WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass fired power

  1. Drivers of biomass co-firing in U.S. coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Substantial knowledge has been generated in the U.S. about the resource base for forest and other residue-derived biomass for bioenergy including co-firing in power plants. However, a lack of understanding regarding power plant-level operations and manager perceptions of drivers of biomass co-firing remains. This study gathered information from U.S. power plant...

  2. Grate-firing of biomass for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2008-01-01

    bed on the grate, and the advanced secondary air supply (a real breakthrough in this technology) are highlighted for grate-firing systems. Amongst all the issues or problems associated with grate-fired boilers burning biomass, primary pollutant formation and control, deposition formation and corrosion......As a renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, biomass (i.e., any organic non-fossil fuel) and its utilization are gaining an increasingly important role worldwide Grate-firing is one of the main competing technologies in biomass combustion for heat and power production, because it can...... combustion mechanism, the recent breakthrough in the technology, the most pressing issues, the current research and development activities, and the critical future problems to be resolved. The grate assembly (the most characteristic element in grate-fired boilers), the key combustion mechanism in the fuel...

  3. Biomass Co-Firing in Suspension-Fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Hvid, Søren Lovmand; Baxter, Larry

    , in the future it is expected to become relevant to cofire in more advanced plants as the trend in the power plant structure is towards older plants having fewer operating hours or being decommissioned. A major product of this project is an experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based...... modelling tool adapted to accommodate biomass cofiring combustion features. The CFD tool will be able to predict deposit accumulation, particle conversion, fly ash composition, temperatures, velocities, and composition of furnace gases, etc. The computer model will primarily be used in the development...

  4. Corrosion and Materials Performance in biomass fired and co-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH; Biede, O

    2003-01-01

    not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10...... and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants. With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. This paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants....... Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with coal will be reported. The corrosion mechanisms observed are summarized and the corrosion rates for 18-8 type stainless steels are compared....

  5. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  6. Process simulation of co-firing torrefied biomass in a 220 MWe coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiaolei; Pawlak-Kruczek, Halina; Yang, Weihong; Kruczek, Pawel; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The performances of torrefaction based co-firing power plant are simulated by using Aspen Plus. • Mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied during biomass torrefaction processes. • Mole fractions of CO 2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in total torrefied gases. • The electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. - Abstract: Torrefaction based co-firing in a pulverized coal boiler has been proposed for large percentage of biomass co-firing. A 220 MWe pulverized coal-power plant is simulated using Aspen Plus for full understanding the impacts of an additional torrefaction unit on the efficiency of the whole power plant, the studied process includes biomass drying, biomass torrefaction, mill systems, biomass/coal devolatilization and combustion, heat exchanges and power generation. Palm kernel shells (PKS) were torrefied at same residence time but 4 different temperatures, to prepare 4 torrefied biomasses with different degrees of torrefaction. During biomass torrefaction processes, the mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied. In addition, process simulations at varying torrefaction degrees and biomass co-firing ratios have been carried out to understand the properties of CO 2 emission and electricity efficiency in the studied torrefaction based co-firing power plant. According to the experimental results, the mole fractions of CO 2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in torrefied gases. The predicted results also showed that the electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. A deep torrefaction may not be recommended, because the power saved from biomass grinding is less than the heat consumed by the extra torrefaction process, depending on the heat sources

  7. Advanced circulating fluidised bed technology (CFB) for large-scale solid biomass fuel firing power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaentti, Timo; Zabetta, Edgardo Coda; Nuortimo, Kalle [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide the nations are taking initiatives to counteract global warming by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Efforts to increase boiler efficiency and the use of biomass and other solid renewable fuels are well in line with these objectives. Circulating fluidised bed boilers (CFB) are ideal for efficient power generation, capable to fire a broad variety of solid biomass fuels from small CHP plants to large utility power plants. Relevant boiler references in commercial operation are made for Finland and Poland.

  8. Permitting a biomass-fired power plant in California -- A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, J.I.; Needham, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the process of preparing an air permit application for a proposed biomass-fired power plant. The plant is designed to produce a net electric power output of 16 megawatts (MW) for sale to Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The biomass fuel will consist of urban wood waste, construction wood waste, and waste from agricultural products, such as tree prunings and fruit pits. The site is located in an industrial park in Soledad, California

  9. The Use of Fire Radiative Power to Estimate the Biomass Consumption Coefficient for Temperate Grasslands in the Atlantic Forest Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Salvador Cabral da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Every year, many active fire spots are identified in the satellite images of the southern Brazilian grasslands in the Atlantic Forest biome and Pampa biome. Fire Radiative Power (FRP is a technique that uses remotely sensed data to quantify burned biomass. FRP measures the radiant energy released per time unit by burning vegetation. This study aims to use satellite and field data to estimate the biomass consumption rate and the biomass consumption coefficient for the southern Brazilian grasslands. Three fire points were identified in satellite FRP products. These data were combined with field data, collected through literature review, to calculate the biomass consumption coefficient. The type of vegetation is an important variable in the estimation of the biomass consumption coefficient. The biomass consumption rate was estimated to be 2.237 kg s-1 for the southern Brazilian grasslands in Atlantic Forest biome, and the biomass consumption coefficient was estimated to be 0.242 kg MJ-1.

  10. Optimal Level of Woody Biomass Co-Firing with Coal Power Plant Considering Advanced Feedstock Logistics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangpil Ko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-firing from woody biomass feedstock is one of the alternatives toward increased use of renewable feedstock in existing coal power plants. However, the economic level of co-firing at a particular power plant depends on several site-specific factors. Torrefaction has been identified recently as a promising biomass pretreatment option to lead to reduction of the feedstock delivered cost, and thus facilitate an increase in the co-firing ratio. In this study, a mixed integer linear program (MILP is developed to integrate supply chain of co-firing and torrefaction process and find the optimal level of biomass co-firing in terms of minimized transportation and logistics costs, with or without tax credits. A case study of 26 existing coal power plants in three Great Lakes States of the US is used to test the model. The results reveal that torrefaction process can lead to higher levels of co-firing, but without the tax credit, the effect is limited to the low capacity of power plants. The sensitivity analysis shows that co-firing ratio has higher sensitivity to variation in capital and operation costs of torrefaction than to the variation in the transportation and feedstock purchase costs.

  11. Thermodynamic simulation of a multi-step externally fired gas turbine powered by biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, A.; Pena-Vergara, G.; Curto-Risso, P.L.; Medina, A.; Calvo Hernández, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A realistic model for an EFGT fueled with solid biomass is presented. • Detailed submodels for the HTHE and the chemical reactions are incorporated. • An arbitrary number of compression and expansion stages is considered. • Model validation leads to good agreement with experimental results. • A layout with two-stage compression leads to good efficiencies and power output. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model for a realistic Brayton cycle, working as an externally fired gas turbine fueled with biomass is presented. The use of an external combustion chamber, allows to burn dirty fuels to preheat pure air, which is the working fluid for the turbine. It also avoids direct contact of ashes with the turbine blades, resulting in a higher life cycle for the turbine. The model incorporates a high temperature heat exchanger and an arbitrary number of turbines and compressors, with the corresponding number of intercoolers and reheaters. It considers irreversibilities such as non-isentropic compressions and expansions, and pressure losses in heat input and release. The composition and temperature of the combustion gases, as well as the variable flow rate of air and combustion gases, are calculated for specific biomasses. The numerical model for a single stage configuration has been validated by comparing its predictions with the data sheets of two commercial turbines. Results are in good agreement. Curves on the dependence of thermal efficiency and power output with the overall pressure ratio will be shown for several plant configurations with variable number of compression/expansion stages. Also the influence of different types of biomasses and their moisture will be analyzed on parameters such as fuel consumption and exhaust gases temperature. For a single step plant layout fueled with eucalyptus wood an efficiency of 23% is predicted, whereas for a configuration with two compressors and one turbine efficiency increases up to 25%. But it is remarkable

  12. Technical, economic and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in coal and natural gas fired power plants in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ree, R.; Korbee, R.; Eenkhoorn, S.; De Lange, T.; Groenendaal, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the technical, economic, and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in existing Dutch coal and natural gas fired power plants, and industrial combined-cycles (CC), is addressed. Main criteria that are considered are: the availability and contractibility of biomass for energy purposes; the (technical) operation of the conventional fossil fuel based processes may not be disturbed; the gaseous and liquid plant emissions have to comply to those applicable for power plants/CCs, the commercial applicability of the solid residues may not be negatively influenced; applicable additional biomass conversion technologies must be commercially available; the necessary additional investment costs must be acceptable from an economic point of view, and the co-firing option must result in a substantial CO 2 -emission reduction. The main result of the study described in the paper is the presentation of a clear and founded indication of the total co-firing potential of biomass in existing power plants and industrial CCs in the Netherlands. This potential is determined by considering both technical, economic, and environmental criteria. In spite of the fact that the co-firing potential for the specific Dutch situation is presented, the results of the criteria considered are more generally applicable, and therefore are also very interesting for potential co-firing initiatives outside of the Netherlands

  13. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much higher than that of a biomass power plant, 0.00012 US$/kWh. The external cost of coal-fired power generation is as much as 90% of the current price of electricity generated by coal, while the external cost of a biomass power plant is 1/1000 of the current price of electricity generated by biomass. In addition, for a biomass power plant, the external cost associated with SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 are particularly lower than those of a coal-fired power plant. The prospect of establishing precise estimations for external cost mechanisms and sustainable energy policies is discussed to show a possible direction for future energy schemes in China. The paper has significant value for supporting the biomass power industry and taxing or regulating coal-fired power industry to optimize the energy structure in China.

  14. Biomass power in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.K. [Zurn/NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity production from biomass fuel has been hailed in recent years as an environmentally acceptable energy source that delivers on its promise of economically viable renewable energy. A Wall Street Journal article from three years ago proclaimed wood to be {open_quotes}moving ahead of costly solar panels and wind turbines as the leading renewable energy alternative to air-fouling fossils fuels and scary nuclear plants.{close_quotes} Biomass fuel largely means wood; about 90% of biomass generated electricity comes from burning waste wood, the remainder from agricultural wastes. Biomass power now faces an uncertain future. The maturing of the cogeneration and independent power plant market, restructuring of the electric industry, and technological advances with power equipment firing other fuels have placed biomass power in a competitive disadvantage with other power sources.

  15. Biomass co-firing opportunities and experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyng, R. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada). Nanticoke Generating Station

    2006-07-01

    Biomass co-firing and opportunities in the electricity sector were described in this presentation. Biomass co-firing in a conventional coal plant was first illustrated. Opportunities that were presented included the Dutch experience and Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) plant and production mix. The biomass co-firing program at OPG's Nantucket generating station was presented in three phases. The fuel characteristics of co-firing were identified. Several images and charts of the program were provided. Results and current status of tests were presented along with conclusions of the biomass co-firing program. It was concluded that biomass firing is feasible and following the Dutch example. Biomass firing could considerably expand renewable electricity generation in Ontario. In addition, sufficient biomass exists in Ontario and the United States to support large scale biomass co-firing. Several considerations were offered such as electricity market price for biomass co-firing and intensity targets and credit for early adoption and banking. tabs., figs.

  16. Cocombustion of biomass in coal-fired power plants; Meestoken van biomassa in kolengestookte E-centrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrink, W.G.M. [Stork Thermeq, Hengelo (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the desk study is to determine to what degree several types of biomass can be cofired with existing coal fired utility boilers in the Netherlands. All results with regard to boiler performances are obtained by making use of a computer model of a typical coal fired boiler which make part of a 600 MWe coal fired power plant. Because the existing coal fired units in the Netherlands do deviate more or less from the used model all outcomes and conclusions of this study are indicative. Slagging and corrosion which become more important when firing biogas in a coal fired boiler are considered superficially. More close investigations are necessary when carry out concrete projects. Furthermore all results are based on 100% boiler load and may not be used or extrapolated to part load conditions. The extent of firing biomass gas may depend on available space in the boiler house and correlated restrictions for necessary constructive adaptations. These aspects were leave out of consideration. For information the necessary size of piping for biomass gas from gasifier to the boiler has been determined for several amounts of biomass. [Dutch] Het doel van de studie is te onderzoeken hoeveel biomassa, in percentage van het thermisch vermogen, volgens verschillende concepten kan worden meegestookt in een kolengestookte elektriciteitscentrale. Dit wordt in deze studie behandeld aan de hand van een aantal aspecten: Rookgashoeveelheden door de ketel. Hierbij kornen de volgende zaken aan de orde: snelheden, drukval, belasting van DeNox, DeSox en E-filters, capaciteit van de ventilatoren; Rookgastemperaturen. Dit betreft temperaturen uitlaat vuurhaard, uitlaat ketel en uitlaat LUVO (luchtverhitter); Verslakking en corrosie van oververhitters; Water/stoomzijdige flows. Dit betreft aspecten als flows, temperaturen, flow door de turbine (slikvermogen) en uitlaatconditie stoomturbine (vochtgehalte). Voor de verwerking van biomassa worden alleen vergassing (in hoofdzaak) en, minder

  17. Sewage sludge conditioning with the application of ash from biomass-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Marta; Stachowicz, Feliks; Masłoń, Adam

    2018-02-01

    During biomass combustion, there are formed combustion products. Available data indicates that only 29.1 % of biomass ashes were recycled in Poland in 2013. Chemical composition and sorptive properties of ashes enable their application in the sewage sludge treatment. This paper analyses the impact of ashes from biomass-combustion power plant on sewage sludge dewatering and higienisation. The results obtained in laboratory tests proved the possitive impact of biomass ashes on sewage sludge hydration reduction after dewatering and the increase of filtrate volume. After sludge conditioning with the use of biomass combustion by-products, the final moisture content decreased by approximatelly 10÷25 % in comparison with raw sewage sludge depending on the method of dewatering. The application of biomass combustion products in sewage sludge management could provide an alternative method of their utilization according to law and environmental requirements.

  18. Strategy for optimal operation of a biomass-fired cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasertsan, S.; Krukanont, P.; Nigamsritragul, P.; Kirirat, P.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass-fired cogeneration not only is an environmentally friendly energy production, but also possesses high energy conversion efficiency. Generally, the wood product industry requires both heat and electricity. Combined heat and power generation (cogeneration) using wood residue has a three-fold benefit: waste minimization, reduction of an energy-related production cost and additional income from selling the excess electricity to the utility. In reality, the process heat demand fluctuates according to the production activities in the factory. The fluctuation of process heat demand affects the cogeneration efficiency and the electricity output and, consequently, the financial return, since the prices of heat and electricity are different. A study by computer simulation to establish a guideline for optimum operation of a process heat fluctuating cogeneration power plant is presented. The power plant was designed for a sawmill and an adjacent plywood factory using wood wastes from these two processes. The maximum boiler thermal load is 81.9 MW while the electricity output is in the range 19-24 MW and the process heat 10-30 MW. Two modes of operation were studied, namely the full (boiler) load and the partial (boiler) load. In the full load operation, the power plant is operated at a maximum boiler thermal load, while the extracted steam is varied to meet the steam demand of the wood-drying kilns and the plywood production. The partial load operation was designed for the partially fuelled boiler to provide sufficient steam for the process and to generate electricity at a desired capacity ranging from the firmed contract of 19 MW to the turbine maximum capacity of 24 MW. It was found that the steam for process heat has an allowable extracting range, which is limited by the low pressure feed water heater. The optimum operation for both full and partial load occurs at the lower limit of the extracting steam. A guideline for optimum operation at various combinations of

  19. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A

    1996-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  20. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  1. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass- fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of operational safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  2. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain

  3. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper......-called 'big bags' filled with fly ash waste. Inhalation doses were estimated to be low. External doses received while working at the power plant do not appear to be highly significant compared with the doses from environmental contamination in the area where the power plant is expected to be constructed....

  4. Superheater corrosion in biomass-fired power plants: Investigation of Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Carlsen, B; Biede, O

    2002-01-01

    -fired Masnedø combined heat and power (CHP) plant to investigate corrosion at temperatures higher than that of the actual plant. The highest steam temperature investigated was 570°C. Various alloys of 12-22% chromium content were welded into this test loop. Their corrosion rates were similar and increased...... condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A test superheater was built into the straw...... with temperature. The mechanism of attack was grain boundary attack as a precursor to selective chromium depletion of the alloy. In addition welds coupling various tubes sections were also investigated. It was seen that there was preferential attack around those welds that had a high nickel content. The welds...

  5. Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bryers, R.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Oden, L.L. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

  6. Geographical distributions of biomass and potential sites of rubber wood fired power plants in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukanont, P.; Prasertsan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass residues from rubber trees in rubber producing countries have immense potential for power production. This paper presents the case of the south peninsular of Thailand, where the rubber industry is intense. Mathematical models were developed to determine the maximum affordable fuel cost and optimum capacity of the power plant for a given location of known area-based fuel availability density. GIS data of rubber growing was used to locate the appropriate sites and sizes of the power plants. Along 700 km of the highway network in the region, it was found that 8 power plants are financially feasible. The total capacity is 186.5 MW e . The fuel procurement area is in the range of less than 35 km. (Author)

  7. Biomass co-firing in coal power plants in the Netherlands. Effects on performance and air pollutant emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This note is intended for use in the UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)-EGTEI (Expert Group on Techno-Economic Issues) work related to cost of emission reduction technologies for large combustion plants (LCP). This work is coordinated by KIT (Karlsruhe) and CITEPA (Paris). As the Netherlands is considered to be a valuable country for data regarding biomass co-firing in large coal fired power plants, EGTEI expressed its interest on data ECN has available. For this purpose, based on available data from annual environmental reports of power plants, ECN has looked into the relationship between the percentage of co -firing and the plant performance. It should be noted that the evaluation has been based on annual data, not on real-time simultaneous measurements of the different parameters mentioned in this note. Cumulative annual data give no insights in e.g. the effects of the load factor, of start-ups or shut-downs, seasonal circumstances, fuel qualities, etc. Therefore, the findings in this report should be treated with due care and not be generalised.

  8. Biomass direct-fired power generation system in China: An integrated energy, GHG emissions, and economic evaluation for Salix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Chang, Yuan; Pang, Mingyue

    2015-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the options of biomass power generation in China, this study presented an integrated energy, environmental, and economic evaluation for Salix in China, and a typical Salix direct-fired power generation system (SDPGS) in Inner Mongolia was selected for case study. A tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to calculate the “planting-to-wire” (PTW) energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic cost and profit of the SDPGS, including feedstock cultivation, power plant construction and operation, and on-grid price with/without government subsidies. The results show that the PTW energy consumption and GHG emissions of Salix are 0.8 MJ/kWh and 114 g CO 2 -eq/kWh, respectively, indicating an energy payback time (EPBT) of 3.2 years. The SDPGS is not economically feasible without government subsidies. The PTW costs are dominated by feedstock cultivation. The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits are still robust, even when the power plant runs at only 60% design capacity. For future development of biomass power in China, scientific planning is necessary to guarantee a sufficient feedstock supply. In addition, technology progress, mature industrial chains, and reasonable price setting policy are required to enable potential energy and environmental advantages of biomass power moving forward. -- Highlights: •A hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate overall performance of the SDPGS. •On-site processes dominate the “planting-to-wire” footprints. •The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits of the SDPGS are robust. •The economic profit of the SDPGS is feeble without government subsidies. •Generating efficiency promotion has a comprehensive positive effect on the system

  9. The behavior of ash species in suspension fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt

    While fluid bed and grate fired boilers initially was the choice of boilers used for power production from both wood and herbaceous biomass, in recent years suspension fired boilers have been increasingly used for biomass based power production. In Denmark several large pulverized fuel boilers have...... been converted from coal to biomass combustion in the last 15 years. This have included co-firing of coal and straw, up to 100% firing of wood or straw andthe use of coal ash as an additive to remedy problems with wood firing. In parallel to the commercialization of the pulverized biomass firing...... technology a long range of research studies have been conducted, to improve our understanding of the influence and behavior of biomass ash species in suspension fired boilers. The fuel ash plays a key role with respect tooptimal boiler operation and influences phenomena’s as boiler chamber deposit formation...

  10. Occupational exposure to gases, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biomass-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of fuels produces air pollutants in the form of gases, organic compounds, and particulate matter. However, although the environmental aspect of these agents has been examined, workers' exposure to them is still a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Our hygienic measurements revealed that carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, ammonia and sulfur dioxide were the most common gases that the workers were exposed to during their tasks. Their average concentrations were 0.45 ppm, 0.06 ppm, 0.11 ppm and 0.42 ppm, respectively. Phenanthrene and naphthalene were the most prominent PAHs. At the same sampling points, the most commonly found VOCs were aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and turpentines. The calculated total PAH concentrations were less than 7% of benzo[a]pyrene's eight-hour occupational exposure limit, and the total VOC concentrations were below the Finnish reference value for the normal industrial level in all measured work tasks. The most evident health effect caused by multiple exposures to gases was upper respiratory track irritation, followed by the disruption of oxygen transport, and finally central nervous system disorders. We recommend powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors as the minimum requirement for those working inside biomass-fired power plant boilers, and compressed air breathing apparatus as the best form of protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling and performance analysis of CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system based on co-firing of natural gas and biomass gasification gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangjiang; Mao, Tianzhi; Sui, Jun; Jin, Hongguang

    2015-01-01

    Co-firing biomass and fossil energy is a cost-effective and reliable way to use renewable energy and offer advantages in flexibility, conversion efficiency and commercial possibility. This study proposes a co-fired CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system based on natural gas and biomass gasification gas that contains a down-draft gasifier, ICE (internal combustion engine), absorption chiller and heat exchangers. Thermodynamic models are constructed based on a modifying gasification thermochemical equilibrium model and co-fired ICE model for electricity and heat recovery. The performance analysis for the volumetric mixture ratio of natural gas and product gas indicates that the energy and exergy efficiencies are improved by 9.5% and 13.7%, respectively, for an increasing mixture ratio of 0–1.0. Furthermore, the costs of multi-products, including electricity, chilled water and hot water, based on exergoeconomic analysis are analyzed and discussed based on the influences of the mixture ratio of the two gas fuels, investment cost and biomass cost. - Highlights: • Propose a co-fired CCHP system by natural gas and biomass gasification gas. • Modify biomass gasification and co-fired ICE models. • Present the thermodynamic analysis of the volumetric mixture ratios of two gas fuels. • Energy and exergy efficiencies are improved 9.5% and 13.7%. • Discuss multi-products’ costs influenced by investment and fuel costs.

  12. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  13. Biomass co-firing for Delta Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generator Delta Electricity has implemented a biomass co-firing program at its Vales Point power station on the Central Coast to reduce its reliance on coal and emissions of CO 2 . The program comprises two parts: direct co-firing with coal of up to 5% biomass; and development of Continuous Biomass Converter (CBC) technology with the Crucible Group to remove technology constraints and enable much higher rates of biomass co-firing. It is talking industrial scale tests. Delta increased biomass co-firing in 2013/14 to 32,000 tonnes, up from just 3,000 tonnes the previous year, and conducted biochar co-firing trials at a rate equivalent to 400,000 tonnes per annum to demonstrate the potential of CBC technology. It reduced CO 2 emissions in 2013/14 by more than 32,000 tonnes. 'Legislation and regulations define biomass as renewable,' said Delta Electricity sustainability manager Justin Flood. 'By preferring biomass over coal, the carbon in the coal is not burnt and remains locked up.' One biomass source is wood waste that would normally go to landfill, but the primary driver of Delta's recent increase in co-firing is sawmill residues. 'Previously there was a higher value market for the residues for paper pulp. However, when that market evaporated the timber industry was left with a sizable problem in terms of what to do with its residues and the loss of revenue,' said Flood. The way greenhouse gas accounting is conducted in Australia, with carbon emissions based on site activities, makes it difficult to undertake a life cycle assessment of the program. 'However, some of the international studies looking at this issue have concluded that the net carbon emissions of the biomass system are significantly lower than the coal system because of the uptake of carbon during biomass growth,' said Flood. Delta identified two challenges, sourcing the feedstock and that biomass conversion to electricity is slightly less

  14. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  15. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coal mining is more energy and CO_2 efficient than biomass production. • Co-combustion of 60% biomass with coal doubles mass transport compared to 100% coal. • Low co-combustion levels reduce GHG emissions, but the margins are small. • Total supply chain efficiency is the highest for the coal reference at 41.2%. - Abstract: Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain scenario, for a Dutch situation. The 60% biomass co-combustion supply chain scenarios show possibilities to reduce emissions up to 48%. The low co-combustion levels are effective to reduce GHG emissions, but the margins are small. Currently co-combustion of pellets is the norm. Co-combustion of combined torrefaction and pelleting (TOP) shows the best results, but is also the most speculative. The indicators from the renewable energy directive cannot be aligned. When biomass is regarded as scarce, co-combustion of small shares or no co-combustion is the best option from an energy perspective. When biomass is regarded as abundant, co-combustion of large shares is the best option from a GHG reduction perspective.

  16. Corrosion in the Flue Gas Cleaning System of a Biomass-Fired Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Olesen, R. E.; Gensmann, P.

    2017-01-01

    After only a few years operation, corrosiondamage was observed in the flue gas cleaning system of abiomass power plant. The corrosion was on the lower partof the gas/gas heat exchanger fabricated from A242weathering steel, where UNS S31600 bolts were used toattach sealing strips to the rotor. Thick...... iron oxides (up to5 mm) had formed on the weathering steel, and theseoxides also contained chlorine and sulfur. In this area of theheat exchanger, weathering steel has not had the optimalwet/dry cycles required to achieve a protective oxide. Dueto the thick growing oxide on the rotor, the UNS S31600......bolts were under stress and this together with the presenceof accumulated chlorine between the sealing strips andbolts resulted in stress corrosion cracking and rupture. Inaddition, Zn-K-Cl deposits were agglomerated in the ductafter the DeNOx unit. Zn was also a constituent of corrosionproducts...

  17. Large-scale biodiesel production using flue gas from coal-fired power plants with Nannochloropsis microalgal biomass in open raceway ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baohua; Sun, Faqiang; Yang, Miao; Lu, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Pan, Kehou

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a biofuel source has raised broad interest. Highly effective and economically feasible biomass generating techniques are essential to realize such potential. Flue gas from coal-fired power plants may serve as an inexpensive carbon source for microalgal culture, and it may also facilitate improvement of the environment once the gas is fixed in biomass. In this study, three strains of the genus Nannochloropsis (4-38, KA2 and 75B1) survived this type of culture and bloomed using flue gas from coal-fired power plants in 8000-L open raceway ponds. Lower temperatures and solar irradiation reduced the biomass yield and lipid productivities of these strains. Strain 4-38 performed better than the other two as it contained higher amounts of triacylglycerols and fatty acids, which are used for biodiesel production. Further optimization of the application of flue gas to microalgal culture should be undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A review: Fly ash and deposit formation in PF fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years suspension fired boilers have been increasingly used for biomass based heat and power production in several countries. This has included co-firing of coal and straw, up to 100% firing of wood or straw and the use of additives to remedy problems with biomass firing. In parallel...

  19. Cofiring versus biomass-fired power plants: GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions savings comparison by means of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, F.; Royo, J.; Gomez, M.

    2011-01-01

    One way of producing nearly CO 2 free electricity is by using biomass as a combustible. In many cases, removal of CO 2 in biomass grown is almost the same as the emissions for the bioelectricity production at the power plant. For this reason, bioelectricity is generally considered CO 2 neutral. For large-scale biomass electricity generation two alternatives can be considered: biomass-only fired power plants, or cofiring in an existing coal power plant. Among other factors, two important aspects should be analyzed in order to choose between the two options. Firstly, which is the most appealing alternative if their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions savings are taken into account. Secondly, which biomass resource is the best, if the highest impact reduction is sought. In order to quantify all the GHG emissions related to each system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been performed and all the processes involved in each alternative have been assessed in a cradle-to-grave manner. Sensitivity analyses of the most dominant parameters affecting GHG emissions, and comparisons between the obtained results, have also been carried out.

  20. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oakey, John; Simms, Nigel; Kilgallon, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenge...

  1. International seminar on biomass and fossil fuels co-firing in power plants and heating plants in Europe; Seminaire international sur la cocombustion de biomasse et d'energies fossiles dans les centrales electriques et les chaufferies en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the European commission which has fixed to 12% the share of renewable energies in the total energy consumption up to 2010, is to develop the biomass sector. Co-firing is a solution that allows to increase significantly the use of biomass because it does not require important investments. Today, about 150 power plants in Europe use co-firing. An Altener project named 'Cofiring' has ben settled in order to bring together and analyze the European experience in this domain and to sustain and rationalize the design of future projects. The conclusions of this study, coordinated by VTT Energy and which involves CARMEN (Germany), CBE (Portugal), the Danish centre for landscape and planning, ITEBE (France), KOBA (Italy), SLU (Sweden), and EVA (Austria), were presented during this international seminar. (J.S.)

  2. Co-firing biomass and fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    In June 1989, the Alaska Energy Authority and the University of Alaska Anchorage published a monograph summarizing the technology of co-firing biomass and fossil fuels. The title of the 180 page monograph is 'Use of Mixed Fuels in Direct Combustion Systems'. Highlights from the monograph are presented in this paper with emphasis on the following areas: (1) Equipment design and operational experience co-firing fuels; (2) The impact of co-firing on efficiency; (3) Environmental considerations associated with co-firing; (4) Economic considerations in co-firing; and (5) Decision making criteria for co-firing

  3. Economics of power generation from imported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1998-02-01

    Attention is paid to the economics of import of biomass to the Netherlands, and subsequent utilisation for power generation, as a means to reduce dependence on (imported) fossil fuels and to reduce CO2 emission. Import of wood to the extent of 40 PJ or more from Baltic and South American states seems to be readily achievable. Import of biomass has various advantages, not only for the European Union (reduced CO2 emissions) but also for the countries of origin (employment creation). However, possible disadvantages or risks should be taken into account. With that in mind, import of biomass from Baltic states seems very interesting, although it should be noted that in some of those countries the alternative of fuel-switching to biomass seems to be more cost-effective than import of biomass from those countries. Given the expected increase in inland biomass consumption in the Baltic countries and the potential substantial future demand for biomass in other Western European countries it is expected that the biomass supply from Baltic countries will not be sufficient to fulfill the demand. An early focus on import from other countries seems advisable. Several power generation options are available with short to medium term potential and long term potential. The margin between costs of biomass-fuelled power and of coal fired power will be smaller, due to substantial improvements in power generating efficiency and reductions of investment costs of options for power generation from biomass, notably Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle. 18 refs

  4. Benefits of Allothermal Biomass Gasification for Co-Firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Vreugdenhil, B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Many countries have set obligations to reduce the CO2 emissions from coal fired boilers. Co-firing of biomass in existing coal fired power plants is an attractive solution to reduce CO2 emissions. Co-firing can be done by direct mixing of biomass with coal (direct co-firing) or by converting the biomass into a gas or liquid which is fired in a separate burner (indirect co-firing). Direct co-firing is a rather simple solution, but requires a high quality and expensive biomass fuel (e.g. wood pellets). Indirect co-firing requires an additional installation that converts the solid biomass into a gas or liquid, but has the advantage that it can handle a wide range of cheap biomass fuels (e.g. demolition wood) and most of the biomass ash components are separated from the gas before it enters the boiler. Separation of biomass ash can prevent fouling issues in the boiler. Indirect co-firing, using biomass gasification technology, is already common practice. In Geertruidenberg (the Netherlands) a 80 MWth Lurgi CFB gasifier produces gas from demolition wood which is co-fired in the Amer PC boiler. In Ruien (Belgium) a 50 MWth Foster Wheeler fluidized bed gasifier is in operation. The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) developed a 'second generation' allothermal gasifier called the MILENA gasifier. This gasifier has some major advantages over conventional fluidized bed gasifiers. The heating value of the produced gas is approximately 2.5 times higher than of gas produced by conventional bubbling / circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. This results in smaller adaptations to the membrane wall of the boiler for the gas injection, thus lower costs. A major disadvantage of most fluidized bed gasifiers is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Typical fuel conversions vary between 90 and 95%. The remaining combustible material, also containing most of the biomass ash components, is blown out of the gasifier and removed from the gas stream by a cyclone to

  5. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass Fired Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10 and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants......Due to Denmark’s pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is utilised increasingly as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and demonstration projects especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers have been undertaken to make biomass a viable fuel...... resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly...

  6. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages...

  7. Design optimization and sensitivity analysis of a biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system with thermal energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliano, Martina; Bianco, Nicola; Graditi, Giorgio; Mongibello, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel operation strategy for biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system is presented. • A design optimization of the system is conducted. • The effects of variation of the incentive for the electricity generation are evaluated. • The effects of the variation of the absorption chiller size and the thermal energy storage system one are evaluated. • The inclusion of a cold storage system into the combined cooling, heating and power system is also analyzed. - Abstract: In this work, an operation strategy for a biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power system, composed of a cogeneration unit, an absorption chiller, and a thermal energy storage system, is formulated in order to satisfy time-varying energy demands of an Italian cluster of residential multi-apartment buildings. This operation strategy is adopted for performing the economical optimization of the design of two of the devices composing the combined cooling, heating and power system, namely the absorption chiller and the storage system. A sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to evaluate the impact of the incentive for the electricity generation on the optimized results, and also to evaluate, separately, the effects of the variation of the absorption chiller size, and the effects of the variation of the thermal energy storage system size on the system performance. In addition, the inclusion into the system of a cold thermal energy storage system is analyzed, as well, assuming different possible values for the cold storage system cost. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influencing factors from the economical point of view are represented by the incentive for the electricity generation and the absorption chiller power. Results also show that the combined use of a thermal energy storage and of a cold thermal energy storage during the hot season could represent a viable solution from the economical point of view.

  8. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  9. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass fired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Cofiring of straw (10 and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw fired......Owing to Denmark's pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is being increasingly utilised as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and development projects, especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers, have been undertaken to make biomass a viable...... fuel resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can...

  10. High temperature corrosion in a biomass-fired power boiler : Reducing furnace wall corrosion in a waste wood-fired power plant with advanced steam data

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    The use of waste (or recycled) wood as a fuel in heat and power stations is becoming more widespread in Sweden (and Europe), because it is CO2 neutral with a lower cost than forest fuel. However, it is a heterogeneous fuel with a high amount of chlorine, alkali and heavy metals which causes more corrosion than fossil fuels or forest fuel. A part of the boiler which is subjected to a high corrosion risk is the furnace wall (or waterwall) which is formed of tubes welded together. Waterwalls are...

  11. Green power production by co-gasification of biomass in coal-fired oxygen-blown entrained-flow based IGCC processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ree, R; Korbee, R; De Smidt, R P; Jansen, D [ECN Fuels Conversion and Environment, Petten (Netherlands); Baumann, H R; Ullrich, N [Krupp Uhde, Dortmund (Germany); Haupt, G; Zimmerman, [Siemens, Erlangen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The use of coal for large scale power production meets a growing environmental concern. In spite of the fact that clean coal conversion technologies integrated with high-efficiency power production facilities, such as IGCC, are developed, the aim for sustainable development strives for a power production system based on renewable energy sources. One of the most promising renewable energy sources that can be used in the Netherlands is biomass, i.e. organic waste materials and/or energy crops. To accelerate the introduction of this material, in a technical and economically acceptable way, co-gasification with fossil fuels, in particular coal, in large scale IGCC processes is considered. In this paper the technical feasibility, economic profitability, and environmental acceptability of co-gasification of biomass in coal-fired oxygen-blown entrained-flow based IGM is discussed. Both a base-case coal-fired oxygen-blown entrained-flow based IGCC process - showing strong resemblance to the Puertollano IGCC plant in Spain - and three co-gasification concepts, viz.: (1) a concept with separate dry coal and biomass feeding systems, (2) a concept with a combined dry coal/biomass-derived pyrolysis char feeding system, and (3) a concept with parallel biomass pre-treatment/gasification and combined fuel gas clean-up/power production, were defined for further consideration. The base-case system and the co-gasification concepts as well are modelled in the flowsheet simulation package ASPEN{sup +}. Steady-state integral system calculations resulted in an overall net electrical plant efficiency for the base-case system of 50. 1 %LHV (48.3 %HHV). Replacing about 10 % of the total thermal plant input (coal) by biomass (willow) resulted in a decrease of the overall net electrical plant efficiency of 1.4 to 2.1 %-points LHV, avoided specific CO2 emissions of 40-49 g/kWh{sub e}, and total avoided CO2 emissions of about 129 to 159 kt/a, all depending on the co-gasification concept

  12. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  13. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  14. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is Part 1 in a series of two describing probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal (shedding) in a 350 MWth suspension boiler, firing straw and wood. The influence of fuel type (straw share in wood), probe exposure time, probe surface temperature (500, 550, and 600 °C), and flu...

  15. Using JPSS VIIRS Fire Radiative Power Data to Forecast Biomass Burning Emissions and Smoke Transport by the High Resolution Rapid Refresh Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; James, E.; Alexander, C.; Stewart, J.; Benjamin, S.; McKeen, S. A.; Csiszar, I. A.; Tsidulko, M.; Pierce, R. B.; Pereira, G.; Freitas, S. R.; Goldberg, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new real-time smoke modeling system, the High Resolution Rapid Refresh coupled with smoke (HRRR-Smoke), to simulate biomass burning (BB) emissions, plume rise and smoke transport in real time. The HRRR is the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's 3km grid spacing version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used for weather forecasting. Here we make use of WRF-Chem (the WRF model coupled with chemistry) and simulate fine particulate matter (smoke) emissions emitted by BB. The HRRR-Smoke modeling system ingests fire radiative power (FRP) data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite to calculate BB emissions. The FRP product is based on processing 750m resolution "M" bands. The algorithms for fire detection and FRP retrieval are consistent with those used to generate the MODIS fire detection data. For the purpose of ingesting VIIRS fire data into the HRRR-Smoke model, text files are generated to provide the location and detection confidence of fire pixels, as well as FRP. The VIIRS FRP data from the text files are processed and remapped over the HRRR-Smoke model domains. We process the FRP data to calculate BB emissions (smoldering part) and fire size for the model input. In addition, HRRR-Smoke uses the FRP data to simulate the injection height for the flaming emissions using concurrently simulated meteorological fields by the model. Currently, there are two 3km resolution domains covering the contiguous US and Alaska which are used to simulate smoke in real time. In our presentation, we focus on the CONUS domain. HRRR-Smoke is initialized 4 times per day to forecast smoke concentrations for the next 36 hours. The VIIRS FRP data, as well as near-surface and vertically integrated smoke mass concentrations are visualized for every forecast hour. These plots are provided to the public via the HRRR-Smoke web-page: https

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--MINNESOTA POWER'S RAPIDS ENERGY CENTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  17. Norwegian wood? Biomass co-firing at Drax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probert, T.

    2009-11-15

    PEi reports on a visit to the giant Drax coal fired power station in North Yorkshire, UK. The second largest coal plant in Europe is the site of a co-firing system that will allow for the displacement of ten per cent of its coal throughput in favour of biomass, thus reducing its sizeable carbon footprint by around two million tonnes a year. Tests on a pilot plant have shown that Drax can burn up to 60 types of biomass using existing coal burners. The majority of biomass will be imported - most likely wood from Scandinavia, The Baltics and North America. Drax would be eligible for one-half of a Renewable Obligation Certificate. Carbon dioxide emissions should be reduced by around 2 million tonnes per year. 3 photos.

  18. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  19. Biomass combustion technologies for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr. [Appel Consultants, Inc., Stevenson Ranch, CA (United States); McGowin, C.R.; Hughes, E.E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Technology in power production from biomass has been advancing rapidly. Industry has responded to government incentives such as the PURPA legislation in the US and has recognized that there are environmental advantages to using waste biomass as fuel. During the 1980s many new biomass power plants were built. The relatively mature stoker boiler technology was improved by the introduction of water-cooled grates, staged combustion air, larger boiler sizes up to 60 MW, higher steam conditions, and advanced sootblowing systems. Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology achieved full commercial status, and now is the leading process for most utility-scale power applications, with more complete combustion, lower emissions, and better fuel flexibility than stoker technology. Bubbling fluidized-bed (BFB) technology has an important market niche as the best process for difficult fuels such as agricultural wastes, typically in smaller plants. Other biomass power generation technologies are being developed for possible commercial introduction in the 1990s. Key components of Whole Tree Energy{trademark} technology have been tested, conceptual design studies have been completed with favorable results, and plans are being made for the first integrated process demonstration. Fluidized-bed gasification processes have advanced from pilot to demonstration status, and the world`s first integrated wood gasification/combined cycle utility power plant is starting operation in Sweden in early 1993. Several European vendors offer biomass gasification processes commercially. US electric utilities are evaluating the cofiring of biomass with fossil fuels in both existing and new plants. Retrofitting existing coal-fired plants gives better overall cost and performance results than any biomass technologies;but retrofit cofiring is {open_quotes}fuel-switching{close_quotes} that provides no new capacity and is attractive only with economic incentives.

  20. The feasibility of co-firing biomass for electricity in Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zuoming; Altman, Ira; Johnson, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Bioenergy is one of the most significant energy resources with potential to serve as a partial replacement for fossil. As an agricultural state, Missouri has great potential to use biomass for energy production. In 2008, Missouri adopted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) yet about 80% of its power supply still comes from coal. This paper describes a feasibility study of co-firing biomass in existing coal-powered plants in Missouri. Specifically, this study developed a linear programming model and simulated six scenarios to assess the economic feasibility and greenhouse gas impacts of co-firing biomass in existing qualified coal power plants in Missouri. The results of this study indicate that although co-firing can reduce the emissions of GHG and environmental pollutants, it is still not an economically feasible option for power generation without additional economic or policy incentives or regulations which could take environmental costs into account. Based on these results, strategies and policies to promote the utilization of biomass and to increase its competitiveness with fossil fuels are identified and discussed. - Highlights: • This paper reports on a study of the economic feasibility and environmental effects of co-firing biomass for electricity. • The feasibility of co-firing biomass varies by location depending on local availability of biomass and size of facility. • We apply a linear optimization model that generates economic and environmental indicators for each of several locations. • This paper will appeal to power generators, academic researchers and consultants interested in the feasibility of biopower

  1. Torrefaction of biomass for power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti

    In order to increase the share of biomass for sustainable energy production, it will be an advantage to utilize fuels as straw, wood and waste on large suspension fired boilers. On a European scale, currently large straw resources are available that are not fully utilized for energy production...... rates, relatively low superheater temperatures have to be applied, which in turn lower the power efficiency. The idea for this Ph.D. project is to develop a biomass pretreatment method that could provide the heating value of the fuel for the boiler, but in a way such that the fuel is easily pulverized.......D. thesis focus on the following subjects: 1) the development of experimental procedures for a novel laboratory scale reactor (simultaneous torrefaction and grinding) and a study on the torrefaction of straw and wood; 2) study the influence of biomass chemical properties such as ash content, ash composition...

  2. Biomass fuelled indirect fired micro turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to further develop and improve a system based on the Bowman TG50 50kWe turbine and a C3(S) combustor with a high temperature heat exchanger for the production of electricity from biomass. Details are given of the specific aims of the project, the manufacture of a new larger biomass combustor, the development of startup and shutdown procedures, waste heat recuperation, adaption of a PC-based mathematical model, and capital equipment costs. The significant levels of carbon emission savings and the commercial prospects of the biomass generator gas turbine combined heat and power (CHP) system are considered, and recommendations are presented.

