WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass conversion situation

  1. Corn stover availability for biomass conversion: situation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, analysis of a conventional large square bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting, collection, and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes.

  2. Corn Stover Availability for Biomass Conversion: Situation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, this study of a large, square-bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional-bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting and collection and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes

  3. Biotechnology of biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers: An introduction to biomass crops; The microbiology of fermentation processes; The production of ethanol from biomass crops, such as sugar cane and rubbers; The energy of biomass conversion; and The economics of biomass conversion

  4. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  5. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experime...

  6. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  7. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  8. Biomass Conversion Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-05

    To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today’s vehicles and infrastructure.

  9. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  10. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  11. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  12. Irradiation enhancement of biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast supply of cellulosic agricultural residues and industrial by-products that is produced each year is a prospective resource of biomass suitable for conversion to useful products such as feedstock for the chemicals industry and feedstuffs for the livestock industry. Conversions of such biomass is poor at present, and utilization is inefficient, because of physio-chemical barriers to biological degradation and/or anti-quality components such as toxicants that restrict biological usages. Improvements in biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic materials have been accomplished by gamma-ray and electron-beam irradiation at intermediate dosage (approx. 50 Mrad; 0.5 MGy); but applications of the technology have been hampered by questionable interpretations of results. Recent research with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and straw suggests opportunity for important applications of irradiation technology in enhancement of biomass conversion. Data from experiments using irradiated straw as feed for ruminants are presented and discussed in relation to research on prospective usage of sewage products as feed for ruminants. Findings are discussed in regard to prospective applications in industrial fermentation processes. Possible usage of irradiation technology for destruction of toxicants in exotic plants is considered in regard to prospective new feedstuffs. (author)

  13. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  15. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  16. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to the plethora of chemicals used in modern society is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Due to the significant differences between biomass resources and the current feedstock, crude oil, new technologies need to be developed encompassing all steps in the...... value chain, from pretreatment to purification. Heterogeneous catalysis is at the heart of the petrochemical refinery and will likely play an equally important role in the future biomass-based chemical industry. Three potentially important routes to chemicals from biomass are highlighted in this chapter....... The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source...

  18. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  19. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the inventi

  20. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  1. Biomass thermo-conversion. Research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is studied the state of the art in order to identify the main trends of the processes of thermo conversion of biomass into fuels and other chemicals. In Cuba, from total supply of biomass, wood is the 19% and sugar cane bagasse and straw the 80%, is why research in the country, should be directed primarily toward these. The methods for energy production from biomass can be group into two classes: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. The technology of thermo-chemical conversion includes three subclasses: pyrolysis, gasification, and direct liquefaction. Although pyrolysis is still under development, in the current energy scenario, has received special attention, because can convert directly biomass into solid, liquid and gaseous by thermal decomposition in absence of oxygen. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, where great quantities of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash are produced. In Cuba, studies of biomass thermo-conversion studies are limited to slow pyrolysis and gasification; but gas fuels, by biomass, are mainly obtained by digestion (biogas). (author)

  2. Biomass conversion technologies - advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The municipal and agricultural wastes are one of the most promising renewable energy resources in Bulgaria because of their high biomass content (65-70%). In the light of forthcoming selection of suitable biomass conversion technology, the authors review and compare some technological features and environmental impact of the most widely used processes like: combustion, pyrolysis, biogas and methanol production. Biomass combustion causes large emissions of CO2, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrofluoric acid etc., but at the same time the residual heat could be utilized for municipal needs. One big advantage of the pyrolytic process is that it reduces the volume of produced emissions as compared to the conventional incinerators. The biogas production by anaerobic digestion is very hazardous because of the presence of very strong poisonous substances as indole and skatole given off along with methane. Some suggestions for propagating the use of biomass conversion technology at the national level are given. 2 figs

  3. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  4. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Understanding catalytic biomass conversion through data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Ras; B. McKay; G. Rothenberg

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of biomass is a key challenge that we chemists face in the twenty-first century. Worldwide, research is conducted into obtaining bulk chemicals, polymers and fuels. Our project centres on glucose valorisation via furfural derivatives using catalytic hydrogenation. We present her

  6. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol) from biomass, which has been to some degree successful, its conversion to high value-added chemicals is equally important. Among various biomass conversion pathways, catalytic conversion is usually preferred, as it provides a cost-effective and eco-benign route to the desired products with high selectivities. The research of this thesis is focused on the conversion of biomass to various chemicals of commercial interest by selective catalytic oxidation. Molecular oxygen is chosen as the oxidant considering its low cost and environment friendly features in comparison with commonly used hydrogen peroxide. However, the activation of molecular oxygen usually requires high reaction temperatures, leading to over oxidation and thus lower selectivities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop effective catalysts for such conversion systems. We use kegging-type heteropoly acids (HPAs) as a platform for catalysts design because of their high catalytic activities and ease of medication. Using HPA catalysts allows the conversion taking place at relatively low temperature, which is beneficial to saving production cost as well as to improving the reaction selectivity. The strong acidity of HPA promotes the hydrolysis of biomass of giant molecules (e.g. cellulose), which is the first as well as the most difficult step in the conversion process. Under certain circumstances, a HPA combines the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, acting as an efficient homogeneous catalyst during the reaction while being easily separated as a heterogeneous catalyst after the reaction. We have successfully applied HPAs in several biomass conversion systems. Specially, we prepared a HPA-based bi-functional catalyst

  7. CFD Studies on Biomass Thermochemical Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Yan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical conversion of biomass offers an efficient and economically process to provide gaseous, liquid and solid fuels and prepare chemicals derived from biomass. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD modeling applications on biomass thermochemical processes help to optimize the design and operation of thermochemical reactors. Recent progression in numerical techniques and computing efficacy has advanced CFD as a widely used approach to provide efficient design solutions in industry. This paper introduces the fundamentals involved in developing a CFD solution. Mathematical equations governing the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions in thermochemical systems are described and sub-models for individual processes are presented. It provides a review of various applications of CFD in the biomass thermochemical process field.

  8. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  9. Biomass Conversion into Solid Composite Fuel for Bed-Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the conversion of different types of biomass into solid composite fuel. The subject of research is the heat conversion of biomass into solid composite fuel. The research object is the biomass of the Tomsk region (Russia: peat, waste wood, lake sapropel. Physical experiment of biomass conversion is used as method of research. The new experimental unit for thermal conversion of biomass into carbon residue, fuel gas and pyrolysis condensate is described. As a result of research such parameters are obtained: thermotechnical biomass characteristics, material balances and product characteristics of the heat-technology conversion. Different methods of obtaining solid composite fuel from the products of thermal technologies are considered. As a result, it is established: heat-technology provides efficient conversion of the wood chips and peat; conversion of the lake sapropel is inefficient since the solid composite fuel has the high ash content and net calorific value.

  10. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  11. Catalytic conversion of biomass to fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, R. L.; Ushiba, K. K.; Cooper, M.; Mahawili, I.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents an assessment and perspective concerning the application of catalytic technologies to the thermochemical conversion of biomass resources to fuels. The major objectives of the study are: to provide a systematic assessment of the role of catalysis in the direct thermochemical conversion of biomass into gaseous and liquid fuels; to establish the relationship between potential biomass conversion processes and catalytic processes currently under development in other areas, with particular emphasis on coal conversion processes; and to identify promising catalytic systems which could be utilized to reduce the overall costs of fuels production from biomass materials. The report is divided into five major parts which address the above objectives. In Part III the physical and chemical properties of biomass and coal are compared, and the implications for catalytic conversion processes are discussed. With respect to chemical properties, biomass is shown to have significant advantages over coal in catalytic conversion processes because of its uniformly high H/C ratio and low concentrations of potential catalyst poisons. The physical properties of biomass can vary widely, however, and preprocessing by grinding is difficult and costly. Conversion technologies that require little preprocessing and accept a wide range of feed geometries, densities, and particle sizes appear desirable. Part IV provides a comprehensive review of existing and emerging thermochemical conversion technologies for biomass and coal. The underlying science and technology for gasification and liquefaction processes are presented.

  12. Process and apparatus for the conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  13. Zeolite-catalyzed biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Yang, Xiaobo;

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been a central element in the efficient conversion of fossil resources to fuels and chemicals, but their role in biomass utilization is more ambiguous. Zeolites constitute a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts and developments in recent years have demonstrated...... their potential to find broad use in the conversion of biomass. In this perspective we review and discuss the developments that have taken place in the field of biomass conversion using zeolites. Emphasis is put on the conversion of lignocellulosic material to fuels using conventional zeolites as well...

  14. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Thermochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, Paul E. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  15. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Leslie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  16. Biomass to Butanol Conversion: Recent Technologies and Process Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To gain independence from foreign oil, we focused our research program on biological conversion of biomass to butanol. The biomass feedstocks that we have investigated include wheat straw, barley straw, corn stover, and switchgrass with a significant degree of hydrolysis and fermentation variability...

  17. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potential and competitive source for bioenergy production, reasons for such acclamation include: biomass is one the few energy sources that can actually be utilized to produce several types of energy (motor fuel, electricity, heat) and cellulosic biomass is renewable and relatively found everywhere. Despite these positive advantages, issues regarding cellulosic biomass availability, supply chain, conversion process and economics need a more comprehensive understanding in order to identify the near short term routes in biomass to bioenergy production. Cellulosic biomass accounts for around 35% to 45% of cost share in cellulosic ethanol production, in addition, different feedstock have very different production rate, (dry ton/acre/year), availability across the year, and chemical composition that affect process yield and conversion costs as well. In the other hand, existing and brand new conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production offer different advantages, risks and financial returns. Ethanol yield, financial returns, delivered cost and supply chain logistic for combinations of feedstock and conversion technology are investigated in six studies. In the first study, biomass productivity, supply chain and delivered cost of fast growing Eucalyptus is simulated in economic and supply chain models to supply a hypothetic ethanol biorefinery. Finding suggests that Eucalyptus can be a potential hardwood grown specifically for energy. Delivered cost is highly sensitive to biomass productivity, percentage of covered area. Evaluated at different financial expectations, delivered cost can be competitive compared to current forest feedstock supply. In the second study, Eucalyptus biomass conversion into cellulosic ethanol is simulated in the dilute acid pretreatment, analysis of conversion costs, cost share, CAPEX and ethanol yield are examined. In the third study, biomass supply and delivered cost of loblolly pine is simulated in economic

  18. Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to ethanol by Saccharomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    As interest in alternative energy sources rises, the concept of agriculture as an energy producer has become increasingly attractive (Outlaw et al. 2005). Renewable biomass, including lignocellulosic materials and agricultural residues, are low-cost materials for bioethanol production (Bothast and ...

  19. Nanostructure enzyme assemblies for biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass represents a vast resource for production of the world’s fuel and chemical feedstock needs. The use of enzymes to effect these bioconversions offers an alternative that is potentially more specific and environmentally-friendly than harsher chemical methodologies. Some species of anaerobic ...

  20. Subcritical hydrothermal conversion of organic wastes and biomass. Reaction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amadeus Castro Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal conversion is a procedure which emulates organic matter’s natural conversion into bio-crude having physical and chemical properties analogous to petroleum. The artificial transformation of biomass requi- res previous knowledge of the main reaction routes and product availability. The main component of biomass (depolymerisation by hydrolysis is presented in hydrothermal cellulose conversion, producing oligosaccharides which exhibit dehydration and retro-aldol condensation reactions for transforming into furfurals and carboxylic acids. Other biomass components (such as lignin, proteins, and fat esters present both hydrolysis and pyrolysis reaction routes. As long as biomass mainly contains carbohydrates, subcritical hydrothermal conversion products and their wastes will be fundamentally analogous to those displaying cellulose. These substances have added- value by far surpassing raw material’s acquisition cost. When the main hydrothermal conversion products’ O/C, H/C molar ratios as reported in literature are plotted, an evolutionary tralectory for conversion products appears to be closely or even overlapped with fossil fuels’ geological evolution.

  1. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  2. Thermochemical conversion routes of lignocellulosic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbinet, Saïcha; Léonard, Angélique

    2012-01-01

    The thermo-chemical route, especially the gasification process is considered. This process converts carbonaceous biomass into combustible gas (CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and impurities) called syngas and this syngas can be converted into a large range of products. Production of four of these compounds is specifically investigated: ethylene, propylene, diesel and DME. Diesel can be produced via a Fischer-Tropsch process, whereas DME (dimethyl ether) can be obtained directly or from methanol which is ob...

  3. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  4. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein.

  5. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. V.; Hamid, S. B. A.; Zain, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

  6. The economic efficiency of biomass conversion for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of hydrogen from biomass is among the schemes which are under discussion regarding the substitution of fossil energy sources. The commercial realization of hydrogen production from biomass, and of all other schemes developed for the utilization of renewable raw materials (alcohol, vegetable oil, direct combustion), is mainly determined by the method's economic efficiency. This study places emphasis on the cost-benefit analysis of biomass conversion for hydrogen production. The present and future market potentials are assessed, and the competitiveness of hydrogen from renewable raw materials under the present and under changed conditions is evaluated. (orig.)

