separated liquid and gas products. Pressure and temperature were monitored on-line by a control and data acquisition system, which adjusted the heating power supplied to the pyrolysis reactor. Reactions followed an experimental design with two factors (reaction time and temperature and three levels (10, 50 and 90 minutes; 450, 550 and 650°C. The response variables were liquid and solid masses and net heat of combustion. The optimal operational range for the pyrolysis process was obtained for each response variable. A significant reduction in total mass of solid waste was obtained.