  3. Biomass for electricity in the EU-27: Potential demand, CO2 abatements and breakeven prices for co-firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Vincent; Dequiedt, Benjamin; Le Cadre, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential of biomass-based electricity in the EU-27 countries, and interactions with climate policy and the EU ETS. We estimate the potential biomass demand from the existing power plants, and we match our estimates with the potential biomass supply in Europe. Furthermore, we compute the CO2 abatement associated with the co-firing opportunities in European coal plants. We find that the biomass demand from the power sector may be very high compared with potential supply. We also identify that co-firing can produce high volumes of CO 2 abatements, which may be two times larger than that of the coal-to-gas fuel switching. We also compute biomass and CO2 breakeven prices for co-firing. Results indicate that biomass-based electricity remains profitable with high biomass prices, when the carbon price is high: a Euros 16–24 (25–35, respectively) biomass price (per MWh prim ) for a Euros 20 (50, respectively) carbon price. Hence, the carbon price appears as an important driver, which can make profitable a high share of the potential biomass demand from the power sector, even with high biomass prices. This aims to gain insights on how biomass market may be impacted by the EU ETS and others climate policies. - Highlights: • Technical potential of biomass (demand and CO 2 abatement) in European electricity. • Calculation for co-firing and biomass power plants; comparison with potential biomass supply in EU-27 countries. • Calculation of biomass and CO 2 breakeven prices for co-firing. • Potential demand is 8–148% of potential supply (up to 80% of demand from co-firing). • High potential abatement from co-firing (up to 365 Mt/yr); Profitable co-firing with €16-24 (25–35) biomass price for €20 (50) CO 2 price

  4. Climate change impact on landscape fire and forest biomass dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve current understandings of fire regimes. The estimation of biomass dynamics at the stand scale is essential for understanding landscape scale biomass dynamics, particularly in order to understand the potential effects of fire regimes. This study presented a synthesis of research results obtained from stand scale studies together with fire behaviour and weather variables. Landscape structure, topography and climate conditions were also considered. Integration of the data was conducted with the SEM-LAND model, a spatially explicit model for landscape dynamics. Equations for the model were presented, including fire initiation and spread, as well as a lightning fire process and simulated fire suppression. Results indicated that fire suppression could alter the distribution of fire sizes. The effect of tree and stand mortality on forest biomass estimates was also discussed along with the impact of climate change on fire regimes. Results indicate that fire activities are likely to increase. Results also demonstrate that fire frequency and size distribution are correlated without human intervention. Theoretical negative exponential forest age distribution is not always supported by empirical observations. Point-based fire frequency and fire cycle definitions are special cases from a computational perspective. Detection of quantitative interrelationships may simplify preconditions for estimating fire regimes, and serve as a means to address incomplete empirical observations. 12 refs., 3 figs

  5. Increase in efficiency and reduction of generation cost at hard coal-fired power plants. Post-combustion of combustion residues from co-firing of RDF and biomass during dry ash removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Guenter [Magaldi Power GmbH, Esslingen (Germany); Spindeldreher, Olaf [RWE Generation SE, Werne (Germany); RWE Generation SE, Essen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Secondary as well as substitute fuels are being used in hard coal-fired power plants to improve efficiency and to enlarge fuel flexibility. However, grinding and firing systems of the existing coal-fired plants are not designed for those co-fuels. Any deterioration of the combustion performance would reduce the power output and increase ash disposal costs by increased content of combustion residues. The application of air-cooled ash removal, with simultaneous and controlled post-combustion of unburned residues on the conveyor belt, enlarges the furnace and maintains combustion efficiency even with different fuel qualities. Plant efficiency can also be increased through heat recovery. (orig.)

  6. Power from biomass: the power utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimova, K.; Angele, H.-C.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at possible strategies that electricity utilities in Switzerland could follow in order to be able to make use of biomass as a source of energy. Increasing interest in damp biomass as a relatively cheap, renewable and climate-friendly source of energy is commented on. Strategic choices that energy utilities have to make when they decide to enter into the biomass market are examined. The potentials involved are examined, including biogenic materials from domestic wastes and from agriculture. Figures on potential waste tonnage are quoted. Questions on subsidies and the free market are examined. The setting up of 'virtual power stations' - networks of installations using photovoltaic, wind and biomass - is discussed, as are various strategies that utilities can follow in this area. Examples of such 'virtual power stations' are listed.

  7. Input of biomass in power plants for power generation. Calculation of the financial gap. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tilburg, X.; De Vries, H.J.; Pfeiffer, A.E.; Cleijne, J.W.

    2005-09-01

    The Ministry of Economic Affairs has requested ECN and KEMA to answer two questions. (1) Are the costs and benefits of projects in which wood-pellets are co-fired in a coal fired power plant representative for those of bio-oil fueled co-firing projects in a gas fired plant?; and (2) Are new projects representative for existing projects? To answer these questions, ECN and KEMA have calculated the financial gaps in six different situations: co-firing bio-oil in a gas fired power plant; co-firing bio-oil in a coal fired power plant; gasification of solid biomass; co-firing wood pellets in a coal fired power plant; co-firing agricultural residues in a coal fired power plant; and co-firing waste wood (A- and B-grade) in a coal fired power plant. The ranges and reference cases show that co-firing bio-oil on average has a smaller financial gap than the solid biomass reference case. On average it can also be concluded that when using waste wood or agro-residues, the financial gaps are smaller. Based on these findings it is concluded that: (1) The reference case of co-firing wood pellets in a coal fired power plant are not representative for bio-fuel options. A new category for bio-oil options seems appropriate; and (2) The financial gap of new projects as calculated in November 2004, is often higher then the ranges for existing projects indicate [nl

  8. Study into the status of co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and household refuse in coal-fired power stations. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Stand der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm, Hausmuell und Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, H.; Scheurer, W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen; Seifert, H.; Richers, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer technische Chemie - Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    2000-03-01

    The co-combustion of wastes in power stations is an additional option for the thermal treatment of certain waste materials and thus for complying with the specifications of the German TA-Siedlungsabfall (technical directive on disposal of municipal solid waste). The present investigation compiles the status of knowledge about co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and selected waste materials in coal-fired power stations. The results are meant to provide extensive assistance to evaluate the processes and thus to contribute to sort out uncertainties, both on the part of power plant operators and of the authorities. Based on the information acquired, the report shall point out the gaps in knowledge, the further need for research and development and the need for action conerning the authorities. By enquiries at disposal enterprises, power station operators as well as authorities, the literature work was completed and a comprehensive view of the current situation in Germany elaborated. The report points out the legal conditions of co-combustion and supplementary fuel potentials, presents the process engineering of co-combustion, and examines the obstacles encountered during the technical conversion, the environmental questions, and the potential for co-combustion of the above materials in existing power stations. The electrical power sector is subject to strong changes due to the liberalisation of the energy market. The pressure on costs has increased and the periods available for planning are shorter. On the one hand, this arouses an increased interest in co-combustion of waste materials because of possible additional payments for the wastes. On the other hand, however, initiatives in this respect are counteracted by high investments costs necessary for the introduction of co-combustion with the existing high environmental standards. What is more, the competitive situation reduces the exchange of experience between the power station operators. Co-combustion of sewage

  9. Input of biomass in power plants or the power generation. Calculation of the financial gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, H.J.; Van Tilburg, X.; Pfeiffer, A.E.; Cleijne, H.

    2005-09-01

    The project on the title subject concerns two questions: (1) Are projects in which wood-pellets are co-fired in a coalfired power plant representative for bio-oil fueled co-firing projects in a gas-fired plant?; and (2) are new projects representative for existing projects? To answer those questions the financial gaps have been calculated for five different situations: Co-firing bio-oil in a gas-fired power plant; Co-firing bio-oil in a coal-fired power plant; Co-firing wood pellets in a coal-fired power plant; Co-firing agro-residues in a coal-fired power plant; and Co-firing waste-wood (A- and B-grade) in a coal-fired power plant. The ranges and reference cases in this report show that co-firing bio-oil on average has a smaller financial gap than the solid biomass reference case. On average it can also be concluded that by using waste wood or agro-residues, the financial gaps can decrease [nl

  10. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  11. Fire protection in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penot, J.

    1986-01-01

    Graphex-CK 23 is a unique sodium fire extinction product. Minimum amounts of powder are required for very fast action. The sodium can be put to use again, when the fire has been extinguished. It can be applied in other industrial branches and with other metals, e.g. sodium/potassium circuits or lithium coolant in power plants. [de

  12. Use of numerical modeling in design for co-firing biomass in wall-fired burners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    modification to the motion and reaction due to their non-sphericity. The simulation results show a big difference between the two cases and indicate it is very significant to take into account the non-sphericity of biomass particles in order to model biomass combustion more accurately. Methods to improve...... of numerical modeling. The models currently used to predict solid fuel combustion rely on a spherical particle shape assumption, which may deviate a lot from reality for big biomass particles. A sphere gives a minimum in terms of the surface-area-to-volume ratio, which impacts significantly both motion...... and reaction of a particle. To better understand biomass combustion and thus improve the design for co-firing biomass in wall-fired burners, non-sphericity of biomass particles is considered. To ease comparison, two cases are numerically studied in a 10m long gas/biomass co-fired burner model. (1) The biomass...

  13. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere

  14. Biomass co-firing under oxy-fuel conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, L.; Yin, Chungen; Riaza, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on co-firing olive waste (0, 10%, 20% on mass basis) with two coals in an entrained flow reactor under three oxy-fuel conditions (21%O2/79%CO2, 30%O2/70%CO2 and 35%O2/65%CO2) and air–fuel condition. Co-firing biomass with coal was found...... to have favourable synergy effects in all the cases: it significantly improves the burnout and remarkably lowers NOx emissions. The reduced peak temperatures during co-firing can also help to mitigate deposition formation in real furnaces. Co-firing CO2-neutral biomass with coals under oxy-fuel conditions...... the model can be used to aid in design and optimization of large-scale biomass co-firing under oxy-fuel conditions....

  15. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  16. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition......Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages...... temperature in terms of sample volume, mass-scaling seems more physically correct for the self-ignition of solids. Findings also suggest that the transition between self-heating and self-ignition is controlled both by the availability of reactive material and temperature. Comparison of experiments at 20...

  17. Residual Ash Formation during Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Through 50+ years, high quality research has been conducted in order to characterize ash and deposit formation in utility boilers fired with coal, biomass and waste fractions. The basic mechanism of fly ash formation in suspension fired coal boilers is well described, documented and may even...... be modeled relatively precisely. Concerning fly ash formation from biomass or waste fractions, the situation is not nearly as good. Lots of data are available from campaigns where different ash fractions, including sometimes also in-situ ash, have been collected and analyzed chemically and for particle size...... distribution. Thus, there is a good flair of the chemistry of fly ash formed in plants fired with biomass or waste fractions, either alone, or in conjunction with coal. But data on dedicated studies of the physical size development of fly ash, are almost non-existing for biomasses and waste fractions...

  18. Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wooster, MJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning emissions factors are vital to quantifying trace gases releases from vegetation fires. Here the authors evaluate emissions factors for a series of savannah fires in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa using ground-based open...

  19. Thermo-economic assessment of externally fired micro-gas turbine fired by natural gas and biomass: Applications in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, A.M.; Camporeale, S.M.; Shah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-economic analysis of natural gas/biomass fired microturbine is proposed. • Energy efficiency, capex, opex and electricity revenues trade-offs are assessed. • The optimal biomass energy input is 70% of total CHP consumption. • Industrial/tertiary heat demand and baseload/heat driven operation is assessed. • The main barriers of small scale CHP systems in Italy are overviewed. - Abstract: This paper proposes a thermo-economic assessment of small scale (100 kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) plants fired by natural gas and solid biomass. The focus is on dual fuel gas turbine cycle, where compressed air is heated in a high temperature heat exchanger (HTHE) using the hot gases produced in a biomass furnace, before entering the gas combustion chamber. The hot air expands in the turbine and then feeds the internal pre-heater recuperator, Various biomass/natural gas energy input ratios are modeled, ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% biomass. The research assesses the trade-offs between: (i) lower energy conversion efficiency and higher investment cost of high biomass input rate and (ii) higher primary energy savings and revenues from bio-electricity feed-in tariff in case of high biomass input rate. The influence of fuel mix and biomass furnace temperature on energy conversion efficiencies, primary energy savings and profitability of investments is assessed. The scenarios of industrial vs. tertiary heat demand and baseload vs. heat driven plant operation are also compared. On the basis of the incentives available in Italy for biomass electricity and for high efficiency cogeneration (HEC), the maximum investment profitability is achieved for 70% input biomass percentage. The main barriers of these embedded cogeneration systems in Italy are also discussed

  20. Biomass Cofiring in Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-06-01

    Cofiring biomass-for example, forestry residues such as wood chips-with coal in existing boilers is one of the easiest biomass technologies to implement in a federal facility. The current practice is to substitute biomass for up to 20% of the coal in the boiler. Cofiring has many benefits: it helps to reduce fuel costs as well as the use of landfills, and it curbs emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. This Federal Technology Alert was prepared by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program to give federal facility managers the information they need to decide whether they should pursue biomass cofiring at their facilities.

  1. Characterization of biomass burning aerosols from forest fire in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y.; Iriana, W.; Okumura, M.; Lestari, P.; Tohno, S.; Akira, M.; Okuda, T.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning (forest fire, wild fire) is a major source of pollutants, generating an estimate of 104 Tg per year of aerosol particles worldwide. These particles have adverse human health effects and can affect the radiation budget and climate directly and indirectly. Eighty percent of biomass burning aerosols are generated in the tropics and about thirty percent of them originate in the tropical regions of Asia (Andreae, 1991). Several recent studies have reported on the organic compositions of biomass burning aerosols in the tropical regions of South America and Africa, however, there is little data about forest fire aerosols in the tropical regions of Asia. It is important to characterize biomass burning aerosols in the tropical regions of Asia because the aerosol properties vary between fires depending on type and moisture of wood, combustion phase, wind conditions, and several other variables (Reid et al., 2005). We have characterized PM2.5 fractions of biomass burning aerosols emitted from forest fire in Indonesia. During the dry season in 2012, PM2.5 aerosols from several forest fires occurring in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia were collected on quartz and teflon filters with two mini-volume samplers. Background aerosols in forest were sampled during transition period of rainy season to dry season (baseline period). Samples were analyzed with several analytical instruments. The carbonaceous content (organic and elemental carbon, OC and EC) of the aerosols was analyzed by a thermal optical reflectance technique using IMPROVE protocol. The metal, inorganic ion and organic components of the aerosols were analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), ion chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. There was a great difference of chemical composition between forest fire and non-forest fire samples. Smoke aerosols for forest fires events were composed of ~ 45 % OC and ~ 2.5 % EC. On the other hand, background aerosols for baseline periods were

  2. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (open-quotes NSPclose quotes) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP's historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future

  3. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore to combat chloride corrosion problems co-firing of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken....... This results in potassium chloride being converted to potassium sulphate in the combustion chamber and it is sulphate rich deposits that are deposited on the vulnerable metallic surfaces such as high temperature superheaters. Although this removes the problem of chloride corrosion, other corrosion mechanisms...... appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 hours using 0-20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel of 10% straw + coal. After three years exposure in this environment...

  4. Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40

  5. The effect of cleaning on materials wastage in biomass and waste fired power plants; Sotningens inverkan paa materialfoerluster foer bio- och avfallseldade pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoernhede, Anders; Henderson, Pamela

    2006-03-15

    The reason for this study is the relatively large material loss caused by soot blowing of heat exchange surface in waste- and biomass fired boilers. The material losses depend on the method of cleaning: Normally soot blowing with a relatively high pressure is used in order to remove deposits on super heater tubes. However, this also damages the tube material. Earlier theories state that the material losses are caused by erosion or rather erosion-corrosion of the tube surface. There is a clear evidence for the existence for this type of damage, but it is often caused by badly adjusted soot blowing equipment. However, even well adjusted equipment causes accelerated metal loss, albeit lower than with badly adjusted soot blowers. This type of material loss is caused by the removal of the outer molten deposit layer. This outer layer of deposit actually acts as a barrier to corrosive species diffusing inwards towards the oxide and uncorroded metal. There is a lamellar oxide under this deposit, which is especially protective if it contains Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The lamellar oxide is damaged by the defects produced by the soot blowing and the diffusion of corrosive species into the metal tube. Since molybdenum probably through molybdenum oxide seems to reduce metal losses due to soot blowing, alloys containing molybdenum should be used. The addition of sulphur, or sulphur compounds like ammonium sulphate reduces the deposit growth rate by about 50%. This means that the soot blowing frequency and therefore metal losses are reduced. There is also an indication that certain metals or alloys reduce the tendency for deposits to stick to tubes. Coating with pure nickel is one example of this, but as nickel is sensitive to soot blowing it is not possible to use nickel in areas affected by soot blowing. A common way of reducing metal losses is to mount tube shields on the most affected tubes. These shields are changed regularly. Normally expensive

  6. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs

  7. Biomass assessment and small scale biomass fired electricity generation in the Green Triangle, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis C.; May, Barrie; Herr, Alexander; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Coal fired electricity is a major factor in Australia's greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) emissions. The country has adopted a mandatory renewable energy target (MRET) to ensure that 20% of electricity comes from renewable sources by 2020. In order to support the MRET, a market scheme of tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) has been implemented since 2001. Generators using biomass from eligible sources are able to contribute to GHG emission reduction through the substitution of coal for electricity production and are eligible to create and trade RECs. This paper quantifies the potential biomass resources available for energy generation from forestry and agriculture in the Green Triangle, one of the most promising Australian Regions for biomass production. We analyse the cost of electricity generation using direct firing of biomass, and estimate the required REC prices to make it competitive with coal fired electricity generation. Major findings suggest that more than 2.6 million tonnes of biomass are produced every year within 200 km of the regional hub of Mount Gambier and biomass fired electricity is viable using feedstock with a plant gate cost of 46 Australian Dollars (AUD) per tonne under the current REC price of 34 AUD per MWh. These findings are then discussed in the context of regional energy security and existing targets and incentives for renewable energies. -- Highlights: → We assessed the biomass production in the Green Triangle. → 2.6 million tonnes of biomass per year are produced within 200 km from Mt Gambier. → Renewable Energy Certificates makes bioenergy competitive with coal electricity. → At a REC price of 34 AUD, biomass of up to 46 AUD/tonne might be used for bionergy

  8. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Safety Guide gives design and some operational guidance for protection from fire and fire-related explosions in nuclear power plants (NPP). It confines itself to fire protection of items important to safety, leaving the aspects of fire protection not related to safety in NPP to be decided upon the basis of the national practices and regulations

  9. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  10. Resource potential for renewable energy generation from co-firing of woody biomass with coal in the Northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have established measures of co-firing potential at varying spatial scales to assess opportunities for renewable energy generation from woody biomass. This study estimated physical availability, within ecological and public policy constraints, and associated harvesting and delivery costs of woody biomass for co-firing in selected power plants of the...

  11. Potential for Coal Power Plants to Co-Fire with Woody Biomass in the U. S. North, 2010-2030: A Technical Document Supporting the Northern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth E. Skog

    2015-01-01

    Future use of woody biomass to produce electric power in the U.S. North can have an important influence on timber production, carbon storage in forests, and net carbon emissions from producing electric power. The Northern Forest Futures Project (NFFP) has provided regional- and state-level projections of standing forest biomass, land-use change, and timber harvest,...

  12. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft... financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW...

  13. Successful experience with limestone and other sorbents for combustion of biomass in fluid bed power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, D.R. [LG& E Power Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the theoretical and practical advantages of utilizing limestone and other sorbents during the combustion of various biomass fuels for the reduction of corrosion and erosion of boiler fireside tubing and refractory. Successful experiences using a small amount of limestone, dolomite, kaolin, or custom blends of aluminum and magnesium compounds in fluid bed boilers fired with biomass fuels will be discussed. Electric power boiler firing experience includes bubbling bed boilers as well as circulating fluid bed boilers in commercial service on biomass fuels. Forest sources of biomass fuels fired include wood chips, brush chips, sawmill waste wood, bark, and hog fuel. Agricultural sources of biomass fuels fired include grape vine prunings, bean straw, almond tree chips, walnut tree chips, and a variety of other agricultural waste fuels. Additionally, some urban sources of wood fuels have been commercially burned with the addition of limestone. Data presented includes qualitative and quantitative analyses of fuel, sorbent, and ash.

  14. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels; Montgomery, Melanie; Hede Larsen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. To avoid such high corrosion rates, woodchip...... has also been utilised as a fuel. Combustion of woodchip results in a smaller amount of ash, and potassium and chlorine are present in lesser amounts. However, significant corrosion rates were still seen. A case study of a woodchip fired boiler is described. The corrosion mechanisms in both straw-fired...... and woodchip fired boilers are discussed....

  15. Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

    2006-06-30

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow

  16. Fire prevention in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The causes and frequency of fires at nuclear power plants in various countries are briefly given. Methods are described of fire hazard assessment at nuclear power plants, such as Gretener's method and the probabilistic methods. Approaches to the management of nuclear reactor fire protection in various countries as well as the provisions to secure such protection are dealt with. An overview and the basic characteristics of fire detection and extinguishing systems is presented. (Z.S.). 1 tab

  17. Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Viana; Warren B. Cohen; D. Lopes; J. Aranha

    2010-01-01

    Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two...

  18. Alkali chloride induced corrosion of superheaters under biomass firing conditions: Improved insights from laboratory scale studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    One of the major operational challenges experienced by power plants firing biomass is the high corrosion rate of superheaters. This limits the outlet steam temperature of the superheaters and consequently, the efficiency of the power plants. The high corrosion rates have been attributed to the fo......One of the major operational challenges experienced by power plants firing biomass is the high corrosion rate of superheaters. This limits the outlet steam temperature of the superheaters and consequently, the efficiency of the power plants. The high corrosion rates have been attributed......, [1–3]). However, complete understanding of the corrosion mechanism under biomass-firing conditions has not yet been achieved. This is attributed partly to the complex nature of the corrosion process since there are many species produced from fuel combustion which can interact with one another...... and the steel surface. Many studies have focused on specific parameters such as, deposit composition (KCl, K2SO4, K2CO3, etc.) or gas species such as HCl, SO2, H2O [4–6], however, more research is necessary to understand the interaction of deposits and gas mixtures with each other and metallic superheater...

  19. Numerical simulation of a biomass fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of the thermal flow in the combustion furnace of a biomass-fired grate boiler provides crucial insight into the boiler's performance. Quite a few factors play important roles in a general CFD analysis, such as grid, models, discretization scheme and so on....... For a grate boiler, the modeling the interaction of the fuel bed and the gas phase above the bed is also essential. Much effort can be found in literature on developing bed models whose results are introduced into CFD simulations of freeboard as inlet conditions. This paper presents a CFD analysis...... of the largest biomass-fired grate boiler in Denmark. The focus of this paper is to study how significantly an accurate bed model can affect overall CFD results, i.e., how necessarily it is to develop an accurate bed model in terms of the reliability of CFD results. The ultimate purpose of the study is to obtain...

  20. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been...... undertaken. This results in potassium chloride being converted to potassium sulphate in the combustion chamber and it is sulphate rich deposits that are deposited on the vulnerable metallic surfaces such as high temperature superheaters. Although this removes the problem of chloride corrosion, other...... corrosion mechanisms appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 h using 0–20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel mix of 10% strawþcoal. Based on results from a 3 years exposure...

  1. Experimental analysis of a combustion reactor under co-firing coal with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabyo Luiz; Bazzo, Edson; Oliveira Junior, Amir Antonio Martins de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). LabCET], e-mail: ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Complexo Termeletrico Jorge Lacerda, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gases emission is one of the most important issues in energy engineering. Biomass is a potential renewable source but with limited use in large scale energy production because of the relative smaller availability as compared to fossil fuels, mainly to coal. Besides, the costs concerning transportation must be well analysed to determine its economic viability. An alternative for the use of biomass as a primary source of energy is the co-firing, that is the possibility of using two or more types of fuels combined in the combustion process. Biomass can be co-fired with coal in a fraction between 10 to 25% in mass basis (or 4 to 10% in heat-input basis) without seriously impacting the heat release characteristics of most boilers. Another advantage of cofiring, besides the significant reductions in fossil CO{sub 2} emissions, is the reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. As a result, co-firing is becoming attractive for power companies worldwide. This paper presents results of some experimental analysis on co-firing coal with rice straw in a combustion reactor. The influence of biomass thermal share in ash composition is also discussed, showing that alkali and earth alkaline compounds play the most important role on the fouling and slagging behavior when co-firing. Some fusibility correlations that can assist in the elucidation of these behavior are presented and discussed, and then applied to the present study. Results show that for a biomass thermal share up to 20%, significant changes are not expected in fouling and slagging behavior of ash. (author)

  2. Fire protection concept for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitzmann, H.

    The author shows how a systematic approach permits the design of a fire-protected power station. The special conditions of an individual power station are here treated as marginal conditions. The article describes how the concept is realized in the completed power station, taking account of the information provided by fire statistics. (orig.) [de

  3. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  4. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility-Scale Co-Firing with 20% Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichol, Corrie Ian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzes the possibility that biopower in the U.S. is a cost-competitive option to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 2009, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted in the United States was equivalent to 5,618 million metric tons CO2, up 5.6% from 1990 (EPA 2011). Coal-fired power generation accounted for 1,748 million metric tons of this total. Intuitively, life-cycle CO2 emissions in the power sector could be reduced by substituting renewable biomass for coal. If just 20% of the coal combusted in 2009 had been replaced with biomass, CO2 emissions would have been reduced by 350 million metric tons, or about 6% of net annual GHG emission. This would have required approximately 225 million tons of dry biomass. Such an ambitious fuel substitution would require development of a biomass feedstock production and supply system tantamount to coal. This material would need to meet stringent specifications to ensure reliable conveyance to boiler burners, efficient combustion, and no adverse impact on heat transfer surfaces and flue gas cleanup operations. Therefore, this report addresses the potential cost/benefit tradeoffs of co-firing 20% specification-qualified biomass (on an energy content basis) in large U.S. coal-fired power plants. The dependence and sensitivity of feedstock cost on source of material, location, supply distance, and demand pressure was established. Subsequently, the dependence of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) on feedstock costs, power plant feed system retrofit, and impact on boiler performance was determined. Overall life-cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions saving were next evaluated and compared to wind and solar energy to benchmark the leading alternatives for meeting renewable portfolio standards (or RPS).

  5. Vegetation fires, absorbing aerosols and smoke plume characteristics in diverse biomass burning regions of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lasko, Kristofer; Giglio, Louis; Justice, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationships between the satellite-retrieved fire counts (FC), fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol indices using multi-satellite datasets at a daily time-step covering ten different biomass burning regions in Asia. We first assessed the variations in MODIS-retrieved aerosol optical depths (AOD’s) in agriculture, forests, plantation and peat land burning regions and then used MODIS FC and FRP (hereafter FC/FRP) to explain the variations in AOD characteristics. Results suggest that tropical broadleaf forests in Laos burn more intensively than the other vegetation fires. FC/FRP-AOD correlations in different agricultural residue burning regions did not exceed 20% whereas in forest regions they reached 40%. To specifically account for absorbing aerosols, we used Ozone Monitoring Instrument-derived aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and UV aerosol index (UVAI). Results suggest relatively high AAOD and UVAI values in forest fires compared with peat and agriculture fires. Further, FC/FRP could explain a maximum of 29% and 53% of AAOD variations, whereas FC/FRP could explain at most 33% and 51% of the variation in agricultural and forest biomass burning regions, respectively. Relatively, UVAI was found to be a better indicator than AOD and AAOD in both agriculture and forest biomass burning plumes. Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations data showed vertically elevated aerosol profiles greater than 3.2–5.3 km altitude in the forest fire plumes compared to 2.2–3.9 km and less than 1 km in agriculture and peat-land fires, respectively. We infer the need to assimilate smoke plume height information for effective characterization of pollutants from different sources. (letter)

  6. Feedlot biomass co-firing: a renewable energy alternative for coal-fired utilities. Paper no. IGEC-1-128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, S.; Thien, B.; Annamalai, K.; Sweeten, J.

    2005-01-01

    The swiftly growing feedlot industry in the United States upshots in the production of manure from one or more animal species in excess of what can safely be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans. Disposal of the vast quantity of manure produced as a by-product of the cattle feeding industry is one of the major operating tasks of the industry. Aside from the traditional means of disposal as fertilizer, an alternative and attractive way of overcoming this threat is to develop processes that make use of manure as an energy resource. In the present study, the feasibility of using of manure as a fuel in existing coal fired power plants is considered and appropriately termed Feedlot Biomass (FB). The technology of co-firing coal: feedlot biomass facilitates an environment friendly utilization of animal waste for the production of valuable power/steam concurrently addressing the renewable energy, groundwater contamination, and greenhouse gas concerns. Co-firing tests were performed at the Texas AandM University 30 kW t (100,000 Btu/h) laboratory-scale facility. The trials revealed the enhanced combustion of the blends. The NO emissions were less for the blend even with higher nitrogen content of FB as compared to coal. (author)

  7. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  8. Co-firing of biomass and other wastes in fluidised bed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Lopes, H.; Boavida, D.; Abelha, P. [INETI/DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal); Werther, J.; Hartge, E.-U.; Wischnewski, R. [TU Hamburg-Harburg (Georgia); Leckner, B.; Amand, L.-E.; Davidsson, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Salatino, P.; Chirone, R.; Scala, F.; Urciuolo, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli Frederico II and Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (Italy); Oliveira, J.F.; Lapa, N.

    2006-07-01

    A project on co-firing in large-scale power plants burning coal is currently funded by the European Commission. It is called COPOWER. The project involves 10 organisations from 6 countries. The project involves combustion studies over the full spectrum of equipment size, ranging from small laboratory-scale reactors and pilot plants, to investigate fundamentals and operating parameters, to proving trials on a commercial power plant in Duisburg. The power plant uses a circulating fluidized bed boiler. The results to be obtained are to be compared as function of scale-up. There are two different coals, 3 types of biomass and 2 kinds of waste materials are to be used for blending with coal for co-firing tests. The baseline values are obtained during a campaign of one month at the power station and the results are used for comparison with those to be obtained in other units of various sizes. Future tests will be implemented with the objective to achieve improvement on baseline values. The fuels to be used are already characterized. There are ongoing studies to determine reactivities of fuels and chars produced from the fuels. Reactivities are determined not only for individual fuels but also for blends to be used. Presently pilot-scale combustion tests are also undertaken to study the effect of blending coal with different types of biomass and waste materials. The potential for synergy to improve combustion is investigated. Simultaneously, studies to verify the availability of biomass and waste materials in Portugal, Turkey and Italy have been undertaken. Techno-economic barriers for the future use of biomass and other waste materials are identified. The potential of using these materials in coal fired power stations has been assessed. The conclusions will also be reported.

  9. Fire protection at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The guide presents specific requirements for the design and implementation of fire protection arrangements at nuclear power plants and for the documents relating to the fire protection that are to be submitted to STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority). Inspections of the fire protection arrangements to be conducted by STUK during the construction and operation of the power plants are also described in this guide. The guide can also be followed at other nuclear facilities

  10. Co-firing of coal with biomass and waste in full-scale suspension-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frandsen, Flemming J.; Jensen, Peter A.; Jensen, Anker D. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The energy policy in Denmark has for many years focused on lowering the net CO{sub 2} emission from heat and power production by replacing fossil fuels by renewable resources. This has been done by developing dedicated grate-fired boilers for biomass and waste fuels but also by developing coal-based suspension-fired boilers to accept still higher fractions of biomass or waste material as fuels. This last development has been challenging of many reasons, including pre-treatment of fuels, and solving potential emission and operational problems during the simultaneous development of supercritical steam cycles with steam temperatures close to 600 C, providing power efficiencies close to 50% (Hein KRG, Sustainable energy supply and environment protection - strategies, resources and technologies. In: Gupta R, Wall T, Hupa M, Wigley F, Tillman D, Frandsen FJ (eds) Proceedings of international conference on impact of fuel quality on power production and the environment, Banff Conference Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 29 Sept-4 Oct, 2008). For 25 years the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control) Research Centre at DTU Chemical Engineering, has attained a leading role in research, supporting power producing industry, plant owners and boiler manufacturers to optimize design and operation and minimize cost and environmental impact using alternative fuels in suspension fired boilers. Our contribution has been made via a combination of full-scale measuring campaigns, pilot-scale studies, lab-scale measurements and modeling tools. The research conducted has addressed many issues important for co-firing, i.e. fuel processing, ash induced boiler deposit formation and corrosion, boiler chamber fuel conversion and emission formation, influence on flue gas cleaning equipment and the utilization of residual products. This chapter provides an overview of research activities, aiming at increasing biomass shares during co-firing in suspension, conducted in close collaboration with

  11. Independent System Operators and Biomass Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Kevin L.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission issued its landmark open access transmission rule in 1996, the idea of creating and establishing independent system operators (ISOs) has gained momentum. ISOs may help combine individual utility transmission systems into more regional transmission networks, which ultimately will allow biomass companies to transmit power over longer distances while paying a single transmission rate. To the extent that ISOs are combined or operated with power exchanges, however, biomass companies will likely face even more competitive market pressures. Few operators have experience with ISOs and power exchanges, but preliminary results show that short-term electricity market prices are probably too low for most biomass companies to compete against. Without policy measures, biomass companies may have to pursue strategic opportunities with short-term, spot-market sales; direct bilateral sales to customers; alternative power exchanges; and perhaps a ''green'' power market and sales to ancillary service markets. In addition, prices will likely be more volatile in a restructured market so biomass generators should be selling during those times

  12. Deactivation of V2O5-WO3-TiO2 SCR catalyst at a biomass-fired combined heat and power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2005-01-01

    . Three catalyst elements were exposed at 350 °C, and one element was exposed at 250 °C for comparison. The catalyst activity was measured in the reactor at the exposure temperature by addition of NH3 and extra NO. The activity, in terms of a first-order rate constant, dropped by 52% after about 1140 h...... indicating a very fast deactivation compared to coal firing. It was also found that the reactor temperature was not of importance for the deactivation rate. SEM-EDX analysis showed that particle deposition and pore blocking contributed to the deactivation by decreasing the diffusion rate of NO and NH3...... decreased as a function of exposure time, which reveals that Brøndsted acid sites had reacted with potassium compounds and thereby rendered inactive. When washed by 0.5 M H2SO4 the regenerated catalyst regains a higher activity than that of the fresh catalyst at temperatures higher than 300 °C, but even...

  13. Pre-fire planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Regardless of the fire prevention measures which are taken, plant experience indicates that fires will occur in a nuclear power plant. When a fire occurs, the plant staff must handle the fire emergency. Pre-fire planning is a method of developing detailed fire attack plans and salvage operations to protect equipment from damage due to fire and fire fighting operations. This paper describes the purpose and use of a pre-fire plan to achieve these goals in nuclear power plants

  14. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA... related to possible financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation's (Oglethorpe) for the... online at the following Web site: http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/UWP-OglethorpePower.html and at the: Warren...

  15. Fire protection in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takuma, Masao

    1977-01-01

    According to the publication by US NRC, 32 fires have occurred in the nuclear power stations in operation, but most of them were small fire, and did not affect the safety of the nuclear power stations. The largest fire was that which occurred in the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station of TVA, USA, in March, 1976. It did not jeopardize the safety of the reactor facilities, and the leak of radioactive substance did not occur at all. But the investigation was made extensively by the joint committee of both houses, the government and others, and the deficiency in the countermeasures to fire was found, and it was clarified that some revision would by required on the standard applied heretofore. It was the valuable experience for improving further the safety of nuclear power stations. The fire occurred by the ignition of the polyurethane for sealing cable penetrations due to candle flame for testing. About 1600 cables were burned. When fire breaks out in a nuclear power station, it is necessary to stop and cool the reactor without fail, and to prevent the leak of radioactive substances definitely. In case of the fire in Browns Ferry, these requirements were fulfilled satisfactorily. The countermeasures on the basis of the experience in Browns Ferry and the design of the counterplan to fire in nuclear power stations are explained. (Kako, I.)

  16. Combined heat and power production based on gas turbine operation with biomass by gasification or powder firing; Kraftvaermeproduktion baserad paa gasturbindrift med biobraensle genom foergasning alternativt pulvereldning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marbe, Aasa; Colmsjoe, Linda

    2006-12-15

    Combined heat and power (CHP) technique is relatively less extended in the Swedish energy system. There is a production of 56,2 TWh in district heating meanwhile only 7,6 TWh electricity comes from CHP. This only corresponds to 6 % of all electricity produced in Sweden (132 TWh). Based on the existing district heating system the amount of electricity produced in CHP-plants could rise from today 7,6 to 20 TWh. The Swedish government has decided to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} released to atmosphere with 4 % by the year 2012. Furthermore there is a government decision that the nuclear power in a long time perspective will be phased out, so the amount of biofuelled heat and power plants has a huge potential to increase. To be competitive, the technique is to be efficient; hence the amount electricity produced should be as high as possible. Gasification of biofuel where the gas is used in a combined-cycle provides a higher efficiency compared to the traditional steam-cycle technique. To increase the electrical efficiency, an alternative method such as integration of a gas turbine with combustion of powder shape bio fuel in an external combustion chamber could be used. The concept is known as PFBC- technique in which the coal powder is combusted in a pressurised fluidised bed, the warm flue gases are cleaned up and expanded in a gas turbine. The objectives of this project have been to investigate the technical and economical conditions for gasification of bio fuel and for powder combustion in gas turbine for production of heat and power in different districts heat systems. Respectively technique has been studied in two different cases, Boraas Energi AB and ENA Energi AB. In Boraas the existing CHP-plant has been replaced by a bio fuelled gasification plant (IGCC) meanwhile at ENA Energi the existing CHP-plant has been complemented white a powder fuelled (bio) gas turbine. The task group for this report are decision makers of Energy Companies and the report will help

  17. Analysis of fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Schneider, U.

    1982-01-01

    Regulations and test specifications for fire prevention in nuclear power plants are presented as well as the fire protection measures in a newly constructed nuclear power plant. Although the emphasis is placed differently, all rules are based on the following single measures: Fire prevention, fire detection, fire fighting, fire checking, attack, flight, and rescue, organisational measures. (orig./GL) [de

  18. Alkali resistant Cu/zeolite deNOx catalysts for flue gas cleaning in biomass fired applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    to investigate the redox and acidic properties of the catalysts. The poisoning resistivity seems to be due to a combination of high surface area and strong acidity of the Cu/zeolite catalysts. The catalysts might be attractive alternatives to conventional catalysts for deNOx of flue gases from biomass fired...... power plants and other stationary industrial installations....

  19. Pre-oxidation and its effect on reducing high-temperature corrosion of superheater tubes during biomass firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Kvisgaard, M.; Montgomery, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Superheater tubes in biomass-fired power plants experience high corrosion rates due to condensation of corrosive alkali chloride-rich deposits. To explore the possibility of reducing the corrosion attack by the formation of an initial protective oxide layer, the corrosion resistance of pre......-oxidised Al and Ti-containing alloys (Kanthal APM and Nimonic 80A, respectively) was investigated under laboratory conditions mimicking biomass firing. The alloys were pre-oxidised at 900°C for 1 week. Afterwards, pre-oxidised samples, and virgin non-pre-oxidised samples as reference, were coated...... with a synthetic deposit of KCl and exposed at 560°C for 1 week to a gas mixture typical of biomass firing. Results show that pre-oxidation could hinder the corrosion attack; however, the relative success was different for the two alloys. While corrosion attack was observed on the pre-oxidised Kanthal APM, the pre...

  20. Combating corrosion in biomass and waste fired plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Research and Development; Hjoernhede, Anders [Vattenfall AB, Gothenburg (Sweden). Power Consultant

    2010-07-01

    Many biomass- or waste-fired plants have problems with high temperature corrosion especially if the steam temperature is greater than 500 C. An increase in the combustion of waste fuels means that an increasing number of boilers have had problems. Therefore, there is great interest in reducing the costs associated with high temperature corrosion and at the same time there exists a desire to improve the electrical efficiency of a plant by the use of higher steam temperatures. Assuming that the fuel is well-mixed and that there is good combustion control, there are in addition a number of other measures which can be used to reduce superheater corrosion in biomass and waste fired plants, and these are described in this paper. These include the use of fuel additives, specifically sulphur-containing ones; design aspects like placing superheaters in less corrosive positions in a boiler, using tube shielding, a wider pitch between the tubes; operational considerations such as more controlled soot-blowing and the use of better materials. (orig.)

  1. Hybrid Combined Cycles with Biomass and Waste Fired Bottoming Cycle - a Literature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Miroslav P.

    2002-02-01

    Biomass is one of the main natural resources in Sweden. The present low-CO{sub 2} emission characteristics of the Swedish electricity production system (hydro and nuclear) can be retained only by expansion of biofuel applications for energy purposes. Domestic Swedish biomass resources are vast and renewable, but not infinite. They must be utilized as efficiently as possible, in order to make sure that they meet the conditions for sustainability in the future. Application of efficient power generation cycles at low costs is essential for meeting this challenge. This applies also to municipal solid waste incineration with energy extraction, which should be preferred to its dumping in landfills. Hybrid dual-fuel combined cycle units are a simple and affordable way to increase the electric efficiency of biofuel energy utilization, without big investments, uncertainties or loss of reliability arising from complicated technologies. Configurations of such power cycles are very flexible and reliable. Their potential for high electric efficiency in condensing mode, high total efficiency in combined heat and power mode and unrivalled load flexibility is explored in this project. The present report is a literature study that concentrates on certain biomass utilization technologies, in particular the design and performance of hybrid combined cycle power units of various configurations, with gas turbines and internal combustion engines as topping cycles. An overview of published literature and general development trends on the relevant topic is presented. The study is extended to encompass a short overview of biomass utilization as an energy source (focusing on Sweden), history of combined cycles development with reference especially to combined cycles with supplementary firing and coal-fired hybrid combined cycles, repowering of old steam units into hybrid ones and combined cycles for internal combustion engines. The hybrid combined cycle concept for municipal solid waste

  2. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-01

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO(sub x) pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  3. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  4. Ash transformation and deposit build-up during biomass suspension and grate firing: Full-scale experimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    An attractive option for reducing the net CO2 emissions is to substitute coal with biomass in large power plant boilers. However, the presence of chlorine (Cl) and alkali metals (K, Na) in biomassmay induce large operational problems due to ash deposit formation on the superheater tubes. The aim...... of this study was to investigate ash transformation and deposition behavior in two biomass-fired boilers, firing wheat straw and/or wood. The influence of strawfiring technology (grate and suspension) on the ash transformation, deposit formation rate and deposit characteristics has been investigated. Bulk...... elemental analysis of fly ashes revealed that fly ash from suspension firing of straw has high contents of Si, K and Ca, while fly ash from straw firing on grate was rich in the volatile elements K, Cl and S. Investigations of deposit formation ratesweremade in the superheater and convective pass regions...

  5. Field test corrosion experiments in Denmark with biomass fuels Part I Straw firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, A; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A series of field tests have been undertaken in the various straw-fired power plants in Denmark, namely Masnedø, Rudkøbing and Ensted. Three types of exposure were undertaken......In Denmark, straw and other types of biomass are used for generating energy in power plants. Straw has the advantage that it is a "carbon dioxide neutral fuel" and therefore environmentally acceptable. Straw combustion is associated with corrosion problems which are not encountered in coal-fired...... to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, b) the exposure of test tubes in a test superheater, and c) the exposure of test tubes in existing superheaters. Thus both austenitic steels and ferritic steels were exposed in the steam temperature range of 450-600°C...

  6. Fire protection guidelines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    Guidelines acceptable to the NRC staff for implementing in the development of a fire protection program for nuclear power plants. The purpose of the fire protection program is to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor and maintain it in a safe shutdown condition and to minimize radioactive releases to the environment in the event of a fire. If designs or methods different from the guidelines presented herein are used, they must provide fire protection comparable to that recommended in the guidelines. Suitable bases and justification should be provided for alternative approaches to establish acceptable implementaion of General Design Criterion 3

  7. Co-firing coal and biomass blends and their influence on the post-combustion CO2 capture installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Więckol-Ryk Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Research proved that co-firing of biomass in fossil fuel power plants is beneficial for PCC process. It may also reduce the corrosion of CO2 capture installation. The oxygen concentration in the flue gases from hard coal combustion was comparable with the respective value for a fuel blend of biomass content of 20% w/w. It was also noted that an increase in biomass content in a sample from 20 to 40 % w/w increased the concentration of oxygen in the flue gas streams. However, this concentration should not have a significant impact on the rate of amine oxidative degradation.