  7. Conversion of biomass into energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assists the identification of possible application and markets of the CHP-plants in the NAS states, and forms the first part of a detailed study on economical and ecological prospects of small scale and large heat pipe reformers in NAS. It is well known that the energy strategy of the European Union, foresees the increase of the participation of the renewable energy from the total of the energy resources of the European Union, up to 12% in 2010. This participation is of a great importance for the adequate reduction of green house effect gases. From the energy production point of view it is proven the fact that in 2010 the production of renewable energy will be: electricity - 675 tWh; heat - 80 Mtoe (930 TWh). From the above mentioned energy demand, the biomass will cover: electricity - 230 TWh-34,1%; heat - 75 Mtoe (93,8%)

  8. Woody biomass availability for bioethanol conversion in Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated woody biomass from logging residues, small-diameter trees, mill residues, and urban waste as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol conversion in Mississippi. The focus on Mississippi was to assess in-state regional variations and provide specific information of biomass estimates for those facilities interested in locating in Mississippi. Supply and cost of four woody biomass sources were derived from Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) information, a recent forest inventory conducted by the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory, and primary production costs. According to our analysis, about 4.0 million dry tons of woody biomass are available for production of up to 1.2 billion liters of ethanol each year in Mississippi. The feedstock consists of 69% logging residues, 21% small-diameter trees, 7% urban waste, and 3% mill residues. Of the total, 3.1 million dry tons (930 million liters of ethanol) can be produced for $34 dry ton-1 or less. Woody biomass from small-diameter trees is more expensive than other sources of biomass. Transportation costs accounted for the majority of total production costs. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the largest impacts in production costs of ethanol come from stumpage price of woody biomass and technological efficiency. These results provide a valuable decision support tool for resource managers and industries in identifying parameters that affect resource magnitude, type, and location of woody biomass feedstocks in Mississippi. (author)

  9. Biomass conversion. The interface of biotechnology, chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskar, Chinnappan [Myongji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology; Baskar, Shikha [Uttarakhand Technical Univ. (India). THDC Inst. of Hydropower Engineering and Technology, Tehri; Dhillon, Ranjit S. (eds.) [Punjab Aricultural Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-11-01

    Gives state-of-the-art of biomass conversion plus future development. Connects the applications into the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science. Written by international experts. The consumption of petroleum has surged during the 20th century, at least partially because of the rise of the automobile industry. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas provide more than three quarters of the world's energy. Unfortunately, the growing demand for fossil fuel resources comes at a time of diminishing reserves of these nonrenewable resources. The worldwide reserves of oil are sufficient to supply energy and chemicals for only about another 40 years, causing widening concerns about rising oil prices. The use of biomass to produce energy is only one form of renewable energy that can be utilized to reduce the impact of energy production and use on the global environment. Biomass can be converted into three main products such as energy, biofuels and fine chemicals using a number of different processes. Today, it is a great challenge for researchers to find new environmentally benign methodology for biomass conversion, which are industrially profitable as well. This book focuses on the conversion of biomass to biofuels, bioenergy and fine chemicals with the interface of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry and materials science. An international scientific authorship summarizes the state-of-the-art of the current research and gives an outlook on future developments.

  10. A review on conversion of biomass to biofuel by nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Akia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The world’s increasing demand for energy has led to an increase in fossil fuel consumption. However this source of energy is limited and is accompanied with pollution problems. The availability and wide diversity of biomass resources have made them an attractive and promising source of energy. The conversion of biomass to biofuel has resulted in the production of liquid and gaseous fuels that can be used for different means methods such as thermochemical and biological processes. Thermochemical processes as a major conversion route which include gasification and direct liquefaction are applied to convert biomass to more useful biofuel. Catalytic processes are increasingly applied in biofuel development. Nanocatalysts play an important role in improving product quality and achieving optimal operating conditions. Nanocatalysts with a high specific surface area and high catalytic activity may solve the most common problems of heterogeneous catalysts such as mass transfer resistance, time consumption, fast deactivation and inefficiency. In this regard attempts to develop new types of nanocatalysts have been increased. Among the different biofuels produced from biomass, biodiesel has attained a great deal of attention. Nanocatalytic conversion of biomass to biodiesel has been reported using different edible and nonedible feedstock. In most research studies, the application of nanocatalysts improves yield efficiency at relatively milder operating conditions compared to the bulk catalysts.

  11. The contribution of thermochemical biomass conversion to the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to convert or upgrade the biomass into a more useful and hence more valuable energy product which, in turn, can be converted into an even more valuable end-product such as electricity or a motor fuel, and in all cases the carboniferous energy products are eventually converted into carbon dioxide in order to release the maximum amount of energy. The main thermochemical processes are outlined by reference to the operational parameters and products. Two examples of utilization of biomass are used to show how carbon dioxide emissions vary with technology - transport fuels and electricity generation. A system may be selected as optimised using the ultimate product or effect for comparison with gross or net carbon dioxide emission/absorption and minimum cost of this change in carbon dioxide as the criteria. It is claimed that the use of biomass is carbon dioxide neutral, and even that new biomass resulting from use absorbs carbon dioxide at a greater rate than the old biomass that is consumed. On this basis it is shown that the least efficient overall biomass conversion process is the most effective at reducing carbon dioxide levels. Further, it is shown that the most economically effective way of reducing carbon dioxide levels is that of the lowest cost to efficiency-of-conversion ratio. For transport fuels methanol is the clear choice for both criteria while for electricity generation, air gasification with integrated combined cycles is preferred for short to medium term opportunities. 2 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Biomass energy conversion workshop for industrial executives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The rising costs of energy and the risks of uncertain energy supplies are increasingly familiar problems in industry. Bottom line profits and even the simple ability to operate can be affected by spiralling energy costs. An often overlooked alternative is the potential to turn industrial waste or residue into an energy source. On April 9 and 10, 1979, in Claremont, California, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the Western Solar Utilization Network (WSUN) held a workshop which provided industrial managers with current information on using residues and wastes as industrial energy sources. Successful industrial experiences were described by managers from the food processing and forest product industries, and direct combustion and low-Btu gasification equipment was described in detail. These speakers' presentations are contained in this document. Some major conclusions of the conference were: numerous current industrial applications of wastes and residues as fuels are economic and reliable; off-the-shelf technologies exist for converting biomass wastes and residues to energy; a variety of financial (tax credits) and institutional (PUC rate structures) incentives can help make these waste-to-energy projects more attractive to industry. However, many of these incentives are still being developed and their precise impact must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  13. Biomass Conversion in Ionic Liquids - in-situ Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas

    Due to rising oil prices and global warming caused by CO2 emissions, there is an increased demand for new types of fuels and chemicals derived from biomass. This thesis investigates catalytic conversion of cellulose into sugars in ionic liquids and the important platform chemical 5...... activation energies suggest that the ionic liquid acts co-catalytic by stabilizing the oxocarbenium transition state. The chromium catalyzed conversion of glucose to HMF in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with CrCl3⋅6H2O and CrCl2 as catalysts was investigated. The CrCl3⋅6H2O catalyst......-30 times higher with an activation energy of 74 kJ/mol. The thesis identifies the product inhibition as a major challenge for technical utilization of chromium catalysts in biomass conversion....

  14. Renewable energy obtained by thermochemical conversion of biomass and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production of energy from alternative sources is one of the main strategic tools for the sustainable development of modern society. In this regard, different kinds of biomass and wastes can contribute to the production of energy by means of chemical, thermal and biological processes. Energy technologies based on biomass and waste are undergoing rapid development: processes are optimized, new ideas are proposed for technical application. Despite the growing interest for the use of these technologies, in many countries their implementation still is at a low level, mainly for reasons other than technical and economical (i.e., low public acceptability, bad experience from the past, insufficient knowledge and experience, and others). Due to the wide range of feedstocks, biomass has a broad geographic distribution, in some cases offering a least-cost and near-term alternative. Renewable sources of energy will have a major role to the energy balance in upcoming years. Romania has an important renewable energy potential in solar, wind energy and biomass and offers utilization availabilities at local and national level. The 'Strategy of capitalizing renewable energy sources', drawn up by the Ministry of Economy and Commerce proposes year 2015 as target for the share of renewable sources to reach about 10-12 % of the overall energy supply. Thermochemical biomass conversion does include a number of possible roots to produce useful fuels and chemicals from the initial biomass feedstock. The basis of thermochemical conversion is the pyrolysis process. This paper focuses on this process in order to produce gas mixtures with high H2 content as the main products, significant amounts of liquid and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main by-products.The relationship between the composition of the starting materials, the process conditions and the desired product yields has also investigated to find out what are the optimum parameters of thermochemical conversion

  15. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  16. Comparison of conversion pathways for lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel in Mid-Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Heidi Ødegård

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates one biochemical and one thermochemical biomass-to-liquid biofuel conversion pathway in terms of lignocellulose conversion to liquid Fischer-Tropsch diesel. The focus has been on comparing the two conversion pathways in terms of identifying their energy flows and respective feed to fuel ratios. The conversion pathways investigated comprise two-stage conversion sequences including biomass-to-gas conversion and gas-to-liquid conversion, exerted by anaerobic digestion or ga...

  17. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  18. Biomass thermochemical conversion. Overview of results; Biomassan jalostus. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The BIOENERGY Programme comprised two research institute projects, one enterprise project and two demonstration projects in 1996. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of the storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants. Development of biomass gasification/gas engine concepts suitable for diesel power plants was also initiated. In addition to techno-economic assessments, experimental work was carried out focusing on the cleaning of gasification gas for engine use. Conversion of by-products from the pulping industry, in particular crude soap, into liquid fuels was studied by laboratory tests. Results obtained within IEA Bioenergy Agreement are also surveyed and a new three-year work plan is presented in the overview. (orig.)

  19. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods...... of HTT and facilitated a reduction in optimum HTT temperature of 10 to 20 °C. This could, however, not be proven for grass, since the overall release of mono- and oligosaccharides for the combined pretreatment of grass did not exceed HTT of grass alone. This was due to a combination of high loss of WSC.......3. Furthermore, the HTT pretreatment of both grass and grass silage gave considerably lower xylan convertibility than HTT of wheat straw and wheat straw silage. The reason for the inaccessible xylan in grass is believed to be found in a high complexity of branching and cross linkages creating a heterogeneous...

  20. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  1. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to liquid energy sources; Hydrothermale Konversion von Biomasse zu fluessigen Energietraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Michael; Peters, Mario; Klemm, Marco; Nelles, Michael [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Beside thermo-chemical processes like pyrolysis, torrefaction and gasification another process group called hydrothermal conversion of biomass comes into the focus of research and development. Especially for wet biomass this process has several advantages: as the reaction medium is water wet biomass not needs to be dried. Beside the reaction pathways, which are still not completely understood, it is important to investigate reactor concepts. That gives the possibility to continuously process the given biomass to deduce specific process conditions for the production of chemicals and fuels. Experiments were conducted in a newly developed tubular reactor at temperatures from 150 to 270 C and reaction times from 1 to 6 min. By studying the HPLC analysis of the liquid products the formation and degradation of several products which may be utilized as base materials for chemicals and fuels (furfural, 5-HMF etc.) was conducted. The experiments illustrate the possibility to influence product composition to a certain extend only by varying temperature and time of the hydrothermal process. That could result in an economic and feasible way to produce intermediate chemicals from biomass. In a second step these product analysis will be used to develop catalysts and investigate the possibilities of in-situ-hydrogenation and synthesis of further valuable chemicals and fuels. (orig.)

  2. Proceedings of the Chernobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium (137Cs) and strontium (90Sr). The 137Cs and 90Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place

  3. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tokarevsky, V. [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  4. A-xylosidase enhanced conversion of plant biomass into fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Borrusch, Melissa

    2016-08-02

    The invention relates to increasing the availability of fermentable sugars from plant biomass, such as glucose and xylose. As described herein, .alpha.-xylosidases can be employed with cellulases to enhance biomass conversion into free, fermentable sugar residues.

  5. Evolutionarily Engineered Ethanologenic Yeast Detoxifies Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion Inhibitors by Reprogrammed Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion inhibitors furfural and HMF inhibit microbial growth and interfere with subsequent fermentation of ethanol, posing significant challenges for a sustainable cellulosic ethanol conversion industry. Numerous yeast genes were found to be associated with the inhibitor ...