  8. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic tool to actual plants, With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and oil fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena, Trial simulation of fire hazard as Metal-Clad Switch Gear Fire of ONAGAWA NPP in Tohoku earthquake (HEAF accident). (author)

  9. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September–31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p  >  0.05 level, Student t test between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model

  10. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Siqueira, Ricardo; Rosário, Nilton E.; Longo, Karla L.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Cardozo, Francielle S.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-06-01

    Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP) observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP) and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September-31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm) derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p > 0.05 level, Student t test) between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model simulation driven by 3BEM and FINN

  11. Thermal remote sensing of active vegetation fires and biomass burning events [Chapter 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin J. Wooster; Gareth Roberts; Alistair M.S. Smith; Joshua Johnston; Patrick Freeborn; Stefania Amici; Andrew T. Hudak

    2013-01-01

    Thermal remote sensing is widely used in the detection, study, and management of biomass burning occurring in open vegetation fires. Such fires may be planned for land management purposes, may occur as a result of a malicious or accidental ignition by humans, or may result from lightning or other natural phenomena. Under suitable conditions, fires may spread rapidly...

  12. BENEFIT COST FOR BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION: CASE OF UTAH, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Keun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy making regarding biomass co-firing is difficult. The article provides a benefit-cost analysis for decision makers to facilitate policy making process to implement efficient biomass co-firing policy. The additional cost is the sum of cost of the biomass procurement and biomass transportation. Co-benefits are sales of greenhouse gas emission credits and health benefit from reducing harmful air pollutants, especially particulate matter. The benefit-cost analysis is constructed for semi-arid U.S. region, Utah, where biomass supply is limited. Results show that biomass co-firing is not economically feasible in Utah but would be feasible when co-benefits are considered. Benefit-cost ratio is critically dependent upon biomass and carbon credit prices. The procedure to build the benefit-cost ratio can be applied for any region with other scenarios suggested in this study.

  13. Fire scenarios in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asp, I.B.; MacDougall, E.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    This report defines a Design Base Fire and looks at 3 major areas of a hypothetical model for a Nuclear Power Plant. In each of these areas a Design Base Fire was developed and explained. In addition, guidance is given for comparing fire conditions of a given Nuclear Power Plant with the model plant described. Since there is such a wide variation in nuclear plant layouts, model areas were chosen for simplicity. The areas were not patterned after any existing plant area; rather several plant layouts were reviewed and a simplified model developed. The developed models considered several types of fires. The fire selected was considered to be the dominant one for the case in point. In general, the dominant fire selected is time dependent and starts at a specific location. After these models were developed, a comparison was drawn between the model and an operating plant for items such as area, cable numbers and weight, tray sizes and lengths. The heat loads of the model plant are summarized by area and compared with those of an actual operating plant. This document is intended to be used as a guide in the evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations and a summarization of one acceptable analytical methodology to accomplish this

  14. Estimating root biomass and distribution after fire in a Great Basin woodland using cores and pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin M. Rau; Dale W. Johnson; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert R. Blank; Annmarie Lucchesi

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying root biomass is critical to an estimation and understanding of ecosystem net primary production, biomass partitioning, and belowground competition. We compared 2 methods for determining root biomass: a new soil-coring technique and traditional excavation of quantitative pits. We conducted the study in an existing Joint Fire Sciences demonstration area in...

  15. Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Wooster

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning emissions factors are vital to quantifying trace gas release from vegetation fires. Here we evaluate emissions factors for a series of savannah fires in Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa using ground-based open path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and an IR source separated by 150–250 m distance. Molecular abundances along the extended open path are retrieved using a spectral forward model coupled to a non-linear least squares fitting approach. We demonstrate derivation of trace gas column amounts for horizontal paths transecting the width of the advected plume, and find for example that CO mixing ratio changes of ~0.01 μmol mol−1 [10 ppbv] can be detected across the relatively long optical paths used here. Though FTIR spectroscopy can detect dozens of different chemical species present in vegetation fire smoke, we focus our analysis on five key combustion products released preferentially during the pyrolysis (CH2O, flaming (CO2 and smoldering (CO, CH4, NH3 processes. We demonstrate that well constrained emissions ratios for these gases to both CO2 and CO can be derived for the backfire, headfire and residual smouldering combustion (RSC stages of these savannah fires, from which stage-specific emission factors can then be calculated. Headfires and backfires often show similar emission ratios and emission factors, but those of the RSC stage can differ substantially. The timing of each fire stage was identified via airborne optical and thermal IR imagery and ground-observer reports, with the airborne IR imagery also used to derive estimates of fire radiative energy (FRE, allowing the relative amount of fuel burned in each stage to be calculated and "fire averaged" emission ratios and emission factors to be determined. These "fire averaged" metrics are dominated by the headfire contribution, since the FRE data indicate that the vast majority

  16. Corrosion Investigations in Straw-Fired Power Plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Frandsen, Flemming; Karlsson, A

    2001-01-01

    of accelerated corrosion. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A series of field tests have been undertaken in the various straw-fired power plants in Denmark, namely the Masnedø, Rudkøbing and Ensted CHP plants. Three types......In Denmark, straw and other types of biomass are used for generating energy in power plants. Straw has the advantage that it is a "carbon dioxide neutral fuel" and therefore environmentally acceptable. Straw combustion is associated with corrosion problems which are not encountered in coal-fired...... of exposure were undertaken to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, b) the exposure of test tubes in a test superheater, and c) the exposure of test tubes in existing superheaters. Thus both austenitic steels and ferritic steels were exposed in the steam...

  17. High temperature corrosion during biomass firing: improved understanding by depth resolved characterisation of corrosion products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    changes within the near surface region (covering both the deposit and the steel surface). Such cross-section analysis was further complemented by plan view investigations (additionally involving X-ray diffraction) combined with removal of the corrosion products. Improved insights into the nature......The high temperature corrosion of an austenitic stainless steel (TP 347H FG), widely utilised as a superheater tube material in Danish power stations, was investigated to verify the corrosion mechanisms related to biomass firing. KCl coated samples were exposed isothermally to 560 degrees C...... of the corrosion products as a function of distance from the deposit surface were revealed through this comprehensive characterisation. Corrosion attack during simulated straw-firing conditions was observed to occur through both active oxidation and sulphidation mechanisms....

  18. Biomass power as a strategic business investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    During 1994 and 1995 the Electric Power Research Institute collaborated with the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory in support of seven feasibility studies of integrated biomass systems. The goal of the studies was to assess the economic viability and environmental implications of each system. The products were comprehensive business plans for implementation of the proposed systems. One general conclusion from these studies is that the feasibility of any biomass power system is determined by the costs and unique characteristics intrinsic to the specific system. Because of the limited need for new electric capacity in most of the US, and the relatively low capital investment required for implementation, cofiring currently holds more appeal than any of the more advanced conversion options. Cofiring savings accrue from offsets of coal, along with SO x allowances and any available NO x or carbon credits. The closed loop tax credit authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 serves to make energy crops more nearly cost-competitive with coal and natural gas. Biomass gasification combined-cycle units give promise of economic viability after the turn of the century, and as energy crops become more cost-competitive with waste feedstocks, agricultural constituencies will become more integrally involved in the establishment of biomass energy systems. At present, corollary benefits are critical if a system is to be economically feasible. A valid no-regrets policy for global climate-change mitigation that includes near-term investments in biomass technologies should result in large payoffs over the next several decades

  19. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmann, B.; Creutzenberg, O.; Ernst, H.; Muhle, H.

    2009-02-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m3. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 μm. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

  20. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellmann, B; Creutzenberg, O; Ernst, H; Muhle, H

    2009-01-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m 3 . The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 μm. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

  1. Marine biomass power plant using methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Saito, H.; Amano, T.; Sugawara, H.; Seki, T.; Abe, T. [Technology Research Inst., Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This study presented an effective way to produce biogas from the large quantities of seaweed waste in Japan. A large-scale marine biomass pilot plant was built to produce biogas from marine biomass. Methane fermentation was the process used to produce biogas from Laminaria sp. The maximum treating capacity of the pilot plant is 1 ton of seaweed per day. The pilot plant includes a pretreatment facility, fermentation, biogas storage and power generation. The maximum methane yield from the biomass plant is 22 cubic ton-seaweed. The purified biogas has generated 10 kW of electricity and 23 kW of heat. The biogas was also mixed with natural gas for use in a gas engine generator. The engine operation remained stable despite changes in quantity and composition of the collected biogas caused by changes with the source of biomass and sea conditions. The thermal efficiency of the gas engine running on mixed biogas and natural gas was more than 10 per cent higher than an engine running on biogas fuel alone. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Danish Experiences with Deposit Probe Measurements in Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Several measuring campaigns with focus on deposition behavior have been conducted at full-scale power plants firing biomass in Denmark. These campaigns have been reviewed in this work. The focus is the obtained experiences on deposit formation, shedding and chemistry. When comparing results from...

  3. Mathematical modeling and experimental study of biomass combustion in a thermal 108 MW grate-fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    Grate boilers are widely used to fire biomass for heat and power production. However grate-firing systems are often reported to have relatively high un-burnout, low efficiency and high emissions, and need to be optimized and modernized. This paper presents the efforts towards a reliable baseline...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization of the grate boiler as well as design of new grate boilers. First, based on the design conditions, a thorough sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the relative importance...... of different factors in CFD analysis of the grate boiler. In a late stage, a two-day measuring campaign is carried out to measure the gas temperatures and gas concentrations in the boiler using a fiber optic probe connected to a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A baseline model is then defined...

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.

    1985-07-01

    The goal is to develop test data and analytical capabilities to support the evaluation of: (1) the contribution of fires to the risk from nuclear power plants; (2) the effects of fires on control room equipment and operations; and (3) the effects of actuation of fire suppression systems on safety equipment. A range of fire sources will be characterized with respect to their energy and mass evolution, including smoke, corrosion products, and electrically conductive products of combustion. An analytical method for determining the environment resulting from fire will be developed. This method will account for the source characteristics, the suppression action following detection of the fire, and certain parameters specific to the plant enclosure in which the fire originates, such as the geometry of the enclosure and the ventilation rate. The developing local environment in the vicinity of safety-related equipment will be expressed in terms of temperatures, temperature rise rates, heat fluxes, and moisture and certain species content. The response of certain safe shutdown equipment and components to the environmental conditions will be studied. The objective will be to determine the limits of environmental conditions that a component may be exposed to without impairment of its ability to function

  5. Manual fire fighting tactics at Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Moon, Chan Kook

    2012-01-01

    The general requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plant (NPP) are fire protection program, fire hazard analysis, and fire prevention features. In addition, specific fire protection requirements such as water supplies, fire detection, fire protection of safe related equipment, and safe shutdown capabilities must be provided. Particularly, manual fire fighting is required as specific requirements with the provisions to secure manual fire suppression, fire brigade and its training, and administrative controls for manual fire fighting. If a fire is alarmed and confirmed to be a real fire, the fire brigade must take manual fire fighting activities as requested at fire protection program. According to the present requirements in itself, there is not any specific manual fire fighting ways or practical strategies. In general, fire zones or compartments at NPPs are built in a confined condition. In theory, the fire condition will change from a combustible-controlled fire to a ventilation-governing fire with the time duration. In case of pool fire with the abundant oxygen and flammable liquid, it can take just a few minutes for the flash-over to occur. For the well-confined fire zone, it will change from a flame fire to a smoldering state before the entrance door is opened by the fire brigade. In this context, the manual fire fighting activities must be based on a quantitative analysis and a fire risk evaluation. At this paper, it was suggested that the fire zones at NPPs should be grouped on the inherent functions and fire characteristics. Based on the fire risk characteristics and the fire zone grouping, the manual fire fighting tactics are suggested as an advanced fire fighting solution

  6. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic Tool to actual plants (FDT{sup S}), With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and High Energy Arcing Faults (HEAF) fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, and CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena. Trial simulation of HEAF accident of Onagawa NPP in Tohoku earthquake. (author)

  7. Development of low cost systems for co-utilisation of biomass in large power plant. Mid term review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2003-07-01

    Interest in the cofiring of biomass materials with coal in large coal-fired power stations in the UK has increased significantly in recent years in response to the potential additional income from Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs). It is anticipated that most coal-fired power stations in the UK will have the capability to cofire biomass materials by the end of 2003. This mid-term review report examines the various stages in the route to fully commercial operation of biomass cofiring at coal-fired power stations, the availability of suitable biomass materials in the UK and the technical options for cofiring. The factors affecting the economics of biomass cofiring in large coal-fired boilers are discussed including the delivered price of biofuels, the future value of ROCs, the development costs of cofiring projects, the 25% ceiling on cofiring imposed by the Renewables Obligation Order 2002 and the use of preblending. An overview of the current status of cofiring in the UK is presented, which includes a summary of the results of trials already carried out by operators of coal-fired power stations and a discussion of the future prospects for biomass cofiring in the UK.

  8. Characterization and Quantification of Deposits Buildup and Removal in Biomass Suspension-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of biomass as wood or straw in large suspension­fired boilers is an efficient method to reduce the use of fossil fuels consumption and to reduce the net CO2 formation. However, the presence of chlorine and alkali metals in biomass (straw) generate ash with a low melting point and induce...... large problems of ash deposit formation on the superheater tubes. Full scale studies on biomass ash deposition and removal had been done on biomass grate boilers, while only limited data is available from biomass suspension­firing. The aim of this study was to investigate deposit mass uptake, heat...... uptake reduction, fly ash and deposit characteristics, and deposit removal by using an advanced online deposit probe in a suspension­fired boiler using wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type and probe exposure time on the ash deposition rate, the heat uptake, the fly ash and deposit...

  9. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Laatikainen-Luntama, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; and others

    1997-10-01

    The conventional fluidized-bed combustion has become commercially available also to relatively small scale (5 MWe), but this technology has rather low power-to-heat ratio and consequently it`s potential is limited to applications where district or process heat is the main product. Thus, there seems to be a real need to develop more efficient methods for small-scale power production from biomass. Gasification diesel power plant is one alternative for the small-scale power production, which has clearly higher power-to-heat ratio than can be reached in conventional steam cycles. The main technical problem in this process is the gas cleaning from condensable tars. In addition to the diesel-power plants, there are several other interesting applications for atmospheric-pressure clean gas technology. One alternative for cost-effective biomass utilization is co-firing of biomass derived product gas in existing pulverized coal fired boilers (or other types of boilers and furnaces). The aim of the project is to develop dry gas cleaning methods for gasification-diesel power plants and for other atmospheric-pressure applications of biomass and waste gasification. The technical objectives of the project are as follows: To develop and test catalytic gas cleaning methods for engine. To study the removal of problematic ash species of (CFE) gasification with regard to co-combustion of the product gas in PC boilers. To evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of different small-scale power plant concepts based on fixed-bed updraft and circulating fluidized- bed gasification of biomass and waste. (orig.)

  10. Biomass power production in Amazonia: Environmentally sound, economically productive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC (United States); Hollomon, J.B. [Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    With the support of the US Agency for International Development, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) is assisting their utility counterparts in Bolivia to improve electric service in the country`s rural population. In remote areas, the cost of extending transmission lines to small communities is prohibitive, and diesel generators represent an expensive alternative, especially for baseload power. This has led to serious consideration of electric generating systems using locally available renewable resources, including biomass, hydro, wind, and solar energy. A project has recently been initiated in Riberalta, in the Amazonian region of Bolivia, to convert waste Brazil nut shells and sawmill residues to electricity. Working in tandem with diesel generators, the biomass-fired plant will produce base-load power in an integrated system that will be able to provide reliable and affordable electricity to the city. The project will allow the local rural electric cooperative to lower the price of electricity by nearly forty percent, enable the local Brazil nut industry to increase its level of mechanization, and reduce the environmental impacts of dumping waste shells around the city and in an adjacent river. The project is representative of others that will be funded in the future by NRECA/AID.

  11. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  12. Experimental Investigation into the Combustion Characteristics on the Co-firing of Biomass with Coal as a Function of Particle Size and Blending Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lkhagvadorj, Sh; Kim, Sang In; Lim, Ho; Kim, Seung Mo; Jeon, Chung Hwan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung Hwa [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Co-firing of biomass with coal is a promising combustion technology in a coal-fired power plant. However, it still requires verifications to apply co-firing in an actual boiler. In this study, data from the Thermogravimetric analyzer(TGA) and Drop tube furnace(DTF) were used to obtain the combustion characteristics of biomass when co-firing with coal. The combustion characteristics were verified using experimental results including reactivity from the TGA and Unburned carbon(UBC) data from the DTF. The experiment also analyzed with the variation of the biomass blending ratio and biomass particle size. It was determined that increasing the biomass blending ratio resulted in incomplete chemical reactions due to insufficient oxygen levels because of the rapid initial combustion characteristics of the biomass. Thus, the optimum blending condition of the biomass based on the results of this study was found to be 5 while oxygen enrichment reduced the increase of UBC that occurred during combustion of blended biomass and coal.

  13. Biomass Supply and Trade Opportunities of Preprocessed Biomass for Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Junginger, M.; Klemm, M.; Schipfer, F.; Thrän, D.

    2016-01-01

    International trade of solid biomass is expected to increase significantly given the global distribution of biomass resources and anticipated expansion of bioenergy deployment in key global power markets. Given the unique characteristics of biomass, its long-distance trade requires optimized

  14. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr.; Easterly, J.; Vence, T.

    1993-12-01

    In this report, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) intends to help utility companies evaluate biomass and wastes for power generation. These fuels may be alternatives or supplements to fossil fuels in three applications: (1) utility boiler coining; (2) dedicated combustion/energy recovery plants; and 3) dedicated gasification/combined cycle plants. The report summarizes data on biomass and waste properties, and evaluates the cost and performance of fuel preparation and power generation technologies. The primary biomass and waste resources evaluated are: (1) wood wastes (from forests, mills, construction/demolition, and orchards) and short rotation woody crops; (2) agricultural wastes (from fields, animals, and processing) and herbaceous energy crops; and (3) consumer or industrial wastes (e.g., municipal solid waste, scrap tires, sewage sludge, auto shredder waste). The major fuel types studied in detail are wood, municipal solid waste, and scrap tires. The key products of the project include the BIOPOWER model of biomass/waste-fired power plant performance and cost. Key conclusions of the evaluation are: (1) significant biomass and waste fuel resources are available; (2) biomass power technology cannot currently compete with natural gas-fired combined cycle technology; (3) coining biomass and waste fuels with coal in utility and industrial boilers is the most efficient, lowest cost, and lowest risk method of energy recovery from residual materials; (4) better biomass and waste fuel production and conversion technology must be developed, with the help of coordinated government energy and environmental policies and incentives; and (5) community partnerships can enhance the chances for success of a project

  15. Training of fire protection personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, W.

    1980-01-01

    Training of fire protection personnel in nuclear power plants is divided up in three categories: training of fire protection commissioners which is mostly carried out externally; training of fire fighting personnel in the form of basic and repeated training usually by the fire protection commissioner; training of other employers with regard to behaviour in case of fire and during work involving a fire hazard. (orig.) [de

  16. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  17. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqiu; Yin, Xiuli; Xu, Jie; Ma, Longlong

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  18. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, July 3--December 4, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes progress in several projects related to biomass power. These include switchgrass conversion development; switchgrass gasification development; production activities including soil studies, carbon studies, switchgrass production economics, watershed impacts, and prairie lands bio-products; information and education; and geographical information system. Attachments describe switchgrass co-firing test; switchgrass production in Iowa; cooperative agreements with ISU; Rathbun Lake watershed project; newspaper articles and information publications; Secretary of Agriculture Glickman`s visit; integration of technical aspects of switchgrass production in Iowa; and evaluation of an integrated biomass gasification/fuel cell power plant.

  19. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  20. Fire safety in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first of a three-part report on the fire hazards in nuclear power stations and some of the precautions necessary. This part lists the United Kingdom reactors, outlines how they work, the fuels used, the use of moderators and coolants and the control systems. Although the risk of fire is no higher than in fossil-fuel stations the consequences can be more serious. The radioactive materials used mean that there is biological shielding round the core, limitations on waste emissions allowed and limited access to some zones. Reliable shut-down systems are needed. Care in the use of water to fight fires must be exercised -it can act as a moderator and cause an otherwise safe core to go critical. The Wigner effect in graphite moderated reactors is explained. Fires in graphite can be extinguished by carbon dioxide. Argon, chlorine and sodium silicate can also be effective. In sodium cooled reactors fires can be allowed to burn themselves out, or TEC and argon could be used to extinguish the flame. (UK)

  1. A guideline for fire prevention during the storage of biomass; Leitfaden zur Brandvermeidung bei der Lagerung von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrero, Fabio; Malow, Marcus; Schmidt, Martin; Krause, Ulrich

    2009-10-14

    For five years, an increasing number of fires in timber-yards is observed. A multiplicity of these fires results from self inflammation of the material. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the fundamentals of the self inflammation by biomass using wood as an example. The methodology for the avoidance of the self inflammation of biomass is based on a combination of laboratory tests and numeric simulation in order to determine the reliable waste dump geometry and storage times. In particular, the humidity content of the stored material is very important for growth and heat production of the micro organisms. If the material does not possess optimal humidity content, heat production and the probability of self inflammation are reduced. The optimal content of humidity amounts nearly 50-60 mass-%. For the determination of a safe storage of biomass, a flow chart is developed using pinewood as an example. (orig.)

  2. Economic evaluation of externally fired gas turbine cycles for small-scale biomass cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-01-01

    In this conceptual study, externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) cycles in combination with a biomass-fueled, atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace are investigated for small scale heat and power production ({approx} 8 MW fuel input). Three cycle configurations are considered: closed cycle, with nitrogen, helium, and a helium/carbon dioxide mixture as working fluids; open cycle operating in parallel to the CFB system; and open cycle with a series connection to the CFB system. Intercooling, postcooling, and recuperation are employed with the goal of maximizing efficiency. Aside from a thermodynamic performance analysis, the study includes an economic analysis of both the closed and open externally fired gas turbine configurations, and comparisons are made with existing and emerging alternatives for small-scale biomass cogeneration. Simulation results show that thermodynamic performance varies slightly between the different configurations and working fluids, with electrical efficiencies of 31-38% (LHV) and total efficiency of 85-106% (LHV). The economic evaluation shows that the turbomachinery and the CFB furnace dominate the total plant cost, with each contributing about 1/3 of the total installed equipment cost. The specific capital cost for installation in Sweden in 1998 currency is calculated as 26-31 kSEK/kW{sub e} which is equivalent to 3 200-3 900 USD/kW{sub e} or 2 700-3 300 EUR/kW{sub e} .The cost of electricity, COE, is estimated to 590-670 SEK/MWh{sub e} (equivalent to 73-84 USD/MWh{sub e} or 62-71 EUR/MWh{sub e}) for 4 000 full load hours per year in a cogeneration application. Comparing the economic results for the externally fired gas turbine cycles in a slightly larger scale (40-50 MW{sub f}) to the economics of conventional biomass fired steam turbine cycles shows that the cost of electricity for the two plant configurations are roughly the same with a COE of 300-350 SEK/MWh{sub e}. It is believed that the economic performance of the EFGT

  3. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Code on Design (Safety Series 50-C-D (Rev. 1)) within the NUSS (Nuclear Safety Standards) programme of the IAEA points out the necessity of measures for protecting plant items which are important to safety against fires of internal and external origin. Experience of the past two decades in the operation of nuclear power plants and modern analysis techniques confirm that fire may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the beginning of the design process throughout the life of the plant. Within the framework of the NUSS programme, a Safety Guide on fire protection had therefore been developed to enlarge on the general requirements given in the Code. Since its first publication in 1979, there has been considerable development in protection technology and analysis methods and after the Chernobyl accident it was decided to revise the existing Guide. The present Safety Guide is intended to advise designers, safety assessors and regulators on the concept of fire protection in the design of nuclear power plants and on recommended ways of implementing the concept in some detail in practice. Figs, 1 tab

  4. Fire protection at the Mochovce nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, Zuzana; Zeman, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A succinct account is given of current situation in fire prevention at the Mochovce NPP and of past fire events. The fact is stressed that no fire ever occurred at any technological facility of the plant since the startup of the reactor units. Steps required to improve fire safety at a nuclear power plant are highlighted. (orig.)

  5. Retrofit options to enable biomass firing at Irish peat plants: Background report 4.2 for the EU Joule 2+ project: Energy from biomass: An assessment of two promising systems for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R.; Faaij, A.; Blaney, G.

    1995-05-01

    An overview is given of the most promising options for retrofitting existing Irish peat plants to accept biomass fuel. It is expected that with low investment costs the existing peat stations can be adapted to enable them to fire biomass. It will also be possible to co-fire peat and biomass, this option will become a way of using biomass in power generation with relatively low risk, both on the field of initial investments and supply security. The objectives of this report are: assessing the different technical options for retrofitting the plants to enable biomass firing; provide investment costs, efficiencies, emissions and expected lifetimes for the different retrofit options. The results from this study are used in the final integration phase of the EU-Joule project 'Energy from biomass'. Chapter 2 deals with methodological considerations which have been made in estimation of the investment costs. In chapter 3 the present situation is described. Both peat harvesting and power plant operation of both sod and milled peat plants are explained. Also some past experiences with wood chips firing in Irish peat stations are discussed. Chapter 4 gives a general view on retrofitting peat plants to enable biomass firing. Some starting points like biomass fuel feeding and emission standards that have to be met are highlighted. The rationale behind four main choices are given. Finally, a technical description is presented of the two boiler adaptations that will be considered among the different retrofit options, namely conversion of milled peat units into bubbling fluidized bed and into a whole tree energy unit. Six retrofit options are described in more detail in chapter 5. Information is given on the present status of the plants, the technical considerations of the retrofit, expected performance and an estimation of a range in which the investment costs can be expected. 4 figs., 10 tabs., 5 appendices

  6. Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Ronald W.; Shea, Barbara W.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Ward, Darold E.; Haskins, Craig I.; Scholes, Mary C.

    1996-10-01

    Fires are dominant factors in shaping the structure and composition of vegetation in African savanna ecosystems. Emissions such as CO2, NOx, CH4, and other compounds originating from these fires are suspected to contribute substantially to changes in global biogeochemical processes. Limited quantitative data exist detailing characteristics of biomass, burning conditions, and the postfire environment in African savannas. Fourteen test sites, differentiated by distinct burn frequency histories and land-use patterns, were established and burned during August and September 1992 in savanna parklands of South Africa and savanna woodlands of Zambia. Vegetation physiognomy, available fuel loads, the levels of biomass consumed by fire, environmental conditions, and fire behavior are described. In the South African sites, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 2218 to 5492 kg ha-1 where fire return intervals were 1-4 years and exceeded 7000 kg ha-1 at a site subjected to 38 years of fire exclusion. However, fireline intensity was only 1419 kW m-1 at the fire exclusion site, while ranging from 480 to 6130 kW m-1 among the frequent fire sites. In Zambia, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 3164 kg ha-1 in a hydromorphic grassland to 7343 kg ha-1 in a fallow shifting cultivation site. Dormant grass and litter constituted 70-98% of the total fuel load among all sites. Although downed woody debris was a relatively minor fuel component at most sites, it constituted 43-57% of the total fuel load in the fire exclusion and shifting cultivation sites. Fire line intensity ranged between 1734 and 4061 kW m-1 among all Zambian sites. Mean grass consumption generally exceeded 95%, while downed woody debris consumption ranged from 3 to 73% at all sites. In tropical savannas and savanna woodlands of southern Africa, differences in environmental conditions, land- use patterns, and fire regimes influence vegetation characteristics and thus influence fire behavior and biomass

  7. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  8. Biomass power: Exploring the diffusion challenges in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass resources for power generation offers numerous benefits of interest for political decision-makers: fuel security, rural and industrial development, ecological benefits. In Spain, policy instruments have been used since 1980 to stimulate biomass power generation. However, the

  9. Evaluating the coupled vegetation-fire model, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE, against observed tropical forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, Allan; Forrest, Matthew; Werner, Christian; Steinkamp, Joerg; Hickler, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Wildfire is a fundamental Earth System process. It is the most important disturbance worldwide in terms of area and variety of biomes affected; a major mechanism by which carbon is transferred from the land to the atmosphere (2-4 Pg per annum, equiv. 20-30% of global fossil fuel emissions over the last decade); and globally a significant source of particulate aerosols and trace greenhouse gases. Fire is also potentially important as a feedback in the climate system. If climate change favours more intense fire regimes, this would result in a net transfer of carbon from ecosystems to the atmosphere, as well as higher emissions, and under certain circumstances, increased troposphere ozone production- all contributing to positive climate-land surface feedbacks. Quantitative analysis of fire-vegetation-climate interactions has been held back until recently by a lack of consistent global data sets on fire, and by the underdeveloped state of dynamic vegetation-fire modelling. Dynamic vegetation-fire modelling is an essential part of our forecasting armory for examining the possible impacts of climate, fire regimes and land-use on ecosystems and emissions from biomass burning beyond the observation period, as part of future climate or paleo-climate studies. LPJ-GUESS is a process-based model of vegetation dynamics designed for regional to global applications. It combines features of the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM) with those of the General Ecosystem Simulator (GUESS) in a single, flexible modelling framework. The models have identical representations of eco-physiological and biogeochemical processes, including the hydrological cycle. However, they differ in the detail with which vegetation dynamics and canopy structure are simulated. Simplified, computationally efficient representations are used in the LPJ-DGVM, while LPJ-GUESS employs a gap-model approach, which better captures ecological succession and hence ecosystem changes due to

  10. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  11. Grate Firing of Biomass: Measurements, Validation and Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    The worldwide concern about global warming because of the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and the limited availability of fossil fuels has increased the interest in using biomass as a fuel for energy production. In Denmark, to use biomass (mainly straw) as a fuel for energy production...

  12. Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Burnham, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels are currently used for approximately 9,800 megawatts (MW) of electric generating capacity, including about 6,100 MW of capacity fueled by wood/wood waste and about 2,200 MW of capacity fueled with municipal solid waste. Perspectives on the future availability of biomass fuels (including energy crops) are addressed, as well as projected levels of market penetration for biomass power. By the year 2010, there is a potential for 22,000 MW, to as much as 70,000 MW of biomass-powered electric generating capacity in the U.S. Given the range of benefits offered by biomass, including reduced sulfur emissions, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, job creation, rural revitalization impacts, and new incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the potential use of biomass for power production could significantly expand in the future

  13. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low...... temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings...

  14. Influence of Preoxidation on High-Temperature Corrosion of a FeCrAl Alloy Under Conditions Relevant to Biomass Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    Preoxidation of a commercial FeCrAl alloy (Kanthal APM) was evaluated as a surface modification approach to reduce alkali chloride-induced corrosion during biomass firing in power plants. Samples of the alloy preoxidized at 900 °C in O2 or O2 + 10 vol% H2O, and at 1100 °C in O2, were coated...

  15. Gas-fired electric power generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The workshop that was held in Madrid 25-27 May 1994 included participation by experts from 16 countries. They represented such diverse fields and disciplines as technology, governmental regulation, economics, and environment. Thus, the participants provided an excellent cross section of key areas and a diversity of viewpoints. At the workshop, a broad range of topics regarding gas-fired electric power generation was discussed. These included political, regulatory and financial issues as well as more specific technical questions regarding the environment, energy efficiency, advanced generation technologies and the status of competitive developments. Important technological advances in gas-based power and CHP technologies have already been achieved including higher energy efficiency and lower emissions, with further improvements expected in the near future. Advanced technology trends include: (a) The use of gas technology to reduce emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. (b) The wide-spread application of combined-cycle gas turbines in new power plants and the growing use of aero-derivative gas turbines in CHP applications. (c) Phosphoric acid fuel cells that are being introduced commercially. Their market penetration will grow over the next 10 years. The next generation of fuel cells (solid oxide and molten carbonate) is expected to enter the market around the year 2000. (EG)

  16. Increased electricity production from straw by co-firing with woody biomass; Oekad elproduktion med halm genom sameldning med traedbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, Henry; Nordgren, Daniel; Bostroem, Dan; Oehman, Marcus; Padban, Nader

    2011-01-15

    The use of straw in pulverised fuel-fired boiler is great technical challenge, especially when it comes to dealing with problems from slagging and fouling. Introduction of straw in the fuel mix of Swedish boilers will most likely be done by co-firing of woody biomass with straw, and this can provide a means to reduce the (well-documented) problems with fouling and slagging from straw. The project will focus on the faith of alkali metals (K and Na) as well as studies on the slagging and fouling propensity in pulverised fuel-fired boilers when straw is co-fired with woody biomass. A total of 5 different fuel mixtures has been fired in a 150 kW pilot-scale pulverised fuel-fired burner: (i) straw 100 %, (ii) straw/bark 50/50 %, (iii) straw/bark 75/25 % (iv) straw/wood 75/25 % (v) straw/wood 50/50 % (wt-%). The adding of woody biomass to straw has in all of the above-mentioned cases had some positive effect. In general, in all of the ash deposits, an increase in the concentration of Calcium (Ca) has been observed as well as a decrease in the concentrations of Potassium (K) and Silicon (Si). These general trends should be considered as a positive when combustion of straw is considered. Out of all ash deposits collected in the furnace, the characteristics of the bottom ash displayed the largest (positive) change and visual inspections and chemical analysis of the bottom ash showed that the ash had become more porous and contained more Calcium as more woody biomass was introduced in the fuel mix. The deposit build-up rate on the air cooled probes was reduced when more woody biomass was co-fired with straw. The reduction was highest in the trial where 50% woody biomass was used and the most apparent changes in composition could be seen in Calcium (increase) and Potassium (decrease). Danish experiences from introducing straw in pulverised fuel-fired boiler indicate that extra soot-blowers should be considered at the furnace walls and in connection to screen-tubes (if any

  17. Opportunities for Small Biomass Power Systems. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, D. D.; Pinapati, V. S.

    2000-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to provide information to key stakeholders and the general public about biomass resource potential for power generation. Ten types of biomass were identified and evaluated. The quantities available for power generation were estimated separately for five U.S. regions and Canada. A method entitled ''competitive resource profile'' was used to rank resources based on economics, utilization, and environmental impact. The results of the analysis may be used to set priorities for utilization of biomass in each U.S. region. A review of current biomass conversion technologies was accomplished, linking technologies to resources.

  18. Status of Biomass Power Generation in California, July 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, G.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the development of the biomass power industry in California over the past quarter century, and examines its future outlook. The development of a state biomass policy, which has been under discussion in California for the better part of the past decade, has never gotten off the ground, but a number of smaller initiatives have helped to keep the biomass power industry afloat and have promoted the use of some targeted types of residues. In this report we analyze the prospects for policy development and the application of new biomass technologies in California.

  19. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  20. 76 FR 46330 - NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0568] NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling... 1023259), ``Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG), Second Draft Report for...), ``Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG), Second Draft for Comment,'' is...

  1. Physical characterization of biomass fuels prepared for suspension firing in utility boilers for CFD modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 1.2 kg Danish wheat straw (Jutland, 1997) prepared for suspension firing in a PF boiler has been analyzed for the purpose of generating size and shape distribution functions applicable to numerical modelling of combustion processes involving biomass, characterised by highly anisotropic...... shapes. The sample is subdivided by straw type, and coherent size, type and mass distribution parameters are reported for the entire sample. This type of data is necessary in order to use CFD reliably as a design and retrofit tool for co-firing biomass with fossil fuels, as the combustion processes...

  2. Biomass CCS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavezzali, S.

    2009-11-15

    The use of biomass in power generation is one of the important ways in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, the cofiring of biomass with coal could be regarded as a common feature to any new build power plant if a sustainable supply of biomass fuel is readily accessible. IEA GHG has undertaken a techno-economic evaluation of the use of biomass in biomass fired and co-fired power generation, using post-combustion capture technology. This report is the result of the study undertaken by Foster Wheeler Italiana.

  3. Nuclear power plants: a unique challenge to fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of fire safety in a nuclear power plant must include the consideration of the impact of a fire on the operability of plant safety equipment and systems. This issue is not typical of the life safety and property protection issues which dominate traditional fire safety concerns. This paper provides a general discussion of the issue of nuclear power plant fire safety as it currently exists in the USA. Included is a discussion of the past history of nuclear power plant fire events, the development of nuclear industry specific fire safety guidelines, the adverse experience associated with the inadvertent operation of fire suppression systems, and the anticipated direction of fire safety requirements for future reactor designs in the USA. (Author)

  4. Characteristics of smoke emissions from biomass fires of the Amazon region--Base-A experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.E.; Setzer, A.W.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Rasmussen, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    An airborne sampling system was used to collect grab samples of smokes for analysis of both in-plume smoke characteristics and ambient air in Brazil. In addition to the emission measurements, the chemical composition of the forest biomass burned by one fire in the Amazon region of Brazil was compared to the fuel composition for biomass burned in North America. The limited data set suggests that combustion efficiencies for tropical biomass combustion are higher than those of temperature forest fuels, as are emission factors for carbon dioxide

  5. Prevention of cable fires in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murota, George; Yajima, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is indispensable to secure required electric power, therefore double or triple safety measures are necessary to prevent serious accidents absolutely. As for the countermeasures to cable fires, interest grew rapidly with the fire in Browns Ferry Power Station in USA in 1975 as the turning point, because multi-strand grouped cables caused to promote the spread of fire. In Japan, also the fire prevention measures for wires and cables were more strengthened, and the measures for preventing the spread of cable fires with the agent preventing the spread of fires have occupied the important position. When multi-strand cables are ignited by some cause, the fire spreads with very large combustion force along wirings to other rooms and installations, and electric systems are broken down. The harmful corrosive gas generated from the burning coating materials of cables diffuses very quickly. In nuclear power stations, the cables which are very hard to burn are adopted, fire prevention sections are established positively, the fire-resisting capability of fire prevention barriers is reviewed, and fire-resisting and smoke-preventing treatments are applied to the parts where cables penetrate walls, floors or ceilings. The paint and the sealing material which prevent the spread of fires are introduced. (Kako, I.)

  6. Biomass and nutrient dynamics associated with slash fires in neotropical dry forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.B.; Cummings, D.L.; Sanford, R.L. Jr.; Salcedo, I.H.; Sampaio, E.V.S.B.

    1993-01-01

    Unprecedented rates of deforestation and biomass burning in tropical dry forests are dramatically influencing biogeochemical cycles, resulting in resource depletion, declines in biodiversity, and atmospheric pollution. We quantified the effects of deforestation and varying levels of slash-fire severity on nutrient losses and redistribution in a second-growth tropical dry forest (open-quotes Caatingaclose quotes) near Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil. Total aboveground biomass prior to burning was ∼74 Mg/ha. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were highest in litter, leaves attached to slash, and fine wood debris (< O.64 cm diameter). While these components comprised only 30% of the prefire aboveground biomass, they accounted for ∼60% of the aboveground pools of N and P. Three experimental fires were conducted during the 1989 burning season. Consumption was 78, 88, and 95% of the total aboveground biomass. As much as 96% of the prefire aboveground N and C pools and 56% of the prefire aboveground P pool was lost. Nitrogen losses exceeded 500 kg/ha and P losses exceeded 20 kg/ha in the fires of the greatest severity. With increasing fire severity, the concentrations of N and P in ash decreased while the concentration of Ca increased. Greater ecosystem losses of these nutrients occurred with increasing fire severity. Following fire, up to 47% of the residual aboveground N and 84% of the residual aboveground P were in the form of ash, quickly lost from the site via wind erosion. Fires appeared to have a minor immediate effect on total N, C, or P in the soils. However, soils in forests with no history of cultivation had significantly higher concentrations of C and P than second-growth forests. It would likely require a century or more of fallow for reaccumulation to occur. However, current fallow periods in this region are 15 yr or less. 38 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Aspects of using biomass as energy source for power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tîrtea Raluca-Nicoleta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass represents an important source of renewable energy in Romania with about 64% of the whole available green energy. Being a priority for the energy sector worldwide, in our country the development stage is poor compared to solar and wind energy. Biomass power plants offer great horizontal economy development, local and regional economic growth with benefic effects on life standard. The paper presents an analysis on biomass to power conversion solutions compared to fossil fuels using two main processes: combustion and gasification. Beside the heating value, which can be considerably higher for fossil fuels compared to biomass, a big difference between fossil fuels and biomass can be observed in the sulphur content. While the biomass sulphur content is between 0 and approximately 1%, the sulphur content of coal can reach 4%. Using coal in power plants requires important investments in installations of flue gas desulfurization. If limestone is used to reduce SO2 emissions, then additional carbon dioxide moles will be released during the production of CaO from CaCO3. Therefore, fossil fuels not only release a high amount of carbon dioxide through burning, but also through the caption of sulphur dioxide, while biomass is considered CO2 neutral. Biomass is in most of the cases represented by residues, so it is a free fuel compared to fossil fuels. The same power plant can be used even if biomass or fossil fuels is used as a feedstock with small differences. The biomass plant could need a drying system due to high moisture content of the biomass, while the coal plant will need a desulfurization installation of flue gas and additional money will be spent with fuel purchasing.

  8. Fire fighting at Chernobyl and fire protection at UK nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The fire fighting measures undertaken by the fire crews at the Chernobyl reactor accident are described. This information highlights the need to develop engineering equipment which will give a far greater degree of personnel protection to fire crews and others in radiological accidents. The British position on fire protection at nuclear power stations is outlined. The general levels of radiation exposure which would be used as a guide to persons in the vicinity of a radiation accident are also given. (UK)

  9. Study of methodology for low power/shutdown fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Li Zhaohua; Li Lin; Song Lei

    2014-01-01

    As a risk assessment technology based on probability, the fire PSA is accepted abroad by nuclear industry in its application in the risk assessment for nuclear power plants. Based on the industry experience, the fire-induced impact on the plant safety during low power and shutdown operation cannot be neglected, therefore fire PSA can be used to assess the corresponding fire risk. However, there is no corresponding domestic guidance/standard as well as accepted analysis methodology up to date. Through investigating the latest evolvement on fire PSA during low power and shutdown operation, and integrating its characteristic with the corresponding engineering experience, an engineering methodology to evaluate the fire risk during low power and shutdown operation for nuclear power plant is established in this paper. In addition, an analysis demonstration as an example is given. (authors)

  10. Safety - a Neglected Issue When Introducing Solid Biomass Fuel in Thermal Power Plants? Some Evidence of an Emerging Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines recent evidence from Denmark and abroad with climate change projects that aim to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by converting coal fired thermal power plants to solid biomass fuel. The paper argues that projects appear to be pursued narrow-mindedly with insufficient att...

  11. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined

  12. Fire fighting precautions at Bohunice Atomic Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Some shortcomings are discussed of the project design of fire protection at the V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants. The basic shortcoming of the system is insufficient division of the units for fire protection. Fire fighting measures are described for cable areas, switch houses and outside transformers, primary and secondary circuits and auxiliary units. Measures are presented for increasing fire safety in Jaslovske Bohunice proceedi.ng from experience gained with a fire which had occurred at a nuclear power plant in Armenia. (E.S.)

  13. Particular features of fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, W.

    1985-01-01

    The particular features of fire protection in nuclear power plants that are connected with the need to ensure nuclear and radiation safety even during an emergency are outlined followed by the recommendation to lay them down in special fire protection standards. These, in conjunction with comprehensive fire hazard analyses, could serve to work out complex concepts for the fire protection of individual nuclear power plants. Such concepts would be very useful for review and assessment of the fire protection design during the licensing process and for later inspections. (author)

  14. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant; Ydinvoimalaitoksen kaapelipaloriski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined. 62 refs.