  6. Biomass thermochemical conversion - overview of results; Biomassan jalostus - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    In this Bioenergy research program the thermochemical conversion activities are mainly concentrated in three fields (1) flash pyrolysis and the use of wood oil in boilers and engines (2) biomass gasification for gas engine power plants and finally (3) conversion of black liquor and extractives in a pulp mill to various liquid fuels. Parallel to activities in Finland also significant work has been done in EU-Joule and Apas projects and in the IEA Bioenergy Agreement. In the area of flash pyrolysis technology, three new laboratory and PDU-units have been installed to VTT in order to produce various qualities of bio oils from wood and straw. The quality of pyrolysis oils have been characterized by physical and chemical methods supported by EU and IEA networks. Several companies are carrying out pyrolysis activities as well: Neste Oy is testing the wood oil in a 200 kW boiler, Waertsilae Diesel Oy is testing Canadian wood oil in a 1.5 MWe diesel power plant engine and Vapo Oy is carrying out investigations to produce pyrolysis oils in Finland. The biomass gasification coupled to a gas engine is an interesting alternative for small scale power production parallel to existing fluid bed boiler technology. VTT has installed a circulating fluid bed gasifier with advanced gas cleaning system to test various technologies in order to feed the gas to an engine. In order to produce liquid fuels at a pulp mill, the laboratory work has continued using crude soap as a raw material for high pressure liquid phase treatment and atmospheric pyrolysis process. The quality of the oil is like light fuel oil or diesel fuel, possibilities to use it as a lubricant will be investigated

  7. Biomass conversion and expansion factors are afected by thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Duque Enes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of Biomass Conversion and Expansion Factors (BCEFs in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. stands subjected to thinning.Area of the study: The study area refers to different ecosystems of maritime pine stands inNorthern Portugal.Material and methods: The study is supported by time data series and cross sectional data collected in permanent plots established in the North of Portugal. An assessment of BCEF values for the aboveground compartments and for total was completed for each studied stand. Identification of key variables affecting the value of the BCEFs in time and with thinning was conducted using correlation analysis. Predictive models for estimation of the BCEFs values in time and after thinning were developed using nonlinear regression analysis.Research highlights: For periods of undisturbed growth, the results show an allometric relationship between the BCEFs, the dominant height and the mean diameter. Management practices such as thinning also influence the factors. Estimates of the ratio change before and after thinning depend on thinning severity and thinning type. The developed models allow estimating the biomass of the stands, for the aboveground compartments and for total, based on information of stand characteristics and of thinning descriptors. These estimates can be used to assess the forest dry wood stocks to be used for pulp, bioenergy or other purposes, as well as the biomass quantification to support the evaluation of the net primary productivity.Keywords: carbon; softwood; thinning; volume; wood energy; maritime pine.

  8. Advancements and future directions in enzyme technology for biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zisheng; Donaldson, Adam A; Ma, Xiaoxun

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal alternative to acid hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production, limited primarily by pre-treatment requirements and economic considerations arising from enzyme production costs and specific activities. The quest for cheaper and better enzymes has prompted years of bio-prospecting, strain optimization through genetic engineering, enzyme characterization for simple and complex lignocellulosic feedstock, and the development of pre-treatment strategies to mitigate inhibitory effects. The recent shift to systematic characterizations of de novo mixtures of purified proteins is a promising indicator of maturation within this field of study, facilitating progression towards feedstock assay-based rapid enzyme mixture optimization. It is imperative that international standards be developed to enable meaningful comparisons between these studies and the construction of a database of enzymatic activities and kinetics, aspects of which are explored here-in. Complementary efforts to improve the economic viability of enzymatic hydrolysis through process integration and reactor design are also considered, where membrane-confinement shows significant promise despite the associated technological challenges. Significant advancements in enzyme technology towards the economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass should be expected within the next few years as systematic research in enzyme activities conforms to that of traditional reaction engineering. PMID:22306162

  9. MULTISCALE MATHEMATICS FOR BIOMASS CONVERSION TO RENEWABLE HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachos, Dionisios; Plechac, Petr; Katsoulakis, Markos

    2013-09-05

    The overall objective of this project is to develop multiscale models for understanding and eventually designing complex processes for renewables. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first attempt at modeling complex reacting systems, whose performance relies on underlying multiscale mathematics. Our specific application lies at the heart of biofuels initiatives of DOE and entails modeling of catalytic systems, to enable economic, environmentally benign, and efficient conversion of biomass into either hydrogen or valuable chemicals. Specific goals include: (i) Development of rigorous spatio-temporal coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) mathematics and simulation for microscopic processes encountered in biomass transformation. (ii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links stochastic simulation to a deterministic partial differential equation (PDE) model for an entire reactor. (iii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links KMC simulation with quantum density functional theory (DFT) calculations. (iv) Development of parallelization of models of (i)-(iii) to take advantage of Petaflop computing and enable real world applications of complex, multiscale models. In this NCE period, we continued addressing these objectives and completed the proposed work. Main initiatives, key results, and activities are outlined.

  10. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. V.; S. B. A. Hamid; Zain, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulo...

  11. A Review of Thermal Co-Conversion of Coal and Biomass/Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime Hilaire Tchapda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is relatively cleaner than coal and is the only renewable carbon resource that can be directly converted into fuel. Biomass can significantly contribute to the world’s energy needs if harnessed sustainably. However, there are also problems associated with the thermal conversion of biomass. This paper investigates and discusses issues associated with the thermal conversion of coal and biomass as a blend. Most notable topics reviewed are slagging and fouling caused by the relatively reactive alkali and alkaline earth compounds (K2O, Na2O and CaO found in biomass ash. The alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM present and dispersed in biomass fuels induce catalytic activity during co-conversion with coal. The catalytic activity is most noticeable when blended with high rank coals. The synergy during co-conversion is still controversial although it has been theorized that biomass acts like a hydrogen donor in liquefaction. Published literature also shows that coal and biomass exhibit different mechanisms, depending on the operating conditions, for the formation of nitrogen (N and sulfur species. Utilization aspects of fly ash from blending coal and biomass are discussed. Recommendations are made on pretreatment options to increase the energy density of biomass fuels through pelletization, torrefaction and flash pyrolysis to reduce transportation costs.

  12. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Thermochemical Conversion Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biomass Program Peer Review for the Thermochemical Platform, held on July 9th and 10th in Golden, Colorado.

  13. Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John

    2014-07-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.

  14. Innovative biomass to power conversion systems based on cascaded supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the small to medium power range the main technologies for the conversion of biomass sources into electricity are based either on reciprocating internal combustion or organic Rankine cycle engines. Relatively low energy conversion efficiencies are obtained in both systems due to the thermodynamic losses in the conversion of biomass into syngas in the former, and to the high temperature difference in the heat transfer between combustion gases and working fluid in the latter. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that higher efficiencies in the conversion of biomass sources into electricity can be obtained using systems based on the supercritical closed CO2 Brayton cycles (s-CO2). The s-CO2 system analysed here includes two cascaded supercritical CO2 cycles which enable to overcome the intrinsic limitation of the single cycle in the effective utilization of the whole heat available from flue gases. Both part-flow and simple supercritical CO2 cycle configurations are considered and four boiler arrangements are investigated to explore the thermodynamic performance of such systems. These power plant configurations, which were never explored in the literature for biomass conversion into electricity, are demonstrated here to be viable options to increase the energy conversion efficiency of small-to-medium biomass fired power plants. Results of the optimization procedure show that a maximum biomass to electricity conversion efficiency of 36% can be achieved using the cascaded configuration including a part flow topping cycle, which is approximately 10%-points higher than that of the existing biomass power plants in the small to medium power range. - Highlights: • Supercritical CO2 cycles are proposed for biomass to electricity conversion. • Four boiler design options are considered. • High total system efficiency is due to the part-flow cascaded configuration. • The efficiency is higher than that of other small/medium size alternative systems

  15. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  16. Catalytic conversion of biomass to bio-syncrude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mante, Ofei Daku [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Biological Systems Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster A. [Utah State University, Biological Engineering, Logan, UT (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The conversion of biomass to transportation fuels and chemicals has been of immense interest in recent years. In this study, the production of high quality bio-oil (bio-syncrude oil) was achieved by catalytically cracking pyrolysis vapors from hybrid poplar in a dual-fluidized bed reactor. The catalytic deoxygenation of the primary pyrolysis vapors was achieved with a commercial HZSM-5 at 425-450 C. The organic, water, char, coke, and gas yields were 11.9, 20.9, 16.5, 3.8, and 46.8 wt.%, respectively. This work demonstrated that the use of a fluidized bed reactor for the catalytic upgrading reduces coke formation and increases catalyst lifetime. The concentration of the permanent gases was in the order of CO > CO{sub 2}> C{sub 3}H{sub 6}> CH{sub 4}> H{sub 2}> other C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}. The light bio-syncrude (LBS) oil collected from the condenser was predominately aromatic hydrocarbons. The heavy bio-syncrude (HBS) oil collected from the electrostatic precipitator consisted of mainly phenols, methyl-substituted phenols, naphthalenes, benzenediols, and naphthalenol. The bio-syncrude oils were low in oxygen, less viscous, less acidic, stable, and high in energy density. The higher heating value of the light and heavy bio-syncrude oil was 36.89 and 33.98 MJ/kg, respectively. The distillate yields from the atmospheric distillation showed that 91 wt.% of the LBS oil distills up to 220 C and 76 wt.% of the HBS oil distills up to 440 C. Accelerated stability test of the oils at 90 C for 24 h and storage of the oils at room temperature for 10 months showed that the bio-syncrude oils were stable. The catalytic deoxygenation of the pyrolysis vapors resulted in the removal of undesirable oxygenates such as levoglucosan, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones. The bio-syncrude oil can be considered as a suitable feed for use in a petroleum refinery for the production of transportation fuels and chemicals. (orig.)

  17. Pilot project concerning the establishment of a collective biomass conversion plant on the island of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pilot project comprises a feasibility study in connection with plans to establish a biomass conversion plant, on the Danish island of Mors, which would provide methane to be used as fuel, in combination with natural gas, for a cogeneration plant serving six villages. The subjects of location, organization, the transportation of biomass, the design of the biomass conversion plant, economical aspects and conditions of the use of the methane are discussed as a basis for decisions in this respect. Environmental considerations are also dealt with. (AB)

  18. Direct conversion of chitin biomass to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in concentrated ZnCl2 aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Deng, Tiansheng;

    2013-01-01

    The direct conversion of chitin biomass to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in ZnCl2 aqueous solution was studied systemically. D-Glucosamine (GlcNH2) was chosen as the model compound to investigate the reaction, and 5-HMF could be obtained in 21.9% yield with 99% conversion of GlcNH2. Optimization...

  19. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels. PMID:22779440

  20. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Didion, Thomas; Anne S. Meyer; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Kádár, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Udvikling af intelligente teknologier til omdannelse af biomasse vil blive stadig vigtigere i mange år frem da planetariske bounderies drive udviklingen i retning af et biobaseret samfund. Forbehandling af lignocelluloseholdigt biomasse er i denne forbindelse en central teknologi. Nuværende forbehandlingsmetoder, baseret på hårdhændede fysisk og kemisk processesering, er effektive, men er også energikrævende og dyre. Ensilering udgør en potentiel alternativ forbehandlings metode, baseret på v...

  1. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 1: predictive model for cropland conversion to biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass cultivation requires detailed analysis of spatial production potential of possible biorefinery locations, with emphasis on feedstock production cost minimization. Integrated assessment of publicly available spatial data on current crop production, soil type, and yield potential, coupled with techno-economic production cost estimates, can support a functional method for rapid analysis of potential biorefinery sites. A novel predictive model was developed to determine cropland conversion using a probabilistic profit based equation for multiple biomass crops: giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, and sorghum (with either canola or barley as a winter crop. The three primary regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain were used as a case study and with a single parameter uncertainty analysis was completed. According to the model, the county chosen to represent the Coastal Plain (Duplin County had the largest potential acreage that would be converted (15,071 ha, 7.1% total land, 9.3% of cropland primarily to sorghum with canola as a winter crop. Large portions were also predicted to convert to giant reed and switchgrass, depending on the price and yield parameters used. The Piedmont (Granville County, 7697 ha, 5.5% total land, 6.9% cropland and Mountain (Henderson County, 2117 ha, 2.2% total land, 2.3% cropland regions were predicted to convert primarily to switchgrass acreage for biomass production, with much less available biomass overall compared to the Coastal Plain. This model provided meaningful insight into regional cropping systems and feedstock availability, allowing for improved business planning in designated regions. Determination of cropland conversion is imperative to develop realistic biomass logistical operations, which in conjunction can assist with rapid determination of profitable biomass availability. After this rapid analysis method is conducted in-depth on-ground biorefinery

  3. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Scarlata, C.; Tan, E. C. D.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Sexton, D.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  4. Biomass valorisation by staged degasification A new pyrolysis-based thermochemical conversion option to produce value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, P. J.; den Uil, H.; Reith, J. H.; Kiel, J. H. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass leads to an array Of useful solid, liquid and gaseous products. Staged degasification is a pyrolysis-based conversion route to generate value-added chemicals from biomass. Because of different thermal stabilities of the main biomass constituents hemicellulose. ce

  5. Biomass conversion into biofuels by non–classical methods / Yolandi Nortjé

    OpenAIRE

    Nortjé, Yolandi

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was launched in view of two imminent needs in industry today, viz. development of an alternative fuel to replace rapidly dwindling fossil fuel resources, preferably by biomass conversion, and production of a biofuel as a new energy source by implementing clean technology complying with the requirements of green chemistry. Seed from the diesel tree (Jatropha curcas L.) and sawdust from pine (Pinus taeda L.) were selected as biomass sources since their properties, like ric...

  6. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in thermochemical conversion of biomass : formation, distribution and fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qiuju

    2016-01-01

    In the transition to a sustainable energy supply there is an increasing need to use biomass for replacement of fossil fuel. A key challenge is to utilize biomass conversion technologies in an environmentally sound manner. Important aspects are to minimize potential formation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. This thesis involves studies of formation characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and naphthal...

  7. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    OpenAIRE

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas; Kádár, Zsófia; Anne S. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at ...