  15. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method

  16. Deposit Probe Measurements in Large Biomass-Fired Grate Boilers and Pulverized-Fuel Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    A number of full-scale deposit probe measuring campaigns conducted in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers, fired with biomass, have been reviewed and compared. The influence of operational parameters on the chemistry of ash and deposits, on deposit build-up rates, and on shedding behavior has...... of the deposits formed is determined by the fly ash composition and the flue gas temperature; increases in the local flue gas temperature lead to higher contents of Si and Ca and lower contents of Cl in the deposits. The net deposit build-up rates in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers are at similar levels....../wood-firing in suspension-fired boilers, shedding occurred by debonding with incomplete removal at flue gas temperatures of 600–1000 °C and by debonding with complete removal during wood-firing in suspension-fired boilers at high flue gas temperatures (1300 °C). Shedding events were not observed during wood suspension...

  17. Advancing grate-firing for greater environmental impacts and efficiency for decentralized biomass/wastes combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Li, Shuangshuang

    2017-01-01

    to well suit decentralized biomass and municipal/industrial wastes combustion. This paper discusses with concrete examples how to advance grate-firing for greater efficiency and environmental impacts, e.g., use of advanced secondary air system, flue gas recycling and optimized grate assembly, which...

  18. Optimum power yield for bio fuel fired combined heat and power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, Henrik; Nystroem, Olle; Joensson, Mikael

    2012-05-15

    Plant owners, suppliers, research institutions, industry representatives and (supporting) authorities are continuing to question the viability of what can be expected by increasing the steam data and the efficiency of cogeneration plants. In recent years, the overall conditions for investment in CHP have changed. Today, there is access to new materials that allow for more advanced steam data while maintaining availability. Although the financial environment with rising prices of electricity, heating and fuel along with the introduction of energy certificates and the interest in broadening the base of fuel has changed the situation. At the same time as the increased interest in renewable energy production creates competition among energy enterprises to find suppliers, increased prices for materials and labor costs have also resulted in increased investment and maintenance costs. Research on advanced steam data for biomass-fired power cogeneration plants has mainly emphasized on technical aspects of material selection and corrosion mechanisms based on performance at 100 % load looking at single years. Reporting has rarely been dealing with the overall economic perspective based on profitability of the CHP installations throughout their entire depreciation period. In the present report studies have been performed on how the choice of steam data affects the performance and economy in biomass-fired cogeneration plants with boilers of drum type and capacities at 30, 80 and 160 MWth with varied steam data and different feed water system configurations. Profitability is assessed on the basis of internal rate of return (IRR) throughout the amortization period of the plants. In addition, sensitivity analyses based on the most essential parameters have been carried out. The target group for the project is plant owners, contractors, research institutions, industry representatives, (supporting) authorities and others who are faced with concerns regarding the viability of what

  19. SEM Investigation of Superheater Deposits from Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    , mature superheater deposit samples were extracted from two straw-fired boilers, Masnedø and Ensted, with fuel inputs of 33 MWth and 100 MWth, respectively. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) analyses were performed on the deposit samples. Different strategies...

  20. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biomass for Power Generation and CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biomass for Power Generation and CHP is the topic covered in this edition.

  1. Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and main hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Soares Neto; J. A. Carvalho; C. A. G. Veras; E. C. Alvarado; R. Gielow; E. N. Lincoln; T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; J. C. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire are presented and discussed. The experiment was conducted in the arc of deforestation, near the city of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The average carbon content of dry biomass was 48% and the estimated average moisture content of fresh biomass was 42% on...

  2. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of coal/biomass co-firing in pulverised fuel boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghtaderi, B.; Meesri, C. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The present study is concerned with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of coal/biomass blends co-fired under conditions pertinent to pulverised fuel (PF) boilers. The attention is particularly focused on the near burner zone to examine the impact of biomass on the flame geometry and temperature. The predictions are obtained by numerical solution of the conservation equations for the gas and particle phases. The gas phase is solved in the Eulerian domain using steady-state time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations while the solution of the particle phase is obtained from a series of Lagrangian particle tracking equations. Turbulence is modelled using the {kappa}-{epsilon} and Reynolds Stress models. The comparison between the predictions and experimental measurement reported in the literature resulted in a good agreement. Other influences of biomass co-firing are observed for fuel devolatilisation and burnout. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  3. The fire course and consequences to be drawn from the fire in the Browns Ferry nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, N.

    1977-01-01

    After a short description of the fire course and the fire fighting measures during the cable fire at Browns Ferry nuclear power station, the effects on the safety system are given in chronological order, and consequences are drawn for a general fire protection programme for nuclear power plants. In this context, the licensing guideline of the NRC for fire protection in nuclear power plants is mentioned, which took particular account of the consequences to be drawn from the Browns Ferry fire. (ORU) [de

  4. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels cannot compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions which favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the final results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, direct combustion in dedicated mass burn, stoker and fluidized bed boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle-power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this approach is economically feasible only when the fuel is delivered at a deep discount relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. (author)

  5. High Temperature Corrosion of Superheater Materials for Power Production through Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Nielsen, Karsten agersted

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures on selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. An experimental...... facility has been established wherein the planned exposures are completed. Specimens were exposed in combined synthetic flue gas at temperatures up to 900C. The specimens could be cooled to 300C below the gas temperature. Gas flow and gas mixture can be varied according to the conditions found in a power......) on the corrosion progress has been investigated.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525C, 600C and 700C. The ashes utilised are from a straw-fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed...

  6. Burning radionuclide question. What happens to iodine, cesium and chlorine in biomass fires?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Sheppard, S.C.; Johnston, F.L.; Evenden, W.G.; Harris, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fires can mobilize radionuclides from contaminated biomass through suspension of gases and particles in the atmosphere or solubilization and enrichment of the ash. Field and laboratory burns were conducted to determine the fate of I, Cs and Cl in biomass fires. Straw, wood, peat, dulse (seaweed) and radish plants were combusted with temperatures varying from 160 to 1000C, representing the normal range of field fire temperatures. Loss to the atmosphere increased with fire temperature and during a typical field fire, 80 - 90% of the I and Cl, and 40 - 70% of the Cs was lost to the atmosphere. The remainder was left behind in the ash and was soluble. Typically, the ash was enriched in I by a factor of two to three, with higher enrichments of Cs and lower enrichments of Cl, when compared to the initial fuel concentration during field burns. Most of the I was lost to the atmosphere as a gas. If the elements were radioactive isotopes, such as 129 I, 137 Cs and 36 Cl, fires could cause an increased radiological dose to people through inhalation, exposure to ash, or ingestion of plants because of increased uptake of ash leachate

  7. ASEAN grid-connected biomass residues fired cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.F.; Alias, R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy supply is one of the major concerns in the world. With uncertainty in the main oil suppliers, the oil price is expected to remain high due to continuous demand from the world. Since oil is mostly used for electricity and transportation, its shortage would cause major disruptions in our daily activities. Thus to counter this scenario and faster depletion of fossil fuel resources, various measures have been taken to find alternative source of energy such as renewable energy. One of the renewable energy sources is from biomass residues which is aplenty particularly in ASEAN. Through one of the collaboration programme between ASEAN and EC which is The EC-ASEAN Cogeneration Programme, a number of Full-Scale Demonstration Projects (FSDP) using biomass residues have been commissioned and implemented successfully. Four of the FSDPs in Thailand and Malaysia are connected to the grid. These projects have been operating very well and since the fuel is commonly available in this ASEAN region, duplication should not be a problem. Thus, this paper would highlight the success stories in implementing biomass residues grid connected project while enhancing cooperation between ASEAN and EC. (Author)

  8. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Co-gasification/co-firing of Biomass and Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Howard, Bret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Morreale, Bryan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Van Essendelft, Dirk [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Berry, David [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/co-firing of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550⁰C for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300⁰C and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300⁰C lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300⁰C is probably sufficient to

  9. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture describes briefly the chronological order of events which may arise for a very serious emergency situation in a nuclear power plant for which preparations should be made even though the situation has an extremely low probability of happening. The planning and preparedness required are expected to cope with a whole spectrum of emergency situations, from minor accidents to serious plant failures which also lead to releases of significant quantities of radioactive material beyond the site boundary. Fire protection aspects will be briefly covered, and some guidance will be provided on exercises to ensure the plans are feasible and the appropriate personnel and facilities are in a satisfactory state of preparedness. (orig./RW)

  10. Integrated approach to fire safety at the Krsko nuclear power plant - fire protection action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Cerjak, J.; Spiler, J.; Ioannidi, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NPP Krsko) is a Westinghouse design, single-unit, 1882 Megawatt thermal (MWt), two-loop, pressurized water nuclear power plant. The fire protection program at NPP Krsko has been reviewed and reports issued recommending changes and modifications to the program, plant systems and structures. Three reports were issued, the NPP Krsko Fire Hazard Analysis (Safe Shout down Separation Analysis Report), the ICISA Analysis of Core Damage Frequency Due to Fire at the NPP Krsko and IPEEE (Individual Plant External Event Examination) related to fire risk. The Fire Hazard Analysis Report utilizes a compliance - based deterministic approach to identification of fire area hazards. This report focuses on strict compliance from the perspective of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), standards, guidelines and acceptance criteria and does not consider variations to comply with the intent of the regulations. The probabilistic analysis methide used in the ICISA and IPEEE report utilizes a risk based nad intent based approach in determining critical at-risk fire areas. NPP Krsko has already completed the following suggestions/recommendations from the above and OSART reports in order to comply with Appendix R: Installation of smoke detectors in the Control Room; Installation of Emergency Lighting in some plant areas and of Remote Shout down panels; Extension of Sound Power Communication System; Installation of Fire Annunciator Panel at the On-site Fire Brigade Station; Installation of Smoke Detection System in the (a) Main Control Room Panels, (b) Essential Service Water Building. (c) Component Cooling Building pump area, chiller area and HVAC area, (d) Auxiliary Building Safety pump rooms, (e) Fuel Handling room, (f) Intermediate Building AFFW area and compressor room, and (g) Tadwaste building; inclusion of Auxiliary operators in the Fire Brigade; training of Fire Brigade Members in Plant Operation (9 week course); Development of Fire Door Inspection and

  11. Root cause analysis for fire events at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    Fire hazard has been identified as a major contributor to a plant' operational safety risk. The International nuclear power community (regulators, operators, designers) has been studying and developing tools for defending against this hazed. Considerable advances have been achieved during past two decades in design and regulatory requirements for fire safety, fire protection technology and related analytical techniques. The IAEA endeavours to provide assistance to Member States in improving fire safety in nuclear power plants. A task was launched by IAEA in 1993 with the purpose to develop guidelines and good practices, to promote advanced fire safety assessment techniques, to exchange state of the art information, and to provide engineering safety advisory services and training in the implementation of internationally accepted practices. This TECDOC addresses a systematic assessment of fire events using the root cause analysis methodology, which is recognized as an important element of fire safety assessment

  12. Trend analysis of fire events at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    We performed trend analyses to compare fire events occurring overseas (1995-2005) and in Japan (1966-2006). We decided to do this after extracting data on incidents (storms, heavy rain, tsunamis, fires, etc.) occurring at overseas nuclear power plants from the Events Occurred at Overseas Nuclear Power Plants recorded in the Nuclear Information Database at the Institute of Nuclear Safety System (INSS) and finding that fires were the most common of the incidents. Analyses compared the number of fires occurring domestically and overseas and analyzed their causes and the effect of the fires on the power plants. As a result, we found that electrical fires caused by such things as current overheating and electric arcing, account for over one half of the domestic and overseas incidents of fire, which indicates that maintenance management of electric facilities is the most important aspect of fire prevention. Also, roughly the same number of operational fires occurred at domestic and overseas plants, judging from the figures for annual occurrences per unit. However, the overall number of fires per unit at domestic facilities is one fourth that of overseas facilities. We surmise that, while management of operations that utilizes fire is comparable for overseas and domestic plants, this disparity results from differences in the way maintenance is carried out at facilities. (author)

  13. FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Hausheer, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    FIRE, a microcomputer based program to assist engineers in reviewing and documenting the fire protection impact of design changes has been developed. Acting as an electronic consultant, FIRE is designed to work with an experienced nuclear system engineer, who may not have any detailed fire protection expertise. FIRE helps the engineer to decide if a modification might adversely affect the fire protection design of the station. Since its first development, FIRE has been customized to reflect the fire protection philosophy of the Commonwealth Edison Company. That program is in early production use. This paper discusses the FIRE program in light of its being a useful application of expert system technologies in the power industry

  14. Fire extinguishing device for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken

    1990-01-01

    Fire extinguishing pipelines disposed in turbine buildings of low earthquake proof grade and fire extinguishing pipelines disposed in reactor buildings of high earthquakes proof grade have been used in common with each other. Accordingly, if the fire extinguishing device in the turbine buildings designed for low earthquake proof grade are partially destroyed upon occurrence of medium-scale earthquakes, there is a worry that fire extinguishing water can not be supplied to the inside of the reactor buildings. In view of the above, an emergency fire extinguishing water system using a fire extinguishing reservoir at the outdoor of low earthquake proof grade as a feedwater source and suitable to the low earthquake proof grade is disposed in the turbine buildings. Another emergency fire extinguishing water system using an emergency fire extinguishing water reservoir disposed in the reactor buildings as a feedwater source and suitable to the high earthquake proof grade is disposed in the reactor buildings. Then, ordinary fire extinguishing water system and the emergency fire extinguishing water system are connected to each other. Thus, upon occurrence of earthquakes if the function of the ordinary fire extinguishing water system of low earthquake proof grade is lost, fires breaking out in the reactor buildings can rapidly be extinguished. (N.H.)

  15. Nuclear power plant fire protection: fire detection (subsystems study Task 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1977-12-01

    This report examines the adequacy of fire detection in the context of nuclear power plant safety. Topics considered are: (1) establishing area detection requirements, (2) selecting specific detector types, (3) locating and spacing detectors, and (4) performing installation tests and maintenance. Based on a thorough review of fire detection codes and standards and fire detection literature, the report concludes that current design and regulatory guidelines alone are insufficient to ensure satisfactory fire detection system performance. To assure adequate fire detection, this report recommends the use of in-place testing of detectors under conditions expected to occur normally in areas being protected

  16. Analysis of the behaviour of biofuel-fired gas turbine power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of biofuels in gas turbines is a promising alternative to fossil fuels for power generation. It would lead to a significant reduction of CO2 emissions using an existing combustion technology, although considerable changes appear to be required and further technological development is necessary. The goal of this work is to conduct energy and exergy analyses of the behaviour of gas turbines fired with biogas, ethanol and synthesis gas (bio-syngas, compared with natural gas. The global energy transformation process (i.e., from biomass to electricity also has been studied. Furthermore, the potential reduction of CO2 emissions attained by the use of biofuels has been determined, after considering the restrictions regarding biomass availability. Two different simulation tools have been used to accomplish this work. The results suggest a high interest in, and the technical viability of, the use of Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BioIGCC systems for large scale power generation.

  17. Particulate and trace gas emissions from large biomass fires in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radke, L.F.; Hegg, D.A.; Hobbs, P.V.; Nance, J.D.; Lyons, J.H.; Laursen, K.K.; Weiss, R.E.; Riggan, P.J.; Ward, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter the authors describe the results of airborne studies of smokes from 17 biomass fuel fires, including 14 prescribed fires and 3 wildfires, burned primarily in the temperature zone of North America between 34 degree and 49 degree N latitude. The prescribed fires were in forested lands and logging debris and varied in areas burned from 10 to 700 hectares (ha) (over a few hours). One of the wildfires ultimately consumed 20,000 h a and burned over a period of weeks. The larger fires produced towering columns of smoke and capping water clouds. As an indication of scale, the prescribed fires were visible only as small features in meteorological satellite imagery, but one of the wildfires studied produced a persistent, visible plume more than 1,000 kilometers (km) long. The studies have focused on factors that could impact global climate through alteration of the earth's radiation balance. These include emissions of trace gases and smoke particles from biomass burning, the optical properties of the smoke, and the interaction of the smoke particles with clouds

  18. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Soyuz Priyadarsan (PhD)

    2003-06-01

    Reburn with animal waste yield NO{sub x} reduction of the order of 70-80%, which is much higher than those previously reported in the literature for natural gas, coal and agricultural biomass as reburn fuels. Further, the NO{sub x} reduction is almost independent of stoichiometry from stoichiometric to upto 10% deficient air in reburn zone. As a first step towards understanding the reburn process in a boiler burner, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been developed for estimating the NO{sub x} reduction in the reburn process using simulated animal waste based biomass volatiles. However the first model does not include the gradual heat up of reburn fuel particle, pyrolysis and char combustion. Hence there is a need for more rigorous treatment of the model with animal waste as reburn fuel. To address this issue, an improved zero-dimensional model is being developed which can handle any solid reburn fuel, along with more detailed heterogeneous char reactions and homogeneous global reactions. The model on ''NO{sub x} Reduction for Reburn Process using Feedlot Biomass,'' incorporates; (a) mixing between reburn fuel and main-burner gases, (b) gradual heat-up of reburn fuel accompanied by pyrolysis, oxidation of volatiles and char oxidation, (c) fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) pyrolysis, and FBN including both forward and backward reactions, (d) prediction of NO{sub x} as a function of time in the reburn zone, and (e) gas phase and solid phase temperature as a function of time. The fuel bound nitrogen is assumed to be released to the gas phase by two processes, (a) FBN evolution to N{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}, and (b) FBN oxidation to NO at the char surface. The formulation has been completed, code has been developed, and preliminary runs have been made to test the code. Note that, the current model does not incorporate the overfire air. The results of the simulation will be compared with the experimental results. During this quarter, three journal and

  19. High temperature corrosion under conditions simulating biomass firing: depth-resolved phase identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    ) were coated with KCl and is o-thermally exposed at 560 o C for 168 h under a flue gas corresponding to straw firing. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization techniques were employed for comprehensive characterization......Both cross-sectional and plan view, ‘top-down’ characterization methods were employed , for a depth-resolved characterization of corrosion products resulting from high temperature corrosion under laboratory conditions simulating biomass firing. Samples of an austenitic stainless steel (TP 347H FG...... of the corrosion product. Results from this comprehensive characterization revealed more details on the morphology and composition of the corrosion product....

  20. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  1. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-03-31

    Proposed activities for quarter 7 (12/15/01-3/14/2002): (1) Incorporation of moisture model into PCGC2 code. Parametric study of moisture effects on flame structure and pollutants emissions in cofiring of coal and Liter Biomass (LB) (Task 4); (2) Use the ash tracer method to determine the combustion efficiency and comparison it to results from gas analysis (Task 2); (3) Effect of swirl on combustion performance (Task 2); (4) Completion of the proposed modifications to the gasifier setup (Task 3); (5) Calibration of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) used for measuring the product gas species (Task 3); and (6) To obtain temperature profiles for different fuels under different operating conditions in the fixed bed gasifier (Task 3).

  2. Biomass Power Generation Industry Efficiency Evaluation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyou Yan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the properties of the traditional additive-based data envelopment analysis (hereafter, referred to as DEA models and propose two generalized DEA models, i.e., the big M additive-based DEA (hereafter, referred to as BMA model and the big M additive-based super-efficiency DEA (hereafter, referred to as BMAS model, to evaluate the performance of the biomass power plants in China in 2012. The virtues of the new models are two-fold: one is that they inherited the properties of the traditional additive-based DEA models and derived more new additive-based DEA forms; the other is that they can rank the efficient decision making units (hereafter, referred to as DMUs. Therefore, the new models have great potential to be applied in sustainable energy project evaluation. Then, we applied the two new DEA models to evaluate the performance of the biomass power plants in China and find that the efficiency of biomass power plants in the northern part of China is higher than that in the southern part of China. The only three efficient biomass power plants are all in the northern part of China. Furthermore, based on the results of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, there is a great technology gap between the biomass power plants in the northern part of China and those in the southern part of China.

  3. Biomass combustion power generation technologies: Background report 4.1 for the EU Joule 2+ project: Energy from biomass: An assessment of two promising systems for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R.; Faaij, A.; Van Wijk, A.

    1995-05-01

    New developments in biomass combustion technology in progress tend to go towards efficiencies which come close to the present fossil fuel fired systems. The objective of this study is to give a representation of the state of the art and future prospects of biomass combustion technologies and to compare those on a location-independent basis. This will be done both by a general boiler technology description on the basis of qualitative criteria and by a comparison of most recently built and planned power plants on more quantitative grounds. The methodology which has been used in gathering, selecting, presenting and comparing the information is discussed in chapter 2. In chapter 3, a general introduction is given on some basic principles of biomass combustion technology. This includes the combustion process, the Rankine steam cycle and NO x formation. Different boiler technologies which are in use for biomass combustion power generation are discussed in chapter 4. The main groups of boilers which are discussed are the pile burners, stoker fired boilers, suspension fired boilers and fluidized bed boilers. The description focuses on aspects such as construction, operation, fuel requirements, efficiencies and emissions. Chapter 5 deals with individual existing or planned biomass combustion plants, resulting from an international inventory. All the different technologies which have been discussed in chapter 4 are discussed in chapter 5 in the context of complete power plants. The information which is presented for each plant comprises a technical description, efficiencies, emissions and investment costs. At the end of chapter 5 an overview of comparable data from the literature is given, as well as an overview of the results of the inventory. 32 figs., 28 tabs., 4 appendices., 51 refs

  4. Biomass power. Exploring the diffusion challenges in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass resources for power generation offers numerous benefits of interest for political decision-makers: fuel security, rural and industrial development, ecological benefits. In Spain, policy instruments have been used since 1980 to stimulate biomass power generation. However, the diffusion outcome by 2007 was very disappointing: only 525 MW. This paper argues that two factors lie at the core of this: the conceptualization of biomass resources by political decision-makers in the instruments used, and the desire that policy instruments be in line with market liberalization principles. These generated a persistent economic obstacle for biomass power generation, and impeded the development of markets for the supply of biomass resources. The policy learning regarding the heterogeneity of biomass resources, and the investors' expectations on risks, profitability and resource markets was very slow among political decision-makers. The paper contributes to the understanding of diffusion outcomes by proposing to analyse diffusion by means of five indicators: types of resources, technologies, developers, motivations to invest and project sizes. Besides, the paper shows the usefulness of investigating policy instruments in terms of their risk and profitability characteristics. This enables a better understanding of the diffusion patterns and outcomes. (author)

  5. Strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, C.R.; Wiltsee, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Although the environmental and other benefits of using biomass and waste fuel energy to displace fossil fuels are well known, the economic realities are such that these fuels can not compete effectively in the current market without tax credits, subsidies, and other artificial measures. In 1992, EPRI initiated a strategic analysis of biomass and waste fuels and power technologies, both to develop consistent performance and cost data for the leading fuels and technologies and to identify the conditions that favor and create market pull for biomass and waste fuel energy. Using the interim results of the EPRI project, this paper compares the relative performance and cost of power generation from coal, natural gas, and biomass and waste fuels. The range of fuels includes wood, agricultural wastes, municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel, scrap tires, and tire-derived fuel. The power technologies include pulverized coal and natural gas/combined cycle power plants, cofiring with coal in coal-fired utility boilers, and wood gasification/combined cycle power plants. The analysis suggests that, in the near term, the highest-efficiency, lowest-cost, lowest-risk technology is cofiring with coal in industrial and utility boilers. However, this relative to fossil fuel, or the fuel user receives a tipping fee, subsidy, or emissions credit. In order to increase future use of biomass and waste fuels, a joint initiative, involving government, industry, and fuel suppliers, transporters, and users, is needed to develop low-cost and efficient energy crop production and power technology

  6. Maintenance of fire systems and equipment at Virginia Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubrely, E.B. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The basics of fire protection systems maintenance are well codified and documented in the National Fire Codes published by the National Fire Protection Association. In addition, Insurers often promulgate minimum standards for fire protection systems design and maintenance to which they attach conditions of insurability. Regulatory agencies and even in-house corporate policies can impact the maintenance of fire protection systems and equipment. This presentation will focus on the various methods and alternate ways of performing system maintenance, whether required by code, insurer, or by some regulatory commitment at Virginia Powers North Anna and Surry nuclear power stations. The approach to performing similar work is handled differently at each station. This difference can be attributed to proximity to outside assistance as well as plant philosophy. In addition to station maintenance practices, a discussion of in-house servicing of portable fire suppression equipment is offered. 1 tab

  7. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  8. Numerical simulation methods of fires in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Heikkilae, L.

    1992-01-01

    Fire is a significant hazard to the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP). Fire may be serious accident as such, but even small fire at a critical point in a NPP may cause an accident much more serious than fire itself. According to risk assessments a fire may be an initial cause or a contributing factor in a large part of reactor accidents. At the Fire Technology and the the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) fire safety research for NPPs has been carried out in a large extent since 1985. During years 1988-92 a project Advanced Numerical Modelling in Nuclear Power Plants (PALOME) was carried out. In the project the level of numerical modelling for fire research in Finland was improved by acquiring, preparing for use and developing numerical fire simulation programs. Large scale test data of the German experimental program (PHDR Sicherheitsprogramm in Kernforschungscentral Karlsruhe) has been as reference. The large scale tests were simulated by numerical codes and results were compared to calculations carried out by others. Scientific interaction with outstanding foreign laboratories and scientists has been an important part of the project. This report describes the work of PALOME-project carried out at the Fire Technology Laboratory only. A report on the work at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory will be published separatively. (au)

  9. Fire safety study of Dodewaard and Borssele nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    From the nuclear and conventional fire safety audits of both Dutch nuclear power plants performed under supervision of the Nuclear Safety Inspectorate and the Inspectorate for the Fire Services it turns out that the fire safety is sufficient however amenable for improvement. Besides a detailed description of the method of examination, the study 'Fire Safety' contains the results of the audit and 14 respectively 15 recommendations for improvement of the fire safety in Dodewaard and Borssele. The suggested recommendations which are applicable to both power plants are the following: fire fighting training for operators and guards, a complete emergency ventilation system of the control room, increase in the number of detectors and alarms, an increase in the quantity of water available for high-pressure fire fighting, improvement of fire barriers between several redundancies of nuclear safety systems, an investigation and possible improvement of the heat and radiation protection offered by presently used fire fighting suits. For Dodewaard a closed emergency staircase in the reactor building (secondary containment) is deemed necessary for personnel emergency escape routes and continued fire fighting if required

  10. Estimating the fuel moisture content to control the reciprocating grate furnace firing wet woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striūgas, N.; Vorotinskienė, L.; Paulauskas, R.; Navakas, R.; Džiugys, A.; Narbutas, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion of biomass with varying moisture content might lead to unstable operation of a furnace. • Method for automatic control of a furnace fired with wet biomass was developed. • Fuel moisture is estimated by cost-effective indirect method for predictive control. • Fuel moisture estimation methods and furnace control algorithm were validated in an industrial boiler. - Abstract: In small countries like Lithuania with a widespread district heating system, 5–10 MW moving grate biomass furnaces equipped with water boilers and condensing economisers are widely used. Such systems are designed for firing biomass fuels; however, varying fuel moisture, mostly in the range from 30% to 60%, complicates the automated operation. Without manual adjustment of the grate motion mode and other parameters, unstable operation or even extinction of the furnace is possible. To ensure stable furnace operation with moist fuel, the indirect method to estimate the fuel moisture content was developed based on the heat balance of the flue gas condensing economiser. The developed method was implemented into the automatic control unit of the furnace to estimate the moisture content in the feedstock and predictively adjust the furnace parameters for optimal fuel combustion. The indirect method based on the economiser heat balance was experimentally validated in a 6 MW grate-fired furnace fuelled by biomass with moisture contents of 37, 46, 50, 54 and 60%. The analysis shows that the estimated and manually measured values of the fuel moisture content do not differ by more than 3%. This deviation indicates that the indirect fuel moisture calculation method is sufficiently precise and the calculated moisture content varies proportionally to changes in the thermal capacity of the economiser. By smoothing the data using sliding weighted averaging, the oscillations of the fuel moisture content were identified.

  11. Alkali deposits found in biomass power plants: A preliminary investigation of their extent and nature. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Bryers, R.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Oden, L.L. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1995-04-15

    Alkali in the ash of annual crop biomass fuels creates serious fouling and slagging in conventional boilers. Even with the use of sorbents and other additives, power plants can only fire limited amounts of these fuels in combination with wood. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), US Department of Energy, and the biomass power industry carried out eight full-scale firing tests and several laboratory experiments to study the nature and occurrence of deposits with the goal of increasing the quantities of these biofuels that can be used. This report describes the results of the laboratory and power plant tests that included: tracking and analyzing fuels and deposits by various methods; recording operating conditions; and extensive laboratory testing. The paper describes the occurrence of deposits, fuel and deposit analyses, boiler design and operation, fouling and slagging indicators, and recommendations. 37 refs., 41 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Mitigating Satellite-Based Fire Sampling Limitations in Deriving Biomass Burning Emission Rates: Application to WRF-Chem Model Over the Northern sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yi; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Zeng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Largely used in several independent estimates of fire emissions, fire products based on MODIS sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua polar-orbiting satellites have a number of inherent limitations, including (a) inability to detect fires below clouds, (b) significant decrease of detection sensitivity at the edge of scan where pixel sizes are much larger than at nadir, and (c) gaps between adjacent swaths in tropical regions. To remedy these limitations, an empirical method is developed here and applied to correct fire emission estimates based on MODIS pixel level fire radiative power measurements and emission coefficients from the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) biomass burning emission inventory. The analysis was performed for January 2010 over the northern sub-Saharan African region. Simulations from WRF-Chem model using original and adjusted emissions are compared with the aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from MODIS and AERONET as well as aerosol vertical profile from CALIOP data. The comparison confirmed an 30-50% improvement in the model simulation performance (in terms of correlation, bias, and spatial pattern of AOD with respect to observations) by the adjusted emissions that not only increases the original emission amount by a factor of two but also results in the spatially continuous estimates of instantaneous fire emissions at daily time scales. Such improvement cannot be achieved by simply scaling the original emission across the study domain. Even with this improvement, a factor of two underestimations still exists in the modeled AOD, which is within the current global fire emissions uncertainty envelope.

  13. Experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, S.V. [Mechanical Dept., M.S. Ramaiah Inst. of Tech., Bangalore (India); Shankapal, S.R. [M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bangalore (India)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace was carried out using pulverized coconut shell (CSP), LDO and water. The effect of equivalence ratio on the slurry composition, calorific value and the effect of exhaust gas percentage are presented. The calorific value of the biomass slurry increases with equivalence ratio initially, attains a peak value and then decreases with the increase in equivalence ratio. It is also observed that with the increase in composition of biomass slurry, the cost of the fuel and the percentage emission of CO decreases. It was found that CSP up to a blend of 20% was more convenient to be used as a slurry fuel in the furnace. (orig.)

  14. District heating and combined heat and power generation from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    An Altener programme seminar District Heating and Combined Heat and Power Generation from Biomass. Minitraining seminar and study tours and also Business forum, Exhibition and Short company presentations were held in Tallinn on March 21-23, 1999. The Seminar was organised by the VTT Energy, the Estonian Bioenergy Association and the Estonian Heat and Power Association in co-operation with the AFB-net. The Agricultural and Forestry Biomass Network (AFB-net) is part of the ALTENER programme. The Network aims at promoting and stimulating the implementation and commercial utilisation of energy from biomass and waste, through the initiation of business opportunities. This includes national and international co-operation and the exchange of the personnel. The Seminar was attended by consulting companies, scientists, municipal authorities and representatives of co-ordinating bodies engaged in renewable energy management as well as DH and CHP plant managers, equipment manufacturers and local energy planners from Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Slovenia and Slovak Republic. At the Seminar minitraining issues were dealt with: the current situation and future trends in biomass DH in the Baltic Sea countries, and biomass DH and CHP in Eastern and Central Europe, planning and construction of biomass-based DH plants, biomass fuel procurement and handling technology, combustion technology, DH networks, financing of biomass projects and evaluating of projects, and case projects in Eastern and Central European countries. The following were presented: boilers with a capacity of 100 kW or more, stoker burners, wood and straw handling equipment, wood fuel harvesters, choppers, pelletisers, district heating pipelines and networks. (author)

  15. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft..., ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In... caused by impaired fire protection features at nuclear power plants. The report documents the history of...

  16. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE), Draft Report for Comment.'' DATES: Comments on this... caused by impaired fire protection features at nuclear power plants. The report documents the history of...

  17. Fighting fire with gas. CO{sub 2} extinguishes smouldering fires in biomass silos and waste bunkers; Effizientes Feuerwehr-Gas. CO{sub 2} loescht Schwelbraende in Biomasse-Silos und Abfallbunkern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    Organic materials are a great source of energy and so biomass is in big demand. But wherever large amounts of wood, waste and straw are stored in huge silos, there is also a risk of smouldering fires and even explosions. Conventional methods are relatively ineffective at extinguishing fires such as these. But a new extinguishing system from Linde uses CO{sub 2} to effectively fight smouldering fires at the source. (orig.)

  18. Fire protection guidelines for nuclear power plants, June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines acceptable to the NRC staff for implementing in the development of a fire protection program for nuclear power plants. The purpose of the fire protection program is to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor and maintain it in a safe shutdown condition and to minimize radioactive releases to the environment in the event of a fire. If designs or methods different from the guidelines presented herein are used, they must provide fire protection comparable to that recommended in the guidelines. Suitable bases and justification should be provided for alternative approaches to establish acceptable implementation of General Design Criterion 3

  19. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Ibanez, F.; Sanchez, C.; Segura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO 2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China. PMID:25383383

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huacai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China.

  2. Fire safety in atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, R.L.; British Insurance

    1988-01-01

    The main reactor types are described briefly - Magnox, advanced gas cooled, pressurized water and fast reactors. Fire risks exist at fuel stores and spent fuel storage facilities. Simple fire prevention measures are suggested. Solid radioactive wastes can also be combustible. Various fire prevention measures for the different storage methods, eg compaction, are given. Gaseous and liquid wastes are also considered. The main types of reactor accident are described and the causes of four incidents - at Chernobyl, Windscale, Brownsferry and Three Mile Island, are examined. (U.K.)

  3. Coal-Fired Power Plant Heat Rate Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    View a report that identifies systems and equipment in coal-fired power plants where efficiency improvements can be realized, and provides estimates of the resulting net plant heat rate reductions and costs for implementation.

  4. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part I: Fire rated separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1995-06-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Conventional building codes can not give guidance on where to make fire rated separations in order to separate redundant trains of safety systems. The separation must originate in functional demands from the authorities on what functions are essential during and after a fire, and under what circumstances these functions shall be retained, i.e. the number of independent faults and initiating events. As a basic demand it is suggested to rate the strength of separations according to conventional building code, based on fire load. The whole separating construction shall have the same fire rating, including the ventilation system. Deviations from the basic demand can de done in case it can be proven that it is possible to compensate some or all of the fire rating with other measures. There is a general lack of statistical information regarding the reliability of fire separating constructions such as walls, fire doors, penetration seals and fire dampers. The amount of cables penetrating a seal is in many cases much higher in real installations than what has been tested for type approval. It would therefore be valuable to perform a furnace test with a more representative amount of cables passing through a penetration seal. Tests have shown that the 20 foot horizontal separation distance stipulated by NRC is not a guarantee against fire damage. Spatial separations based on general requirements shall not be allowed, but considered from case to case based on actual circumstances. For fire protection by isolation or coatings, it is of great importance to choose the method of protection carefully, to be compatible with the material it shall be applied on, and the environment and types of fire that may occur. 48 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Fire protection of nuclear power plant cable ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrac, J.; Lukac, L.

    1987-01-01

    Fire protection of cable ducts in the Bohunice and Dukovany V-2 nuclear power plants is of a fourtier type. The first level consists in preventive measures incorporated in the power plant design and layout. The second level consists in early detection and a quick repressive action provided by an electric fire alarm system and a stationary spray system, respectively. Fire partitions and glands represent the third level while special spray, paint and lining materials represent the fourth level of the protection. Briefly discussed are the results of an analysis of the stationary spray system and the effects reducing the efficiency of a fire-fighting action using this system. The analysis showed the need of putting off cable duct fires using mobile facilities in case the stationary spray system cannot cope any longer. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 2 refs

  6. Course in fire protection training for nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.L.; Bates, E.F.; Randall, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed Regulatory Guide 1.120, entitled ''Fire Protection Guidelines for Nuclear Power Plants,'' provides detailed requirements for the overall fire protection programs at nuclear power plant sites in the United States. An essential element in such a program in the training of plant fire brigade personnel is the use of proper firefighting techniques and equipment. The Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center (NSC) in conjunction with the Fire Protection Training Division of the Texas Engineering Extension Service has developed a one-week course to meet this training need. The program emphasizes hands-on exercises. The course is designed for up to 18 students with all protective clothing provided. Fire instructors are certified by the State of Texas, and registered nuclear engineers and certified health physicists supervise the radiological safety exercises. The first course was conducted during the week of January 8--12, 1979

  7. Safety guide on fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the Safety Guide is to give specific design and operational guidance for protection from fire and explosion in nuclear power plants, based on the general guidance given in the relevant sections of the 'Safety Code of Practice - Design' and the 'Safety Code of Practice - Operation' of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The guide will confine itself to fire protection of safety systems and items important to safety, leaving the non-safety matters of fire protection in nuclear power plants to be decided upon the basis of the various available national and international practices and regulations. (HP) [de

  8. 78 FR 26747 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Decision. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) has issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the.... Accordingly, comments submitted in the EIS process also informed RUS's decision making in the Section 106... Oglethorpe for RUS financing to construct the 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities...

  9. Integrated biomass pyrolysis with organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Syahputra, A. W.

    2018-02-01

    The growing interest on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application to produce electricity by utilizing biomass energy sources are increasingly due to its successfully used to generate power from waste heat available in industrial processes. Biomass pyrolysis is one of the thermochemical technologies for converting biomass into energy and chemical products consisting of liquid bio-oil, solid biochar, and pyrolytic gas. In the application, biomass pyrolysis can be divided into three main categories; slow, fast and flash pyrolysis mainly aiming at maximizing the products of bio-oil or biochar. The temperature of synthesis gas generated during processes can be used for Organic Rankine Cycle to generate power. The heat from synthesis gas during pyrolysis processes was transfer by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator unit. In this study, the potential of the palm oil empty fruit bunch, palm oil shell, and tree bark have been used as fuel from biomass to generate electricity by integrated with ORC. The Syltherm-XLT thermal oil was used as the heat carrier from combustion burner, while R245fa was used as the working fluid for ORC system. Through Aspen Plus, this study analyses the influences on performance of main thermodynamic parameters, showing the possibilities of reaching an optimum performance for different working conditions that are characteristics of different design parameters.

  10. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.

    2009-01-01

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 deg. C at a heating rate of 40 deg. C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management.

  11. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Dept., 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 C at a heating rate of 40 C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management. (author)

  12. Radiative Effects of Aerosols Generated from Biomass Burning, Dust Storms, and Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Sundar A.; Vulcan, Donna V.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, both natural and anthropogenic, are important to the earth's radiative balance. They scatter the incoming solar radiation and modify the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by acting as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). Although it has been recognized that aerosols exert a net cooling influence on climate (Twomey et al. 1984), this effect has received much less attention than the radiative forcings due to clouds and greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing due to aerosols is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign (Houghton et al. 1990). Atmospheric aerosol particles generated from biomass burning, dust storms and forest fires are important regional climatic variables. A recent study by Penner et al. (1992) proposed that smoke particles from biomass burning may have a significant impact on the global radiation balance. They estimate that about 114 Tg of smoke is produced per year in the tropics through biomass burning. The direct and indirect effects of smoke aerosol due to biomass burning could add up globally to a cooling effect as large as 2 W/sq m. Ackerman and Chung (1992) used model calculations and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data to show that in comparison to clear days, the heavy dust loading over the Saudi Arabian peninsula can change the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) clear sky shortwave and longwave radiant exitance by 40-90 W/sq m and 5-20 W/sq m, respectively. Large particle concentrations produced from these types of events often are found with optical thicknesses greater than one. These aerosol particles are transported across considerable distances from the source (Fraser et al. 1984). and they could perturb the radiative balance significantly. In this study, the regional radiative effects of aerosols produced from biomass burning, dust storms and forest fires are examined using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Local Area

  13. Gas-fired Power Generation in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    India's fast growing economy needs to add 100,000 MW power generating capacity between 2002-2012. Given limitations to the use of coal in terms of environmental considerations, quality and supply constraints, gas is expected to play an increasingly important role in India's power sector. This report briefs NMC Delegates on the potential for gas-fired power generation in India and describes the challenges India faces to translate the potential for gas-fired power generation into reality.

  14. Challenges to fire protection measures at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    New regulatory standards for fire protection at nuclear power plants have been established by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. This paper introduces the measures taken by the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station for the following four items, which were especially big changes. (1) To install a combination of sensors of different types or instruments with equivalent functions so as to be able to emit unique signals to inform a fire in the early stage. (2) To conduct 'UL vertical burn test' as the demonstration test for self-extinguishing performance as the condition for flame-retardant cable. (3) To install automatic fire-extinguishers or fixed fire-extinguishing devices of manual type at the spots where fire-fighting is difficult due to the filling of smoke in a fire or the effect of radiation. (4) To separate the system for purpose of ensuring safety function to attain the high-temperature shutdown and cold-temperature shutdown of a reactor whatever fire may happen at the nuclear facilities. The examples of the installation of fire-extinguishers as the measures for the above Item (3) are as follows; (A) as for the devices containing oil, a foam-extinguishing agent is released against each target device from the nozzle, and (B) for large vertical pump motors indoors and relatively small pump motors, IA type automatic foam extinguishing systems are installed. (A.O.)

  15. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Horazak, D.A. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States); Ruel, R.H. [The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, a Westinghouse Electric led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C), and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), is conducting a 30 month research and development program. The program will provide validation of hot gas cleanup technology with a pressurized fluidized bed, air-blown, biomass gasifier for operation of a gas turbine. This paper discusses the gasification and hot gas cleanup processes, scope of work and approach, and the program`s status.

  16. Effect of flue gas composition on deposit induced high temperature corrosion under laboratory conditions mimicking biomass firing. Part II: Exposures in SO2 containing atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Kiamehr, Saeed; Montgomery, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    SO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-rayspectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques werecomplimentarily applied to characterize the resulting corrosion products. Apartially molten K2SO4-layer formed on KCl coated specimens, and corrosionresulted in localized......In biomass fired power plants, the fast corrosion of superheaters is facilitatedby the presence of corrosive flue gas species, for example, SO2, which arereleased during combustion. To understand the role of the gas species on thecorrosion process, comparative laboratory exposures of deposit (KCl......)-coatedand deposit-free austenitic stainless steel (TP 347H FG) samples to gas mixturescontaining SO2 was carried out, under conditions relevant to biomass-firing.Exposures were conducted isothermally at 560 8C for 72 h, in oxidizingsulphidizing,and oxidizing-sulphidizing-chlorinating gas mixtures containing60 ppmv...

  17. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandvig, Eric; Walling, Gary; Brown, Robert C.; Pletka, Ryan; Radlein, Desmond; Johnson, Warren

    2003-01-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW e ; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system

  18. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  19. Experience gained from fires in nuclear power plants: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    In 1993, the IAEA launched a programme to assist Member States in improving fire safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The review of fire safety assessment in many plants has shown that fire is one of the most important risk contributors for NPPs. Moreover, operational experience has confirmed that many events have a similar root cause, initiation and development mechanism. Therefore, many States have improved the analysis of their operational experience and its feedback. States that operate NPPs play an important role in the effort to improve fire safety by circulating their experience internationally - this exchange of information can effectively prevent potential events. When operating experience is well organized and made accessible, it can feed an improved fire hazard assessment on a probabilistic basis. The practice of exchanging operational experience seems to be bearing fruit: serious events initiated by fire are on the decline at plants in operating States. However, to maximize this effort, means for communicating operational experience need to be continuously improved and the pool of recipients of operational experience data enlarged. The present publication is the third in a series started in 1998 on fire events, the first two were: Root Cause Analysis for Fire Events (IAEA-TECDOC-1112) and Use of Operational Experience in Fire Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA-TECDOC-1134). This TECDOC summarizes the experience gained and lessons learned from fire events at operating plants, supplemented by specific Member State experiences. In addition, it provides a possible structure of an international fire and explosion event database aimed at the analysis of experience from fire events and the evaluation of fire hazard. The intended readership of this is operators of plants and regulators. The present report includes a detailed analysis of the most recent events compiled with the IAEA databases and other bibliographic sources. It represents a

  20. Fire safety assessment for the fire areas of the nuclear power plant using fire model CFAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Yang, Joon Eon; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2005-03-01

    Now the deterministic analysis results for the cable integrity is not given in case of performing the fire PSA. So it is necessary to develop the assessment methodology for the fire growth and propagation. This document is intended to analyze the peak temperature of the upper gas layer using the fire modeling code, CFAST, to evaluate the integrity of the cable located on the dominant pump rooms, and to assess the CCDP(Conditional Core Damage Probability) using the results of the cable integrity. According to the analysis results, the cable integrity of the pump rooms is maintained and CCDP is reduced about two times than the old one. Accordingly, the fire safety assessment for the dominant fire areas using the fire modeling code will capable to reduce the uncertainty and to develop a more realistic model

  1. Minnesota Power Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  2. High temperature corrosion of superheater materials for power production through biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthjaelp, K.; Broendsted, P. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Jansen, P. [FORCE Institute (Denmark); Montgomery, M.; Nielsen, K.; Maahn, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Corrosion and Surface Techn. Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering (Denmark)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures of selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. The experiments using this facility includes corrosion studies of two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sanvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo), investigated at 600 deg. C in time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of HCl (200 ppm) and of SO{sub 2} (300 ppm) on the corrosion progress has been investigated. In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525 deg. C, 600 deg. C, and 700 deg. C. The ashes utilised are from a straw fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different analysis techniques to characterise the composition of the ash coatings have been investigated in order to judge the reliability and accuracy of the SEM-EDX method. The results are considered as an important step towards a better understanding of the high temperature corrosion under the conditions found in biomass fired power plants. One of the problems to solve in a suggested subsequent project is to combine the effect of the aggressive gases (SO{sub 2} and HCl) and the active ash coatings on high temperature corrosion of materials. (EG) 20 refs.

  3. Biomass gasification for electric power generation. Biomassa vergassing voor elektriciteitsopwekking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H J

    1992-10-01

    Attention is paid to power generation by means of the use of synthesis gas, produced by biomass gasification, in internal combustion engines and gas turbines. Descriptions are given of the biomass gasification process and several types of gasifiers: cocurrent or downcraft gasifiers, countercurrent gasifiers, crosscurrent gasifiers and fluidized bed gasifiers. The first aim of this report is to assess which gasifier is the most appropriate gasifier to be used in combination with an internal combustion engine or a gas turbine. The second aim is to determine the quality of the biomass fuel, which must be gasified in a particular gasifier. In chapter two the notion biomass is discussed, and in chapter three attention is paid to the gasification process. An overview of the characteristics of available gasifiers is presented in chapter four (performance, quality of the synthesis gas and the biomass fuel, investment costs, and state of the art). In chapter five and six the internal combustion engine and the gas turbine are dealt with, as well as the experiences with and the consequences of the use of synthesis gas. Also the economic feasibility of the application of combined gasifier/engine systems and gasifier/gas turbine systems is discussed. 39 figs., 20 tabs., 43 refs.

  4. Sodium fires and nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zubin, A.; Drobyshev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The danger of sodium aerosol release at a design basis accident (DBA) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor that involves coolant leakage and burning, is being analyzed. It has been shown that radioactive and toxic releases at DBA do not exceed permissible values. Some means of sodium fire fighting are described. (author)

  5. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  6. Emission performance and combustion efficiency of a conical fluidized-bed combustor firing various biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permchart, W.; Kouprianov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on combustion of three distinct biomass fuels (sawdust, rice husk and pre-dried sugar cane bagasse) in a single fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) with a conical bed using silica sand as the inert bed material. Temperature, CO, NO and O 2 concentrations along the combustor height as well as in flue (stack) gas were measured in the experimental tests. The effects of fuel properties and operating conditions (load and excess air) on these variables were investigated. Both CO and NO axial profiles were found to have a maximum whose location divides conventionally the combustor volume into formation (lower) and reduction (upper) regions for these pollutants. Based on CO emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash, the combustion efficiency of the conical FBC was quantified for the selected biomass fuels fired under different operating conditions. (Author)

  7. The use of remotely-sensed wildland fire radiation to infer the fates of carbon during biomass combustion - the need to understand and quantify a fire's mass and energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, M. B.; Dietenberger, M.; Ellicott, E. A.; Hardy, C.; Hudak, A. T.; Kremens, R.; Mathews, W.; Schroeder, W.; Smith, A. M.; Strand, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Few measurement techniques offer broad-scale insight on the extent and characteristics of biomass combustion during wildland fires. Remotely-sensed radiation is one of these techniques but its measurement suffers from several limitations and, when quantified, its use to derive variables of real interest depends on an understanding of the fire's mass and energy budget. In this talk, we will review certain assumptions of wildland fire radiation measurement and explore the use of those measurements to infer the fates of biomass and the dissipation of combustion energy. Recent measurements show that the perspective of the sensor (nadir vs oblique) matters relative to estimates of fire radiated power. Other considerations for producing accurate estimates of fire radiation from remote sensing include obscuration by an intervening forest canopy and to what extent measurements that are based on the assumption of graybody/blackbody behavior underestimate fire radiation. Fire radiation measurements are generally a means of quantifying other variables and are often not of interest in and of themselves. Use of fire radiation measurements as a means of inference currently relies on correlations with variables of interest such as biomass consumption and sensible and latent heat and emissions fluxes. Radiation is an imperfect basis for these correlations in that it accounts for a minority of combustion energy ( 15-30%) and is not a constant as is often assumed. Measurements suggest that fire convective energy accounts for the majority of combustion energy and (after radiation) is followed by latent energy, soil heating, and pyrolysis energy, more or less in that order. Combustion energy in and of itself is not its potential maximum, but is reduced to an effective heat of combustion by combustion inefficiency and by work done to pyrolyze fuel (important in char production) and in moisture vaporization. The effective heat of combustion is often on the order of 65% of its potential

  8. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  9. Effect of Water Vapor on High-Temperature Corrosion under Conditions Mimicking Biomass Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    The variable flue gas composition in biomass-fired plants, among other parameters, contributes to the complexityof high-temperature corrosion of materials. Systematic parameter studies are thus necessary to understand the underlyingcorrosion mechanisms. This paper investigates the effect of water...... (H2O) vapor content in the flue gas on the high-temperaturecorrosion of austenitic stainless steel (TP 347H FG) under laboratory conditions, to improve the understanding of corrosionmechanisms. Deposit-coated and deposit-free samples were isothermally exposed for 72 h in a synthetic flue gas...... previouslyreported findings suggest that an increase in the water vapor content will cause competitive adsorption on active sites....

  10. Protection against fire hazards in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapus, J.

    2000-01-01

    The prevention of fire in French nuclear power plants has followed the evolution of safety regulations. Today fire hazards are no longer considered as classical industrial risks but as specific risks that deserve to be studied thoroughly and in a more formalized form. In the beginning of the eighties EDF was committed to the redaction of a technical referential against fire gathering all the directives applicable to the N4-type plant (1450 MW). In 1994 this technical referential was reconsidered and enlarged in order to involve 900 MW and 1300 MW units. In each nuclear power plant a PAI (plan against fire) has been elaborated so that the installation can be progressively upgraded according to the last standard defined by the technical referential. (A.C.)

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  12. Sulphur capture by co-firing sulphur containing fuels with biomass fuels - optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, A.

    1992-12-01

    Previous results concerning co-firing of high sulphur fuels with biomass fuels have shown that a significant part of the sulphur can be absorbed in the ash by formation of harmless sulphates. The aim of this work has been to (i) determine the maximum reduction that can be obtained in a bench scaled fluidized bed (5 kW); (ii) determine which operating conditions will give maximum reduction; (iii) point out the importance and applicability of experimental designs and multivariate methods when optimizing combustion processes; (iv) determine if the degree of sulphur capture can be correlated to the degree of slagging, fouling or bed sintering; and (v) determine if further studies are desired. The following are some of the more important results obtained: - By co-firing peat with biomass, a total sulphur retention of 70 % can be obtained. By co-firing coal with energy-grass, the total SO 2 emissions can be reduced by 90 %. - Fuel feeding rate, amount of combustion air and the primary air ratio were the most important operating parameters for the reduction. Bed temperature and oxygen level seem to be the crucial physical parameters. - The NO emissions also decreased by the sulphur reducing measures. The CO emissions were relatively high (130 mg/MJ) compared to large scale facilities due to the small reactor and the small fluctuations in the fuel feeding rate. The SO 2 emissions could however be reduced without any increase in CO emissions. - When the reactor was fired with a grass, the bed sintered at a low temperature ( 2 SO 4 and KCl are formed no sintering problems were observed. (27 refs., 41 figs., 9 tabs., 3 appendices)

  13. Model of fire spread around Krsko Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, P.; Petelin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The idea behind the article is how to define fire behaviour. The work is based on an analytical study of fire origin, its development and spread. The study is based on thermodynamics, heat transfer and the study of hydrodynamics and combustion, which represent the bases of fire dynamics. The article shows a practical example of a leak of hazardous chemicals from a tank. Because of the inflammability of the fluid, fire may start. We have tried to model fire propagation around the Krsko power plant, and show what extended surrounding area could be affected. The model also considers weather conditions, in particular wind speed and direction. For this purpose we have used the computer code Safer Trace, which is based on zone models. That means that phenomena are described by physical and empirical equations. An imperfection in this computer code is the inability to consider ground topology. However in the case of the Krsko power plant, topology is not so important, as the plan is located in a relatively flat region. Mathematical models are presented. They show the propagation of hazardous fluid in the environment considering meteorological data. The work also shows which data are essential to define fire spread and shows the main considerations of Probabilistic Safety Assessment for external fire event.(author)

  14. Using fire dynamics simulator to reconstruct a hydroelectric power plant fire accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jen-Hao; Wu, Sheng-Hung; Shu, Chi-Min

    2011-11-01

    The location of the hydroelectric power plant poses a high risk to occupants seeking to escape in a fire accident. Calculating the heat release rate of transformer oil as 11.5 MW/m(2), the fire at the Taiwan Dajia-River hydroelectric power plant was reconstructed using the fire dynamics simulator (FDS). The variations at the escape route of the fire hazard factors temperature, radiant heat, carbon monoxide, and oxygen were collected during the simulation to verify the causes of the serious casualties resulting from the fire. The simulated safe escape time when taking temperature changes into account is about 236 sec, 155 sec for radiant heat changes, 260 sec for carbon monoxide changes, and 235-248 sec for oxygen changes. These escape times are far less than the actual escape time of 302 sec. The simulation thus demonstrated the urgent need to improve escape options for people escaping a hydroelectric power plant fire. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Pollution control technologies applied to coal-fired power plant operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Rozpondek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Burning of fossil fuels is the major source of energy in today's global economy with over one-third of the world's powergeneration derived from coal combustion. Although coal has been a reliable, abundant, and relatively inexpensive fuel source for mostof the 20th century, its future in electric power generation is under increasing pressure as environmental regulations become morestringent worldwide. Current pollution control technologies for combustion exhaust gas generally treat the release of regulatedpollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as three separate problems instead of as parts of one problem. Newand improved technologies have greatly reduced the emissions produced per ton of burning coal. The term “Clean Coal CombustionTechnology” applies generically to a range of technologies designed to greatly reduce the emissions from coal-fired power plants.The wet methods of desulfurization at present are the widest applied technology in professional energetics. This method is economicand gives good final results but a future for clean technologies is the biomass. Power from biomass is a proven commercial optionof the electricity generation in the World. An increasing number of power marketers are starting to offer environmentally friendlyelectricity, including biomass power, in response to the consumer demand and regulatory requirements.

  16. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-01-01

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed

  17. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumanovskii, A. G., E-mail: vti@vti.ru; Olkhovsky, G. G. [JSC “All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  18. Exergy analysis of biomass organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Sunoto

    2018-02-01

    The study examines proposed small biomass-fed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant through exergy analysis. The system consists of combustion burner unit to utilize biomass as fuel, and organic Rankine cycle unit to produce power from the expander. The heat from combustion burner was transfered by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator part. The effects of adding recuperator into exergy destruction were investigated. Furthermore, the results of the variations of system configurations with different operating parameters, such as the evaporating pressures, ambient temperatures, and expander pressures were analyzed. It was found that the largest exergy destruction occurs during processes are at combustion part, followed by evaporator, condenser, expander, and pump. The ORC system equipped with a recuperator unit exhibited good operational characteristics under wide range conditions compared to the one without recuperator.

  19. Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

  20. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-05-01

    The focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored biomass power for rural development project is to develop commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-2 of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is underway. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill Power Station. Phase-3 will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. During the fourth quarter of 1997 the Consortium submitted a Phase-2 proposal. A few of the other more important milestones are outlined below. The first quarter of 1998 will be dominated by pre-planting activity in the spring.

  1. FIREDATA, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Event Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FIREDATA contains raw fire event data from 1965 through June 1985. These data were obtained from a number of reference sources including the American Nuclear Insurers, Licensee Event Reports, Nuclear Power Experience, Electric Power Research Institute Fire Loss Data and then collated into one database developed in the personal computer database management system, dBASE III. FIREDATA is menu-driven and asks interactive questions of the user that allow searching of the database for various aspects of a fire such as: location, mode of plant operation at the time of the fire, means of detection and suppression, dollar loss, etc. Other features include the capability of searching for single or multiple criteria (using Boolean 'and' or 'or' logical operations), user-defined keyword searches of fire event descriptions, summary displays of fire event data by plant name of calendar date, and options for calculating the years of operating experience for all commercial nuclear power plants from any user-specified date and the ability to display general plant information. 2 - Method of solution: The six database files used to store nuclear power plant fire event information, FIRE, DESC, SUM, OPEXPER, OPEXBWR, and EXPERPWR, are accessed by software to display information meeting user-specified criteria or to perform numerical calculations (e.g., to determine the operating experience of a nuclear plant). FIRE contains specific searchable data relating to each of 354 fire events. A keyword concept is used to search each of the 31 separate entries or fields. DESC contains written descriptions of each of the fire events. SUM holds basic plant information for all plants proposed, under construction, in operation, or decommissioned. This includes the initial criticality and commercial operation dates, the physical location of the plant, and its operating capacity. OPEXPER contains date information and data on how various plant locations are

  2. Back to nature: Power from biomass; Zurueck zur Natur: Energie aus Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerbaum, S. [Hohenheim Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrarpolitik und landwirtschaftliche Marktlehre; Kappelmann, K.H. [Fachhochschule Nuertingen (Germany); Haerdtlein, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung; Kaltschmitt, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen-Weihenstephan (Germany); Ising, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits-, und Energietechnik, Oberhausen (Germany); Meier, D.; Faix, O. [Institut fuer Holzchemie und chemische Technologie des Holzes, Hamburg (Germany); Gerdes, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Makromolekulare und Technische Chemie

    2000-05-01

    Excepting nuclear power, there are just two strategies to reduce global warming, i.e. either by saving energy or by using renewables, supported by public funding and guaranteed rates. The options of solar, wind, and hydroelectric power are limited in our climate and their potential is nearly completely exploited in some regions already. Biomass is an interesting option. Its introduction should be speeded up as it takes about 50 - 60 years for a new technology to be fully accepted. [German] Soll der Treibhauseffekt eingedaemmt werden, ohne in grossem Umfang auf Kernenergie zurueckzugreifen, bleiben nur zwei Moeglichkeiten: Energiesparen und verstaerkter Einsatz regenerativer Energiequellen. Finanzielle Foerderung aus oeffentlichen Mitteln und Garantiepreise bei der Stromerzeugung sollen den Weg gangbar machen. Sonne, Wind und Wasser eignen sich leider hierzulande nur begrenzt, teilweise ist ihr Potenzial schon weitgehend ausgeschoepft. Eine wichtige Ergaenzung des Angebots duerfte deshalb die Biomasse sein. Letztlich ist sie eine Speicherform von Sonnenenergie: Durch Photosynthese erzeugen Pflanzen aus Kohlendioxid und Wasser ihre eigenen Energietraeger, die Kohlenhydrate. Weil beim Verbrennen nur das aufgenommene Kohlendioxid wieder frei wird, zeigt die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse eine weitgehend ausgeglichene Klimabilanz. Doch Eile ist geboten. Die Nutzung von Kohle und Erdoel benoetigte 50 bis 60 Jahre, um sich zu etablieren; Experten halten das fuer einen typischen Zeitraum (den auch die Kernenergie noch nicht durchschritten hat). Sich erneuernde Energiequellen stehen noch am Anfang dieser Einfuehrungsphase. (orig.)

  3. EOSLT Consortium Biomass Co-firing. WP 4. Biomass co-firing in oxy-fuel combustion. Part 1. Lab- Scale Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryda, L.E. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    In the frame of WP4 of the EOS LT Co-firing program, the ash formation and deposition of selected coal/biomass blends under oxyfuel and air conditions were studied experimentally in the ECN lab scale coal combustor (LCS). The fuels used were Russian coal, South African coal and Greek Lignite, either combusted separately or in blends with cocoa and olive residue. The first trial period included tests with the Russian and South African coals and their blends with cocoa, the second trial period included Lignite with olive residue tests and a final period firing only Lignite and Russian coal, mainly to check and verify the observed results. During the testing, also enriched air combustion was applied, in order to establish conclusions whether a systematic trend on ash formation and deposition exists, ranging from conventional air, to enriched air (improving post combustion applications) until oxyfuel conditions. A horizontal deposition probe equipped with thermocouples and heat transfer sensors for on line data acquisition, and a cascade impactor (staged filter) to obtain size distributed ash samples including the submicron range at the reactor exit were used. The deposition ratio and the deposition propensity measured for the various experimental conditions were higher in all oxyfuel cases. No significant variations in the ash formation mechanisms and the ash composition were established. Finally the data obtained from the tests performed under air and oxy-fuel conditions were utilised for chemical equilibrium calculations in order to facilitate the interpretation of the measured data; the results indicate that temperature dependence and fuels/blends ash composition are the major factors affecting gaseous compound and ash composition rather than the combustion environment, which seems to affect neither the ash and fine ash (submicron) formation, nor the ash composition. The ash deposition mechanisms were studied in more detail in Part II of this report.

  4. Predicting the emissive power of hydrocarbon pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Miguel; Planas, Eulalia; Ferrero, Fabio; Casal, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    The emissive power (E) of a flame depends on the size of the fire and the type of fuel. In fact, it changes significantly over the flame surface: the zones of luminous flame have high emittance, while those covered by smoke have low E values. The emissive power of each zone (that is, the luminous or clear flame and the non-luminous or smoky flame) and the portion of total flame area they occupy must be assessed when a two-zone model is used. In this study, data obtained from an experimental set-up were used to estimate the emissive power of fires and its behaviour as a function of pool size. The experiments were performed using gasoline and diesel oil as fuel. Five concentric circular pools (1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 m in diameter) were used. Appropriate instruments were employed to determine the main features of the fires. By superimposing IR and VHS images it was possible to accurately identify the luminous and non-luminous zones of the fire. Mathematical expressions were obtained that give a more accurate prediction of E lum , E soot and the average emissive power of a fire as a function of its luminous and smoky zones. These expressions can be used in a two-zone model to obtain a better prediction of the thermal radiation. The value of the radiative fraction was determined from the thermal flux measured with radiometers. An expression is also proposed for estimating the radiative fraction

  5. Detailed investigation of Cl-corrosion initiated by deposits formed in biomass-fired boilers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Flemming J.; Lith, S. van

    2009-10-15

    The aim was to investigate deposit-induced Cl-corrosion under well-controlled laboratory conditions, simulating the conditions in biomass-fired boilers. This has been done by exposing pieces of superheater tubes, covered by synthetic salts, at temperatures and gas mixtures simulating biomass-fired conditions. The corroded specimens have been studied in detail using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), in order to determine the corrosion rate, and to investigate the chemistry and morphology of the corrosive attack. The project has been divided into four activities: A1: Relationship between the Cl-concentration in the deposit, and the corrosion rate. A2: Influence of cation type (K+ and Na+) on the mobility of Cl in the deposit. A3: Influence of metal temperature on the corrosion rate. A4: Critical evaluation of the existing experience for minimizing corrosion in full-scale boilers firing totally or partly with biomass. (LN)

  6. From biomass to biocarbon : trends and tradeoffs when CO-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, H. [Alterna Energy Inc., Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined current market dynamics for biomass-based fuels produced in British Columbia (BC) and consumed by utilities in Sweden. The aim of the study was to compare and develop the properties of 3 biofuels suitable for co-firing: (1) dry wood pellets; (2) torrefied wood pellets; and (3) biocarbon pellets. Biocarbon fuels are processed at higher temperatures to produce a higher energy density fuel per unit weight at a lower overall mass yield. The processing mass balances and physical properties of the pellets were investigated as well as the production and transportation costs of biofuels. Market value, profit, and maximum production costs of the pellets were examined. The study showed that the biofuel supply chain includes significant transportation costs relative to the cost of the raw biomass and biofuel conversion processes. It was concluded that higher energy density biocarbon pellets represent the most cost-effective biofuel option for co-firing with coal. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. From biomass to biocarbon : trends and tradeoffs when CO-firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined current market dynamics for biomass-based fuels produced in British Columbia (BC) and consumed by utilities in Sweden. The aim of the study was to compare and develop the properties of 3 biofuels suitable for co-firing: (1) dry wood pellets; (2) torrefied wood pellets; and (3) biocarbon pellets. Biocarbon fuels are processed at higher temperatures to produce a higher energy density fuel per unit weight at a lower overall mass yield. The processing mass balances and physical properties of the pellets were investigated as well as the production and transportation costs of biofuels. Market value, profit, and maximum production costs of the pellets were examined. The study showed that the biofuel supply chain includes significant transportation costs relative to the cost of the raw biomass and biofuel conversion processes. It was concluded that higher energy density biocarbon pellets represent the most cost-effective biofuel option for co-firing with coal. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Upgrading of fire safety in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme started with the installation of 2 nos. of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) at Tarapur (TAPS I and II) of 210 MWe each commissioned in the year 1996. The Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) programme in the country started with the installation of 2x220 MWe stations at Rawatbhatta near Kota (RAPS I and II) in the State of Rajasthan in the sixties. At the present moment, the country has 10 stations in operation. Construction is going on for 4 more units of 220 MWe where as work on two more 500 MWe units is going to start soon. Fire safety systems for the earlier units were engineered as per the state-of-art knowledge available then. The need for review of fire protection systems in the Indian nuclear power plants has also been felt since long almost after Brown's Ferry fire in 1975 itself. Task forces consisting of fire experts, systems design engineers, O and M personnel as well as the Fire Protection engineers at the plant were constituted for each plant to review the existing fire safety provisions in details and highlight the upgradation needed for meeting the latest requirements as per the national as well as international practices. The recommendations made by three such task forces for the three plants are proposed to be reviewed in this paper. The paper also highlights the recommendations to be implemented immediately as well as on long-term basis over a period of time

  9. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  10. Need for a probabilistic fire analysis at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabuig Beneyto, J. L.; Ibanez Aparicio, J.

    1993-01-01

    Although fire protection standards for nuclear power plants cover a wide scope and are constantly being updated, the existence of certain constraints makes it difficult to precisely evaluate plant response to different postulatable fires. These constraints involve limitations such as: - Physical obstacles which impede the implementation of standards in certain cases; - Absence of general standards which cover all the situations which could arise in practice; - Possible temporary noncompliance of safety measures owing to unforeseen circumstances; - The fact that a fire protection standard cannot possibly take into account additional damages occurring simultaneously with the fire; Based on the experience of the ASCO NPP PSA developed within the framework of the joint venture, INITEC-INYPSA-EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS, this paper seeks to justify the need for a probabilistic analysis to overcome the limitations detected in general application of prevailing standards. (author)

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurement for Global Smoke Emissions Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has steadily gained increasing recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies and applications relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. To establish the scientific integrity of the FRP as a stable quantity that can be measured consistently across a variety of sensors and platforms, with the potential of being utilized to develop a unified long-term climate data record of fire activity and impacts, it needs to be thoroughly evaluated, calibrated, and validated. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to evaluate the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the effects of satellite variable observation geometry and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in diverse scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show recent results of the MODIS FRP uncertainty analysis and error mitigation solutions, and demonstrate

  12. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of primary pollutants from electric power plants: Application to a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The normal operation of a power plant generally releases pollutants to the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to describe a modeling method to estimate the changes in air pollutant concentrations that result from these emissions. This modeling approach is applicable to coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas technologies. As an example, this paper uses a hypothetical 500 megawatt (MW) coal-fired power plant, located at a Southeast Reference site in the U.S. and at a Southwest Reference Site. The pollutants resulting from the operation of the power plant may be classified as primary (emitted directly from the plant) or secondary (formed in the atmosphere from primary pollutants). The primary pollutants of interest in this paper are nitrogen oxides (NO x , sulfur dioxide SO 2 , particulate matter and metals

  13. Probabilistic assessment of fire hazard: a contribution of power industry to the development of fire protection engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrac, J.; Skvarka, P.

    1990-01-01

    Draft methodology was developed for assessment of fire hazard in nuclear power plants. Named DIMEHORP, the methodology is based on fire hazard analyses and on the analyses of the possible ways of fire propagation and of the power plant systems. The former includes determining the spaces of the power plant in which a fire can arise. Fire propagation analysis deals with the probability that within a given section the fire will propagate and cause damage to the equipment before it is localized. The mathematical model used is based on probability theory in conjunction with expert estimates. The methodology was applied to the assessment of the effect of fire in the cable rooms of the Dukovany nuclear power plant on the safety and reliability of its operation. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 6 refs

  14. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  15. Biomass as a fuel: Advantages, limitations and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBurney, B.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines major issues related to the use of biomass fuels. Advantages and disadvantages of biomass fuels are identified, as well as major factors that may facilitate greater use of biomass fuels. Highlights of the US DOE Biomass Power Program, program activities, and demonstration projects are presented. Some statistical and economic data are provided, including biomass fueled electric capacity, biomass energy consumption by sector, and fuel cost savings and greenhouse gas emissions reductions for four biomass co-fired units

  16. 75 FR 5355 - Notice of Extension of Comment Period for NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ..., Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG), Draft Report for Comment AGENCY... 1019195), Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG), Draft Report for Comment... exists in both the general fire protection and the nuclear power plant (NPP) fire protection communities...

  17. Coal fired power plant fireside problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, P.; Manolescu, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the recent experience with fireside problems in coal fired subcritical boilers at Ontario Hydro*, and is concerned with boiler tube wastage. Problems with other components such as burners, air pre-heaters and ''back-end'' ductwork are not discussed. In most utilities, boiler tube failures account for a sizable portion of the total forced outages (typically about25%) as well as a very large part of the maintenance outages. The failures shown under the external deterioration category are of interest because they indicate the proportion of problems caused by the tube metal wastage processes initiated on the fireside of the boilers. Fireside problems remain an important cause of boiler tube failures year after year in spite of concentrated efforts to mitigate them

  18. Deactivation of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard

    composition and operating conditions, is not available. The main objective of the work presented in this thesis has been to conduct an in depth investigation of the deactivation mechanism of vanadia based SCR catalysts, when subjected to potassium rich aerosols. It has furthermore been a goal to suggest...... for up to 600 hours. The activity of fresh and exposed catalysts was measured in the temperature range 250-400 °C in a laboratory-scale reactor. All samples exposed for more than 240 hours proved to have deactivated significantly, however, catalysts exposed at 150 °C showed higher remaining activity......-scale setup at 350 °C for up to 1100 hours, and their activities were followed by in situ measurements. A 3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2 reference catalyst deactivated with a rate of 0.91 %/day during 960 hours of exposure, and a subsequent SEM-EDS analysis showed complete potassium penetration of the catalyst wall...

  19. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  20. Gas to Power in China. Gas-fired Power in China. Clearing the policy bottleneck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xavier

    2005-12-01

    Policy for gas-fired power is the single most serious and common issue that needs urgent resolution for all China's current and future gas projects, including LNG projects. This was the main conclusion of a national seminar on gas industry development policy that was held in July 2004. At the time of writing this paper, such a policy is still missing. In order to reduce pollution, improve energy security and meet the needs of the ever-growing economy for high-quality energies, the Chinese government has declared its firm intention to develop a natural gas market. The official target is to develop a gas market of 200 bcm/a by 2020, five times of the current size of around 40 bcm/a. Domestic supply is expected to provide 120 bcm/a, with the rest (80 bcm/a) by gas imports either in the form of piped gas or LNG. Gas-fired power generation plays a critical role in developing a sizeable gas market, especially for large-scale pipeline and LNG projects. Similar to the Guangdong and Fujian LNG projects where gas-fired power accounts for approximately 60% and 70% respectively of the first phase gas volume, each of the proposed LNG projects has allocated a large portion of the gas off-take volume to the power sector. In addition to the first two commercial CCGT plants that were commissioned in 2005, there are over 20 projects totalling 18 GW of capacity under construction. By 2020, China's planners foresee a total gas-fired power capacity of 60 GW, accounting for around 6% of the total installed capacity in the country. Despite these impressive projections, gas-fired power faces significant uncertainties in China: (1) there is an ongoing debate on whether China should develop gas-fired power, given the relative scarcity and higher cost of gas; (2) high gas prices and imported equipment limit the competitiveness of gas-fired power relative to a coal-fired one; (3) it lacks policy support. For the moment, gas-fired power plants are required to participate in a yet

  1. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  2. Operational experiences of (in)direct co-combustion in coal and gas fired power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ree, R.; Korbee, R.; Meijer, R.; Konings, T.; Van Aart, F.

    2001-02-01

    The operational experiences of direct and indirect co-combustion of biomass/waste in European coal and natural gas fired power plants are addressed. The operational experiences of mainly Dutch direct co-combustion activities in coal fired power plants are discussed; whereas an overview of European indirect co-combustion activities is presented. The technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of different indirect co-combustion concepts (i.e. upstream gasification, pyrolysis, combustion with steam-side integration) is investigated, and the results are compared with the economic preferable concept of direct co-combustion. Main technical constraints that limit the co-combustion capacity of biomass/waste in conventional coal fired power plants are: the grindability of the biomass/coal blend, the capacity of available unit components, and the danger of severe slagging, fouling, corrosion and erosion. The main environmental constraints that have to be taken into account are the quality of produced solid waste streams (fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum) and the applicable air emission regulations. 6 refs

  3. Fire in the Brazilian Amazon : 3. Dynamics of biomass, C, and nutrient pools in regenerating forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R F; Kauffman, J B; Cummings, D L

    2000-09-01

    Regenerating forests have become a common land-cover type throughout the Brazilian Amazon. However, the potential for these systems to accumulate and store C and nutrients, and the fluxes resulting from them when they are cut, burned, and converted back to croplands and pastures have not been well quantified. In this study, we quantified pre- and post-fire pools of biomass, C, and nutrients, as well as the emissions of those elements, at a series of second- and third-growth forests located in the states of Pará and Rondônia, Brazil. Total aboveground biomass (TAGB) of second- and third-growth forests averaged 134 and 91 Mg ha -1 , respectively. Rates of aboveground biomass accumulation were rapid in these systems, but were not significantly different between second- and third-growth forests, ranging from 9 to 16 Mg ha -1 year -1 . Residual pools of biomass originating from primary forest vegetation accounted for large portions of TAGB in both forest types and were primarily responsible for TAGB differences between the two forest types. In second-growth forests this pool (82 Mg ha -1 ) represented 58% of TAGB, and in third-growth forests (40 Mg ha -1 ) it represented 40% of TAGB. Amounts of TAGB consumed by burning of second- and third-growth forests averaged 70 and 53 Mg ha -1 , respectively. Aboveground pre-fire pools in second- and third-growth forests averaged 67 and 45 Mg C ha -1 , 821 and 707 kg N ha -1 , 441 and 341 kg P ha -1 , and 46 and 27 kg Ca ha -1 , respectively. While pre-fire pools of C, N, S and K were not significantly different between second- and third-growth forests, pools of both P and Ca were significantly higher in second-growth forests. This suggests that increasing land use has a negative impact on these elemental pools. Site losses of elements resulting from slashing and burning these sites were highly variable: losses of C ranged from 20 to 47 Mg ha -1 ; N losses ranged from 306 to 709 kg ha -1 ; Ca losses ranged from 10 to 145 kg ha -1

  4. Energy economics of nuclear and coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Won; Cho, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sung Rae; Choi, Hae Yoon

    1995-01-01

    The upturn of Korean nuclear power program can be considered to have started in early 70's while future plants for the construction of new nuclear power plants virtually came to a halt in United States. It is projected that power plant systems from combination of nuclear and coal fired types might shift to all coal fired type, considering the current trend of construction on the new plants in the United States. However, with the depletion of natural resources, it is desirable to understand the utilization of two competitive utility technologies in terms of of invested energy. Presented in this paper is a comparison between two systems, nuclear power plant and coal fired steam power plant in terms of energy investment. The method of comparison is Net Energy Analysis (NEA). In doing so, Input-Output Analysis (IOA) among industries and commodities is done. Using these information, net energy ratios are calculated and compared. NEA is conducted for power plants in U.S. because the availability of necessary data are limited in Korea. Although NEA does not offer conclusive solution, this method can work as a screening process in decision making. When considering energy systems, results from such analysis can be used as a general guideline. 2 figs., 12 tabs., 5 refs. (Author)

  5. Decentralised power generation using solid biomass - Know-how on combined heat and power generation for investors; Dezentrale Stromerzeugung mit Feststoffbiomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, M.; Gaegauf, Ch.; Sattler, M.

    2007-01-15

    This comprehensive report made by the Centre of Appropriate Technology and Social Ecology in Langenbruck, Switzerland presents a summary of know-how for investors on combined heat and power generation using solid biomass in installations with an electrical rating of up to one megawatt. Topics covered include a review of the reasons for using biomass to generate electricity - with the results of an analysis of potential in Switzerland and the European Union - and of economic assessment methods for the choice of technology and manufacturers. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of technologies is presented and existing biomass-fired installations in Switzerland are listed. A comparison with centrally-refined combustibles is presented and examples of cost and profitability calculations are given. Finally technological background information is presented, including information on 'forgotten' technologies.

  6. Fire protection system HMI in power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Yuda Bakti

    2015-05-01

    The central power station, a place where there are machines that generate power, equipped with substation where the voltage is produced by the generator and increased to a certain voltage with a step up voltage transformer. Effect on transformer oil is very important, transformer may malfunction if the oil that serves as a coolant and insulator gradually decreased its ability, over time their use. Power transformer on usability is vital, so it needs to be maintained so that the temperature rise must be overcome by applying a temperature control that can inform and control the control valve to open the hydrant tap transformer cooling. HMI implemented to facilitate the operators cope with excess heat in the transformer using thermocouple censor. Test results show that the control transformer and monitored using PLC and HMI. Transformer can maintain the condition of a maximum of 80 degrees Celsius heat.

  7. Planning new coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, W.A. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    When considering fossil energy sources, it can be seen that natural gas and oil will become much scarcer than coal. Therefore, one practical option is to investigate and further develop coal-based energy supplies for the future. However, the existing coal stocks must be used very sparingly. Consequently, the conversion efficiency of the chemically-bonded energy in power and heat needs to be improved. By these means, and also by modern environmental engineering, power can be generated from coal without harming the environment. (orig.)

  8. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We

  9. Investigating the links between ozone and organic aerosol chemistry in a biomass burning plume from a California chaparral fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. J. Alvarado; C. R. Lonsdale; R. J. Yokelson; S. K. Akagi; I. R. Burling; H. Coe; J. S. Craven; E. Fischer; G. R. McMeeking; J. H. Seinfeld; T. Soni; J. W. Taylor; D. R. Weise; C. E. Wold

    2014-01-01

    Within minutes after emission, rapid, complex photochemistry within a biomass burning smoke plume can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3) and organic aerosol (OA). Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under 5 a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires...

  10. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  11. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte Luis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects.

  12. Strategy and system of fire protection at Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weihong

    1999-12-01

    The fire protection is an important safety issue of nuclear power utilities. The author depicts the strategy and management system of fire protection implemented successfully at Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant of China

  13. Isolation and selection of microalgae from coal fired thermoelectric power plant for biofixation of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Michele Greque de; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Global warming is thought to be caused mainly by the emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), with thermoelectric power plants being responsible for about 7% of global CO 2 emissions. Microalgae can reduce CO 2 emissions from thermoelectric power plants, but for this use, they must be resistant to the mixture of gases produced by the power plants. We isolated the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella kessleri from the waste treatment ponds of the Presidente Medici coal fired thermoelectric power plant in the Southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and investigated their growth characteristics when exposed to different concentrations of CO 2 . When cultivated with 6% and 12% CO 2 , C. kessleri showed a high maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) of 0.267/day, with a maximum biomass productivity (P max ) of 0.087 g/L/day at 6% CO 2 . For S. obliquus, the highest maximum dry weight biomass value was 1.14 g/L with 12% CO 2 . We also found that these two microalgae also grew well when the culture medium contained up to 18% CO 2 , indicating that they have potential for biofixation of CO 2 in thermoelectric power plants

  14. Isolation and selection of microalgae from coal fired thermoelectric power plant for biofixation of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Morais, M.G.; Costa, J.A.V. [Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    Global warming is thought to be caused mainly by the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), with thermoelectric power plants being responsible for about 7% of global CO{sub 2} emissions. Microalgae can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from thermoelectric power plants, but for this use, they must be resistant to the mixture of gases produced by the power plants. We isolated the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella kessleri from the waste treatment ponds of the Presidente Medici coal fired thermoelectric power plant in the Southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and investigated their growth characteristics when exposed to different concentrations of CO{sub 2}. When cultivated with 6% and 12% CO{sub 2}, C. kessleri showed a high maximum specific growth rate ({lambda}{sub max}) of 0.267/day, with a maximum biomass productivity (P-max) of 0.087 g/L/day at 6% CO{sub 2}. For S. obliquus, the highest maximum dry weight biomass value was 1.14 g/L with 12% CO{sub 2}. We also found that these two microalgae also grew well when the culture medium contained up to 18% CO{sub 2}, indicating that they have potential for biofixation of CO{sub 2} in thermoelectric power plants.

  15. Isolation and selection of microalgae from coal fired thermoelectric power plant for biofixation of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Michele Greque de [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Biochemistry Engineering, Federal University Foundation of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Biochemistry Engineering, Federal University Foundation of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: dqmjorge@furg.br

    2007-07-15

    Global warming is thought to be caused mainly by the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), with thermoelectric power plants being responsible for about 7% of global CO{sub 2} emissions. Microalgae can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from thermoelectric power plants, but for this use, they must be resistant to the mixture of gases produced by the power plants. We isolated the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella kessleri from the waste treatment ponds of the Presidente Medici coal fired thermoelectric power plant in the Southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and investigated their growth characteristics when exposed to different concentrations of CO{sub 2}. When cultivated with 6% and 12% CO{sub 2}, C. kessleri showed a high maximum specific growth rate ({mu} {sub max}) of 0.267/day, with a maximum biomass productivity (P {sub max}) of 0.087 g/L/day at 6% CO{sub 2}. For S. obliquus, the highest maximum dry weight biomass value was 1.14 g/L with 12% CO{sub 2}. We also found that these two microalgae also grew well when the culture medium contained up to 18% CO{sub 2}, indicating that they have potential for biofixation of CO{sub 2} in thermoelectric power plants.

  16. Effects of fire on soil nitrogen dynamics and microbial biomass in savannas of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardoto Gabriela Bielefeld

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of fire on net N mineralization and soil microbial biomass in burned and unburned cerrado stricto sensu sites. The study was carried out from April 1998 to April 2000. The pH values were significantly higher in the burned site while soil moisture content was significantly higher in the unburned site (P<0.05. The soil C/N ratio was 22/1 and the available NO3-N ranged between 1.5 and 2.8 mg kg-¹ dry weight. However, the NH4-N concentration ranged between 3 and 34 mg kg-1 dry weight in the burned site and between 3 and 22 mg kg-1 dry weight in the unburned site. The NH4-N increased after fire, but no significant changes were observed for NO3-N (P<0.05. The NO3-N accumulation occurred in short periods during the rainy season. The rates of net N mineralization increased during the rainy season while reductions in soil microbial biomass were observed at both sites. This suggested that the peak in microbial activities occurred with the first rain events, with an initial net immobilization followed by net mineralization. Both sites presented the same pattern for mineralization/immobilization, however, the amount of inorganic-N cycled annually in unburned site was 14.7 kg ha-1 per year while the burned site presented only 3.8 kg ha-¹ of inorganic-N, one year after the burning.

  17. Inspection of fire protection measures and fire fighting capability at nuclear power plants. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present publication has been developed with the help of experts from regulatory, operating and engineering organizations, all with practical experience in the field of fire protection of nuclear power plants. The publication outlines practices for inspecting the fire protection measures at nuclear power plants in accordance with Safety Series No.50-SG-D2(Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, and includes a comprehensive fire safety inspection checklist of the specific elements to be addressed when evaluating the adequacy and effectiveness of the fire protection measures and manual fire fighting capability available at operating nuclear power plants. The publication will be useful not only to regulators and safety assessors but also to operators and designers. The book addresses a specialized topic and it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with Safety Guide No.50-SG-D2(Rev.1)

  18. Determination of Optimized Parameters for the Flexible Operation of a Biomass-Fueled, Microscale Externally Fired Gas Turbine (EFGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathhar Bdour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is a promising solution for current problems in energy supply. Olive waste is considered as an interesting option, especially for Mediterranean countries. Within this paper, a microscale externally fired gas turbine (EFGT technology is presented as a decentralized power plant, within the range of 15 kWth, based on olive residues. It was modeled by Aspen Plus 8.6 software to provide a sufficient technical study for such a plant. Optimized parameters for pressure ratio and turbine air-mass flow have been mapped for several loads to provide information for process control. For all cases, mechanical output, efficiency curves, and back-work ratio have been calculated. Using this information, typical plant sizes and an example of power production are discussed. Additionally, achievable energy production from olive waste is estimated on the basis of this data. The results of this study show that such a plant has an electrical efficiency of 5%–17%. This variation is due to the examination being performed under several combustion temperatures, actual load, heat exchanger temperatures, and heat transfer efficiency. A cost estimation of the discussed system showed an estimated capital cost of 33,800 to 65,300 € for a 15 kWth system.