  8. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve the...

  9. Chemical Conversions of Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals over Copper-Silica Nanocomposite Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upare, Pravin P; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jong-Min; Hwang, Dong Won; Chang, Jong-San

    2015-07-20

    Biomass and biomass-derived carbohydrates have a high extent of functionality, unlike petroleum, which has limited functionality. In biorefinery applications, the development of methods to control the extent of functionality in final products intended for use as fuels and chemicals is a challenge. In the chemical industry, heterogeneous catalysis is an important tool for the defunctionalization of functionalized feedstocks and biomass-derived platform chemicals to produce value-added chemicals. Herein, we review the recent progress in this field, mainly of vapor phase chemical conversion of biomass-derived C4 -C6 carboxylic acids and esters using copper-silica nanocomposite catalysts. We also demonstrate that these nanocomposite catalysts very efficiently convert biomass-derived platform chemicals into cyclic compounds, such as lactones and hydrofurans, with high selectivities and yields. PMID:26192888

  10. Fundamental mechanisms for conversion of volatiles in biomass and waste combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Hindiyarti, L.; Marshall, P.; Livbjerg, H.; Dagaut, P.; Jensen, Anker; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the volatile oxidation chemistry in biomass and waste fired systems, emphasizing reactions important for pollutants emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, HCl, aerosols). The project aims to extend existing models and databases with a number of chemical subsystems that are presently not well understood, but are particularly important in connection with combustion of biomass and waste. The project is divided into 3 tasks. Task 1: Conversion of chlorine, sulfur and alkali gas phase components in combustion of biomass. Task 2: Formation mechanisms for NO{sub x} in the freeboard of grate combustion of biomass. Task 3: Oxidation mechanisms for oxygenated hydrocarbons in the volatiles from pyrolysis of biomass. (au)

  11. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  12. Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

    2003-12-01

    Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals. Extracellular cellulases produced by fungi are commercially developed for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation by appropriate biocatalysts in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial biocatalysts, SSF of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity leading to higher than required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial biocatalysts whose growth and fermentation requirements match the optimum conditions for commercial fungal cellulase activity (pH 5.0 and 50 deg. C). These isolates fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to L(+)-lactic acid. Xylose was metabolized through the pentose-phosphate pathway by these organisms as evidenced by the fermentation profile and analysis of the fermentation products of 13C1-xylose by NMR. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, 13C-lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products. All three strains fermented crystalline cellulose to lactic acid with the addition of fungal cellulase (Spezyme CE) (SSF) at an optimum of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. These isolates also fermented cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate simultaneously. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these

  13. Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL`s BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

  14. Environmental impacts of thermochemical biomass conversion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermochemical conversion in this study is limited to fast pyrolysis, upgrading of fast pyrolysis oils, and gasification. Environmental impacts of all types were considered within the project, but primary emphasis was on discharges to the land, air, and water during and after the conversion processes. The project discussed here is divided into five task areas: (1) pyrolysis oil analysis; (2) hydrotreating of pyrolysis oil; (3) gas treatment systems for effluent minimization; (4) strategic analysis of regulatory requirements; and (5) support of the IEA Environmental Systems Activity. The pyrolysis oil task was aimed at understanding the oil contaminants and potential means for their removal. The hydrotreating task was undertaken to better define one potential means for both improving the quality of the oil but also removing contaminants from the oil. Within Task 3, analyses were done to evaluate the results of gasification product treatment systems. Task 4 was a review and collection of regulatory requirements which would be applicable to the subject processes. The IEA support task included input to and participation in the IEA Bioenergy activity which directly relates to the project subject. Each of these tasks is described along with the results. Conclusions and recommendations from the overall project are given

  15. THERMO-MECHANICAL PULPING AS A PRETREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS FOR BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP, an existing and well known technology in the pulp and paper industry, is proposed as a potential pretreatment pathway of agriculture biomass for monomeric sugar production in preparation for further fermentation into alcohol species. Three agricultural biomass types, corn stover, wheat straw, and sweet sorghum bagasse, were pretreated in a TMP unit under two temperature conditions, 160 ºC and 170 ºC, and hydrolyzed using cellulase at 5, 10, and 20 FPU/g OD biomass. Wheat straw biomass was further pretreated at different conditions including: i soaking with acetic acid, ii longer steaming residence time (15 and 30 min, and iii refined at lower disk gap (0.0508 and 0.1524 mm. Preliminary results showed that carbohydrate conversion increased from 25% to 40% when the TMP temperature was increased from 160 to 170 ºC. Carbohydrate conversion was relatively similar for the three biomasses under the same pretreatment conditions and enzyme loading. Acetic acid soaking and refining at a reduce disk gap increases carbohydrate conversion. Further studies within this technological field to identify optimum process and TMP conditions for pretreatment are suggested.

  16. Characterization of second generation biomass under thermal conversion and the fate of nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuntoli, J.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the characterization of several biomass materials under thermal conversion conditions using small--scale equipment. The fuels are tested under the conditions of slow and fast heating rate pyrolysis and combustion, with the main goal of investigating the chemistry of fuel

  17. One-Pot Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose and of Woody Biomass Solids to Liquid Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, Theodore D.; Barta, Katalin; Iretskii, Alexei V.; Ford, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient methodologies for converting biomass solids to liquid fuels have the potential to reduce dependence on imported petroleum while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. Here, we report quantitative catalytic conversions of wood and cellulosic solids to liquid and gaseous products in a

  18. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for consolidated bioprocessing in starch and biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of starch or biomass to biofuel is a two-stage process involving enzymatic treatment, followed by yeast fermentation. An alternative route would be to consolidate the process by engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of both saccharification and fermentation. An approach was d...

  19. Homogeneous catalysis for the conversion of biomass and biomass-derived platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuss, Peter J.; Barta, Katalin; de Vries, Johannes G.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from a petroleum-based infrastructure to an industry which utilises renewable resources is one of the key research challenges of the coming years. Biomass, consisting of inedible plant material that does not compete with our food production, is a suitable renewable feedstock. In recen

  20. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Solvent effects in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellmer, Max A; Sener, Canan; Gallo, Jean Marcel R; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A

    2014-10-27

    Reaction kinetics were studied to quantify the effects of polar aprotic organic solvents on the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose into furfural. A solvent of particular importance is γ-valerolactone (GVL), which leads to significant increases in reaction rates compared to water in addition to increased product selectivity. GVL has similar effects on the kinetics for the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propanal and for the hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose. Based on results obtained for homogeneous Brønsted acid catalysts that span a range of pKa values, we suggest that an aprotic organic solvent affects the reaction kinetics by changing the stabilization of the acidic proton relative to the protonated transition state. This same behavior is displayed by strong solid Brønsted acid catalysts, such as H-mordenite and H-beta. PMID:25214063

  2. Implications of cellobiohydrolase glycosylation for use in biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Stephen R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cellulase producing ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina, is known to secrete a range of enzymes important for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It is also widely used for the commercial scale production of industrial enzymes because of its ability to produce high titers of heterologous proteins. During the secretion process, a number of post-translational events can occur, however, that impact protein function and stability. Another ascomycete, Aspergillus niger var. awamori, is also known to produce large quantities of heterologous proteins for industry. In this study, T. reesei Cel7A, a cellobiohydrolase, was expressed in A. niger var. awamori and subjected to detailed biophysical characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme contains six times the amount of N-linked glycan than the enzyme purified from a commercial T. reesei enzyme preparation. The activities of the two enzyme forms were compared using bacterial (microcrystalline and phosphoric acid swollen (amorphous cellulose as substrates. This comparison suggested that the increased level of N-glycosylation of the recombinant Cel7A (rCel7A resulted in reduced activity and increased non-productive binding on cellulose. When treated with the N-glycosidase PNGaseF, the molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme approached that of the commercial enzyme and the activity on cellulose was improved.

  3. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  4. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dael, M.; Van Passel, S.; Witters, N. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R. [VITO, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Reumermann, P. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Josink Esweg 34, 7545 PN Enschede (Netherlands); Marquez Luzardo, N. [School of Life Sciences and Environmental Technology, Avans Hogeschool, Hogeschoollaan 1, 4800 RA Breda (Netherlands); Broeze, J. [Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2, 6703 HD Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conversion Park (ECP) is introduced. A biomass ECP can be defined as a synergetic, multi-dimensional biomass conversion site with a highly integrated set of conversion technologies in which a multitude of regionally available biomass (residue) sources are converted into energy and materials. A techno-economic assessment is performed on a case study in the Netherlands to illustrate the concept and to comparatively assess the highly integrated system with two mono-dimensional models. The three evaluated models consist of (1) digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, (2) co-digestion of manure and co-substrates, and (3) integration. From a socio-economic point of view it can be concluded that it is economically and energetically more interesting to invest in the integrated model than in two separate models. The integration is economically feasible and environmental benefits can be realized. For example, the integrated model allows the implementation of a co-digester. Unmanaged manure would otherwise represent a constant pollution risk. However, from an investor's standpoint one should firstly invest in the municipal solid waste digester since the net present value (NPV) of this mono-dimensional model is higher than that of the multi-dimensional model. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the most influencing parameters. Our results are of interest for companies involved in the conversion of biomass. The conclusions are useful for policy makers when deciding on policy instruments concerning manure processing or biogas production.

  5. Description of possibilities for control and regulation of biomass conversion plants. Udredning vedroerende styrings- og reguleringsmuligheder paa biogasanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K. (DTH/DTI (DK)); Angelidaki, R. (DTH/DTI (DK)); Johansen, K. (Jysk Biogas (DK)); Norddahl, B. (Bioscan (DK)); Noergaard, P. (Krueger/Bigadan (DK)); Oestergaard, N. (Ramboell og Hannemann (DK))

    1990-08-15

    As the number of biomass conversion plants has increased considerably in Denmark during recent years, so has the need for process control in order to ensure stable operation under all conditions. This form of control should also contribute to an improvement in economy. A survey of current information on the conversion process is given in addition to an analysis of a biomass conversion plant that has been operating for over a year. In this respect interviews with operational personel have been carried out with the aim of pinpointing operational problems and the influence these have had on the biomass conversion process. (AB).

  6. Application of radiation technology to biomass conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work carried out at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is reported for the following research projects: wood powdering of pre-irradiated chips; effect of combining electron beam processing (EBP) with other pretreatments on the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials; radiation immobilization of enzymes. The EBP of eucalyptus chips at an average dose of 1.5 x 105 Gy allowed a reduction of the energy required to produce a given weight of wood particles smaller than 300 μm by a factor of five. Wood powder of this particle size proved to be an excellent fuel for suspension firing system and could be used as raw material to feed continuous hydrolytic processes. Conversion efficiencies of 25.8% and 53.4%, respectively, were obtained in the production of reducing sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus wood and sugarcane bagasse when materials were previously irradiated at 105 Gy, pulverized at 50 mesh and impregnated with 2% NaOH solution. Immobilization of cellulase by radiation induced polymerization of hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate(HEMA) was effective when made at - 780C in the presence of silica gel adsorbents or polyethylene glycol. (Author)

  7. Application of Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis in Biomass to Liquid Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwu Lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is a set of catalytic processes that can be used to produce fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas (mixture of CO and H2, which can be derived from natural gas, coal, or biomass. Biomass to Liquid via Fischer–Tropsch (BTL-FT synthesis is gaining increasing interests from academia and industry because of its ability to produce carbon neutral and environmentally friendly clean fuels; such kinds of fuels can help to meet the globally increasing energy demand and to meet the stricter environmental regulations in the future. In the BTL-FT process, biomass, such as woodchips and straw stalk, is firstly converted into biomass-derived syngas (bio-syngas by gasification. Then, a cleaning process is applied to remove impurities from the bio-syngas to produce clean bio-syngas which meets the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis requirements. Cleaned bio-syngas is then conducted into a Fischer–Tropsch catalytic reactor to produce green gasoline, diesel and other clean biofuels. This review will analyze the three main steps of BTL-FT process, and discuss the issues related to biomass gasification, bio-syngas cleaning methods and conversion of bio-syngas into liquid hydrocarbons via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Some features in regard to increasing carbon utilization, enhancing catalyst activity, maximizing selectivity and avoiding catalyst deactivation in bio-syngas conversion process are also discussed.

  8. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into its molecular components by sequential combination of organic acid and base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yu

    The primary objective of this research is to explore a new concept of converting lignocellulosic biomass into liquid organic products via hydrolysis by sequentially combining acid and base treatments. The concept was examined by studying two-step hydrolytic reactions of biomass (spruce) using oxialic acid (OA) and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) at moderate reaction temperatures below 200 °C. Different selectivity of C-O bond cleavage of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin between the reactions with OA and TMAH was demonstrated, and the sequential combination of OA and TMAH treatments exhibited an enhancing effect on conversion of biomass, which proves the promise of the proposed concept. A similar enhancing effect of combination was further confirmed in the reactions with mineral acid and base. Interestingly, characterization of solid residue from reactions of biomass and further investigation of the reactions of commercial cellulose revealed that the A-B sequence (the first reaction with OA and the second with TMAH) enhanced the conversion of cellulose at the second step with TMAH. It was suggested from the NMR and XRD study of solid residues that this enhancement was caused by the reduction of crystallinity of cellulose by the first reaction with OA. This effect was shown to be an interesting feature of A-B treatment sequence for converting lignocellulosic biomass. To improve the yield of monomeric sugars, the effect of adding organic solvents to the system was also studied. No improvement on sugar yield was observed under the explored conditions. However, it was shown that some furans and phenols can be directly formed from the reactions of biomass in the binary solvent system, which may be beneficial for producing more value-added chemicals from biomass.