  19. The state of art of internal fire PSA in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinli; Zhao Bo; Zheng Xiangyang

    2010-01-01

    The operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs) show that the internal fires challenge effectively the nuclear safety of NPPs. Thus, the authorities having jurisdiction in the world have enhanced the supervision on fire safety in NPPs, asking the licensees to perform fire hazard analysis and evaluate the fire risk. This article mainly describes the state of art of internal fire probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in the world, and compares the main methods and standards for internal fire PSA. (authors)

  20. Lab-scale co-firing of virgin and torrefied bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth as a fuel substitute in coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryda, Lydia; Daza, Claudia; Pels, Jan; Janssen, Arno; Zwart, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production as it presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the combustion behaviour of the bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth, virgin as well as torrefied, in blends with coal or pure, comparing with other biomass feedstocks such as wood and herbaceous biomass. The bamboo pre-treatment and the combustion experiments were carried out at dedicated installations at ECN, including a laboratory scale batch torrefaction reactor and a combustion simulation test facility. The results on combustion and co-firing reveal that in terms of fouling, the untreated bamboo shows behaviour closer to herbaceous biomass rather than to wood, with specific fouling factors of wood, bamboo and herbaceous biomass of 0.91·10 −3 , 2.9·10 −3 , 3.1·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. Dry torrefaction improves its physical properties by increasing the density and grindability without improving significantly its fouling behaviour while the fouling behaviour of wet torrefied bamboo is similar to woody biomass; the specific fouling factors of dry torrefied and wet torrefied bamboo are 2.4·10 −3 and 0.89·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. The fouling behaviour of biomass and coal blends lies between the fuels of the blend. Alternative bamboo species were evaluated using the alkali index A i based on their fuel composition. It appears that the fouling behaviour of alternative species is better than for G. angustifolia, therefore these should be further analysed. - Highlights: • Bamboo species Guadua angustifolia is a promising feedstock for power generation. • Dry and wet torrefaction of selected samples were carried out at ECN. • Virgin (untreated) and pretreated samples were fired pure or in coal blends. • Pretreated bamboo is suitable for large scale power

  1. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...... in the flue gases of the studied oil shale plant contribute, however, to clearly higher total trace metal emission levels compared to modern coal fired power plants. Although the old electrostatic precipitators in the plant have been partly replaced by state-of-the-art electrostatic precipitators...... a two-fraction particle sampling and subsequent absorption of the gaseous fraction. The analyses were principally performed with ICP-MS techniques. The trace metal contents of Estonian oil shale were found to be in the same order of magnitude as of coal on average. The high total particle concentrations...

  2. Sulfation of corrosive alkali chlorides by ammonium sulfate in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostroem, Markus; Backman, Rainer; Nordin, Anders [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Kassman, Haakan [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, SE-611 29 Nykoeping (Sweden); Helgesson, Anna; Berg, Magnus; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    Biomass and waste derived fuels contain relatively high amounts of alkali and chlorine, but contain very little sulfur. Combustion of such fuels can result in increased deposit formation and superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced by using a sulfur containing additive, such as ammonium sulfate, which reacts with the alkali chlorides and forms less corrosive sulfates. Ammonium sulfate injection together with a so-called in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) is patented and known as ''ChlorOut''. IACM measures the concentrations of alkali chlorides (mainly KCl in biomass combustion) at superheater temperatures. Tests with and without spraying ammonium sulfate into the flue gases have been performed in a 96MW{sub th}/25MW{sub e} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The boiler was fired mainly with bark and a chlorine containing waste. KCl concentration was reduced from more than 15 ppm to approximately 2 ppm during injection of ammonium sulfate. Corrosion probe measurements indicated that both deposit formation and material loss due to corrosion were decreased using the additive. Analysis of the deposits showed significantly higher concentration of sulfur and almost no chlorine in the case with ammonium sulfate. Results from impactor measurements supported that KCl was sulfated to potassium sulfate by the additive. (author)

  3. A fire hazard analysis at the Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerud, F.; Magnusson, T.

    1998-01-01

    The fire hazard analysis (FHA) of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) Unit no.1 was initiated during 1997 and is estimated to finalise in summer 1998. The reason for starting a FHA was a recommendation in the Safety Analysis Report and its review to prioritise a systematic FHA. Fire protection improvements had earlier been based on engineering assessments, but further improvements required a systematic FHA. It is also required by the regulator for licensing of unit no.1. In preparation of the analysis it was decided to perform a deterministic FHA to fulfil the requirements in the IAEA draft of a Safety Practice ''Preparation of Fire Hazard Analyses for Nuclear Power Plants''. As a supporting document the United States Department of Energy Reactor Core Protection Evaluation Methodology for Fires at RBMK and WWER Nuclear Power Plants (RCPEM) was agreed to be used. The assistance of the project is performed as a bilateral activity between Sweden and UK. The project management is the responsibility of the INPP. In order to transfer knowledge to the INPP project group, training activities are arranged by the western team. The project will be documented as a safety case. The project consists of parties from INPP, Sweden, UK and Russia which makes the project very dependent of good communication procedures. The most difficult problems is except from the problems with translation, the problems with different standards and lack of testing protocols of the fire protection installations and problems to set the right level of screening criteria. There is also the new dimension of making it possible to take credit for the fire brigade in the safety case, which can bring the project into difficulties. The most interesting challenges for the project are to set the most sensible safety levels in the screening phase, to handle the huge volume of rooms for survey and screening, to maintain the good exchange of fire- and nuclear safety information between all the parties involved

  4. 76 FR 81998 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0295] Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY..., ``Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA--Draft Report for Comment.'' DATES: Submit comments by March 01... risk assessment (PRA) method for quantitatively analyzing fire risk in commercial nuclear power plants...

  5. The turbine oil fire in the nuclear power plant, Muehleberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.R.

    1972-01-01

    At 21.15 hours on the evening of the 28th July 1971, a turbine oil fire broke out in the Nuclear Power Plant Muehleberg of the Bernische Kraftwerke AG, resulting in damage amounting to around 20 million Swiss Francs and a delay of some ten months in putting the plant into operation. The plant is equipped with a General Electric boiling water reactor and two BBC saturated steam turbines. Up to the time of the fire, both turbo-sets had already been run singly up to their full capacity of 160 MWe and the initial trials with both sets working parallel were shortly due to be carried out. Following the outbreak of fire, the causes of which are described in the contributions of the authors Hagn, L. and H. Huppmann and Christian, H. and H. Grupp, fire fighting action was immediately taken, in line with the emergency measures laid down in the operating regulations. With the assistance of the Berne City Fire Brigade, the blaze in the roof of the turbine hall was first extinguished and the spreading cable conflagration then fought, using foam and water. (orig.) [de

  6. Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber Optically Controlled Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Pulsed Power Experiments by Robert Borys Jr Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Colby Adams Bowhead Total Enterprise Solutions...ARL-TN-0863 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber-Optically Controlled...Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments by Robert Borys Jr and Colby Adams Approved for public release

  7. Upgrading of fire safety in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an International Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The document includes 40 papers presented at the International Symposium on Upgrading of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants held in Vienna between 18-21 November 1997. The symposium presentations were grouped in 6 sessions: Fire safety reviews (5 papers), Fire safety analysis - Methodology (6 papers), Fire safety analysis - Applications (3 papers), Panel 1 - Identification of deficiencies in fire safety in nuclear power plants - Operational experience and data (7 papers), Panel 2 - Experience based data in fire safety assessment - Fire safety regulations and licensing (7 papers), Upgrading programmes (10 papers), and a closing session (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Probabilistic fire risk assessment for Koeberg Nuclear Power Station Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobbelaar, J.F.; Foster, N.A.S.; Luesse, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    A probabilistic fire risk assessment was done for Koeberg Nuclear Power Station Unit 1. Areas where fires are likely to start were identified. Equipment important to safety, as well as their power and/or control cable routes were identified in each fire confinement sector. Fire confinement sectors where internal initiating events could be caused by fire were identified. Detection failure and suppression failure fault trees and event trees were constructed. The core damage frequency associated with each fire confinement sector was calculated, and important fire confinement sectors were identified. (author)

  9. Upgrading of fire safety in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The document includes 40 papers presented at the International Symposium on Upgrading of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants held in Vienna between 18-21 November 1997. The symposium presentations were grouped in 6 sessions: Fire safety reviews (5 papers), Fire safety analysis - Methodology (6 papers), Fire safety analysis - Applications (3 papers), Panel 1 - Identification of deficiencies in fire safety in nuclear power plants - Operational experience and data (7 papers), Panel 2 - Experience based data in fire safety assessment - Fire safety regulations and licensing (7 papers), Upgrading programmes (10 papers), and a closing session (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  10. Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant

  11. Technologically enhanced natural radioactivity around the coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Marovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    In some situations the exposure to natural radiation sources is enhanced as a result to technological developments. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly radium, thorium and uranium. Most of the radioactive substances are concentrated in the ash and slag, which are heavy and drop to the bottom of a furnace. Lighter fly ash is carried up the chimney and into the atmosphere. The bottom ash and slag are usually deposited in a waste pile, from where some activity may leach into aquifers or be dispersed by wind.The main pathways through which the populations living around coal fired power plants are exposed to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides are inhalation and ingestion of the activity discharged into the Exosphere. For this reason, extensive investigations have been under way for several years in the coal fired power plant in Croatia, which uses an anthracite coal with a higher than usual uranium content. (authors)

  12. Biomass-powered Solid Oxide Fuel Cells : Experimental and Modeling Studies for System Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a sustainable energy source which, through thermo-chemical processes of biomass gasification, is able to be converted from a solid biomass fuel into a gas mixture, known as syngas or biosyngas. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a power generation device that directly converts the chemical

  13. Effects on NOx and SO2 Emissions during Co-Firing of Coal With Woody Biomass in Air Staging and Reburning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihad Hodžić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-firing coal with different types of biomass is increasingly being applied in thermal power plants in Europe. The main motive for the use of biomass as the second fuel in coal-fired power plants is the reduction of CO2 emissions, and related financial benefits in accordance with the relevant international regulations and agreements. Likewise, the application of primary measures in the combustion chamber, which also includes air staging and/or reburning, results in a significant reduction in emission of polluting components of flue gases, in particular NOx emissions. In addition to being efficient and their application to new and future thermoblocks is practically unavoidable, their application and existing conventional combustion chamber does not require significant constructional interventions and is therefore relatively inexpensive. In this work results of experimental research of co-firing coals from Middle Bosnian basin with waste woody biomass are presented. Previously formed fuel test matrix is subjected to pulverized combustion under various temperatures and various technical and technological conditions. First of all it refers to the different mass ratio of fuel components in the mixture, the overall coefficient of excess air and to the application of air staging and/or reburning. Analysis of the emissions of components of the flue gases are presented and discussed. The impact of fuel composition and process temperature on the values of the emissions of components of the flue gas is determined. Additionally, it is shown that other primary measures in the combustion chamber are resulting in more or less positive effects in terms of reducing emissions of certain components of the flue gases into the environment. Thus, for example, the emission of NOx of 989 mg/ measured in conventional combustion, with the simultaneous application of air staging and reburning is reduced to 782 mg/, or by about 21%. The effects of the primary measures

  14. General conditions for gas-fired power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, Ch.; Fuessler, J.; Sommerhalder, M.

    2006-11-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the general conditions for the installation of gas-fired power plants in Europe. Combined cycle power stations are characterised and the associated power production costs are discussed. Also, the prices resulting from the internalisation of external costs are noted. The problems associated with carbon dioxide emissions are discussed and the trading of emission certificates is looked at. Also, nitrogen oxide emissions are examined and discussed. The use of waste heat from the combined cycle power stations is also examined. Further topics include subsidies and special credits for the gas industry in Europe and the granting of permission for the planning, construction, operation and dismantling of the power station facilities. The situation in various European countries is examined and the associated market distortion is commented on

  15. Waste-based biomass to power plants with high portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Taipale, R. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Hupa, M.; Yrjas, P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)); Jokiniemi, J.; Sippula, O. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Recycling of chemicals back to processes as effectively as possible is sustainable development. Landfilling and agricultural use of sewage sludge (SWS) produces methane which is a strong greenhouse gas. Our earlier project 'Corraway' funded by Tekes ClimBus programme and Finnish industry indicated that iron and aluminium sulphates can destroy effectively alkali chlorides at furnace conditions preventing Cl deposition to heat transfer surfaces. Cl in the deposits is the main reason to superheater corrosion with biomass- containing feedstocks. These sulphates have been used as process chemicals in wastewater treatment, and therefore they are present in SWS. SWS-originated combustion products will pass the whole furnace when SWS is mixed to the main fuel. The furnace includes oxidising and reducing zones. Therefore it is not clear if the SWS-originated sulphur remains in an effective form in the point view of alkali chlorides destruction. The project work included thorough fuel analysis, pilot-scale combustion tests with blends of risky biomass and SWS and research of sampling techniques to detect alkali compounds. The combustion experiments proved the power of SWS originated sulphur to destroy alkali chlorides in the furnace and suggest strongly to continue this research. The order of power of the two SWS tested was different than expected indicating need to produce more thorough results. SWS may contain much minerals which lowers its value as a fuel. It can be possible to increase sulphur content and to decrease ash content in the sludge during SWS processing and dry and pelletise the sludge to strengthen further its value as a protective and as a fuel. (orig.)

  16. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part 2: Fire detection and -extinguishing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1996-01-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Detection and extinguishing systems in Swedish nuclear power plants have only to a limited extent been designed after functional demands, such as a maximum acceptable damage or a maximum time to detect a fire. The availability of detection systems is difficult to assess, partly because of lack of statistics. The user interface is very important in complex systems as nuclear plants. An extinguishing system designed according to the insurance companies' regulations will only fulfill the basic demands. It should be noted that normal sprinkler design does not aim for extinguishing fires, the objective is to control fire until manual extinguishment is possible. There is a great amount of statistics on wet and dry pipe sprinkler systems, while statistics are more scarce for deluge systems. The statistics on the reliability of gaseous extinguishing systems have been found very scarce. A drawback of these systems is that they are normally designed for one shot only. There are both traditional and more recent extinguishing systems that can replace halons. From now on there will be a greater need for a thorough examination of the properties needed for the individual application and a quantification of the acceptable damage. There are several indications on the importance of a high quality maintenance program as well as carefully developed routines for testing and surveillance to ensure the reliability of detection and extinguishing systems. 78 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  17. Atmospheric CH4 and CO2 enhancements and biomass burning emission ratios derived from satellite observations of the 2015 Indonesian fire plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Parker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2015–2016 strong El Niño event has had a dramatic impact on the amount of Indonesian biomass burning, with the El Niño-driven drought further desiccating the already-drier-than-normal landscapes that are the result of decades of peatland draining, widespread deforestation, anthropogenically driven forest degradation and previous large fire events. It is expected that the 2015–2016 Indonesian fires will have emitted globally significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHGs to the atmosphere, as did previous El Niño-driven fires in the region. The form which the carbon released from the combustion of the vegetation and peat soils takes has a strong bearing on its atmospheric chemistry and climatological impacts. Typically, burning in tropical forests and especially in peatlands is expected to involve a much higher proportion of smouldering combustion than the more flaming-characterised fires that occur in fine-fuel-dominated environments such as grasslands, consequently producing significantly more CH4 (and CO per unit of fuel burned. However, currently there have been no aircraft campaigns sampling Indonesian fire plumes, and very few ground-based field campaigns (none during El Niño, so our understanding of the large-scale chemical composition of these extremely significant fire plumes is surprisingly poor compared to, for example, those of southern Africa or the Amazon.Here, for the first time, we use satellite observations of CH4 and CO2 from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT made in large-scale plumes from the 2015 El Niño-driven Indonesian fires to probe aspects of their chemical composition. We demonstrate significant modifications in the concentration of these species in the regional atmosphere around Indonesia, due to the fire emissions.Using CO and fire radiative power (FRP data from the Copernicus Atmosphere Service, we identify fire-affected GOSAT soundings and show that peaks in fire activity are followed by

  18. Prescribed fire experiences on crop residue removal for biomass exploitations. Application to the maritime pine forests in the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan Ramón; García, Juan Pedro; Fernández, Juan José; Rodríguez Y Silva, Francisco

    2018-01-15

    Socioeconomic changes, climate change, rural migration and fire exclusion have led to a high woody biomass accumulation increasing potential wildfire severity. Mechanical thinning and prescribed burning practices are commonly used to prevent large fires. The purpose of this study was to assess burning treatment effectiveness following mechanical thinning from biomass harvesting. Prescribed burning to reduce residue removal could help mitigate fire behavior, mainly in strategic management or critical focal points. Field samplings were conducted before and immediately after burnings on different environmental scenarios where fuel load was classified by categories. Prescribed fires reduced available fuel in all fuel categories, mainly in surface litter layer. Total fuel load reduction ranged from 59.07% to 86.18%. In this sense, fuel reduction effects were more pronounced when burns were conducted fewer than 10% on surface litter moisture. The difference in fuel consumption among scenarios was higher for most all woody fuel components and decomposition litter layer than for surface litter layer. Managers can use this information to design technical prescription to achieve the targets while decomposed litter retention maintaining the soil properties and biodiversity. Understanding the most effective "burn window" should help better plan prescribed burning, both in term of fire behavior and fuel consumption, without altering ecosystem properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of climate change on fire and spruce budworm disturbance regimes and consequences on forest biomass production in eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, S.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of spruce budworm (SBW) outbreaks and wildfires are expected to change as climatic change progresses. The effects of an altered, combined interaction between SBW and fire may be of greater importance than the individual effect of either on forest biomass production. The objectives of this study are to define current fire and SBW regimes in eastern Canada and relate the characteristics of each regime based upon climate model outputs for 2050 and 2100. The study also attempts to evaluate the impact of predicted changes in SBW and fire disturbance regimes on forest dynamics. The methodology used in the study included data from the Canadian Large Fire Database and historical records of SBW outbreaks. Spatial and environmental variables were presented along with climate models. The analysis was conducted using constrained ordination techniques, and canonical correspondence and redundancy analysis. Projected disturbance regimes were presented for both fire and SBW. The effects of the regimes on biomass productivity were also examined, using a Landscape Disturbance Simulator (LAD). It was concluded that this model will help evaluate the consequences of changes imposed by climatic change on both disturbances individually, as well as their interaction. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  20. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L

    1984-06-15

    An experiment was carried out to measure the specific activity of Pb-210 and Po-210 in livers from cattle that had grazed in a field near Didcot coal-fired power station. Livers from cattle in the Cotswold region were measured for comparison. The specific activities of Pb-210 and Po-210 in soil and grass samples from both areas were also measured at 3-monthly intervals over a year. No statistically significant increases were observed in the Pb-210 and Po-210 levels in liver, soil or grass samples which could be attributed to the operation of the power station.

  1. Review of fire behavior during passage of Sandy Lake Fire 13 (NWT) across a Northwest Territories Power Corporation transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, D.; Thomasson, J.

    2009-03-15

    The Sandy Lake Fire 13 of July 2008 was an intense forest fire that burned up to and across a power line right-of-way in the Northwest Territories, approximately 160 km northwest of Fort Smith. The terrain in the area is flat and vegetation is characterized by boreal pine and black spruce uplands with black spruce and tamarack in lower areas and adjacent to wetlands. This report documented post fire conditions at locations where the fire crossed the power line. The towers on this line were made from an aluminum alloy and may not have had the same resistance to heat damage as steel towers, more commonly used on major transmission lines. The transmission line was de-energized during the fire. Therefore, the effects of fire on power transmission were not documented. Although the intense wildfire crossed sections of the power line, it did not result in observable damage to the towers or lines. Fire intensity was likely greater than 40,000 kw/m along some sections of the right-of-way. Although the management of the right-of-way may have reduced heat exposure to the transmission towers, it did not stop the fire. Pine mixed with an aspen component greater than 50 per cent had a mitigating effect on fire behaviour. The fire did not result in any immediate damage to the power line infrastructure. It was concluded that the use of power lines for fire operations should consider right-of-way width in order to assess equipment maneuverability, especially around tower guy wires. 5 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  2. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emission of nitrogen oxides from small biomass-fired grate boilers - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Daniel

    1999-05-01

    A literature study has been carried out to find mechanisms for control of nitrogen oxide emissions from small-scale biomass fired combustion devices. The underlying nitrogen chemistry has been studied. Three paths of nitrogen oxide formation has been identified: 1. Thermal NO x , 2, Prompt NO x , and, 3. Fuel NO x . Out of these three mechanisms only fuel NO x is of interest, and the others are neglected at the temperature level concerned. The results from this study have been used to identify limitations and possibilities for NO x and CO abatement. A beacon has been to find efficient methods for NO x abatement at the same time as complete burn-out of the fuel is of greatest importance. The NO x abatement work of many of the Swedish manufacturers of small-scale combustion devices is described. This gives valuable insight in the practical possibilities and limitations in strive for low NOx emissions. From the literature and the contacts with manufacturers some factors of great importance for NO x emission control have been identified. These are: * The fuel (nitrogen content, shape, size, the height of the fuel layer and the tendency of the fuel to stick), * The stoichiometry in the volume above the fuel bed (should be 0.6 - 0.8), * The mixing of the gases above the fuel bed, * The mixing of tertiary air into the main gas flow, and * The thermal load of the combustion chamber (residence time). All the secondary measures studied but selective catalytic reduction have been rejected. Selective catalytic reduction could be a possible solution to the NO x emission problem if it is necessary to further lower the emissions from these small-scale biomass combustion devices despite the cost Project report from the program: Small scale combustion of biofuels. 22 refs, 30 figs, 4 tabs

  4. 77 FR 10576 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0295] Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY.../Shutdown Fire PRA.'' In response to request from members of the public, the NRC is extending the public... risk assessment (PRA) method for quantitatively analyzing fire risk in commercial nuclear power plants...

  5. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  6. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  7. Introduction of Integrity Evaluation Criteria Developing during and after fire for Nuclear Power Plant Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    The first project for nuclear power plant built in Korea to taking account the engineering based approach was started on October 2015 including the whole process such as fire hazard analysis, standard fire modeling, cable tray fire with multi spurious operation, structural fire integrity evaluation, and large area fire induced air craft crash. This paper covers the brief developing scheme and roadmap focusing on structural fire evaluation criteria. The meaningful first step for developing the structural fire integrity in nuclear power plant building is started with the series of fire related sub sections mentioned in earlier section. The recognition and sufficient effort of fire research leads to set up the safe and reliable design of nuclear power plant

  8. Introduction of Integrity Evaluation Criteria Developing during and after fire for Nuclear Power Plant Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Woo [KEPCo, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The first project for nuclear power plant built in Korea to taking account the engineering based approach was started on October 2015 including the whole process such as fire hazard analysis, standard fire modeling, cable tray fire with multi spurious operation, structural fire integrity evaluation, and large area fire induced air craft crash. This paper covers the brief developing scheme and roadmap focusing on structural fire evaluation criteria. The meaningful first step for developing the structural fire integrity in nuclear power plant building is started with the series of fire related sub sections mentioned in earlier section. The recognition and sufficient effort of fire research leads to set up the safe and reliable design of nuclear power plant.

  9. The determination of mercury content in the biomass untended for industrial power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the oldest and most widely used renewable energy sources. The biomass is the whole organic matter of vegetable or animal origin which is biodegradable. Biomass includes leftovers from agricultural production, forestry residues, and industrial and municipal waste. The use of biomass in the power industry has become a standard and takes place in Poland and other European countries. This paper discusses the correlation of mercury content in different biomass types used in the power industry and in products of biomass combustion. Different biomass types, which are currently burned in a commercial power plant in Poland, were discussed. A photographic documentation of different biomass types, such as straw briquettes, wood briquettes, pellets from energy crops (sunflower husk and wood husk, wood pellets, wood chips, and agro-biomass (seeds was carried out. The presented paper discusses the results obtained for 15 biomass samples. Five selected biomass samples were burned in controlled conditions in the laboratory at the University of Silesia. The ash resulting from the combustion of five biomass samples was tested for mercury content. A total of twenty biomass samples and its combustion products were tested. Based on the obtained results, it was found that any supply of biomass, regardless of its type, is characterized by variable mercury content in dry matter. In the case of e.g. wood chips, the spread of results reaches 235.1 μm/kg (in dry matter. Meanwhile, the highest mercury content, 472.4 μm/kg (in dry matter was recorded in the biomass of straw, wood pellets, and pellets from energy crops (sunflower husk. In the case of combustion products of five selected biomass types, a three or four fold increase in the mercury content has been observed.

  10. Upgrading and efficiency improvement in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Improving the efficiencies of the large number of older coal-fired power plants operating around the world would give major savings in CO2 emissions together with significant other benefits. This report begins with a summary of the ways efficiency can become degraded and of the means available to combat the decrease in performance. These include improvements to operating and maintenance practices and more major techniques that are available, including boiler and turbine retrofits. There is also an update on fuel drying developments as a route to higher efficiency in plants firing high moisture lignites. The largest chapter of the report contains a number of descriptions of case study improvement projects, to illustrate measures that have been applied, benefits that have been achieved and identify best practices, which are summarised. Major national and international upgrading programmes are described.

  11. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Two simulations were run with WRF-Chem using the complex volatility basis set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent data sets for comparison including airborne measurements of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) column observations from four satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement between the model runs and both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration

  12. The impact of fire on sand dune stability: Surface coverage and biomass recovery after fires on Western Australian coastal dune systems from 1988 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumack, Samuel; Hesse, Paul; Turner, Liam

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to determine the common response of coastal sand dunes in Western Australia (WA) to fire on decadal time-scales, in terms of ecological-geomorphic-climatic interactions to test the hypothesis that fire plays a role in coastal dune destabilisation. Fires are commonly suggested to have contributed to widespread dune reactivation in Australia and globally, a hypothesis that is relatively untested. We used data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus, and Operational Land Imager missions to monitor changes in surface coverage on coastal sand dunes in south-west WA after fires. We analysed 31 fire scars from 1988 to 2016 in two Landsat scenes on the west and south coast of WA. Recovery ratios derived from the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were used to monitor patterns in post-fire biomass and surface cover. Recovery ratios are correlated with indices of burn severity, and meteorological data to investigate relationships. We also used Maximum Likelihood Classification to monitor changes in bare sand area. Results suggest that recovery followed a strongly consistent pattern, and is characterised by rapid vegetation cover re-establishment within six to twelve months. Prior to this, some aeolian activity may have occurred but without substantial surface changes. Initial germination and/or resprouting were followed by steady growth up to seven years, where NDVI typically neared pre-fire values. Some variation in early recovery occurred between the west and south coast, possibly owing to relative proportions of reseeding and resprouting plants. A log regression explained 75% of the recovery pattern (79% on the south coast). Precipitation had some ability to explain recovery up to nine months post-fire (r2 = 0.29 to 0.54). No relationships were observed between estimates of burn severity and recovery. After nine months, the biggest cause of spatial variation in recovery was the pre-fire community composition and related

  13. PCB transformer fires: the risk in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmon, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is estimated that 1/2 of the present nuclear power plants operate with PCB-filled transformer equipment. In an attempt to obtain better estimates of clean-up costs in a nuclear power plant under reasonable-loss scenarios, a study was commissioned. This study was a joint venture between Blackmon-Mooring Steamatic Technologies, Inc., (BMS-TECH) and M and M Protection Consultants. This joint study was conducted at a typical pressurized-water reactor plant consisting of two 1000-MW units. Three specific scenarios were selected and analyzed for this typical power plant. These scenarios were: (1) an electrical failure of a transformer in an isolated switch gear room; (2) a transformer exposed to a 55-gallon transient combustion oil fire in the auxiliary building; and (3) a PCB transformer involved in a major turbine lube fire in the turbine building. Based on results of this study, the insurance carriers for this industry implemented an adjustment in their rate structures for nuclear power plants that have PCB equipment

  14. Biomass Power Generation Investment in China: A Real Options Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real options model for evaluating the biomass power generation investment in China. The uncertainties in the market price of electricity, CO2 price and straw price are considered. Meanwhile the dynamic relationship between installed capacity and fuel cost, as well as the long-term reduction of subsidy are described. Two scenarios, i.e., with the carbon emission trading scheme existent and non-existent, respectively, is built to empirically analyze the investment of a 25-MW straw-based power generation project. The results show that investors should undertake the investment in 2030 under two scenarios. Investment values are 14,869,254.8 and 37,608,727 Chinese Yuan (RMB, respectively. The implementation of the carbon emission trading scheme theoretically helps improve investment value and advance the most likely optimal investment time. However, the current CO2 price is not sufficient to advance the most likely optimal investment time. The impacts of several factors, including subsidy policy, CO2 price, straw price, installed capacity, correlation structure and the validity period of investment, on the optimal investment strategy are also examined. It is suggested that governments take some measures, including increasing subsidy, setting the growth pattern of subsidy and establishing and perfecting a nationwide carbon trading market, to improve the investment environment and attract more investments.

  15. Modelling fireside corrosion of heat exchangers in co-fired pulverised fuel power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, N.J. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre; Fry, A.T. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    As a result of concerns about the effects of CO{sub 2} emissions on the global environment, there is increasing pressure to reduce such emissions from power generation systems. The use of biomass co-firing with coal in conventional pulverised fuel power stations has provided the most immediate route to introduce a class of fuel that is regarded as both sustainable and carbon neutral. In the future it is anticipated that increased levels of biomass will need to be used in such systems to achieve the desired CO{sub 2} emission targets. However there are concerns over the risk of fireside corrosion damage to the various heat exchangers and boiler walls used in such systems. Future pulverised fuel power systems will need to be designed to cope with the effects of using a wide range of coal-biomass mixes. However, such systems will also need to use much higher heat exchanger operating temperatures to increase their conversion efficiencies and counter the effects of the CO{sub 2} capture technologies that will need to be used in them. Higher operating temperatures will also increase the risk of fireside corrosion damage to the critical heat exchangers. This paper reports work that has been carried out to develop quantitative corrosion models for heat exchangers in pulverised fuel power systems. These developments have been particularly targeted at producing models that enable the evaluation of the effects of using different coal-biomass mixtures and of increasing heat exchanger operating conditions. Models have been produced that have been targeted at operating conditions and materials used in (a) superheaters/reheaters and (b) waterwalls. Data used in the development of these models has been produced from full scale and pilot scale plants in the UK using a wide range of coal and biomass mixtures, as well as from carefully targeted series of laboratory corrosion tests. Mechanistic and neural network based models have been investigated during this development process to

  16. Deposit Probe Measurements in Danish Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    . Corresponding samples of fuels, ash deposits and fly ash have provided information on the transformation of inorganics in the boiler. Generally, grate fired boilers provide a fly ash containing high contents of K, Cl and S compared to the fuel ash, while suspension fired boilers fly ash has a composition nearly...... similar to the fuel ash. Inner most biomass deposits are always salt-rich, while thicker deposit layers also contain some Si and Ca. Deposit probe formation rate measurements have been performed in different ways on several boilers. Grate and suspension fired boilers seems to cause similar deposit...... formation rates. Suspension fired boilers generate more fly ash, while grate boilers form a fly ash with a higher fraction of melt formation (and thereby a higher sticking probability) at similar temperatures. For suspension fired units it is observed that wood with a lower ash content than straw gives rise...

  17. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  18. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site ₋ Biomass Power Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing biomass at the Kansas City, Missouri, Municipal Farm site, a group of City-owned properties, is explored. The study that none of the technologies we reviewed--biomass heat, power and CHP--are economically viable options for the Municipal Farms site. However, if the site were to be developed around a future central biomass heating or CHP facility, biomass could be a good option for the site.

  19. Costs of producing electricity from nuclear, coal-fired and oil-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The Board publishes generation costs per kW h incurred at recently commissioned power stations so that the costs and performance of nuclear and conventional stations of roughly the same date of construction can be compared. The term 'conventional power station' is used to describe coal-fired and oil-fired steam power stations. The Board has now decided: (A) to supplement the past method of calculating costs at main stations commissioned between 1965 and 1977 by giving the associated figures for interest during construction, for research, and for training; (B) to give similar figures for the contemporary stations Hinkley Point B and the first half of Drax, (C) to provide estimates of generating costs of stations under construction; (D) to set out explicitly the relationship of this method of calculation to that employed in taking investment decisions on future stations. In this way the figures for stations in commission and under construction are arrived at more in line with the general principles of evaluating investment proposals. The present document provides this information. (author)

  20. PFBC development for lignite-fired CC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Meier, H.J.; Smuda, J.V.; Stuhlmueller, F. [VEAG Vereinigte Energiewerke AG (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    A power station design based on pressurised combustion in a circulating fluid-bed is used to illustrate the principle, layout and potential of a lignite-fired combined power station. The fundamental reasons for concentrating on the circulating pressurised fluid-bed consist in its improved emission values, the possibility of separating heat source and heat sink, and better operating performance (part-load). This design has been developed as part of a feasibility study supported by the Federal Ministry for Research and Tehcnology. The paper describes the design of the power plant components. Combustion trials carried out at the pilot plant in Friedrichsfield are reported and the cost-effectiveness of the innovatory design discussed. 10 figs.

  1. Biomass low-temperature gasification in a rotary reactor prior to cofiring of syngas in power boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Piotr; Maj, Izabella; Kalisz, Sylwester; Polok, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative method of gasification with use of flue gas was investigated. • Gasification temperature ranging from 350 °C was considered. • Discussed gasification unit is connected to a power boiler. • Syngas with combustible components is recirculated to the boiler. • Wide range of biomass and waste fuels can be used as a feedstock. - Abstract: The paper presents results of the investigation of an innovative biomass and alternative fuel low-temperature gasification method before co-firing in industrial or power plant boilers. Before running industrial-size installation, laboratory tests were carried out to determine usability of alternative fuels to low-temperature gasification process. Tests were conducted in a laboratory reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. The experimental stand enables recording of the weight loss of a sample and syngas composition. The process occurs for a fuel sample of a constant weight and known granulation and with a flue gas of known composition used as a gasifying agent. The aim of the laboratory research was to determine the usability of selected biomass fuel for indirect co-firing in power boilers and to build a knowledge base for industrial-size process by defining the process kinetics (time for fuel to remain in the reactor), recommended fuel granulation and process temperature. Presented industrial-size gasification unit has been successfully built in Marcel power plant in Radlin town, Poland. It consist an innovative rotary gasification reactor. Gasification process takes place with use of flue gas from coal and coke-oven fired boiler as a gasifying agent with recirculation of resulting gas (syngas) with combustible components: CO, H 2 , CH 4 . C n H m to the boiler’s combustion chamber. The construction of the reactor allows the use of a wide range of fuels (biomass, industrial waste and municipal waste). This paper presents the results of the reactor tests using coniferous

  2. Organization and conduct of IAEA fire safety reviews at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The importance of fire safety in the safe and productive operation of nuclear power plants is recognized worldwide. Lessons learned from experience in nuclear power plants indicate that fire poses a real threat to nuclear safety and that its significance extends far beyond the scope of a conventional fire hazard. With a growing understanding of the close correlation between the fire hazard in nuclear power plants and nuclear safety, backfitting for fire safety has become necessary for a number of operating plants. However, it has been recognized that the expertise necessary for a systematic independent assessment of fire safety of a NPP may not always be available to a number of Member States. In order to assist in enhancing fire safety, the IAEA has already started to offer various services to Member States in the area of fire safety. At the request of a Member State, the IAEA may provide a team of experts to conduct fire safety reviews of varying scope to evaluate the adequacy of fire safety at a specific nuclear power plant during various phases such as construction, operation and decommissioning. The IAEA nuclear safety publications related to fire protection and fire safety form a common basis for these reviews. This report provides guidance for the experts involved in the organization and conduct of fire safety review services to ensure consistency and comprehensiveness of the reviews

  3. The coal fired power plant of Vado Ligure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, V.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of radiological impact from radioactive effluents released by the forecast new coal-fired power plant of Vado Ligure, is examinated. Using health physic metodologies of evaluation, the highest levels of dose equivalents to the population are computed. Taken into account the possible errors due to conservative models adopted, it is concluded that the induced radiological risks are to be considered negligible, both referring to the actual natural radiological levels in the environment, and considering the maximum permissible levels stated in international raccomandations

  4. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Cooperation between regional fire brigades and EDF's power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, B.; Pigeon, M.

    2000-01-01

    An emergency plan has been worked out at each nuclear power plant. This plan involves public authorities, regional fire brigades, hospitals, and EDF's own emergency means. This organization implies that in case of emergency both outside help and intern means have to cooperate efficiently on the site. In order to clarify roles and order hierarchy, common intervention protocols have been written and tested. Joint exercises involving outside help and intern means are regularly organized to test the emergency organization and train the staff. (A.C.)

  6. Turbine oil fires in the Moabit and Reuter power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissmann, G.

    1977-01-01

    The article describes the fire resulting from turbine oil ignition after a manometer line break, the fire fighting measures, the amount of damage, and secondary damage. Conclusions are drawn for the prevention and fighting of oil fires. (ORU) [de

  7. Laboratory Investigations of Ni-Al Coatings Exposed to Conditions Simulating Biomass Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Duoli; Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2016-01-01

    Fireside corrosion is a key problem when using biomass fuels in power plants. A possible solution is to apply corrosion resistant coatings. The present paper studies the corrosion and interdiffusion behaviour of a Ni-Al diffusion coating on austenitic stainless steel (TP347H). Ni-Al coatings were...... prepared by electrolytic deposition of nickel followed by pack aluminizing performed at 650˚C. A uniform and dense Ni-Al coating with an outer layer of Ni2Al3 and an inner Ni layer was formed. Samples were exposed to 560°C for 168h in an atmosphere simulating biomass combustion. This resulted in localized...... corrosion attack. Interdiffusion was studied by isothermal heat treatment in static air at 650˚C or 700˚C for up to 3000h. The Ni2Al3 gradually transformed into NiAl and Ni3Al during the interdiffusion process. Porosity developed at the interface between the Ni-Al coating and the Ni layer and expanded...

  8. Carbon dioxide recovery from gas-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Ricardo Salgado; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: martinsr@epenergy.com; barbosa@mec.ita.br; Prado, Eduardo Lanari [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Jones Graduate School of Business]. E-mail: pradoe@epenergy.com; Vieira, Adriana de Moura [Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais (IBMEC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Financas]. E-mail: vieiraa@epenergy.com

    2000-07-01

    Since 1996 the Brazilian electric sector has undergone a major restructuring. The aim of such change is to reduce the State's participation in the sector, and to induce the growth of private investments. In particular, this event created several opportunities for thermal power plant projects, leading to competition at the generation level. In this scenario of increased competition, the power plant efficiency becomes a key element for determining the feasibility and profitability of the project. Moreover, the utilization of the plant's own effluents as feedstock or as a source of additional revenue will impact positively in its economics. As an example, long term additional revenues could be created by the sale of CO{sub 2} extracted from the combustion products of thermal power plants. The production of CO{sub 2} also contributes to mitigate the environmental impacts of the power plant project by significantly reducing its airborne emissions. This paper shows how a gas-fired power plant can extract and utilize CO{sub 2} to generate additional revenue, contributing to a more competitive power plant. (author)

  9. Environmental impacts of nuclear and coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.; Horynova, H.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the development of nuclear power in the world and in Czechoslovakia is briefly outlined and the possibilities are discussed of alternative energy resources. The environmental impact is described of conventional power plants firing coal; sulphur and nitrogen oxides are mentioned and their environmental impacts shown. Their quantities and the quantities of other gaseous, liquid and soid wastes produced by coal power plants are given. Annual estimates are presented of radioactive material emissions; trace amount emissions of toxic metals and their ecological risks are shown. Concern over the increasing concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere is voiced. For nuclear power plants, the amount of radionuclides in stack emission and of those released into water flows is tabulated. Their effect on the aqueous ecosystem is characterized as is thermal pollution of water flows and the environmental impact of cooling towers. Other factors are also mentioned, such as the increased industrial land use, the effect of high voltage transmission lines and aesthetic effects. The conclusion is arrived at that the construction of nuclear power plants will eliminate the adverse environmental impact of emissions while the other impacts of the two types of power plants are comparable. (A.K.)

  10. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges

  11. Application of an empirical model in CFD simulations to predict the local high temperature corrosion potential in biomass fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Thomas; Scharler, Robert; Obernberger, Ingwald

    2015-01-01

    To gain reliable data for the development of an empirical model for the prediction of the local high temperature corrosion potential in biomass fired boilers, online corrosion probe measurements have been carried out. The measurements have been performed in a specially designed fixed bed/drop tube reactor in order to simulate a superheater boiler tube under well-controlled conditions. The investigated boiler steel 13CrMo4-5 is commonly used as steel for superheater tube bundles in biomass fired boilers. Within the test runs the flue gas temperature at the corrosion probe has been varied between 625 °C and 880 °C, while the steel temperature has been varied between 450 °C and 550 °C to simulate typical current and future live steam temperatures of biomass fired steam boilers. To investigate the dependence on the flue gas velocity, variations from 2 m·s −1 to 8 m·s −1 have been considered. The empirical model developed fits the measured data sufficiently well. Therefore, the model has been applied within a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of flue gas flow and heat transfer to estimate the local corrosion potential of a wood chips fired 38 MW steam boiler. Additionally to the actual state analysis two further simulations have been carried out to investigate the influence of enhanced steam temperatures and a change of the flow direction of the final superheater tube bundle from parallel to counter-flow on the local corrosion potential. - Highlights: • Online corrosion probe measurements in a fixed bed/drop tube reactor. • Development of an empirical corrosion model. • Application of the model in a CFD simulation of flow and heat transfer. • Variation of boundary conditions and their effects on the corrosion potential

  12. Gas-fired power. IEA ETSAP technology brief E02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebregts, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands)], E-mail: seebregts@ecn.nl

    2010-04-15

    This technology brief on gas-fired power is part of a series produced by the IEA called the energy technology data source (E-Tech-DS). The E-Tech-DS series consists of a number of 5-10 page technology briefs similar to the IEA Energy Technology Essentials. Based on the data collected for the models that the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) is known for, ETSAP also prepares technology briefs, called E-TechDS. The E-TechDS briefs are standardized presentations of basic information (process, status, performance, costs, potential, and barriers) for key energy technology clusters. Each brief includes an overview of the technology, charts and graphs, and a summary data table, and usually ending with some key references and further information. The E TechDS briefs are intended to offer essential, reliable and quantitative information to energy analysts, experts, policymakers, investors and media from both developed and developing countries. This specific brief focuses on the state of combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT). CCGT's have become the technology of choice for new gas-fired power plants since the 1990's.

  13. Fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in biomass power and heat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, Ulli; Brueggemann, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    In small solid biomass power and heat plants, the ORC is used for cogeneration. This application shows constraints different from other ORC. These constraints are described and an adapted power plant design is presented. The new design influences the selection criteria of working fluids. A software has been developed to find thermodynamic suitable fluids for ORC in biomass power and heat plants. Highest efficiencies are found within the family of alkylbenzenes

  14. Fire damage data analysis as related to current testing practices for nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevan, J.; MacDougall, E.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A review of reports of specific fires which have occurred in nuclear power plants in the United States is presented. A limited comparison of cable and similar fires with results of the IEEE 383 fire test used to evaluate cable insulation is also presented

  15. Evaluation on the Efficiency of Biomass Power Generation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country with large population, China is facing the problems of energy resource shortage and growing environmental pollution arising from the coal-dominated energy structure. Biomass energy, as a kind of renewable energy with the characteristics of being easy to store and friendly to environment, has become the focus of China’s energy development in the future. Affected by the advanced power generation technology and diversified geography environment, the biomass power generation projects show new features in recent years. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of biomass power generation industry by employing proper method with the consideration of new features. In this paper, the regional difference as a new feature of biomass power generation industry is taken into consideration, and the AR model is employed to modify the zero-weight issue when using data envelopment analysis (DEA method to evaluate the efficiency of biomass power generation industry. 30 biomass power generation enterprises in China are selected as the sample, and the efficiency evaluation is performed. The result can provide some insights into the sustainable development of biomass power generation industry in China.

  16. Optimization of biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation using Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, P. Reche; Reyes, N. Ruiz; Gonzalez, M. Gomez; Jurado, F.