  9. Secondary reactions of tar during thermochemical biomass conversion[Dissertation 14341

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morf, P.O.

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich presents and discusses the results obtained during the examination of the processes involved in the formation and conversion of tar in biomass gasification plant. Details are given on the laboratory reactor system used to provide separated tar production and conversion for the purposes of the experiments carried out. The results of analyses made of the tar and the gaseous products obtained after its conversion at various temperatures are presented. The development of kinetic models using the results of the experiments that were carried out is described. The results of the experiments and modelling are compared with the corresponding results obtained using a full-scale down-draft, fixed-bed gasifier. The author is of the opinion that the reaction conditions found in full-scale gasifiers can be well simulated using heterogeneous tar conversion experiments using the lab reactor system.

  10. A Review of the Role of Amphiphiles in Biomass to Ethanol Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gibbons

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the concerns for economical production of ethanol from biomass is the large volume and high cost of the cellulolytic enzymes used to convert biomass into fermentable sugars. The presence of acetyl groups in hemicellulose and lignin in plant cell walls reduces accessibility of biomass to the enzymes and makes conversion a slow process. In addition to low enzyme accessibility, a rapid deactivation of cellulases during biomass hydrolysis can be another factor contributing to the low sugar recovery. As of now, the economical reduction in lignin content of the biomass is considered a bottleneck, and raises issues for several reasons. The presence of lignin in biomass reduces the swelling of cellulose fibrils and accessibility of enzyme to carbohydrate polymers. It also causes an irreversible adsorption of the cellulolytic enzymes that prevents effective enzyme activity and recycling. Amphiphiles, such as surfactants and proteins have been found to improve enzyme activity by several mechanisms of action that are not yet fully understood. Reduction in irreversible adsorption of enzyme to non-specific sites, reduction in viscosity of liquid and surface tension and consequently reduced contact of enzyme with air-liquid interface, and modifications in biomass chemical structure are some of the benefits derived from surface active molecules. Application of some of these amphiphiles could potentially reduce the capital and operating costs of bioethanol production by reducing fermentation time and the amount of enzyme used for saccharification of biomass. In this review article, the benefit of applying amphiphiles at various stages of ethanol production (i.e., pretreatment, hydrolysis and hydrolysis-fermentation is reviewed and the proposed mechanisms of actions are described.

  11. Characterization of second generation biomass under thermal conversion and the fate of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Giuntoli, J.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the characterization of several biomass materials under thermal conversion conditions using small--scale equipment. The fuels are tested under the conditions of slow and fast heating rate pyrolysis and combustion, with the main goal of investigating the chemistry of fuel--bound nitrogen. New energy policies put forward in almost every country in the world, and especially in the European Union, are strongly promoting the use of renewable energy sources. Decreasing ...

  12. Thermochemical conversion of raw and defatted algal biomass via hydrothermal liquefaction and slow pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardon, Derek R; Sharma, Brajendra K; Blazina, Grant V; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2012-04-01

    Thermochemical conversion is a promising route for recovering energy from algal biomass. Two thermochemical processes, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL: 300 °C and 10-12 MPa) and slow pyrolysis (heated to 450 °C at a rate of 50 °C/min), were used to produce bio-oils from Scenedesmus (raw and defatted) and Spirulina biomass that were compared against Illinois shale oil. Although both thermochemical conversion routes produced energy dense bio-oil (35-37 MJ/kg) that approached shale oil (41 MJ/kg), bio-oil yields (24-45%) and physico-chemical characteristics were highly influenced by conversion route and feedstock selection. Sharp differences were observed in the mean bio-oil molecular weight (pyrolysis 280-360 Da; HTL 700-1330 Da) and the percentage of low boiling compounds (bp<400 °C) (pyrolysis 62-66%; HTL 45-54%). Analysis of the energy consumption ratio (ECR) also revealed that for wet algal biomass (80% moisture content), HTL is more favorable (ECR 0.44-0.63) than pyrolysis (ECR 0.92-1.24) due to required water volatilization in the latter technique. PMID:22285293

  13. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  14. Lewis Acid Zeolites for Biomass Conversion: Perspectives and Challenges on Reactivity, Synthesis, and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Helen Y; Lewis, Jennifer D; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2016-06-01

    Zeolites containing Sn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, or Ta heteroatoms are versatile catalysts for the activation and conversion of oxygenated molecules owing to the unique Lewis acid character of their tetrahedral metal sites. Through fluoride-mediated synthesis, hydrophobic Lewis acid zeolites can behave as water-tolerant catalysts, which has resulted in a recent surge of experimental and computational studies in the field of biomass conversion. However, many open questions still surround these materials, especially relating to the nature of their active sites. This lack of fundamental understanding is exemplified by the many dissonant results that have been described in recent literature reports. In this review, we use a molecular-based approach to provide insight into the relationship between the structure of the metal center and its reactivity toward different substrates, with the ultimate goal of providing a robust framework to understand the properties that have the strongest influence on catalytic performance for the conversion of oxygenates. PMID:27146555

  15. Effective conversion of biomass tar into fuel gases in a microwave reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with conversion of naphthalene (C10H8) as a biomass tar model compound by means of thermal and catalytic treatments. A modified microwave oven with a maximum output power of 700 W was used as the experimental reactor. Experiments were performed in a wide temperature range of 450-1200°C at a predetermined residence time of 0.24-0.5 s. Dolomite and Y-zeolite were applied to convert naphthalene catalytically into useful gases. Experimental results on naphthalene conversion showed that conversion efficiency and yield of gases increased significantly with the increase of temperature. More than 90% naphthalene conversion efficiency was achieved by thermal treatment at 1200°C and 0.5 s. Nevertheless, this treatment was unfavorable for fuel gases production. The main product of this treatment was soot. Catalytic treatment provided different results with that of thermal treatment in which fuel gases formation was found to be the important product of naphthalene conversion. At a high temperature of 900°C, dolomite had better conversion activity where almost 40 wt.% of naphthalene could be converted into hydrogen, methane and other hydrocarbon gases.

  16. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  17. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  18. Process modelling of biomass conversion to biofuels with combined heat and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Shinde, Yogesh; Pareek, Vishnu; Zhang, Dongke

    2015-12-01

    A process model has been developed to study the pyrolysis of biomass to produce biofuel with heat and power generation. The gaseous and solid products were used to generate heat and electrical power, whereas the bio-oil was stored and supplied for other applications. The overall efficiency of the base case model was estimated for conversion of biomass into useable forms of bio-energy. It was found that the proposed design is not only significantly efficient but also potentially suitable for distributed operation of pyrolysis plants having centralised post processing facilities for production of other biofuels and chemicals. It was further determined that the bio-oil quality improved using a multi-stage condensation system. However, the recycling of flue gases coming from combustor instead of non-condensable gases in the pyrolyzer led to increase in the overall efficiency of the process with degradation of bio-oil quality. PMID:26402874

  19. Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal Biomass: Algal Biomass Production in Open Pond Systems and Processing Through Dewatering for Downstream Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grundl, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This report describes in detail a set of aspirational design and process targets to better understand the realistic economic potential for the production of algal biomass for subsequent conversion to biofuels and/or coproducts, based on the use of open pond cultivation systems and a series of dewatering operations to concentrate the biomass up to 20 wt% solids (ash-free dry weight basis).

  20. Quantifying above- and belowground biomass carbon loss with forest conversion in tropical lowlands of Sumatra (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Leuschner, Christoph; Triadiati, Triadiati; Meriem, Selis; Hertel, Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    Natural forests in South-East Asia have been extensively converted into other land-use systems in the past decades and still show high deforestation rates. Historically, lowland forests have been converted into rubber forests, but more recently, the dominant conversion is into oil palm plantations. While it is expected that the large-scale conversion has strong effects on the carbon cycle, detailed studies quantifying carbon pools and total net primary production (NPPtotal ) in above- and belowground tree biomass in land-use systems replacing rainforest (incl. oil palm plantations) are rare so far. We measured above- and belowground carbon pools in tree biomass together with NPPtotal in natural old-growth forests, 'jungle rubber' agroforests under natural tree cover, and rubber and oil palm monocultures in Sumatra. In total, 32 stands (eight plot replicates per land-use system) were studied in two different regions. Total tree biomass in the natural forest (mean: 384 Mg ha(-1) ) was more than two times higher than in jungle rubber stands (147 Mg ha(-1) ) and >four times higher than in monoculture rubber and oil palm plantations (78 and 50 Mg ha(-1) ). NPPtotal was higher in the natural forest (24 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) than in the rubber systems (20 and 15 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), but was highest in the oil palm system (33 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) due to very high fruit production (15-20 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ). NPPtotal was dominated in all systems by aboveground production, but belowground productivity was significantly higher in the natural forest and jungle rubber than in plantations. We conclude that conversion of natural lowland forest into different agricultural systems leads to a strong reduction not only in the biomass carbon pool (up to 166 Mg C ha(-1) ) but also in carbon sequestration as carbon residence time (i.e. biomass-C:NPP-C) was 3-10 times higher in the natural forest than in rubber and oil palm plantations. PMID:25980371

  1. Structural analysis of Catliq® bio-oil produced by catalytic liquid conversion of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    The potential offered by biomass for solving some of the world's energy problems is widely recognized. The energy contained in biomass can be utilized either directly as in combustion or by converting the biomass into a liquid fuel for transportation. The Catliq® (catalytic liquid conversion...... work, catalytic conversion of DDGS was performed in a pilot plant with a capacity of 10-20 L/h of wet biomass. The oil obtained was characterized using FTIR and GC-MS for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the product.......) process is a second generation process for the production of bio-oil from different biomass-based waste materials. The process is carried out at subcritical conditions (280-350 °C and 180-250 bar) and in the presence of homogeneous (KOH) and heterogeneous (ZrO2) catalysts. The great advantage with the Cat...

  2. Structural analysis of Catliq® bio-oil produced by catalytic liquid conversion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Rudolf, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The potential offered by biomass for solving some of the world's energy problems is widely recognized. The energy contained in biomass can be utilized either directly as in combustion or by converting the biomass into a liquid fuel for transportation. The Catliq® (catalytic liquid conversion) process is a second generation process for the production of bio-oil from different biomass-based waste materials. The process is carried out at subcritical conditions (280-350 °C and 180-250 bar) and in...

  3. First-principles quantum-mechanical investigations of biomass conversion at the liquid-solid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hongli; Xue, Wenhua; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-01

    We report first-principles density-functional calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for the reactions involving furfural, which is an important intermediate in biomass conversion, at the catalytic liquid-solid interfaces. The different dynamic processes of furfural at the water-Cu(111) and water-Pd(111) interfaces suggest different catalytic reaction mechanisms for the conversion of furfural. Simulations for the dynamic processes with and without hydrogen demonstrate the importance of the liquid-solid interface as well as the presence of hydrogen in possible catalytic reactions including hydrogenation and decarbonylation of furfural. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). This research used the supercomputer resources of the XSEDE, the NERSC Center, and the Tandy Supercomputing Center.

  4. Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1988-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... to 24 (w/w)% (45 to 57% cellulose convertibility), and at 180°C glucose yield improved from 22 to 29 (w/w)% (54 to 69% cellulose convertibility). Direct HTT of grass at 190°C gave the same high glucose yield as for grass silage (35 (w/w)% (77% cellulose convertibility)) and improved xylan yields (27......% xylan convertibility). The effect of ensiling of grass prior to HTT improved the enzymatic conversion of cellulose for HTT at 170 and 180°C, but the increased glucose release did not make up for the loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during ensiling. Overall, sugar yields (C6 + C5) were similar...

  6. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  7. Evaluation of the conversion efficiency of the 180Nm3/h Johansson Biomass Gasifier™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntshengedzeni S. Mamphweli, Edson L. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification is the thermochemical conversion of biomass materials into a producer gas, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, nitrogen and water vapour. The 180Nm3/h System Johansson Biomass Gasifier (SJBG at Eskom research and Innovation Centre is used for research and development initiatives, and also for demonstration purposes. The aim of this research was to investigate the efficiency of the gasifier and. This is done through an analysis of the gas profiles at the gasifier using a custom-built gas and temperature measurement system. Non-Dispersive Infrared gas detection technique is applied to monitor the volume and quality of producer gas. Palladium/Nickel gas sensing is applied to monitor the hydrogen content in the gas stream. Temperature in the gasifier is monitored through the use of type K thermocouples. The gas and temperature sensors are connected to the data logger interfaced to a computer. The heating value of the producer gas was determined from the percentage composition of the combustible gases. Evaluation of the efficiency of this gasifier was done before the installation of a 300Nm3/h at a rural village. The gasifier achieved an efficiency of 75% with an average gas heating value of 6MJ/Nm3.

  8. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  9. Yearbook 1993: Bioenergy Research Programme. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakangas, Eija

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of the energy technology programs of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. The aim of the program is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. R&D projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling, and utilization of biofuels. The total funding for 1993 was 45 million FIM and the number of projects 50. The research area of biomass conversion consists of 7 projects in 1993, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 10 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1993 and the plans for 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry and power plants than it is possible at present day appliances. The conversion research in 1993 was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extraction of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and combustion tests. The target of the bioenergy utilization research is to demonstrate three to four new utilization technologies or methods. Each of these plants should have a potential of 0.2 - 0.3 million toe. The 1993 projects consisted of three main categories: reduction of emissions from small-scale combustion equipment, development of different equipment and methods for new power plant technologies, and the studies concerning additional usage of wood fuels in forest industry.

  10. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony

    2012-04-13

    This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

  11. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  12. Progress in the technology of energy conversion from woody biomass in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tjutju Nurhayati; Yani Waridi; Han Roliadi

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable and renewable natural resources as biomass that contains carbon and hydrogen elements can be a potential raw materials for energy conversion. In Indonesia, they comprise variable-sized wood from forests (i.e. natural forests, plantations and community forests that commonly produce small-diameter logs used as firewood by local people), woody residues from logging and wood industries, oil-palm shell waste from crude palm oil factories, coconut shell wastes from coconut plantations, traditional markets as well as skimmed coconut oil and straws from rice cultivation.Four kinds of energy-conversion technologies have been empirically tested in Indonesia. First, gasification of rubber wood from unproductive rubber trees to generate heat energy for the drying of fermented chocolate seeds. Secondly, energy conversion from organic vegetable waste by implementing thermophylic fermentation methods that produce biogas as a fuel and for generating electricity and also concurrently generate organic by-products called hygen compost. Thirdly, gasification of charcoal and wood sawdust for electricity generation. Finally, environment-friendly energy conversion by carbonizing small-diameter logs, sawdust, wood slabs and coconut shells into charcoal. This yielded charcoal integrated with wood vinegar production through condensation of smoke/vapors emitted during carbonization, thereby mitigating the impact of air pollution. Among the four experimental technologies that of integrated charcoal and wood vinegar production had been spectacularly developed and favored by rural communities. This technology brought added value to the process and product due to the wood vinegar,useful as bio-pesticide,plant-growth hormone and organic fertilizer. Such integrated and environment-friendly production, therefore,should be sustained, because Indonesia occupies a significant and worldwide position as charcoal-producing and marketing country.The technology of integrated wood vinegar

  13. Monitoring `Renewable fuels`. Gasification and pyrolysis of biomass. Second situation report; Monitoring ``Nachwachsende Rohstoffe``. Vergasung und Pyrolyse von Biomasse. Zweiter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.; Wintzer, D.

    1997-04-01

    The second situation report deals with gasification and pyrolysis as means of improving the energetic utilisation of wood and strawlike biomass and with various possibilities of utilising the gas produced in these processes. It also presents different gasification techniques, measures for gas purification, and ways of utilising gas for electricity generation. Out of the wide range of possible process combinations for producing energy from biomass the report only deals more closely with a few concepts that appear very promising from today`s viewpoint. Working from the current state and perspectives of technical development and from prospective operating conditions and potential market chances of pyrolysis and gasification the report deliberates on the future orientation of research, development, and demonstration activities. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im zweiten Sachstandsbericht werden die Vergasung und Pyrolyse zur besseren energetischen Nutzung von Holz und halmartiger Biomasse und verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zur Verwertung des dabei erzeugten Gases betrachtet. Es werden unterschiedliche Vergasungstechniken, Massnahmen zur Gasreinigung und Arten der Gasnutzung zur Stromgewinnung dargestellt. Aus der Vielzahl an moeglichen Kombinationen werden einige, aus gegenwaertiger Sichtweise besonders vielversprechende Konzepte zur Energieerzeugung ueber die Biomassevergasung naeher ausgefuehrt. Ausgehend vom Stand und von den Perspektiven der technischen Entwicklungen sowie den Einsatzbedingungen und potentiellen Marktchancen werden Schlussfolgerungen fuer die zukuenftige Ausrichtung im Bereich Forschung, Entwicklung und Demonstration Anstrengungen gezogen. (orig./SR)

  14. Biochemical Conversion Processes of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethauer, Simone; Studer, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass - such as wood, agricultural residues or dedicated energy crops - is a promising renewable feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals that is available at large scale at low cost without direct competition for food usage. Its biochemical conversion in a sugar platform biorefinery includes three main unit operations that are illustrated in this review: the physico-chemical pretreatment of the biomass, the enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrates to a fermentable sugar stream by cellulases and finally the fermentation of the sugars by suitable microorganisms to the target molecules. Special emphasis in this review is put on the technology, commercial status and future prospects of the production of second-generation fuel ethanol, as this process has received most research and development efforts so far. Despite significant advances, high enzyme costs are still a hurdle for large scale competitive lignocellulosic ethanol production. This could be overcome by a strategy termed 'consolidated bioprocessing' (CBP), where enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation is integrated in one step - either by utilizing one genetically engineered superior microorganism or by creating an artificial co-culture. Insight is provided on both CBP strategies for the production of ethanol as well as of advanced fuels and commodity chemicals. PMID:26598400

  15. Enhancement of biomass conversion in catalytic fast pyrolysis by microwave-assisted formic acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Ning; Xiao, Bo; Li, Jian; Wang, Yujue

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated microwave-assisted formic acid (MW-FA) pretreatment as a possible way to improve aromatic production from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignocellulosic biomass. Results showed that short duration of MW-FA pretreatment (5-10min) could effectively disrupt the recalcitrant structure of beech wood and selectively remove its hemicellulose and lignin components. This increased the accessibility of cellulose component of biomass to subsequent thermal conversion in CFP. Consequently, the MW-FA pretreated beech wood produced 14.0-28.3% higher yields (26.4-29.8C%) for valuable aromatic products in CFP than the untreated control (23.2C%). In addition, the yields of undesired solid residue (char/coke) decreased from 33.1C% for the untreated control to 28.6-29.8C% for the MW-FA pretreated samples. These results demonstrate that MW-FA pretreatment can provide an effective way to improve the product distribution from CFP of lignocellulose. PMID:27176672

  16. Direct conversion of chitin biomass to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in concentrated ZnCl2 aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Deng, Tiansheng; Qiao, Yan; Hou, Xianglin

    2013-09-01

    The direct conversion of chitin biomass to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in ZnCl2 aqueous solution was studied systemically. D-Glucosamine (GlcNH2) was chosen as the model compound to investigate the reaction, and 5-HMF could be obtained in 21.9% yield with 99% conversion of GlcNH2. Optimization of the reaction parameters including the screening of 8 co-catalysts was carried out. Among them, AlCl3 and B(OH)3 improved 5-HMF yield, whereas CdCl2, CuCl2 and NH4Cl had no effect. CrCl3, SnCl4 and SnCl2 showed negative effects, i.e. lower yields. Consequently, the optimal reaction conditions were found to be 67 wt.% ZnCl2 aqueous solution, at 120 °C without co-catalyst. The reactions were further studied by in situ NMR, and no intermediate or other byproducts, except humins, were observed. Finally, the substrate scope was expanded from GlcNH2 to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and various chitosan polymers with different molecular weights, 5-HMF yield from polymers were generally lower than that from GlcNH2. PMID:23819974

  17. Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.

  18. A review of biomass quality research relevant to the use of poplar and willow for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A. (Toronto Univ., Ontario (CA). Faculty of Forestry); Sennerby-Forsse, L. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SE). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research); Layton, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    It has been recognized that the chemical and physical properties of biomass feedstocks can play an important role in the efficiency of most energy conversion processes. These properties include the ratio of bark to wood, moisture content, specific gravity, calorific or heating value, and the relative content of extractives, {alpha}-cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. A review of the literature dealing with the quality of poplar and willow biomass feedstock for energy conversion revealed that considerable variation existed in many of these traits. This variation may make it possible to improve the quality of feedstock through breeding and selection. Little information exists with respect to heritability (both in the broad sense and narrow sense), the genetic correlation between characters, and the presence of genotype-environment interaction. A better understanding of these parameters is essential if the apparent variability is to be used to improve biomass quality. (author).

  19. Phosphorus-assisted biomass thermal conversion: reducing carbon loss and improving biochar stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde; Zheng, Wei; Kan, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is often over 50% carbon loss during the thermal conversion of biomass into biochar, leading to it controversy for the biochar formation as a carbon sequestration strategy. Sometimes the biochar also seems not to be stable enough due to physical, chemical, and biological reactions in soils. In this study, three phosphorus-bearing materials, H3PO4, phosphate rock tailing (PRT), and triple superphosphate (TSP), were used as additives to wheat straw with a ratio of 1: 0.4-0.8 for biochar production at 500°C, aiming to alleviate carbon loss during pyrolysis and to increase biochar-C stabilization. All these additives remarkably increased the biochar yield from 31.7% (unmodified biochar) to 46.9%-56.9% (modified biochars). Carbon loss during pyrolysis was reduced from 51.7% to 35.5%-47.7%. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the additives had no effect on thermal stability of biochar but did enhance its oxidative stability. Microbial mineralization was obviously reduced in the modified biochar, especially in the TSP-BC, in which the total CO2 emission during 60-d incubation was reduced by 67.8%, compared to the unmodified biochar. Enhancement of carbon retention and biochar stability was probably due to the formation of meta-phosphate or C-O-PO3, which could either form a physical layer to hinder the contact of C with O2 and bacteria, or occupy the active sites of the C band. Our results indicate that pre-treating biomass with phosphors-bearing materials is effective for reducing carbon loss during pyrolysis and for increasing biochar stabilization, which provides a novel method by which biochar can be designed to improve the carbon sequestration capacity. PMID:25531111

  20. The prominent role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the ant-fungus biomass conversion symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L; Grell, M N

    2014-06-01

    Molecular studies have added significantly to understanding of the role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the efficient biomass conversion, which takes place in the fungus garden of leaf-cutting ants. It is now clear that the fungal symbiont expresses the full spectrum of genes for degrading cellulose and other plant cell wall polysaccharides. Since the start of the genomics era, numerous interesting studies have especially focused on evolutionary, molecular, and organismal aspects of the biological and biochemical functions of the symbiosis between leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp. and Acromyrmex spp.) and their fungal symbiont Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Macroscopic observations of the fungus-farming ant colony inherently depict the ants as the leading part of the symbiosis (the myrmicocentric approach, overshadowing the mycocentric aspects). However, at the molecular level, it is fungal enzymes that enable the ants to access the nutrition embedded in recalcitrant plant biomass. Our hypothesis is that the evolutionary events that established fungus-farming practice were predisposed by a fascinating fungal evolution toward increasing attractiveness to ants. This resulted in the ants allowing the fungus to grow in the nests and began to supply plant materials for more fungal growth. Molecular studies also confirm that specialized fungal structures, the gongylidia, with high levels of proteins and rich blend of enzymes, are essential for symbiosis. Harvested and used as ant feed, the gongylidia are the key factor for sustaining the highly complex leaf-cutting ant colony. This microbial upgrade of fresh leaves to protein-enriched animal feed can serve as inspiration for modern biorefinery technology. PMID:24728757

  1. Conversion and utilisation of biomass from Swedish agriculture; Foeraedling och avsaettning av jordbruksbaserade biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    Biomass feedstock from agriculture can be refined and converted into several different energy carriers and utilised for different energy services, such as production of heat, electricity or transportation fuel. The feedstock may be residues and by-products, such as straw and manure, or energy crops cultivated under different conditions depending on variations in regional and local conditions. Similar variations exist in the regional and local conditions for the refining and utilisation of the bioenergy and its by-products. The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the technical and physical conditions of different agriculture-based bioenergy systems using the existing infrastructure and potential new systems expected to be developed in the future. To which extent this technical/physical potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. Furthermore, potential possibilities to utilise existing infrastructure within the forest industry are not included. The report starts with an analysis and description of the energy efficiency of different bioenergy systems, from the production of the biomass to the final use of the refined energy carrier, expressed as the amount of heat, electricity or transportation fuel produced per hectare and year. The possibilities to co-produce different energy carries in bio-refineries are also analysed. The next part of the report includes an analysis of the variation in the regional conditions for the conversion and utilisation of the different energy carriers, based on existing infrastructure, for instance, district heating systems, individual heating systems, combined heat and power production, utilisation of by-products as feed in animal production, utilisation of digestion residues as fertilisers, the supply of forest fuels, etc. The report also includes a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased

  2. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  3. Enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass into fermentable sugars for biorefinery operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dahai