    2008-01-01

    With sufficient territory and abundant biomass resources Spain appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. This paper addresses biomass fuelled generation of electricity in the specific aspect of finding the best location and the supply area of the electric generation plant for three alternative technologies (gas motor, gas turbine and fuel cell-microturbine hybrid power cycle), taking into account the variables involved in the problem, such as the local distribution of biomass resources, transportation costs, distance to existing electric lines, etc. For each technology, not only optimal location and supply area of the biomass plant, but also net present value and generated electric power are determined by an own binary variant of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). According to the values derived from the optimization algorithm, the most profitable technology can be chosen. Computer simulations show the good performance of the proposed binary PSO algorithm to optimize biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation. (author)

  17. Torrefied biomass for use in power station sector; Torrefizierte Biomasse zum Einsatz im Kraftwerkssektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Schaubach, Kay [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Kiel, Jaap; Carbo, Michiel [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Wojcik, Magdalena [OFI Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-10-01

    In the torrefaction process biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of at least 250 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage. Torrefaction also creates superior properties for biomass in many major end-use applications. The process has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for sustainable biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass (residues). The article will briefly introduce the concept and objectives of the project and the different torrefaction technologies involved and then focus on the results obtained within the first project phase of the EU-project SECTOR. This comprises production of torrefied biomass batches, subsequent densification (pelletisation and briquetting), characterisation and Round Robin testing of characterisation methods, initial logistics and end-use performance testing, material safety data sheet preparation and sustainability assessment along the value chain. (orig.)

  18. Fire protection for nuclear power plants. Part 1. Fundamental approaches. Version 6/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The KTA nuclear safety code sets out the fundamental approaches and principles for the prevention of fires in nuclear power plants, addressing aspects such as initiation, spreading, and effects of a fire: (a) Fire load and ignition sources, (b) structural and plant engineering conditions, (c) ways and means relating to fire call and fire fighting. Relevant technical and organisational measures are defined. Scope and quality of fire prevention measures to be taken, as well the relevant in-service inspection activities are determined according to the protective goals pursued in each case. (orig./CB) [de

  19. Fire protection programme during construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian Umer, M.

    1998-01-01

    A clear view is given of several measures that have been taken with regard to fire prevention, protection and fire fighting during all phases of the construction, installation and commissioning of the Chasma nuclear power plant to protect personnel and equipment so that any delays in plant operation as a result of fire incident can be avoided. These measures include the precautions taken, the provisions made for fire extinguishers and hydrants, and the setting up of a fire brigade. An overview is also given of the fire incidents that have occurred. (author)

  20. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  1. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a t echnoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  2. Modelling and prediction of air pollutant transport during the 2014 biomass burning and forest fires in peninsular Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Bang, Ho Quoc; Quang, Ngo Xuan

    2016-02-01

    During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA). Following these studies, in this paper, we study the transport of particulate air pollution across the peninsular region of SEA and beyond during the March 2014 burning period using meteorological modelling approach and available ground-based and satellite measurements to ascertain the extent of the aerosol pollution and transport in the region of this particular event. The results show that the air pollutants from SEA biomass burning in March 2014 were transported at high altitude to southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and beyond as has been highlighted in the BASE-ASIA and 7-SEAS studies. There are strong evidences that the biomass burning in SEA especially in mid-March 2014 has not only caused widespread high particle pollution in Thailand (especially the northern region where most of the fires occurred) but also impacted on the air quality in Hong Kong as measured at the ground-based stations and in LulinC (Taiwan) where a remote background monitoring station is located.

  3. Prove of structural fire design in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, U.; Hosser, D.; Max, U.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the application of comprehensive heat balance calculations the whole parameters like geometry, fire load, ventilation conditions etc. of a German PWR were covered. A practical design procedure based on diagrams was developed whereby separate diagrams for oil and cable fires were presented. A probabilistic safety concept was employed as to account for the specific variations of fire parameters as fire load and area, ventilation condition, rate of burning. With respect to the frequency of fire occurrences and the impact of fire fighting measures on the spread of fires latest statistical data of a special BMI investigation were used. (orig./HP) [de

  4. The evolution of biomass-burning aerosol size distributions due to coagulation: dependence on fire and meteorological details and parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Sakamoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass-burning aerosols have a significant effect on global and regional aerosol climate forcings. To model the magnitude of these effects accurately requires knowledge of the size distribution of the emitted and evolving aerosol particles. Current biomass-burning inventories do not include size distributions, and global and regional models generally assume a fixed size distribution from all biomass-burning emissions. However, biomass-burning size distributions evolve in the plume due to coagulation and net organic aerosol (OA evaporation or formation, and the plume processes occur on spacial scales smaller than global/regional-model grid boxes. The extent of this size-distribution evolution is dependent on a variety of factors relating to the emission source and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, accurately accounting for biomass-burning aerosol size in global models requires an effective aerosol size distribution that accounts for this sub-grid evolution and can be derived from available emission-inventory and meteorological parameters. In this paper, we perform a detailed investigation of the effects of coagulation on the aerosol size distribution in biomass-burning plumes. We compare the effect of coagulation to that of OA evaporation and formation. We develop coagulation-only parameterizations for effective biomass-burning size distributions using the SAM-TOMAS large-eddy simulation plume model. For the most-sophisticated parameterization, we use the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA to build a parameterization of the aged size distribution based on the SAM-TOMAS output and seven inputs: emission median dry diameter, emission distribution modal width, mass emissions flux, fire area, mean boundary-layer wind speed, plume mixing depth, and time/distance since emission. This parameterization was tested against an independent set of SAM-TOMAS simulations and yields R2 values of 0.83 and 0.89 for Dpm and modal width

  5. The evolution of biomass-burning aerosol size distributions due to coagulation: dependence on fire and meteorological details and parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kimiko M.; Laing, James R.; Stevens, Robin G.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols have a significant effect on global and regional aerosol climate forcings. To model the magnitude of these effects accurately requires knowledge of the size distribution of the emitted and evolving aerosol particles. Current biomass-burning inventories do not include size distributions, and global and regional models generally assume a fixed size distribution from all biomass-burning emissions. However, biomass-burning size distributions evolve in the plume due to coagulation and net organic aerosol (OA) evaporation or formation, and the plume processes occur on spacial scales smaller than global/regional-model grid boxes. The extent of this size-distribution evolution is dependent on a variety of factors relating to the emission source and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, accurately accounting for biomass-burning aerosol size in global models requires an effective aerosol size distribution that accounts for this sub-grid evolution and can be derived from available emission-inventory and meteorological parameters. In this paper, we perform a detailed investigation of the effects of coagulation on the aerosol size distribution in biomass-burning plumes. We compare the effect of coagulation to that of OA evaporation and formation. We develop coagulation-only parameterizations for effective biomass-burning size distributions using the SAM-TOMAS large-eddy simulation plume model. For the most-sophisticated parameterization, we use the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) to build a parameterization of the aged size distribution based on the SAM-TOMAS output and seven inputs: emission median dry diameter, emission distribution modal width, mass emissions flux, fire area, mean boundary-layer wind speed, plume mixing depth, and time/distance since emission. This parameterization was tested against an independent set of SAM-TOMAS simulations and yields R2 values of 0.83 and 0.89 for Dpm and modal width, respectively. The

  6. Upgrading of fire protection arrangements at Magnox power stations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, L.H.

    1998-01-01

    The methodology used in conducting fire hazard assessments at Magnox Reactor power stations operated by Magnox Electric plc is described. The assessments use a deterministic approach. This includes the identification of essential plant and the associated supporting systems required for the safe trip, shutdown and post-trip cooling of the reactor, assessment of the location of the essential plant and the vulnerability of these plant in the presence of a fire, assessment of essential functions against the effects of a fire and identification of improvements to the fire protection arrangements. Practical aspects of fire protection engineering on operating power stations are discussed and examples of improvements in protection described. (author)

  7. Fire protection devices in the controlled region of GKN nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Grauf, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the GKN nuclear power station ('Neckar reactor'), an 805 MW PWR reactor whose start-up is scheduled for the near future, fire protection measures have been realized that go far beyond those realized in other German nuclear power stations until now. One of the main reasons is that the authorities have been sensibilized by a fire in the refuelling cavity during construction and by the Browns Ferry fire and are therefore extremely thorough in their examination. Further subsections have been added to the fire prevention sections in order to provide better quenching devices for potential fire sites. (orig./AK) [de

  8. Fire protection equipment in the area of control of the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Grauf, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station - an 805 MW pressurised water reactor shortly to reach the stage of nuclear operation - fire protection measures have been realised to an extent hitherto uncommon in German nuclear power plants. The reason is to be sought from the authorities who have become more sensitive because of a fire in a reactor vessel during the construction stage and the fire at Browns Ferry and have consequently become extremely expert. Apart from the fire regulations hitherto normal further subregulations have been created in order to be able to make better provision of extinguishing devices against fire hazards. (orig.) [de

  9. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  10. Integrated Active Fire Retrievals and Biomass Burning Emissions Using Complementary Near-Coincident Ground, Airborne and Spaceborne Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellicott, Evan; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Dickinson, Matthew B.; Ottmar, Roger D.; Clements, Craig; Hall, Dianne; Ambrosia, Vincent; Kremens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ground, airborne and spaceborne data were collected for a 450 ha prescribed fire implemented on 18 October 2011 at the Henry W. Coe State Park in California. The integration of various data elements allowed near coincident active fire retrievals to be estimated. The Autonomous Modular Sensor-Wildfire (AMS) airborne multispectral imaging system was used as a bridge between ground and spaceborne data sets providing high quality reference information to support satellite fire retrieval error analyses and fire emissions estimates. We found excellent agreement between peak fire radiant heat flux data (less than 1% error) derived from near-coincident ground radiometers and AMS. Both MODIS and GOES imager active fire products were negatively influenced by the presence of thick smoke, which was misclassified as cloud by their algorithms, leading to the omission of fire pixels beneath the smoke, and resulting in the underestimation of their retrieved fire radiative power (FRP) values for the burn plot, compared to the reference airborne data. Agreement between airborne and spaceborne FRP data improved significantly after correction for omission errors and atmospheric attenuation, resulting in as low as 5 difference between AquaMODIS and AMS. Use of in situ fuel and fire energy estimates in combination with a collection of AMS, MODIS, and GOES FRP retrievals provided a fuel consumption factor of 0.261 kg per MJ, total energy release of 14.5 x 10(exp 6) MJ, and total fuel consumption of 3.8 x 10(exp 6) kg. Fire emissions were calculated using two separate techniques, resulting in as low as 15 difference for various species

  11. Assessing the adequacy and reliability of fire barriers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    Fire barriers on nuclear power plants are essential for proper segregation of redundant trains of safety equipment. The contribution they make to nuclear safety is obviously significant, but difficult to quantify. As a result, the analysis of fire barriers for nuclear safety justification purposes tends to concentrate on demonstrating that they are adequate instead. The paper discusses various methods of analysing fire barriers and introduces work being completed on a method for quantifying the reliability of a fire barrier. (orig.)

  12. Biomass Supply Planning for Combined Heat and Power Plants using Stochastic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guericke, Daniela; Blanco, Ignacio; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    method using stochastic optimization to support the biomass supply planning for combined heat and power plants. Our two-phase approach combines mid-term decisions about biomass supply contracts with the short-term decisions regarding the optimal market participation of the producer to ensure......During the last years, the consumption of biomass to produce power and heat has increased due to the new carbon neutral policies. Nowadays, many district heating systems operate their combined heat and power (CHP) plants using different types of biomass instead of fossil fuel, especially to produce......, and heat demand and electricity prices vary drastically during the planning period. Furthermore, the optimal operation of combined heat and power plants has to consider the existing synergies between the power and heating systems while always fulfilling the heat demand of the system. We propose a solution...

  13. Evaluation of ash deposits during experimental investigation of co-firing of Bosnian coal with wooden biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smajevic, Izet; Kazagic, Anes [JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d., Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Sarajevo Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The paper is addressed to the development and use different criteria for evaluation of ash deposits collected during experimental co-firing of Bosnian coals with wooden biomass. Spruce saw dust was used for the co-firing tests with the Kakanj brown coal and with a lignite blend consisted of the Dubrave lignite and the Sikulje lignite. The coal/biomass mixtures at 93:7 %w and at 80:20 %w were tested. Experimental lab-scale facility PF entrained flow reactor is used for the co-firing tests. The reactor allows examination of fouling/slagging behaviors and emissions at various and infinitely variable process temperature which can be set at will in the range from ambient to 1560 C. Ash deposits are collected on two non-cooled ceramic probes and one water-cooled metal surface. Six different criteria are developed and used to evaluate behavior of the ash deposits on the probes: ash deposit shape, state and structure, which are analyzed visually - photographically and optically by a microscope, rate of adhesion and ash deposit strength, analyzed by physic acting to the ash deposits, and finally deposition rate, determined as a mass of the deposit divided by the collecting area and the time of collecting. Furthermore, chemical composition analysis and AFT of the ash deposits were also done to provide additional information on the deposits. (orig.)

  14. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts of Hybrid Giant Napier (Pennisetum Hydridum) Direct-fired Power Generation in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanfen; Fang, Hailin; Zhang, Hengjin; Yu, Zhaosheng; Liu, Zhichao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    To meet with the demand of energy conservation and emission reduction policies, the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to assess the feasibility of Hybrid Giant Napier (HGN) direct-fired power generation in this study. The entire life cycle is consisted of five stages (cultivation and harvesting, transportation, drying and comminuting, direct-fired power generation, constructing and decommissioning of biomass power plant). Analytical results revealed that to generate 10000kWh electricity, 10.925 t of customized HGN fuel (moisture content: 30 wt%) and 6659.430 MJ of energy were required. The total environmental impact potential was 0.927 PET2010 (person equivalents, targeted, in 2010) and the global warming (GW), acidification (AC), and nutrient (NE) emissions were 339.235 kg CO2-eq, 22.033 kg SO2-eq, and 25.486 kg NOx-eq respectively. The effect of AC was the most serious among all calculated category impacts. The energy requirements and environmental impacts were found to be sensitive to single yield, average transport distance, cutting frequency, and moisture content. The results indicated that HGN direct-fired power generation accorded well with Chinese energy planning; in addition, HGN proved to be a promising contribution to reducing non-renewable energy consumption and had encouraging prospects as a renewable energy plant.

  15. Transboundary Transport of Biomass Burning Emissions in Southeast Asia and Contribution to Local Air Quality During the 2006 Fire Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) that originated in Indonesia using WRF-Chem. Our study addressed 3 research questions: (1) Can the WRF-Chem model reproduce observations of both aerosol and CO concentrations in this complex region? (2) What is the evolution in the chemical composition of the aerosol fire plume during its atmospheric transport? and (3) What is the relative contribution of these fires to air quality in the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore? To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison (PM10 in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and AOD column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors). We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with ground-based measurements of both CO and PM10. However, the comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD. In the past, modeling studies using only AOD as a constraint have often boosted fire emissions to get a better agreement with observations. In our case, this approach would seriously deteriorate the difference with ground-based observations. Finally, our results show that about 21% of the total mass loading of ambient PM10 during the July-October study period in Singapore was due to the influence of biomass and peat burning in Sumatra, with an increased contribution during high burning periods. The composition of this biomass burning plume was largely dominated by primary organic carbon. In total, our model results indicated that during 35 days aerosol concentrations in Singapore were above the threshold of 50 μg m-3 day-1 (WHO threshold). During 17 days this deterioration was due to Indonesian fires, based on the difference between the simulations with and without fires. Local air pollution in combination with recirculation of air masses was probably the main

  16. Biomass power industry: Assessment of key players and approaches for DOE and industry interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report reviews the status of the US biomass power industry. The topics of the report include current fuels and the problems associated with procuring, transporting, preparing and burning them, competition from natural gas projects because of the current depressed natural gas prices, need for incentives for biomass fueled projects, economics, market potential and expansion of US firms overseas

  17. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  18. Modern biofuel-fired power plants in power and heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuominen, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article gives a survey of the gasification techniques, power plant technology and boiler solutions for small power plants using biofuels. Also some experiences from commercial projects and targets of development work are presented. At present, fluidized bed combustion is by far the most important combustion technique for biomass fuels in small power plants. Compared with grate combustion, fluidized bed combustion is a distinctly more economical combustion method, and so the thermic dimensioning of a steam boiler is easier. Besides, a wider range of fuels can be used in fluidized bed combustion. Fluidized bed combustion is an excellent combustion technique for biofuels. Plenty of experience has been gained in the combustion of peat and industrial waste wood, as far as both bubbling fluidized bed combustion (BFBC) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) are concerned. Both of the fluidized bed techniques are suitable for the combustion of biomasses

  19. Coal-fired power plant: airborne routine discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    2005-01-01

    The radiological impact from non-nuclear industries is a growing matter of concern to stake holders and regulators. It has been demonstrated that atmospheric discharges from coal-fired power plants can lead to higher dose-impacts to critical groups of the population than nuclear power plants. In Belgium, in the frame of an agreement between electricity producers and national authorities, measures were taken in conventional power plants to restrict airborne discharges of SO 2 , NO x and suspended particles. In the 500 MWe coal-fired power plant of Langerlo, a flue gas purification system was installed, consisting of a denitrification unit and a desulphurization unit, next to the electrostatic dust filter units. These measures have also an important effect on the radioactive atmospheric discharges. The objective of this study was to assess the radiological impact of the airborne releases of the power plant under normal working conditions and in particular the influence of the installation of the flue gas purification system. As a first step, we measured the natural radioactivity content of the coal and the radium content of the fly ash . The quantities of the other radioelements discharged through the chimney, were estimated, assuming the same behaviour as radium, except for the more volatile lead and polonium, which will condense preferably on finer ash particles, against which the electro filters are less effective. (A concentration factor of 4 has been adopted). The radon, present in the coal, is assumed to be discharged completely through the chimney. The atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of the discharged radionuclides were modelled, applying the bi-Gaussian plume model IFDM. For the calculations, we used hourly averages of the meteorological observations at Mol over the year 1991. The transfers of the radionuclides from air and soil to the biospheric media, exposing man, were calculated with our biosphere model and the radiological impact to the

  20. Use of biomass for clean and efficient production of heat and power. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Lans, R. van der; Frandsen, J.B.F.; Johnsson, J.E.; Jensen, A.; Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2001-03-01

    The present EFP98 project is the second phase of a long-term, strategic research project, the aim of which is to facilitate the use of significant amounts of biomass in the production of power and heat. The project deals with combustion and emission issues related to the use of biomass, specifically combustion of straw on a grate and wet flue gas desulphurization. A mathematical model for combustion of straw on a grate is developed as a tool to improve the understanding of this process. The model includes heat transfer to and in the bed as well as pyrolysis and char oxidation. To verify the model and to obtain a better understanding of fixed-bed straw combustion, a number of bench-scale laboratory experiments have been conducted at TNO in Holland. Predicted combustion rates and bed temperatures were in fairly good agreement with experimental fixed-bed data. A parameter analysis has identified the sensitivity of modeling predictions towards important parameters in the model. Measuring programs on straw firing have been conducted at Enstedvaerket and Masnedoe. Measuring results include gas temperature and gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO. SO{sub 2}, NO) from different positions in the boiler. Data from Masnedoe include also results from co-firing of straw with other biomass fuels (25-35%). The results indicate that co-firing in the quantities does not significantly affect emissions. Nitrogen oxides emissions from Masnedoevaerket were found to be significantly higher than those of Ensted. The work on wet flue gas desulphurization on aimed to provide the information necessary to optimize and further develop the process. The main focus was fuel and sorbent flexibility, use of the waste product from the semi-dry FGD process as a sorbent in wet FGD, and ways of optimizing the Wet FGD process with respect to a high degree of desulphurization, a low content of residual limestone in the gypsum and a continuous steady state operation of the FGD plant. Laboratory

  1. Field test corrosion experiments in Denmark with biomass fuels Part II Co-firing of straw and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    undertaken where coal has been co-fired with 10% straw and 20% straw (% energy basis) for up to approx. 3000 hours. Two types of exposure were undertaken to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, and b) the exposure of a range of materials built into the existing...... and potassium sulphate. These components give rise to varying degrees of accelerated corrosion. This paper concerns co-firing of straw with coal to reduce the corrosion rate from straw to an acceptable level. A field investigation at Midtkraft Studstrup suspension-fired power plant in Denmark has been...... for 100% straw-firing. The corrosion products and course of corrosion for the various steel types were investigated using light optical and scanning electron microscopy. Catastrophic corrosion due to potassium chloride was not observed. Instead a more modest corrosion rate due to potassium sulphate rich...

  2. Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sens, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1986 Directorate-General XII 'Science, Research and Development' of the Commission of the European Communities has kept a watching brief on the development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation from the 'solid fuels' section of its non-nuclear energy R and D programme. It established, in 1987, the Faraday Working Group (FWG) to assess the development status of coal-fired MHD and to evaluate its potential contribution to the future electricity production in the Community. The FWG expressed as its opinion, at the end of 1987, that in sufficient data were available to justify a final answer to the question about MHD's potential contribution to future electricity production and recommended that studies be undertaken in three areas; (i) the lifetime of the generator, (ii) cost and performance of direct air preheating, (iii) cost and efficiency of seed recovery/reprocessing. These studies were contracted and results were presented in the extended FWG meeting on 15 November 1990, for an audience of about 70 people. The present volume contains the proceedings of this meeting. The introduction describes the reasons for establishing the FWG, its activities and the content of its extended meeting followed by the summary of the discussions and the concluding remarks of this meeting. The main part of the volume consists of the text either of the oral presentations during the meeting or of the final reports resulting from the studies under contract

  3. A probabilistic method for optimization of fire safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Sprey, W.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive fire safety study for German Nuclear Power Plants a probabilistic method for the analysis and optimization of fire safety has been developed. It follows the general line of the American fire hazard analysis, with more or less important modifications in detail. At first, fire event trees in selected critical plant areas are established taking into account active and passive fire protection measures and safety systems endangered by the fire. Failure models for fire protection measures and safety systems are formulated depending on common parameters like time after ignition and fire effects. These dependences are properly taken into account in the analysis of the fire event trees with the help of first-order system reliability theory. In addition to frequencies of fire-induced safety system failures relative weights of event paths, fire protection measures within these paths and parameters of the failure models are calculated as functions of time. Based on these information optimization of fire safety is achieved by modifying primarily event paths, fire protection measures and parameters with the greatest relative weights. This procedure is illustrated using as an example a German 1300 MW PWR reference plant. It is shown that the recommended modifications also reduce the risk to plant personnel and fire damage

  4. Study on aging management of fire protection system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Huasong; Du Yu; Li Jianwen; Shi Haining; Tu Fengsheng

    2010-01-01

    Fire prevention, fire fighting and fire automatic alarms are three aspects which be included in fire protection system in nuclear power plants. The fire protection system can protect personnel, equipment etc in the fire, so their performance will have a direct influence on the safe operation in nuclear power plants. The disabled accidents caused by aging have happened continuously with the extension of time in the fire protection system, which is the major security risk during the running time in nuclear power plants. In view of the importance of fire protection system and the severity of aging problems, the aging are highly valued by the plant operators and related organizations. Though the feedback of operating experience in nuclear power plant, the impact of the fire-fighting equipment aging on system performance and reliability be assessed, the aging sensitive equipment be selected to carry out the aging analysis and to guide the management and maintenance to guarantee the healthy operation in life time of fire protection system in nuclear power plant. (authors)

  5. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  6. Natural radioactivity around the coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Bajlo, M.

    1996-01-01

    By far the greatest part of the radiation received by the worlds population comes from natural sources, in some situations the exposure to natural radiation sources is enhanced as a result of technological developments. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly radium, thorium and uranium. Extensive investigations have been performed in the coal-fired power plant (CFPP) Plomin in Croatia, using an anthracite coal with a higher than usual uranium content and normal thorium content. A network of TL dosimeters (TLD), working levels (WL) measurements, air pollution monitoring and monitoring of waste pile were organized. Some of the measurements have been repeated, and the results have shown decreased contamination. (author)

  7. Radiological effects of Yatagan coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, F.; Buke, T.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation dose calculations and also limit radiation dose calculations have been carried out by the code CAP88-PC around the Yatagan coal-fired power plant environment by using the result of previous studies about maximum measured gross alpha activity in the flying ash samples as radioactive sources. A modified Gaussian plume equation is used to estimate the average dispersion of radionuclides released from up to six emitting sources. The sources maybe either elevated stacks or uniform area sources. Assessments are done for a circular grid of distances and directions for a radius up to 80 kilometers, 16 wind sectors and 20 mesh distances around the facility in calculations. The limit doses obtained from the calculations and their radiological effects have been interpreted. Finally the effects of various radionuclides have been carried out and their results have been compared with each other. (author)

  8. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A previous assessment of the radiological consequences of the emission of natural radionuclides from coal-fired power stations had indicated that 210 Pb was the main contributor to the maximum individual dose. This dose arose from the consumption of foodstuffs particularly cattle liver contaminated by deposited fly ash. Uncertainty surrounded some of the factors used in the assessment, and a limited environmental monitoring programme was recommended to improve it. An experiment has been performed to measure the specific activities of 210 Pb and 210 Po in livers from cattle that had grazed in a field near Didcot power station. Livers from cattle in the Cotswold region have been measured for comparison. The specific activities of 210 Pb and 210 Po in soil and grass samples from both areas have also been measured at three-monthly intervals over a year. No statistically significant increases were observed in the 210 Pb and 210 Po levels in liver, soil or grass samples which could be attributed to the operation of the power station. Transfer coefficients for 210 Pb from forage to liver were about two orders of magnitude less than that used in the original assessment, and the transfer coefficients for 210 Po about a factor a two less. (orig.)

  9. A methodology for analyzing the detection and suppression of fires in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Apostolakis, G.

    1986-01-01

    The assessment of the fire risk in nuclear power plants requires the analysis of fire scenarios within specified rooms. A methodology that integrates the fire protection features of a given room into an existing fire risk analysis framework is developed. An important component of this methodology is a model for the time required to detect and suppress a fire in a given room, called the ''hazard time.'' This model accounts for the reliability of fire detection and suppression equipment, as well as for the characteristics rates of the detection and suppression processes. Because the available evidence for fire detection and suppression in nuclear power plants is sparse and often qualitative, a second component of this methodology is a set of methods needed to employ imprecise information in a statistical analysis. These methods can be applied to a wide variety of problems

  10. Fire risk analysis for nuclear power plants: Methodological developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, M.; Apostolakis, G.; Siv, N.O.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology to quantify the risk from fires in nuclear power plants is described. This methodology combines engineering judgment, statistical evidence, fire phenomenology, and plant system analysis. It can be divided into two major parts: (1) fire scenario identification and quantification, and (2) analysis of the impact on plant safety. This article primarily concentrates on the first part. Statistical analysis of fire occurrence data is used to establish the likelihood of ignition. The temporal behaviors of the two competing phenomena, fire propagation and fire detection and suppression, are studied and their characteristic times are compared. Severity measures are used to further specialize the frequency of the fire scenario. The methodology is applied to a switchgear room of a nuclear power plant

  11. Optimization of fire protection measures and quality controls in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenig, H.; Holtschmidt, H.; Liemersdorf, H.; Suetterlin, L.; Dobbernack, R.; Hahn, C.; Hosser, D.; Kordina, K.; Schneider, U.; Sprey, W.; Wesche, H.

    1985-09-01

    This study presents theoretical and experimental investigations on the evaluation of fire hazards and the optimization of fire protection measures in German nuclear power plants. Differences between the method presented here and the US ''Fire Hazard Analysis'' result from the inclusion of the stringent redundancy concept of German nuclear power plants and the emphasis placed on passive structural fire protection measures. The method includes a time-dependent quantification of fire-specific event sequences. Fire occurrence frequencies and the reliabilities of active fire protection measures were derived from German experiences and literature abroad. The reliability data of passive fire protection measures were obtained by an evaluation of experiments and probabilistic analyses. For the calculation of fire sequences fundamental experiments were taken into consideration. For the quantification of the time-dependent event trees a methodology was applied which permits an evaluation of the influence of the individual measures. The consequences of fire were investigated for ten fire events identified as decisive, and the fire sequence paths important in terms of safety were quantified. Their annual frequencies are within a range of 10 -3 to 8.10 -6 . (orig./HP) [de

  12. Fire in the Vegetation and Peatlands of Borneo, 1997-2007: Patterns, Drivers and Emissions from Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, Allan; Weber, Ulrich; Langner, Andreas; Siegert, Florian; Heil, Angelika

    2010-05-01

    correlations are noticeably much weaker or absent in Sarawak and Sabah, and central Borneo, where little or no deforestation was observed. Emissions from biomass burning reflect fire activity, and that fires in the carbon-rich peats of southern Kalimantan dominate the emissions profile during the El Nino years of 1997-98, 2002, 2004 and 2006. Previous work in southern Amazon forests demonstrates that recurrent fires promote a change from tree-dominated to grass-dominated ecosystems which, in turn, promotes even more fires. We show that recurrent fire and deforestation are also linked as part of a similar positive feedback process in Kalimantan. Our results support the detailed field work undertaken in 1997-98 in East Kalimantan, and reinforce these findings across time and space. Emissions from fires in Kalimantan peatlands represent a serious perturbation in terms of forcing from trace gases and aerosols on regional and global climate. Several global and regional climate modelling studies have reported that equatorial SE Asia, including Borneo, will experience reduced rainfall in future decades. At the same time, demands for establishing pulp paper and palm oil plantations to replace native rainforests, especially on peatlands where tenure conflicts among land owners tend to be minimal, is forecast to increase. These joint scenarios imply even more fires and emissions in future. It is critical therefore that present efforts to mitigate emissions through reduced deforestation programs in the region works, otherwise the consequences will be disastrous.

  13. Biomass Pyrolysis in DNS of Turbulent Particle-Laden Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Fröhlich, Jochen; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is important for co-firing in coal power plants thereby reducing CO2 emissions. Modeling the combustion of biomass involves various physical and chemical processes, which take place successively and even simultaneously [1, 2]. An important step in biomass combustion is pyrolysis, in which

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Emission Reduction for the Indonesian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handayani, Kamia; Krozer, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of research on the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction in the selected coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Indonesia. The background of this research is the trend of more stringent environmental regulation regarding air emission from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs)

  15. Co-firing of Coal with Biomass and Waste in Full-scale Suspension-fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    and boiler manufacturers to optimize design and operation and minimize cost and environmental impact using alternative fuels in suspension fired boilers. Our contribution has been made via a combination of full-scale measuring campaigns, pilot-scale studies, lab-scale measurements and modeling tools....... The research conducted has addressed many issues important for co-firing, i.e. fuel processing, ash induced boiler deposit formation and corrosion, boiler chamber fuel conversion and emission formation, influence on flue gas cleaning equipment and the utilization of residual products. This paper provides...... research has provided results with implications for operation of milling and burner equipment, appropriate fuel mixing strategies, minimization of ash deposit formation and corrosion, minimization of NO formation, appropriate operation of SCR catalyst equipment and utilization of residual products...

  16. Present situation, problems and solutions of China's biomass power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jicheng; Wang, Sijia; Wei, Qiushuang; Yan, Suli

    2014-01-01

    With the reduction of global oil reserves, developing renewable energy has become an important issue for each country. Biomass power is an important kind of clean energy, as it has abundant resource and is environmental friendly. In the past few years, China biomass power industry has developed rapidly accompanied with some problems. This paper analyzes the current situation of China biomass power generation from several aspects such as power structure, resource distribution, investment strength, and policy environment, etc. We focus on the problems existed in practical operation and analyze the outstanding problems. At last, this paper offers several suggestions for future development on the relevant fields, such as cost, strategic planning and policy. - Highlights: • Review and analyze the internal and external environment of biomass power in China. • Summarize and classify policies of China biomass power according to time sequence. • Describe the distribution of biomass resources in China accurately on the map. • Use data to draw a picture for grasping current situation. • Provide valuable suggestions for practitioners to improve their business strategies

  17. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several key sustainability factors were identified: the security of the biomass supply, the efficiency of conversion technology, the existing network system, challenges and future prospects for power generation from palm biomass. These factors were assessed through a set of questionnaires. The returned questionnaires were then analysed using statistical tools. The results of this study demonstrate that Sarawak has biomass in abundance, and that it is ready to be exploited for large scale power generation. The key challenge to achieving the renewable energy target is the inadequate grid infrastructure that inhibits palm oil developers from benefiting from the Feed-in-Tariff payment scheme. One way forward, a strategic partnership between government and industrial players, offers a promising outcome, depending on an economic feasibility study. The decentralization of electricity generation to support rural electrification is another feasible alternative for renewable energy development in the state.

  18. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  19. Criteria for classification and reporting of fire incidences in nuclear power plants of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Is is important that all fires in and around fire effective neighbourhood of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) should be promptly reported (Reportable fires) and investigated. However, the depth of investigation and the range of authorities to whom the individual fire incidence need to be reported depends upon the severity of fire. In case of conventional non-chemical industries, the severity of fire depends mainly on the extent of loss caused by fire on property and the burn injury to persons. In case of NPP, two additional losses viz, release of radioactivity to working/public environment and the risk to safety related systems of NPP due to fire assume greater importance. This paper describes the criteria used in NPPs of India for classification of reportable fire incidences into four categories, viz. Insignificant, small, medium and large fires. It also gives the level of investigation depending upon the severity of fire. The fire classification scheme is explained in this paper with the help of worked out examples and two incidences of fire in Indian NPPs. (author)

  20. Fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xuefeng; Zhang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires will cause not only personnel injury, severe economic loss, but also serious environmental pollution. For the moment, nuclear power is in a position of rapid development in China. Considering the earthquake-prone characteristics of our country, it is of great engineering importance to investigate the nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires. This article analyzes the cause, influential factors and development characteristics of nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires in details, and summarizes the three principles should be followed in fighting and preventing nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires, such as solving problems in order of importance and urgency, isolation prior to prevention, immediate repair and regular patrol. Three aspects were pointed out that should be paid attention in fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires. (authors)

  1. Thermodynamic evaluation of a novel solar-biomass hybrid power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Zhang; Liu, Qibin; Lei, Jing; Wang, Xiaohe; Sun, Jie; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar-biomass hybrid power system with zero carbon dioxide emission is proposed. • The internal mechanisms of the solar-biomass utilization are discussed. • The on-design and off-design properties of the system are numerically investigated. • The configurations of the proposed system are optimized. - Abstract: A solar-biomass hybrid power generation system, which integrates a solar thermal energy collection subsystem, a biomass steam boiler and a steam turbine power generation block, is developed for efficiently utilizing renewable energies. The solar thermal energy is concentrated by parabolic trough collectors and is used to heat the feed-water to the superheated steam of 371 °C, then the generated solar steam is further heated to a higher temperature level of 540 °C via a second-stage heating process in a biomass boiler, the system power generation capacity is about 50 MW. The hybrid process of the solar energy and biomass contributes to ameliorating the system thermodynamic performances and reducing of the exergy loss within the steam generation process. The off-design evaluation results indicate that the annual net solar-to-electric efficiency of the hybrid power system is improved to 18.13%, which is higher than that of the typical parabolic trough solar power system as 15.79%. The levelized cost of energy drops to 0.077 $/(kW h) from 0.192 $/(kW h). The annual biomass consumption rate is reduced by 22.53% in comparison with typical biomass power systems. The research findings provide a promising approach for the efficient utilization of the abundant renewable energies resources and the reduction of carbon dioxide emission.

  2. Hybridization of concentrated solar power with biomass gasification in Brazil’s semiarid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Rodrigo; Szklo, Alexandre; Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of three hybridization concepts between CSP and biomass gasification. • Modelling of a benchmark power plant for each of the hybridization concepts. • The method relies on using Aspentech Hysys and SAM for thermodynamic analysis. • Technical and economic performance of the three benchmark power plants as result. - Abstract: This study aims to propose and analyze different options for hybridizing Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with biomass, through gasification for power generation. A hybrid CSP-biomass power plant through gasification is an innovative concept which allows the integration of combined cycle for power generation, sun-biomass hybridization and syngas storage. Therefore, this study addressed the proposition of the hybridization concept and the simulation of benchmark power plants for a suitable Brazilian site (high direct normal irradiation and low-cost biomass availability). Three power plant concepts are proposed and simulated in Aspentech Hysys and System Advisor Model (SAM): (i) Series design; (ii) Parallel design, and (iii) Steam Extraction design. For the same gasifier, the Series design holds the highest levelized cost, while the Parallel design presents the highest installed capacity, but the lowest capacity factor. Finally, the Steam Extraction design is placed between the other two proposed plants regarding the capacity factor and the annual energy generation.

  3. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  4. Use of operational experience in fire safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Fire hazard has been identified as a major contributor to a plant's operational risk and the international nuclear power industry has been studying and developing tools for defending against this hazard. Considerable progress in design and regulatory requirements for fire safety, in fire protection technology and in related analytical techniques has been made in the past two decades. Substantial efforts have been undertaken worldwide to implement these advances in the interest of improving fire safety both at new and existing nuclear power plants. To assist in these efforts, the IAEA initiated a programme on fire safety that was intended to provide assistance to Member States in improving fire safety in nuclear power plants. In order to achieve this general objective, the IAEA programme aimed at the development of guidelines and good practices, the promotion of advanced fire safety assessment techniques, the exchange of state of the art information between practitioners and the provision of engineering safety advisory services and training in the implementation of internationally accepted practices. During the period 1993-1994, the IAEA activities related to fire safety concentrated on the development of guidelines and good practice documents related to fire safety and fire protection of operating plants. One of the first tasks was the development of a Safety Guide that formulates specific requirements with regard to the fire safety of operating nuclear power plants. Several documents, which provide advice on fire safety inspection, were developed to assist in its implementation. In the period 1995-1996, the programme focused on the preparation of guidelines for the systematic analysis of fire safety at nuclear power plants (NPPs). The IAEA programme on fire safety for 1997-1998 includes tasks aimed at promoting systematic assessment of fire safety related occurrences and dissemination of essential insights from this assessment. One of the topics addressed is the

  5. Availability of Biomass Residues for Co-Firing in Peninsular Malaysia: Implications for Cost and GHG Emissions in the Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Michael Griffin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels comprise 93% of Malaysia’s electricity generation and account for 36% of the country’s 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions. The government has targeted the installation of 330 MW of biomass electricity generation capacity by 2015 to avoid 1.3 Mt of CO2 emissions annually and offset some emissions due to increased coal use. One biomass option is to co-fire with coal, which can result in reduced GHG emissions, coal use, and costs of electricity. A linear optimization cost model was developed using seven types of biomass residues for Peninsular Malaysia. Results suggest that about 12 Mt/year of residues are available annually, of which oil-palm residues contribute 77%, and rice and logging residues comprise 17%. While minimizing the cost of biomass and biomass residue transport, co-firing at four existing coal plants in Peninsular Malaysia could meet the 330 MW biomass electricity target and reduce costs by about $24 million per year compared to coal use alone and reduces GHG emissions by 1.9 Mt of CO2. Maximizing emissions reduction for biomass co-firing results in 17 Mt of CO2 reductions at a cost of $23/t of CO2 reduced.

  6. Gasification technologies for heat and power from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, AACM; Maniatis, K; Kaltschmitt, M; Bridgwater, AV

    1997-01-01

    A critical review is presented of biomass gasifier systems presently commercially available or under development. Advantages and possible problem areas are discussed in relation to particular applications. Both large and small scale technologies are reviewed. Catalysed by the EC JOULE and AIR

  7. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  8. Radionuclide emissions from a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Shyen, A.K.S.; Mahat, R.H.; Nor, R.M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Current study concerns measurement of radioactivity levels in areas surrounding a 2420 MW thermal power plant fueled predominantly by bituminous coal. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in onsite bottom-ash were found to be 139 Bq/kg, 108 Bq/kg and 291 Bq/kg, respectively, the levels for these radiolnuclides in soil decreasing with distance from the power plant. At the plant perimeter the respective radionuclide concentrations were 87 Bq/kg, 74 Bq/kg and 297 Bq/kg. In a nearby town, the corresponding concentrations were 104 Bq/kg, 52 Bq/kg and 358 Bq/kg, suggestive of use of TENORM affected soils. The mean radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ) in soil and ash sample in the town were 205 Bq/kg and 316 Bq/kg, respectively. The Kapar plant ash/slag appears to contain a higher level of TENORM than the world average. The degree of contamination is much higher inside the town where slag has been mixed with topsoil as landfill or as simple domestic waste. For the prevailing levels of exposure and a worst case senario, the predicted committed effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation for intake durations of 1- and 30 years would be 4.2 μSv and 220 μSv, respectively. - Highlights: • Detailed studies on naturally occuring radionuclide emissions due to a 2420 MW coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. • Assessment of radiation exposures to the public around the power plant due to an intake of the radionuclides. • The Kapar plant ash/slag appears to contain a higher level of TENORM than the world average. • The degree of contamination is much higher inside the town where slag has been mixed with topsoil as landfill or as simple domestic waste

  9. Intelligent Control Framework for the Feeding System in the Biomass Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent control framework for biomass drying process with flue gases based on FLC (fuzzy logic controller and CAN (Controller Area Network bus. In the operation of a biomass drying process, in order to get the biomass with the set-point low moisture content dried by waste high temperature flue gases, it is necessary to intelligent control for the biomass flow rate. Use of an experiment with varied materials at different initial moisture contents enables acquisition of the biomass flow rates as initial setting values. Set the error between actual straw moisture content and set-point, and rate of change of error as two inputs. the biomass flow rate can be acquired by the fuzzy logic computing as the output. Since the length of dryer is more than twenty meters, the integration by the CAN bus can ensure real-time reliable data acquisition and processing. The control framework for biomass drying process can be applied to a variety of biomass, such as, cotton stalk, corn stalk, rice straw, wheat straw, sugar cane. It has strong potential for practical applications because of its advantages on intelligent providing the set-point low moisture content of biomass feedstock for power generation equipment.

  10. Modeling the spatial distribution of forest crown biomass and effects on fire behavior with FUEL3D and WFDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons; William Mell; Peter McCauley

    2010-01-01

    Crown fire poses challenges to fire managers and can endanger fire fighters. Understanding of how fire interacts with tree crowns is essential to informed decisions about crown fire. Current operational crown fire predictions in the United States assume homogeneous crown fuels. While a new class of research fire models, which model fire behavior with computational...

  11. Exergy Analysis of Operating Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murugesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy assessment must be made through the energy quantity as well as the quality. But the usual energy analysisevaluates the energy generally on its quantity only. However, the exergy analysis assesses the energy on quantity as well asthe quality. The aim of the exergy analysis is to identify the magnitudes and the locations of real energy losses, in order toimprove the existing systems, processes or components. The present paper deals with an exergy analysis performed on anoperating 50MWe unit of lignite fired steam power plant at Thermal Power Station-I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited,Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The exergy losses occurred in the various subsystems of the plant and their components havebeen calculated using the mass, energy and exergy balance equations. The distribution of the exergy losses in several plantcomponents during the real time plant running conditions has been assessed to locate the process irreversibility. The Firstlaw efficiency (energy efficiency and the Second law efficiency (exergy efficiency of the plant have also been calculated.The comparison between the energy losses and the exergy losses of the individual components of the plant shows that themaximum energy losses of 39% occur in the condenser, whereas the maximum exergy losses of 42.73% occur in the combustor.The real losses of energy which has a scope for the improvement are given as maximum exergy losses that occurredin the combustor.

  12. CFD modeling of small biomass-fired boilers, second stage; CFD-modellering av mindre biobraenslepannor, etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennermark, A. [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Leckner, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Techn., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of the project is to study how the design of the gas combustion chamber in a small boiler for biomass affects the emissions and how computer simulations can be used to decrease harmful emissions. The aim of the first part of the project was to investigate how phenomena and processes, important for the combustion, depend on various parameters. Within the frame of that part the temperature distribution, the flow pattern and the mixing processes have been studied. In the second part the combustion and the different reactions have been studied. A number of well-equipped combustion experiments in a small biomass-fired boiler have also been conducted to obtain better information about the boundary conditions. The results have been used to verify the simulations. The gas combustion chamber of a modern boiler using down draught firing has been simulated by using two Computational Fluid Dynamics codes, SOFIE and FLUENT. The results from the simulations show that with literature values for the reaction parameters, the reaction rates are controlled by mixing. This means that the reactions are fast and all the CO and the hydrocarbons were consumed. By varying the activation energy, it is possible to reach data that are more comparable with experimental data. The effects of the bowl in the gas combustion chamber on the combustion and mixing are discussed. The effects of the temperature and the radiation are also presented.