    2011-12-01

    Depleting petroleum reserves and potential climate change caused by fossil fuel consumption have attracted significant attention towards the use of alternative renewable resources for production of fuels and chemicals. Lignocellulosic biomass provides a plentiful resource for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals and could serve as an important contributor to the world energy portfolio in the near future. Successful biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass requires an efficient and economical pretreatment method, high glucose/xylose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of both hexose and pentose to ethanol. High enzyme loading is a major economic bottleneck for the commercial processing of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Optimizing the enzyme cocktail for specific types of pretreated biomass allows for a significant reduction in enzyme loading without sacrificing hydrolysis yield. Core glycosyl hydrolases were isolated and purified from various sources to help rationally optimize an enzyme cocktail to digest ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) treated corn stover. The four core cellulases were endoglucanase I (EG I), cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II) and beta-Glucosidase (betaG). The two core hemicellulases were an endoxylanase (EX) and a beta-xylosidase (betaX). A diverse set of accessory hemicellulases from bacterial sources was found necessary to enhance the synergistic action of cellulases hydrolysing AFEX pretreated corn stover. High glucose (around 80%) and xylose (around 70%) yields were achieved with a moderate enzyme loading (˜20 mg protein/g glucan) using an in-house developed enzyme cocktail and this cocktail was compared to commercial enzyme. Studying the binding properties of cellulases to lignocellulosic substrates is critical to achieving a fundamental understanding of plant cell wall saccharification. Lignin auto-fluorescence and degradation products

  4. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 10 and biomass conversion 6. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2- 0.3 million toe/a till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small-scale combustion concepts, but large-scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilisation of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe/a by the year 2000 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  5. Catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis-derived compounds with chemical liquid deposition (CLD) modified ZSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Luo, Mengmeng; Xiao, Rui; Shao, Shanshan; Jin, Baosheng; Xiao, Guomin; Zhao, Ming; Liang, Junyu

    2014-03-01

    Chemical liquid deposition (CLD) with KH550, TEOS and methyl silicone oil as the modifiers was used to modify ZSM-5 and deposit its external acid sites. The characteristics of modified catalysts were tested by catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis-derived compounds. The effects of different modifying conditions (deposited amount, temperature, and time) on the product yields and selectivities were investigated. The results show KH550 modified ZSM-5 (deposited amount of 4%, temperature of 20°C and time of 6h) produced the maximum yields of aromatics (24.5%) and olefins (16.5%), which are much higher than that obtained with original ZSM-5 catalyst (18.8% aromatics and 9.8% olefins). The coke yield decreased from 44.1% with original ZSM-5 to 26.7% with KH550 modified ZSM-5. The selectivities of low-molecule-weight hydrocarbons (ethylene and benzene) decreased, while that of higher molecule-weight hydrocarbons (propylene, butylene, toluene, and naphthalene) increased comparing with original ZSM-5. PMID:24413482

  6. Production of renewable phenolic resins by thermochemical conversion of biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effendi, A.; Gerhauser, H.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Bio-Energy Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    This review covers the production and utilisation of liquids from the thermal processing of biomass and related materials to substitute for synthetic phenol and formaldehyde in phenol formaldehyde resins. These resins are primarily employed in the manufacture of wood panels such as plywood, MDF, particle-board and OSB. The most important thermal conversion methods for this purpose are fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, pressure liquefaction and phenolysis. Many feedstocks have been tested for their suitability as sources of phenolics including hard and softwoods, bark and residual lignins. Resins have been prepared utilising either the whole liquid product, or a phenolics enriched fraction obtained after fractional condensation or further processing, such as solvent extraction. None of the phenolics production and fractionation techniques covered in this review are believed to allow substitution of 100% of the phenol content of the resin without impacting its effectiveness compared to commercial formulations based on petroleum derived phenol. This survey shows that considerable progress has been made towards reaching the goal of a price competitive renewable resin, but that further research is required to meet the twin challenges of low renewable resin cost and satisfactory quality requirements. Particular areas of concern are wood panel press times, variability of renewable resin properties, odour, lack of reactive sites compared to phenol and potential for increased emissions of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  7. Biochemical conversions of lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable fuel-ethanol production in the upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J.

    Biofuels are an increasingly important component of worldwide energy supply. This research aims to understand the pathways and impacts of biofuels production, and to improve these processes to make them more efficient. In Chapter 2, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented for cellulosic ethanol production from five potential feedstocks of regional importance to the upper Midwest — hybrid poplar, hybrid willow, switchgrass, diverse prairie grasses, and logging residues — according to the requirements of Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). Direct land use change emissions are included for the conversion of abandoned agricultural land to feedstock production, and computer models of the conversion process are used in order to determine the effect of varying biomass composition on overall life cycle impacts. All scenarios analyzed here result in greater than 60% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum gasoline. Land use change effects were found to contribute significantly to the overall emissions for the first 20 years after plantation establishment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the effects of biomass mixtures on overall sugar recovery from the combined processes of dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass mixtures studied were aspen, a hardwood species well suited to biochemical processing; balsam, a high-lignin softwood species, and switchgrass, an herbaceous energy crop with high ash content. A matrix of three different dilute acid pretreatment severities and three different enzyme loading levels was used to characterize interactions between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yield for any species was 70% of theoretical for switchgrass, and maximum xylose yield was 99.7% of theoretical for aspen. Supplemental β-glucosidase increased glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis by an average of 15%, and total sugar recoveries for mixtures could be predicted to within 4% by linear interpolation of the pure

  8. Spectroscopic and Kinetic Characterization of Catalytic Materials for the Conversion of Biomass-Derived Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    As economies look to transition away from petroleum for social, economic, and political reasons, biomass will continue to attract attention as a renewable feedstock for the fuels and chemicals industry. In order to turn biomass into end use fuels and chemicals, the oxygen content must be lowered significantly, requiring large hydrogen inputs. For these processes to be completely renewable, the hydrogen must come from biomass or biomass-derived compounds. In this work, catalysts for the aqueou...

  9. Critical Influence of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Aging and Decomposition on the Utility of Biomass Conversion in Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Konstantin I; Krivodaeva, Elena A; Romashov, Leonid V; Zalesskiy, Sergey S; Kachala, Vadim V; Burykina, Julia V; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2016-07-11

    Spectral studies revealed the presence of a specific arrangement of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) molecules in solution as a result of a hydrogen-bonding network, and this arrangement readily facilitates the aging of 5-HMF. Deterioration of the quality of this platform chemical limits its practical applications, especially in synthesis/pharma areas. The model drug Ranitidine (Zantac®) was synthesized with only 15 % yield starting from 5-HMF which was isolated and stored as an oil after a biomass conversion process. In contrast, a much higher yield of 65 % was obtained by using 5-HMF isolated in crystalline state from an optimized biomass conversion process. The molecular mechanisms responsible for 5-HMF decomposition in solution were established by NMR and ESI-MS studies. A highly selective synthesis of a 5-HMF derivative from glucose was achieved using a protecting group at O(6) position. PMID:27271823

  10. Consequences of forest conversion to pasture and fallow on soil microbial biomass and activity in the eastern Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Melo de, V. S.; Desjardins, Thierry; Silva, M.L.; E.R. Santos; Sarrazin, Max; Santos, M. M. L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The main change in soil use in Amazonia is, after slash and burn deforestation followed by annual crops, the establishment of pastures. This conversion of forest to pasture induces changes in the carbon cycle, modifies soil organic matter content and quality and affects biological activity responsible for numerous biochemical and biological processes essential to ecosystem functioning. The aim of this study was to assess changes in microbial biomass and activity in fallow and pasture soils af...

  11. Compact conversion of natural gas and biomass to DME in microstructured reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrstad, Rune

    2010-07-01

    Efficient production of easily distributable fuel from natural gas or biomass in the small-to-medium scale calls for a more compact and efficient process than using conventional technology. Microstructured reactors have improved heat and mass transfer properties which make them suitable for process intensified production of liquid fuel from synthesis gas and demonstration plants using such technology are announced. Dimethyl ether (DME) can be used as an intermediate in the production of several industrial chemicals and DME is also used as an aerosol propellant because of its environmentally benign properties. Since DME has high cetane number and is considered as an ultra-clean fuel with reduced NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and PM emissions, DME has emerged as a substitute for auto diesel fuel and bio-DME is one of the most promising second-generation biofuels. DME can be prepared in a one-step process from synthesis gas, which is thermodynamically and economically favourable to the two step process consisting of methanol synthesis followed by dehydration of methanol to DME. As the direct process is strongly exothermic, the reaction heat has to be effectively removed from the reaction system in order to maintain a safe and economic operational mode. Direct DME synthesis possesses a high volumetric heat production rate and hence the temperature control is a main challenge. Besides this, parameters such as syngas composition, pressure, contact time and catalytic system affect the conversion and yield. In this work direct DME synthesis from syngas in a microstructured packed bed reactor was demonstrated to operate at practically isothermal conditions. The performance of the catalyst was enhanced by elimination of the undesired phenomena related to the exothermic process, such as hot spot formation and side reactions. The influence of process parameters on methanol selectivity and DME productivity was studied. The highest CO conversion was achieved by a H{sub 2}-rich syngas at

  12. Situation and perspectives of waste biomass application as energy source in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in the Republic of Serbia. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The average yearly quantity of the cellulose wastes in Vojvodina amounts to about 9 millions tons barely in the agriculture, and the same potential on the level of Serbia is estimated to almost 13 million tons. Only minor part of straw is utilized, and almost two-thirds are incinerated on fields owing to the problems during plowing under. The large sector in Serbia utilizes only about 15% of straw, while the individual one utilizes about 50% of straw and 20% of cornstalks. Environment pollutions, abandonment of the utilization of at least of one-third of the yield and extermination of the natural resources, primarily of humus, represent very adverse results of such procedures. Main problems with respect to the profitable usage of straw and other post-harvest residues are high expenses of their collection (collecting, balling or some other manner of compression), transportation from production- to the usage cites, as well as their handling and storaging. The agricultural production in Serbia should be based on the system of farms. For the efficient farming, it is obvious to organize life of producer and of his family immediately close to the production capacities. For the agriculture development, it is obvious to create a system of premiums, efficient crediting and the elaborated tax system that could create a basis for the certitude of work, confidence and constant growth of production, together with the mentioned and other measures. As the result of the activities oriented to substitution of the classical energents with energy obtained from biomass, farm that is in a higher degree energetically independent should be created. In such case, farms should apply the basic principles of the cleaner manufacturing, as an integral part of the concept of the sustainable

  13. Thermal conversion of biomass with emphasis on product distribution, reaction kinetics and sulfur abatement.

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Roger A.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the work performed in this study has concentrated on the thermal decomposition of biomass. This was done because to the simple fact that biomass is mainly composed of volatiles that evaporates prior to the gasification stage.The characteristics of the devolatilized products during pyrolysis are reported in Paper I for several fuels types that have been considered as sources for energy production due to their fast growing abilities. Paper I also reports results for the same biomass typ...

  14. Main routes for the thermo-conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Part 1: Pyrolysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the energy crises of the 1970s, many countries have become interest in biomass as a fuel source to expand the development of domestic and renewable energy sources and reduce the environmental impacts of energy production. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The methods available for energy production from biomass can be divided into two main categories: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. There are several thermo-chemical routes for biomass-based energy production, such as direct combustion, liquefaction, pyrolysis, supercritical water extraction, gasification, air-steam gasification and so on. The pyrolysis is thermal degradation of biomass by heat in the absence of oxygen, which results in the production of charcoal (solid), bio-oil (liquid), and fuel gas products. Pyrolysis liquid is referred to in the literature by terms such as pyrolysis oil, bio-oil, bio-crude oil, bio-fuel oil, wood liquid, wood oil, liquid smoke, wood distillates, pyroligneous tar, and pyroligneous acid. Bio-oil can be used as a fuel in boilers, diesel engines or gas turbines for heat and electricity generation.

  15. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  16. A Novel NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 Involved in the Detoxification of Aldehyde Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and...

  17. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Venteris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. We summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. Our growth model is used to predict average biomass production for two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp., one fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412, and one freshwater strain (order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas, land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area, a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1. Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive strain, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 1.8 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank UFs are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations.