  13. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gołuchowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES, including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Besides, the improvement in its parameters, including an increase in its calorific value, resulted in increasing use of biomass as energy source. In the electric power industry biomass is applied in the process of co-combustion with coal. This process may contribute, inter alia, to the reduction in the emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The article presents the characteristics of the biomass burned in power boilers of one of the largest Polish power plants, located in Opole Province (Southern Poland. Besides, the impact of biomass on the installation of co-combustion, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the co-combustion process not only in technological, but also environmental, economic and social aspects were described.

  14. Fire danger rating over Mediterranean Europe based on fire radiative power derived from Meteosat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Miguel M.; DaCamara, Carlos C.; Trigo, Isabel F.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Feridun Turkman, K.

    2018-02-01

    We present a procedure that allows the operational generation of daily forecasts of fire danger over Mediterranean Europe. The procedure combines historical information about radiative energy released by fire events with daily meteorological forecasts, as provided by the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis (LSA SAF) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Fire danger is estimated based on daily probabilities of exceedance of daily energy released by fires occurring at the pixel level. Daily probability considers meteorological factors by means of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) and is estimated using a daily model based on a generalized Pareto distribution. Five classes of fire danger are then associated with daily probability estimated by the daily model. The model is calibrated using 13 years of data (2004-2016) and validated against the period of January-September 2017. Results obtained show that about 72 % of events releasing daily energy above 10 000 GJ belong to the extreme class of fire danger, a considerably high fraction that is more than 1.5 times the values obtained when using the currently operational Fire Danger Forecast module of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) or the Fire Risk Map (FRM) product disseminated by the LSA SAF. Besides assisting in wildfire management, the procedure is expected to help in decision making on prescribed burning within the framework of agricultural and forest management practices.

  15. Fire danger rating over Mediterranean Europe based on fire radiative power derived from Meteosat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pinto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a procedure that allows the operational generation of daily forecasts of fire danger over Mediterranean Europe. The procedure combines historical information about radiative energy released by fire events with daily meteorological forecasts, as provided by the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis (LSA SAF and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. Fire danger is estimated based on daily probabilities of exceedance of daily energy released by fires occurring at the pixel level. Daily probability considers meteorological factors by means of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI and is estimated using a daily model based on a generalized Pareto distribution. Five classes of fire danger are then associated with daily probability estimated by the daily model. The model is calibrated using 13 years of data (2004–2016 and validated against the period of January–September 2017. Results obtained show that about 72 % of events releasing daily energy above 10 000 GJ belong to the extreme class of fire danger, a considerably high fraction that is more than 1.5 times the values obtained when using the currently operational Fire Danger Forecast module of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS or the Fire Risk Map (FRM product disseminated by the LSA SAF. Besides assisting in wildfire management, the procedure is expected to help in decision making on prescribed burning within the framework of agricultural and forest management practices.

  16. LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Phani K.

    2007-01-01

    Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6 m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H 2 O and CO 2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are

  17. POWER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DESIGN ON NODE EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR PEATLANDS FIRE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiq Muammar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Early warning system is one of the technology to detect land fires by utilizing a network of wireless sensors. Constant data transmission by the sensor nodes consumes a large amount of energy on the nodes’ sides that could affect the battery’s longevity. This research is done to discover the amount of power consumption and battery longevity during fire emergencies, and during non-emergency situation on peatlands. Power saving on the fire detecting system uses an LM35 temperature sensor, ATmega8 micro-controller and HC-12 transmission module. The overall result of powered by a 9 volt battery during fire emergencies, and during non-emergency, the power consumption reaches up to 1 Wh, with various longevity levels of the battery. The implementation of sleep/wake up mode scheduling during fire emergencies and non-emergencies could save battery for 2 hours compared to those without the power saving mode implementation. Power saving during fire emergency could be minimalized by activating the sleep mode activation power-down on the micro controller and it can also set the data transmission schedule to minimalize data usage during fire emergency, so that the usage of sleep/wake up mode interval scheduling during transmission could minimalize energy consumption and elongate the power supply active period.

  18. Historic global biomass burning emissions for CMIP6 (BB4CMIP based on merging satellite observations with proxies and fire models (1750–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. E. van Marle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fires have influenced atmospheric composition and climate since the rise of vascular plants, and satellite data have shown the overall global extent of fires. Our knowledge of historic fire emissions has progressively improved over the past decades due mostly to the development of new proxies and the improvement of fire models. Currently, there is a suite of proxies including sedimentary charcoal records, measurements of fire-emitted trace gases and black carbon stored in ice and firn, and visibility observations. These proxies provide opportunities to extrapolate emission estimates back in time based on satellite data starting in 1997, but each proxy has strengths and weaknesses regarding, for example, the spatial and temporal extents over which they are representative. We developed a new historic biomass burning emissions dataset starting in 1750 that merges the satellite record with several existing proxies and uses the average of six models from the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP protocol to estimate emissions when the available proxies had limited coverage. According to our approach, global biomass burning emissions were relatively constant, with 10-year averages varying between 1.8 and 2.3 Pg C yr−1. Carbon emissions increased only slightly over the full time period and peaked during the 1990s after which they decreased gradually. There is substantial uncertainty in these estimates, and patterns varied depending on choices regarding data representation, especially on regional scales. The observed pattern in fire carbon emissions is for a large part driven by African fires, which accounted for 58 % of global fire carbon emissions. African fire emissions declined since about 1950 due to conversion of savanna to cropland, and this decrease is partially compensated for by increasing emissions in deforestation zones of South America and Asia. These global fire emission estimates are mostly suited for global analyses and

  19. Predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) for emission control in biomass fired plants; Predikterande emissionsmaetsystem (PEMS) foer emissionskontroll i biobraensleeldade foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, H; Sarkoezi, L; Trenkle, S

    1996-08-01

    An alternative method for estimation of NO{sub x}-emissions from biomass fired plants has been investigated. The method, `Predictive emission monitoring` (PEMS), implicates the creation of a mathematical formula. The formula expresses the relations between NO{sub x}-emissions and various operating and external parameters, such as flue gas temperature, excess combustion air and heat load. In this study the applicability of PEMS has been tested for two plants both of type travelling stokers. The most important results of the study are: PEMS is suitable for emission monitoring for some types of biomass fired plants (for example travelling stokers) even if the plant is fired with fuel with varying water content. In most cases it should be sufficient if the relation is based on oxygen level in the flue gas and plant load, with the possible addition of flue gas temperature and/or furnace temperature rate. These parameters are usually measured in any case, which means that no additional investment in instrumentation is necessary. In this study many measured parameters (for example the throttle levels) did not affect the NO{sub x}-emissions. A PEMS relation is only applicable for a specific plant and for a fixed validity range. Thus the function should be performed in such a way that it covers the limits of the operating parameters of the plant. Usage of different fuels or drift optimization can only be done within the validity range. Good combustion conditions could be necessary to receive a usable PEMS-function. Before creating the PEMS-function the combustion and the emission levels must be optimized. In plants with very fluctuating combustion, for example fixed stokers, it is possible that PEMS leads to not satisfying results. The total cost for a PEM-function can be calculated to be about 50-70% compared to a CEM during a period of a decade. 8 refs, 13 figs, 15 tabs, 8 appendices

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  1. LED power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production in Nannochloropsis microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Chua, Elvis T; Eltanahy, Eladl; Netzel, Michael E; Netzel, Gabriele; Lu, Yinghua; Schenk, Peer M

    2018-03-01

    The microalga Nannochloropsis produces high-value omega-3-rich fatty acids and carotenoids. In this study the effects of light intensity and wavelength on biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production with respect to light output efficiency were investigated. Similar biomass and fatty acid yields were obtained at high light intensity (150 μmol m -2  s -1 ) LEDs on day 7 and low light intensity (50 μmol m -2  s -1 ) LEDs on day 11 during cultivation, but the power efficiencies of biomass and fatty acid (specifically eicosapentaenoic acid) production were higher for low light intensity. Interestingly, low light intensity enhanced both, carotenoid power efficiency of carotenoid biosynthesis and yield. White LEDs were neither advantageous for biomass and fatty acid yields, nor the power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production. Noticeably, red LED resulted in the highest biomass and fatty acid power efficiency, suggesting that LEDs can be fine-tuned to grow Nannochloropsis algae more energy-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional biomass burning trends in India: Analysis of satellite fire data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humans have dramatically influenced biomass burn- ing for agricultural needs ... implications for climatic change as a result of land- scape change ... Comprehensive modelling-based emission esti- mates of .... Cloud coverage could be also a ...

  3. Siberian Boreal Forest Aboveground Biomass and Fire Scar Maps, Russia, 1969-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides 30-meter resolution mapped estimates of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi) aboveground biomass (AGB), circa 2007, and a map of burn perimeters...

  4. Forum for fire protection and safety in power plants[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference contains 16 presentations on topics in the fields of fire protection and safety in plants in Western Norway, reorganization and reconstruction of power systems and plants in Norway, various aspects of risk and vulnerability analysis, technological aspects of plant management and construction and problems and risks with particularly transformers. Some views on challenges of the fire departments and the new Norwegian regulations for electrical power supply systems are included. One presentation deals with challenges for Icelandic power production plants.

  5. A Co-Powered Biomass and Concentrated Solar Power Rankine Cycle Concept for Small Size Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Tortora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the matching of an advanced small scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP Rankine cycle plant with end-user thermal and electric load. The power plant consists of a concentrated solar power field co-powered by a biomass furnace to produce steam in a Rankine cycle, with a CHP configuration. A hotel was selected as the end user due to its high thermal to electric consumption ratio. The power plant design and its operation were modelled and investigated by adopting transient simulations with an hourly distribution. The study of the load matching of the proposed renewable power technology and the final user has been carried out by comparing two different load tracking scenarios, i.e., the thermal and the electric demands. As a result, the power output follows fairly well the given load curves, supplying, on a selected winter day, about 50 GJ/d of thermal energy and the 6 GJ/d of electric energy, with reduced energy dumps when matching the load.

  6. A dual fired downdraft gasifier system to produce cleaner gas for power generation: Design, development and performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, P.; Ram, N.K.; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-01-01

    The existing biomass gasifier systems have several technical challenges, which need to be addressed. They are reduction of impurities in the gas, increasing the reliability of the system, easy in operation and maintenance. It is also essential to have a simple design of gasifier system for power generation, which can work even in remote locations. A dual fired downdraft gasifier system was designed to produce clean gas from biomass fuel, used for electricity generation. This system is proposed to overcome a number of technical challenges. The system is equipped with dry gas cleaning and indirect gas cooling equipment. The dry gas cleaning system completely eliminates wet scrubbers that require large quantities of water. It also helps to do away with the disposal issues with the polluted water. With the improved gasifier system, the tar level in the raw gas is less than 100 mg Nm −3 .Cold gas efficiency has improved to 89% by complete gasification of biomass and recycling of waste heat into the reactor. Several parameters, which are considered in the design and development of the reactors, are presented in detail with their performance indicators. - Highlights: • Hot air injection in dual fired reactor reduces the tar content to less than 100 mg Nm −3 . • In clean gas the tar content is 35 mg Nm −3 and the dust content is nil. • The specific gasification rate is 2.8 Nm 3 kg −1 of fuel wood and cold gas efficiency is 89.7%. • CV of the gas: 5.3 MJ Nm −3 , SFC: 1.1 kg kWh −1 and wood to power efficiency: 21%. • Cold gas efficiency is improved by optimizing the reactor's design and recycling the waste heat from hot gas

  7. An evaluation of greenhouse gas mitigation options for coal-fired power plants in the US Great Lakes States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froese, Robert E.; Shonnard, David R.; Miller, Chris A.; Koers, Ken P.; Johnson, Dana M.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation in the US Great Lakes States, a region heavily dependent on coal-fired power plants. A proposed 600 MW power plant in northern Lower Michigan, USA provided context for our evaluation. Options to offset fossil CO 2 emissions by 20% included biomass fuel substitution from (1) forest residuals, (2) short-rotation woody crops, or (3) switchgrass; (4) biologic sequestration in forest plantations; and (5) geologic sequestration using CO 2 capture. Review of timber product output data, land cover data, and expected energy crop productivity on idle agriculture land within 120 km of the plant revealed that biomass from forestry residuals has the potential to offset 6% and from energy crops 27% of the annual fossil fuel requirement. Furthermore, annual forest harvest in the region is only 26% of growth and the surplus represents a large opportunity for forest products and bioenergy applications. We used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to compare mitigation options, using fossil energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions per unit electricity generation as criteria. LCA results revealed that co-firing with forestry residuals is the most attractive option and geologic sequestration is the least attractive option, based on the two criteria. Biologic sequestration is intermediate but likely infeasible because of very large land area requirements. Our study revealed that biomass feedstock potentials from land and forest resources are not limiting mitigation activities, but the most practical approach is likely a combination of options that optimize additional social, environmental and economic criteria.

  8. Evaluation of fire hazard analyses for nuclear power plants. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present publication has been developed with the help of experts from regulatory, operating and engineering organizations, all with practical experience in the field of fire safety of nuclear power plants. The publication supplements the broad concepts of Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, by providing a detailed list of the issues, and some of the limitations, to be considered when evaluating the adequacy and effectiveness of the fire hazard analysis of a nuclear power plant. The publication is intended for assessors of fire hazard analyses, including regulators, independent assessors or plant assessors, and gives a broad description of the methodology to be used by operators in preparing a fire hazard analysis for their own plant. 1 fig

  9. Tactical supply chain planning for a forest biomass power plant under supply uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Nazanin; Sowlati, Taraneh; Ouhimmou, Mustapha; Rönnqvist, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in biomass supply is a critical issue that needs to be considered in the production planning of bioenergy plants. Incorporating uncertainty in supply chain planning models provides improved and stable solutions. In this paper, we first reformulate a previously developed non-linear programming model for optimization of a forest biomass power plant supply chain into a linear programming model. The developed model is a multi-period tactical-level production planning problem and considers the supply and storage of forest biomass as well as the production of electricity. It has a one-year planning horizon with monthly time steps. Next, in order to incorporate uncertainty in monthly available biomass into the planning, we develop a two-stage stochastic programming model. Finally, to balance the risk and profit, we propose a bi-objective model. The results show that uncertainty in availability of biomass has an additional cost of $0.4 million for the power plant. Using the proposed stochastic optimization model could reduce this cost by half. - Highlights: • Developed a two-stage stochastic optimization model to consider supply uncertainty. • Maximized the profit of a forest biomass power plant value chain. • Minimized two risk measures, variability index and downside risk, to manage risks. • Stochastic optimization model provided feasible solution for all scenarios. • Results showed a trade-off between profit and risk management

  10. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This document contains papers presented at The advanced Coal-Fired Power Systems 1995 Review Meeting. Research was described in the areas of: integrated gasification combined cycle technology; pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; externally fired combined cycles; a summary stauts of clean coal technologies; advanced turbine systems and hot gas cleanup. Individual projects were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  11. Structural rehabilitation of a fossil power station after major fire damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freskakis, G.N.; Archer, J.C.; Shipskie, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the eruption and course of a fire at a fossil power station. Focus is on the damage to the building and the reinforced concrete pedestal, and the assessments and repairs involved in the restoration. Emphasis is given to the pedestal since, both the response to fire and the repair for such a massive structure are of particular interest

  12. Laboratory Investigation of High Temperature Corrosion in Straw fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion in straw-fired power plants has been studied in the laboratory for Sandvik 8LR30 and Sanicro 28. The influence of HCl and SO2 was investigated at 600C metal temperature for upto 300 hours.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was examined in ash taken from a straw-fired...

  13. Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-23

    To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

  14. Overview of environmental assessment for China nuclear power industry and coal-fired power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaodong; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yongxing

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative environmental assessment method and the corresponding computer code are introduced. By the consideration of all fuel cycle steps, it given that the public health risk of China nuclear power industry is 5.2 x 10 -1 man/(GW·a) the public health risk is 2.5 man/(GW·a), and the total health risk is 3.0 man/(GW·a). After the health risk calculation for coal mining, transport, burning up and ash disposal, it gives that the public health risk of China coal-fired power industry is 3.6 man/(GW·a), the occupational health risk is 50 man/(GW·a), and the total is 54 man/(GW·). Accordingly, the conclusion that China nuclear power industry is one with high safety and cleanness is derived at the end

  15. CEZ utility's coal-fired power plants: towards a higher environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindl, V.; Spilkova, T.; Vanousek, I.; Stehlik, J.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental efforts of the major Czech utility, CEZ a.s., are aimed at reducing air pollution arising from electricity and heat generating facilities. There are 3 main kinds of activity in this respect: phasing out of coal fired power plants; technological provisions to reduce emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from those coal fired units that are to remain in operation after 1998; and completion of the Temelin nuclear power plant. In 1995, emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide from CEZ's coal fired power plants were 19%, 79%, 59%, and 60%, respectively, with respect to the situation in 1992. The break-down of electricity generation by CEZ facilities (in GWh) was as follows in 1995: hydroelectric power plants 1673, nuclear power plants 12230, coal fired power plants without desulfurization equipment 30181, and coal fired power plants with desulfurization equipment 2277. Provisions implemented to improve the environmental friendliness of the individual CEZ's coal fired power plants are described in detail. (P.A.). 5 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Proof of safer operation of power station plant during a fire by linking in fire simulation and system technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, W.; Beyer, H.; Samman, A.

    1997-01-01

    In order to attain the basic aims of protection in power station plant, a series of systems, which must be available also in the event of a fire, are provided. The thermal loads for the systems and components which are necessary to attain the aims of protection are ascertained by means of a simulation of the cause of the fire for the specific scenario. Statements on the availability of the systems and components in the specific scenario are derived from the design values used as the basis. (orig.) [de

  17. Deposit Shedding in Biomass-fired Boilers: Shear Adhesion Strength Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared...... on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, deposit composition, sintering duration, and steel type...... on the adhesion strength....

  18. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  19. [Simulating the effects of climate change and fire disturbance on aboveground biomass of boreal forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xu; Wang, Yu Li; Zhang, Jin Quan

    2018-03-01

    Predicting the effects of climate warming and fire disturbance on forest aboveground biomass is a central task of studies in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The alteration of temperature, precipitation, and disturbance regimes induced by climate warming will affect the carbon dynamics of forest ecosystem. Boreal forest is an important forest type in China, the responses of which to climate warming and fire disturbance are increasingly obvious. In this study, we used a forest landscape model LANDIS PRO to simulate the effects of climate change on aboveground biomass of boreal forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, and compared direct effects of climate warming and the effects of climate warming-induced fires on forest aboveground biomass. The results showed that the aboveground biomass in this area increased under climate warming scenarios and fire disturbance scenarios with increased intensity. Under the current climate and fire regime scenario, the aboveground biomass in this area was (97.14±5.78) t·hm -2 , and the value would increase up to (97.93±5.83) t·hm -2 under the B1F2 scenario. Under the A2F3 scenario, aboveground biomass at landscape scale was relatively higher at the simulated periods of year 100-150 and year 150-200, and the value were (100.02±3.76) t·hm -2 and (110.56±4.08) t·hm -2 , respectively. Compared to the current fire regime scenario, the predicted biomass at landscape scale was increased by (0.56±1.45) t·hm -2 under the CF2 scenario (fire intensity increased by 30%) at some simulated periods, and the aboveground biomass was reduced by (7.39±1.79) t·hm -2 in CF3 scenario (fire intensity increased by 230%) at the entire simulation period. There were significantly different responses between coniferous and broadleaved species under future climate warming scenarios, in that the simulated biomass for both Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla showed decreasing trend with climate change, whereas the simulated biomass for Pinus

  20. Economic feasibility of biomass gasification for power generation in three selected communities of northwestern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Thakur Prasad; Shahi, Chander; Leitch, Mathew; Pulkki, Reino

    2012-01-01

    Biomass gasification is expected to be an attractive option among other competitive applications of biomass conversion for bio-energy. This study analyzes economic feasibility of biomass gasification power generating plants in three selected communities (Ignace, Nipigon and Kenora) of northwestern Ontario. The major variables considered in the model are harvesting and handling costs, logistic costs for biomass feedstock delivery and storage, capital costs of power plant by scales, operation and maintenance costs, labor costs, capital financing costs and other regulatory costs. GIS analysis was undertaken to estimate the distance class matrix to apportion the biomass feedstock supply side from different forest management units. Total cost per MW h power production at a 50 MW scale ranges from CAD 61.89 to CAD 63.79. Total cost per unit of electricity production decreases significantly as plant capacity increases due to economy of scale in the production system. Further, the locations of plants explained the cost variability. - Highlights: ► We model feasibility of gasification power plants in three rural communities. ► The variables considered in the model are logistics, operational and capital costs. ► Mean distance from each community to different forest units are estimated with GIS. ► Total cost per MWh at a 50 MW scale ranges from CAD 61.89 to CAD 63.79. ► Total cost decreases with increase in plant capacity.

  1. Fire analysis. Relevant aspects from Spanish nuclear power plants experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Pedro; Villar, Tomas [Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E., Madrid (Spain). Nuclear Safety Dept.

    2015-12-15

    Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E. leads the development and updating of fire analysis for the Spanish NPP's. Some of them decided to voluntarily adopt standard NFPA-805 as an alternative to the current fire protection rules. Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methodologies have been continuously evolving during recent years. This paper will briefly present experience gained in relationship with some relevant aspects of fire risk analysis. Associated circuits need to be evaluated to determine if cable faults can prevent or cause the maloperation of redundant safety related systems. If a circuit is not properly protected by an isolation device, fire damage to a cable could propagate to other safe shutdown cables. In order to check that the coordination is adequate, existing electrical protections coordination studies have been analyzed and, for some plants, additional analyses have been performed for DC and AC for instrumentation an control (I and C) systems. Spurious actuations are also a basic part of the analysis of the consequence of a fire, which should consider any possible actuation that can prevent or affect the performance of a system or safety function. In this context, it was furthermore necessary to take into account the possibility of a combination of several spurious actuations that can result in a specific consequence, according to Appendix G of NEI 00-01 Rev. 2. These are the so-called Multiple Spurious Operations (MSOs). One key element in fire analysis is the availability of validated fire models used to estimate the spread of fire and the failure time of cable raceways. NFPA 805 states that fire models shall only be applied within the limitations of the given model. The applicability of the validation results is determined using normalized parameters traditionally used in fire modeling applications. Normalized parameters assessed in NUREG-1934 may be used to compare NPP fire scenarios with validation experiments. If some of the parameters do

  2. Regulatory point of view on defense in depth approach to fire protection in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinta-Filppula, Samu; Lehto, Matti; Vaelikangas, Pekka [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-12-15

    The defense-in-depth (DiD) principle is a relatively new approach to fire protection design, even though DiD has been used in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety evaluation and design for decades (IAEA 75-INSAG-3, Rev. 1/INSAG-12). It is the main design criterion in fire protection in the latest edition of Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) issued guide YVL B.8 for the fire protection in nuclear facilities. The DiD approach to fire protection consists of four levels of defense: preventing the ignition of fires, detecting and extinguishing of ignited fires, preventing fire growth and spreading, confining the fire so that safety functions can be performed irrespective of the effects of the fire. The design of fire protection should take all these levels into account so that fire protection is well balanced and not dependent on a single fire protection factor or level of DiD. Despite being central to the design of fire protection, corresponding evaluations of DiD are done according to more or less unambiguous methods. The main goal of this study is to start the development of such, as much as possible, unambiguous systematic and logical method. First issue then is to build a picture of how fire safety features are executed on different levels of DiD and what is the corresponding safety importance to NPP. The Loviisa NPP was studied as an example case due to a long history of fire safety improvements since commissioning in 1977. The improvements are sorted qualitatively by their means of fire safety impact and level of DiD approach to fire protection and general plant DiD. The correspondence between the two DiD principles is an interesting issue which is discussed in this paper. Finally, Fire PRA is used to determine the safety importance of the improvements. The method proposed for the evaluation of DiD approach to fire protection is a combined ignition root cause analysis - event tree of fire scenario - consequential failure modes and effects analysis

  3. Study of the Radiological Impact of the Coal Fired Power Plants on the Environment. The As Pontes coal-fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Study carried out to determine the radiological impact of the four main Spanish coal-fired power plants, the Study on the As Pontes Coal-Fired Coal Power Plant was finalized. In the Report containing the study are included every measurement performed, as well as the modelling and evaluations carried out in order to assess the radiological impact. The general conclusion obtained is that under a radiological point of view, the impact of this installation on the public and the environment is very small. Also the radiological impact on the workers of the installation was assessed, obtaining too very small increases over the natural background. (Author) 61 refs.

  4. Jointly optimizing selection of fuel treatments and siting of forest biomass-based energy production facilities for landscape-scale fire hazard reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Daugherty; Jeremy S. Fried

    2007-01-01

    Landscape-scale fuel treatments for forest fire hazard reduction potentially produce large quantities of material suitable for biomass energy production. The analytic framework FIA BioSum addresses this situation by developing detailed data on forest conditions and production under alternative fuel treatment prescriptions, and computes haul costs to alternative sites...

  5. Investigating the links between ozone and organic aerosol chemistry in a biomass burning plume from a prescribed fire in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Alvarado; C.R. Lonsdale; R.J. Yokelson; S.K. Akagi; I.R. Burling; H. Coe; J.S. Craven; E. Fischer; G.R. McMeeking; J.H. Seinfeld; T. Soni; J.W. Taylor; D.R. Weise; C.E. Wold

    2015-01-01

    Within minutes after emission, complex photochemistry in biomass burning smoke plumes can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3) and organic aerosol (OA). Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires on air...

  6. Probe Measurements of Ash Deposit Formation Rate and Shedding in a Biomass Suspension-Fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    The aim of this study was to investigate ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake reduction and deposit removal by using advanced online ash deposition and sootblowing probes in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, utilizing wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type (straw share...

  7. Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

  8. Coal-Fired Power Plants, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Approximate locations of active coal-fired power plants located in US EPA's Region 9. Emission counts from the 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) are included...

  9. Nuclear and coal-fired power plant capital costs 1978 -June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, R.T.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography covers 16 papers dealing with the economics of power generation - mainly comparisons between the capital costs of nuclear and coal fired plants. Some of the papers additionally discuss fuel, operating and maintenance costs, and performance. (U.K.)

  10. Users' guide for a personal-computer-based nuclear power plant fire data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Fire Data Base has been developed for use with an IBM XT (or with a compatible system). Nuclear power plant fire data is located in many diverse references, making it both costly and time-consuming to obtain. The purpose of this Fire Data Base is to collect and to make easily accessible nuclear power plant fire data. This users' guide discusses in depth the specific features and capabilities of the various options found in the data base. Capabilities include the ability to search several database fields simultaneously to meet user-defined conditions, display basic plant information, and determine the operating experience (in years) for several nuclear power plant locations. Step-by-step examples are included for each option to allow the user to learn how to access the data

  11. Effects of Different Fuel Specifications and Operation Conditions on the Performance of Coated and Uncoated Superheater Tubes in Two Different Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Duoli; Dahl, Kristian V.; Madsen, Jesper L.

    2018-01-01

    Fireside corrosionis a serious concern in biomass firing powerplants such that the efficiency of boilers is limited by high temperature corrosion. Application of protective coatings on superheater tubes is a possible solution to combat fireside corrosion. The current study investigates the corros......Fireside corrosionis a serious concern in biomass firing powerplants such that the efficiency of boilers is limited by high temperature corrosion. Application of protective coatings on superheater tubes is a possible solution to combat fireside corrosion. The current study investigates...... the corrosion performance of coated tubes compared to uncoated Esshete 1250 and TP347H tubes, which were exposed in two different biomass-fired boilers for one year. Data on the fuel used, temperature of the boilers, and temperature fluctuations are compared for the two boilers, and how these factors influence...... deposit formation, corrosion, and the stability of the coatings is discussed. The coatings (Ni and Ni2Al3) showed protective behavior ina wood-fired plant where the outlet steam temperature was 520 °C. However, at the plant that fired straw with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C and where severe...

  12. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  13. Cernavoda nuclear power plant: Modifications in the fire protection measures of the CANDU 6 standard design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalschi, V.

    1998-01-01

    Having as purpose the improvement of fire safety at the Cernavoda NPP - both in the prevention and the protection aspects in the case of fire - we implemented some modifications in the CANDU 6 standard design. These improvements are inspired, mainly, from two sources: the world-wide achievements in the field of fire protection techniques, introduced in nuclear power plants since the middle of 70's, when the CANDU 6 design was completed; the national practice and experience in fire protection, usually applied in industrial objectives (conventional power plants, in particular). The absence of any incident may be considered as a proof of the efficiency of the implemented fire preventing and protection measures. (author)

  14. Higher efficiency, lower bonuses. Financial incentives for power from biomass according to EEG 2012; Mehr Effizienz, weniger Boni. Die Foerderung von Strom aus Biomasse nach dem EEG 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Dominik [Ecologic Institute, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The German parliament passed a total of eight new laws for the intended energy turnaround. Apart from changes in atomic law, the focus was on a complete amendment of the Renewables Act (EEG). The contribution outlines the new regulations for power generation from biomass from 2012. It indicates the changes from former regulations and describes the structural changes required for sustainable power supply from biomass, among others.

  15. Fire brigade organization and training at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    Management support necessary for the successful organization and training of a fire brigade is outlined. Brigade staffing is discussed and elements of the training program are outlined. The importance of a complete emergency plan is also discussed

  16. Carbon Debt Payback Time for a Biomass Fired CHP Plant—A Case Study from Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Madsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has experienced a large increase in the use of biomass for energy in the last decades. In 2015, biomass used to generate electricity, heat, and to a limited extent, liquid fuels accounted for 51% of the EU’s renewable energy production. Bioenergy use is expected to grow substantially to meet energy and climate targets for 2020 and beyond. This development has resulted in analyses suggesting the increased use of biomass for energy might initially lead to increased greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to the atmosphere, a so-called carbon debt. Here, we analyze carbon debt and payback time of substituting coal with forest residues for combined heat and power generation (CHP. The analysis is, in contrast to most other studies, based on empirical data from a retrofit of a CHP plant in northern Europe. The results corroborate findings of a carbon debt, here 4.4 kg CO2eq GJ−1. The carbon debt has a payback time of one year after conversion, and furthermore, the results show that GHG emissions are reduced to 50% relative to continued coal combustion after about 12 years. The findings support the use of residue biomass for energy as an effective means for climate change mitigation.

  17. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    The main constituents rendering the engine use of gas produced from biomass are the tar content of the gases (condensing hydrocarbons), which cause problems for pipings, nozzles, and control of combustion. Purification methods, based on catalytic cracking of tars are investigated in the research in order to eliminate these problems. The target of the project is to demonstrate the developed gasification/gas purification process with engine test using PDU-scale equipment. Impurities of biomasses and biomass wastes (alkalis, chlorine, heavy metals), and the ash melting properties restrict in many cases the combined utilisation of biomasses and coal in power plant boilers. The second main task of this research is to investigate the removal of the problematic gas and ash components from the product gas. The sufficient degree of purification should be achieved by as simple and as cheap purification methods as possible. The main tasks of the first year of the project were (a) determination of the dimensioning characteristics of ambient pressure PDU scale cell-catalyst reactor (tests with laboratory-scale equipment), designing and construction of the reactor, (b) to investigate the operation of a cell-catalyst in purification of pre-cracked down-draft gasification gas, (c) acquisition of dimensioning data for dolomite-cracker based on fluidized bed principle, and (d) gasification of the Dutch building demolition waste and Danish straw, and the purification tests with the gases

  18. The economics of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Coal-fired plants are the most polluting way to produce electricity due to their high CO2 emissions. But are they a good choice from an economic point of view? According to Greenpeace the answer is no: the price of coal is rising, construction costs are increasing and CO2 emissions will be priced. Nevertheless, E.On is developing plans for a new coal-fired plant at the Maasvlakte with the support of the Dutch government. [mk] [nl

  19. Advanced power generation using biomass wastes from palm oil mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Kurniawan, Tedi; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the energy-efficient utilization of both solid and liquid wastes from palm oil mills, particularly their use for power generation. It includes the integration of a power generation system using empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). The proposed system mainly consists of three modules: EFB gasification, POME digestion, and additional organic Rankine cycle (ORC). EFBs are dried and converted into a syngas fuel with high calorific value through integrated drying and gasification processes. In addition, POME is converted into a biogas fuel for power generation. Biogas engine-based cogenerators are used for generating both electricity and heat. The remaining unused heat is recovered by ORC module to generate electricity. The influences of three EFB gasification temperatures (800, 900 and 1000 °C) in EFB gasification module; and working fluids and pressure in ORC module are evaluated. Higher EFB gasification leads to higher generated electricity and remaining heat for ORC module. Power generation efficiency increases from 11.2 to 24.6% in case of gasification temperature is increased from 800 to 1000 °C. In addition, cyclohexane shows highest energy efficiency compared to toluene and n-heptane in ORC module. Higher pressure in ORC module also leads to higher energy efficiency. Finally, the highest total generated power and power generation efficiency obtained by the system are 8.3 MW and 30.4%, respectively.

  20. Fire barrier penetration seals in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, C.S.; West, K.S.

    1996-07-01

    NNPs are divided into separated fire areas by fire-rated structural barriers. Fire-rated penetration seals are installed to seal certain openings in these barriers, in order to provide reasonable assurance that a fire will be confined to the area where it started. The staff of the Fire Protection Engineering Section, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US NRC, conducted a comprehensive technical assessment of penetration seals to address reports of potential problems, to determine if there were any problems of safety significance, and to determine if NRC requirements, review guidance, and inspection procedures are adequate. It was concluded that the general condition of penetration seal programs in industry is satisfactory, and that the actions taken in 1988 and 1994 had increased industry awareness of potential problems and resulted in more thorough surveillances, maintenance, and corrective actions. These previous staff actions, together with continued licensee upkeep of existing penetration seal programs and continued NRC inspections, are adequate to maintain public health and safety. Several minor revisions to the NRC fire protection regulation and review guidance are recommended

  1. Life cycle assessment of solar aided coal-fired power system with and without heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Rongrong; Li, Chao; Chen, Ying; Yang, Yongping; Patchigolla, Kumar; Oakey, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The comprehensive performances of three kinds of different systems were compared through LCA. • The comprehensive results of all systems were evaluated by grey relation theory. • The effects of life span, coal price, and solar collector field cost, among other factors, on the results were explored. - Abstract: Pollutant emissions from coal-fired power system have been receiving increasing attention over the past few years. Integration of solar thermal energy can greatly reduce pollutant emissions from these power stations. The performances of coal-fired power system (S1), solar aided coal-fired power system with thermal storage (S2), and solar aided coal-fired power system without thermal storage (S3) with three capacities of each kind of system (i.e., nine subsystems) were analyzed over the entire life span. The pollutant emissions and primary energy consumptions (PECs) of S1, S2, and S3 were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The evaluation value of global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), respiratory effects potential (REP) and PEC were obtained based on the LCA results. Furthermore, the system investments were estimated, and grey relation theory was used to evaluate the performance of the three types of systems comprehensively. Finally, in order to find the effect of some main factors on the solar aided coal-fired power system (SACFPS), uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The LCA results show that the pollutant emissions and PEC mainly take place in the fuel processing and operation stages for all three system types, and S2 performs the best among the three systems based on the grey relation analysis results. And the uncertainty analysis shows that with longer life span, the power system have better performance; with higher coal price, the power system will have worse performance; with lower solar collector field cost, the solar aided coal-fired power system will be more profitable than the base

  2. Developing an international consortium to build an 800 MW coal fired power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Hashima, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the cooperative construction of a fossil-fueled power plant in Indonesia. The topics discussed in the paper include energy use and the market for electric power, fuel resources, history of business activities, the role of joint resources and government business policy, and preparing for bidding an 800MW coal-fired power plant

  3. Investigation of potential fire-related damage to safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanless, J.

    1985-11-01

    Based on a review of vendor information, fire damage reports, equipment qualification and hydrogen burn test results, and material properties, thirty-three types of equipment found in nuclear power plants were ranked in terms of their potential sensitivity to fire environments. The ranking considered both the functional requirements and damage proneness of each component. A further review of the seven top-ranked components was performed, considering the relative prevalence and potential safety significance of each. From this, relays and hand switches dominate as first choices for fire damage testing with logic equipment, power supplies, transmitters, and motor control centers as future candidates

  4. Future CO2 emissions and electricity generation from proposed coal-fired power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofrich, R.; Shearer, C.; Davis, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    India represents a critical unknown in global projections of future CO2 emissions due to its growing population, industrializing economy, and large coal reserves. In this study, we assess existing and proposed construction of coal-fired power plants in India and evaluate their implications for future energy production and emissions in the country. In 2016, India had 369 coal-fired power plants under development totaling 243 gigawatts (GW) of generating capacity. These coal-fired power plants would increase India's coal-fired generating capacity by 123% and would exceed India's projected electricity demand. Therefore, India's current proposals for new coal-fired power plants would be forced to retire early or operate at very low capacity factors and/or would prevent India from meeting its goal of producing at least 40% of its power from renewable sources by 2030. In addition, future emissions from proposed coal-fired power plants would exceed India's climate commitment to reduce its 2005 emissions intensity 33% - 35% by 2030.

  5. Analysis of todays best available technology for biomass fired heating plants in the interval 0.5 to 10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mats-Lennart; Gustavsson, Lennart; Maartensson, D.; Leckner, B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present project has been to study today's best available technology for biomass fired heating plants in the interval 0.5 to 10 MW from an emission point of view. Emission measurements have been conducted at 21 plants of different types and sizes, i.e. one stationary fluidized bed, fourteen boilers with moving grates, four boilers with fixed grates, one pellet burner and one boiler with a gasification oven. The plants were fired with different fuels: native fuels like wood chips, bark/sawdust, grass and refined fuels like briquettes and pellets. The plants were chosen to represent the best available and/or the most common technology. The flue gases were analyzed for CO, NO x , Total Hydrocarbons (THC), methane, ethylene, acetylene, ammonia, nitrous oxide, CO 2 and O 2 . The measurements were usually made at the heat loads and operating conditions given at the time of testing. However, in a few cases measurements were made at different loads and air settings

  6. Energy values and estimation of power generation potentials of some non-woody biomass species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M; Patel, S K [National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (India)

    2008-07-01

    In view of high energy potentials in non-woody biomass species and an increasing interest in their utilization for power generation, an attempt has been made in this study to assess the proximate analysis and energy content of different components of Ocimum canum and Tridax procumbens biomass species (both non-woody), and their impact on power generation and land requirement for energy plantations. The net energy content in Ocimum canum was found to be slightly higher than that in Tridax procumbens. In spite of having higher ash contents, the barks from both the plant species exhibited higher calorific values. The results have shown that approximately 650 and 1,270 hectares of land are required to generate 20,000 kWh/day electricity from Ocimum canum and Tridax procumbens biomass species. Coal samples, obtained from six different local mines, were also examined for their qualities, and the results were compared with those of studied biomass materials. This comparison reveals much higher power output with negligible emission of suspended particulate matters (SPM) from biomass materials.

  7. Biomass Power Generation through Direct Integration of Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Houng Leu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is the largest renewable energy source in the world. Its importance grows gradually in the future energy market. Since most biomass sources are low in energy density and are widespread in space, small-scale biomass conversion system is therefore more competitive than a large stand-alone conversion plant. The current study proposes a small-scale solid biomass power system to explore the viability of direct coupling of an updraft fixed bed gasifier with a Stirling engine. The modified updraft fixed bed gasifier employs an embedded combustor inside the gasifier to fully combust the synthetic gas generated by the gasifier. The flue gas produced by the synthetic gas combustion inside the combustion tube is piped directly to the heater head of the Stirling engine. The engine will then extract and convert the heat contained in the flue gas into electricity automatically. Output depends on heat input. And, the heat input is proportional to the flow rate and temperature of the flue gas. The preliminary study of the proposed direct coupling of an updraft gasifier with a 25 kW Stirling engine demonstrates that full power output could be produced by the current system. It could be found from the current investigation that no auxiliary fuel is required to operate the current system smoothly. The proposed technology and units could be considered as a viable solid biomass power system.

  8. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C.; Campleman, Sharan L.; Long, Christopher M.; Peterson, Michael K.; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  9. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette C. Rohr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended.

  10. GIS-based biomass resource utilization for rice straw cofiring in the Taiwanese power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Huang, An-Lei; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw, a rich agricultural byproduct in Taiwan, can be used as biomass feedstock for cofiring systems. In this study, we analyzed the penetration of rice straw cofiring systems in the Taiwanese power market. In the power generation system, rice straw is cofired with fossil fuel in existing electricity plants. The benefits of cofiring systems include increasing the use of renewable energy, decreasing the fuel cost, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. We established a linear complementarity model to simulate the power market equilibrium with cofiring systems in Taiwan. GIS-based analysis was then used to analyze the geospatial relationships between paddy rice farms and power plants to assess potential biomass for straw-power generation. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the biomass feedstock supply system was conducted for various cofiring scenarios. The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring in Taiwanese power market are presented in the paper. - Highlights: ► The penetration of straw cofiring systems in the power market is analyzed. ► GIS-based analysis assesses potential straw-power generation. ► The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring are presented

  11. Injection in the lower stratosphere of biomass fire emissions followed by long-range transport: a MOZAIC case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Cammas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a stratospheric injection by deep convection of biomass fire emissions over North America (Alaska, Yukon and Northwest Territories on 24 June 2004 and its long-range transport over the eastern coast of the United States and the eastern Atlantic. The case study is based on airborne MOZAIC observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and water vapour during the crossing of the southernmost tip of an upper level trough over the Eastern Atlantic on 30 June and on a vertical profile over Washington DC on 30 June, and on lidar observations of aerosol backscattering at Madison (University of Wisconsin on 28 June. Attribution of the observed CO plumes to the boreal fires is achieved by backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART. A simulation with the Meso-NH model for the source region shows that a boundary layer tracer, mimicking the boreal forest fire smoke, is lofted into the lowermost stratosphere (2–5 pvu layer during the diurnal convective cycle at isentropic levels (above 335 K corresponding to those of the downstream MOZAIC observations. It is shown that the order of magnitude of the time needed by the parameterized convective detrainment flux to fill the volume of a model mesh (20 km horizontal, 500 m vertical above the tropopause with pure boundary layer air would be about 7.5 h, i.e. a time period compatible with the convective diurnal cycle. Over the area of interest, the maximum instantaneous detrainment fluxes deposited about 15 to 20% of the initial boundary layer tracer concentration at 335 K. According to the 275-ppbv carbon monoxide maximum mixing ratio observed by MOZAIC over Eastern Atlantic, such detrainment fluxes would be associated with a 1.4–1.8 ppmv carbon monoxide mixing ratio in the boundary layer over the source region.

  12. What is more dangerous: Nuclear power plants or carbon fired power plants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuruc, J [Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1999-12-31

    In this paper environmental impacts of radionuclides and other pollutants released into environment from nuclear power plants (NPP) and coal fired power plants (CFPP) are compared. Assuming coal contains uranium and thorium concentrations of 1.3 ppm and 3.2 ppm, respectively, each typical 1000 MW{sub e} CFPP released 5.2 tons of uranium (containing 36.92 kg of U-235) and 12.8 tons of thorium. Total releases in 1990 from worldwide combustion of {approx}3300 million tons of coal totaled {approx}4552 tons of uranium (contains {approx}32317 kg of uranium-235) and {approx}10860 tons of thorium