  18. Practical issues in catalytic and hydrothermal biomass conversion: concentration effects on reaction pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.W. Srokol; G. Rothenberg

    2010-01-01

    Converting biomass to biofuels and chemicals calls for practical and simple processes, since it must compete economically with both burning and anaerobic bacterial digestion. Here we employ concentrated glucose solutions as a biomass model compound, using a pressure-controlled batch reactor setup fo

  19. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dael, Van M.; Passel, van S.; Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R.; Reumermann, P.; Luzardo, N.M.; Witters, N.; Broeze, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conve

  20. Safe operation of TRIGA reactor in the situation of LEU-HEU core conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanian TRIGA reactor was commissioned in 1980. The location of the research institute is Pitesti, 100 Km west of Bucharest. In fact there are two independent cores sharing the same pool. There are a 14 MW Steady State Reactor (SSR), high flux, and materials testing reactor and an Annular Core Pulsing Reactor (ACPR). The SSR reactor is a forced convection reactor cooled via a primary circuit with 4 pumps and 3 heat exchangers. The ACPR is natural convection reactor cooled by the pool water. The characteristics of the two reactors are presented. The reactor core configuration is shown as well as the original start-up core configuration. Fuel management of TRIGA steady state core allows obtaining the requested fluxes for experimental purposes in safe operation condition. One can firmly state that the present operation of the reactor and the HEU-LEU (High Enriched Uranium - Low Enriched Uranium), core conversion fully respect the provisions of the National Regulatory Body and IAEA. (authors)

  1. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  2. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  3. A high performance Trichoderma reesei strain that reveals the importance of xylanase III in cellulosic biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Hikaru; Kawai, Tetsushi; Ida, Noriko; Shida, Yosuke; Shioya, Kouki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Okada, Hirofumi; Tani, Shuji; Sumitani, Jun-ichi; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the Trichoderma reesei X3AB1strain enzyme preparations to convert cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is enhanced by the replacement of xyn3 by Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase 1 gene (aabg1), as shown in our previous study. However, subsequent experiments using T. reesei extracts supplemented with the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 xylanase III (XYN III) and GH Family 11 XYN II showed increased conversion of alkaline treated cellulosic biomass, which is rich in xylan, underscoring the importance of XYN III. To attain optimal saccharifying potential in T. reesei, we constructed two new strains, C1AB1 and E1AB1, in which aabg1 was expressed heterologously by means of the cbh1 or egl1 promoters, respectively, so that the endogenous XYN III synthesis remained intact. Due to the presence of wild-type xyn3 in T. reesei E1AB1, enzymes prepared from this strain were 20-30% more effective in the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated rice straw than enzyme extracts from X3AB1, and also outperformed recent commercial cellulase preparations. Our results demonstrate the importance of XYN III in the conversion of alkaline-pretreated cellulosic biomass by T. reesei. PMID:26672453

  4. Contributions at the DGMK conference conversion of biomass. Conferene report; Beitraege zur DGMK-Fachbereichstagung Konversion von Biomassen. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference on conversion of biomass between 10th and 12th May 2010 in Gelsenkirchen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) How much does carbon need humans? (H. Puetter); (2) Enhanced exergy and energetic efficiency of utilization biomass by mean of bio methane and bio-SNG (E. Oettel); (3) Determination of specified costs and ecologic effects of BTL fuels (R. Stahlschmidt); (4) Conversion of cellulose in sugar alcohols as entry point of a biorefinery concept (R. Palkovits); (5) bio coke as a product of substitution for fossil metallurgical coke (S.H. Freitas Seabra da Rocha); (6) About the development of a thermochemical gasification of biomass for combined heat and power generation in Germany in the years 2008/2009 (D. Braekow); (7) Updraft gasification: A status on the harboore technology (R. Heeb); (8) Hydrogen production from biomass by means of an adsorption supported reformation in a dual circulation fluidised-bed plant (A. Schuster); (9) Flow gasification of high viscous suspension fuels (T. Kolb); (10) Gasification of different raw materials in a staged melt gasification with subsequent hot gas cleaning and CO shift catalysis (M. Kleinhappl); (11) Methanization of biogenic syngas - Influence of operation parameters of gasification on gas quality and catalyst deactivation (Th. Kienberger); (12) Bio-SNG - future regenerative energy source in the gas grid of E.ON (M. Adelt); (13) Heterogeneous degradation of pyrolysis oil at activated carbon (W. Wiest); (14) Ti-based Cu/Ni nanocatalyst for steam reformation of model tars (F. Wiedenmann); (15) Cleaning of fuel gas from the gasification of biomass by means of electro filter (H. Oldenburg); (16) Dedusting of product gas behind biomass gasification reactors with Herding {sup registered} ALPHA filter (W. Duerlich); (17) An investigation of enhancement of performance for the utilization of lean gas and syngas in gas motors (J. Krueger); (18) Amount of pollutants in waste

  5. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.; Stringer, R.P.; Bailie, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The biomass allocation model has been developed and is undergoing testing. Data bases for biomass feedstock and thermochemical products are complete. Simulated data on process efficiency and product costs are being used while more accurate data are being developed. Market analyses data are stored for the biomass allocation model. The modeling activity will assist in providing process efficiency information required for the allocation model. Process models for entrained bed and fixed bed gasifiers based on coal have been adapted to biomass. Fuel product manufacturing costs will be used as inputs for the data banks of the biomass allocations model. Conceptual economics have been generated for seven of the fourteen process configurations via a biomass economic computer program. The PDU studies are designed to demonstrate steady state thermochemical conversions of biomass to fuels in fluidized, moving and entrained bed reactor configurations. Pulse tests in a fluidized bed to determine the effect of particle size on reaction rates and product gas composition have been completed. Two hour shakedown tests using peanut hulls and wood as the biomass feedstock and the fluidized bed reactor mode have been carried out. A comparison was made of the gas composition using air and steam - O/sub 2/. Biomass thermal profiles and biomass composition information shall be provided. To date approximately 70 biomass types have been collected. Chemical characterization of this material has begun. Thermal gravimetric, pyrogaschromatographic and effluent gas analysis has begun on pelletized samples of these biomass species.

  6. Present Situation of Biomass Energy Utilization in China%我国生物质能源利用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽华; 罗鹏; 严明

    2016-01-01

    发展储量巨大的可再生生物质能可以帮助缓解世界能源危机,扭转由于大量化石燃料使用造成全球环境恶化的趋势。对生物质进行了分类,介绍了现代生物至能的3种生产转化方式、相应产品及其应用情况,分析各种生物燃料的优缺点和所面临的挑战,进一步指出生物质能的开发利用,对于我国能源结构调整、能源安全以及环境保护具有十分重要的意义。%Developing renewable clean biofuels using wildly available bioenergy can help alleviate the worsening world energy crisis and reverse the trend of deteriorating global environment caused prmiarily by the ever-increasing use of fossil. Three kinds of conversion routes, their corresponding products, and the scale of bio-fuel production and application worldwide were reviewed. The pros and cons of biofuels were analyzed, and the challenges for the development of biofuels were discussed. Development and utilization of biomass energy was significance to Chinese resource structure adjustment, resource safety and environmental protection were further pointed out.

  7. Thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid products in the aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-10-15

    Aqueous liquefaction of biomass samples was carried out in an autoclave in the reaction temperature range of 550-650 K. In this study, the maximum liquid yield (49%) was obtained from the spruce wood powder at 650 K. It is clear that the yield of liquid products increase with increasing liquefaction temperature for each biomass sample. In general, composition of liquefaction products depends on structural composition of the sample. The yield of water soluble fraction increases with increasing lignin content of the biomass sample, and the highest water soluble fraction (WSF) yield was obtained for hazelnut shell at liquefaction temperature around 650 K, which was about 21%. The yield of heavy oil generally decreases with increasing lignin content of the biomass sample, and the highest heavy oil yield was obtained for beech wood at liquefaction temperature around 650 K, which was about 28%. The yield of acetone insoluble fraction (residue) decreases with increasing liquefaction temperature for all of runs. (Author)

  8. Functional carbons and carbon nanohybrids for the catalytic conversion of biomass to renewable chemicals in the condensed phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthiesen, John; Hoff, Thomas; Liu, Chi; Pueschel, Charles; Rao, Radhika; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass provides opportunities to synthesize chemicals with new functionalities and grow a more sustainable chemical industry. However, new challenges emerge as research transitions from petrochemistry to biorenewable chemistry. Compared to petrochemisty, the selective conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates requires most catalytic reactions to take place at low temperatures (< 300°C) and in the condensed phase to prevent reactants and products from degrading. The stability of heterogeneous catalysts in liquid water above the normal boiling point represents one of the major challenges to overcome. Herein, we review some of the latest advances in the field with an emphasis on the role of carbon materials and carbon nanohybrids in addressing this challenge.

  9. Functional carbons and carbon nanohybrids for the catalytic conversion of biomass to renewable chemicals in the condensed phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Matthiesen; Thomas Hoff; Chi Liu; Charles Pueschel; Radhika Rao; Jean-Philippe Tessonnier

    2014-01-01

    The production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass provides opportunities to synthesize chemicals with new functionalities and grow a more sustainable chemical industry. However, new challenges emerge as research transitions from petrochemistry to biorenewable chemistry. Com-pared to petrochemisty, the selective conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates requires most catalytic reactions to take place at low temperatures (<300 °C) and in the condensed phase to pre-vent reactants and products from degrading. The stability of heterogeneous catalysts in liquid water above the normal boiling point represents one of the major challenges to overcome. Herein, we review some of the latest advances in the field with an emphasis on the role of carbon materials and carbon nanohybrids in addressing this challenge.

  10. Improving Heterogeneous Catalyst Stability for Liquid-phase Biomass Conversion and Reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Héroguel, Florent Emmanuel; Rozmysłowicz, Bartosz; Luterbacher, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a possible renewable alternative to fossil carbon sources. Today, many bio-resources can be converted to direct substitutes or suitable alternatives to fossil-based fuels and chemicals. However, catalyst deactivation under the harsh, often liquid-phase reaction conditions required for biomass treatment is a major obstacle to developing processes that can compete with the petrochemical industry. This review presents recently developed strategies to limit reversible and irreversible ...

  11. Effects of grassland conversion and tillage intensities on soil microbial biomass, residues and community structure

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, Rajasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has a strong impact on level of soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass stocks and microbial community structure in agro-ecosystems. The size of the microbial necromass C pool could be about 40 times that of the living microbial biomass C pool in soils. Due to the specificity, amino sugar analysis gives more important information on the relative contribution of fungal and bacterial residues to C sequestration potential of soils. Meanwhile, the relationship be...

  12. Safe operation of a TRIGA reactor in the situation of LEU-HEU core conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanian TRIGA reactor was commissioned in 1980. The location of the research institute is Pitesti, 100 Km west of Bucharest. In fact there are two independent cores sharing the same pool. There are a 14 MW Steady State Reactor (SSR), high flux, and materials testing reactor and an Annular Core Pulsing Reactor (ACPR). The SSR reactor is a forced convection reactor cooled via a primary circuit with 4 pumps and 3 heat exchangers. The ACPR is natural convection cooled by the pool water. Modifications performed concerning core configuration resulted in the following. Removal the central pin from the bundle leads to slightly temperature increase of approximately 1% for the corner and edge pins, for the same pin power density. Also, the temperature slightly decreases for the 4 pins adjacent to the water hole. This is caused by the coolant flow redistribution. But, according to preliminary neutronic computations, PPF-s are decreasing, the edge and corner temperatures changes are no more detectable. DNB are decreasing, leading to a safer operation. Fuel management of TRIGA steady state core allows to obtain the requested fluxes for experimental reasons in the safer operation conditions. We can firmly state that the present operation of the reactor and the HEU-LEU core conversion fully respect the provisions of the National Regulatory Body and the IAEA. On the other side, we have to mention the common fact that research reactors cannot sustain themselves in the financial domain. The lack of sufficient financial support leads to shortage of the maintenance programs and to reduce of activities and personnel member; this is a real danger in maintaining the actual standards of nuclear safety. During this transition period, the Romanian TRIGA reactor is used much its capability in the frame of international cooperation this facility can ensure support for various research programmes in the fields of interest

  13. Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Progress report, June 15, 1996--March 10, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danna, K.J.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, we want to determine the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu). The apoplast not only contains cellulose, the substrate for the enzymes, but also can tolerate large amounts of foreign protein. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulase expression in plants, we have chosen enzymes with high temperature optima; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source.

  14. Biomass boiler energy conversion system analysis with the aid of exergy-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Conventional exergy analysis and advanced exergy analysis are performed. • The combustion process dominates the exergy destruction. • Increase excess air will decrease the overall boiler exergy efficiency. • Increase the SH temperatures will increase the overall boiler exergy efficiency. • The avoidable exergy destructions in the air heaters are very small. - Abstract: The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the exergy analysis and advanced exergy analysis of a real biomass boiler. These analyses can be used for both the diagnosis and optimization of a biomass boiler as well as for the design of a new biomass boiler. Conventional exergy analysis is performed to recognize the source(s) of inefficiency and irreversibility and identify exergy destruction in different components of the biomass boiler. An advanced exergy analysis is performed to provide comprehensive information about the avoidable exergy destruction and real fuel-saving potential for each component, as well as the overall system. Sensitivity studies of several design parameters including the excess air, biomass moisture and steam parameters were evaluated. The results show that the maximum exergy destruction occurs in the combustion process, followed by the Water Walls (WW) & Radiant Superheater (RSH) and the Low Temperature Superheater (LTSH). The fuel-saving and exergy efficiency improvement strategies for different components are discussed in this paper

  15. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1995, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 14 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1995 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry as at power plants than it is possible at present appliances. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel-oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. The main aim of the research in bioenergy utilization is to create the technological potential for increasing the bioenergy use. The aim is further defined as to get into commercial phase 3-4 new techniques or methods and to start several demonstrations, which will have 0.2-0.3 million toe bioenergy utilization potential

  16. High-performance liquid-catalyst fuel cell for direct biomass-into-electricity conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Deng, Yulin

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we report high-performance fuel cells that are catalyzed solely by polyoxometalate (POM) solution without any solid metal or metal oxide. The novel design of the liquid-catalyst fuel cells (LCFC) changes the traditional gas-solid-surface heterogeneous reactions to liquid-catalysis reactions. With this design, raw biomasses, such as cellulose, starch, and even grass or wood powders can be directly converted into electricity. The power densities of the fuel cell with switchgrass (dry powder) and bush allamanda (freshly collected) are 44 mW cm(-2) and 51 mW cm(-2) respectively. For the cellulose-based biomass fuel cell, the power density is almost 3000 times higher than that of cellulose-based microbial fuel cells. Unlike noble-metal catalysts, POMs are tolerant to most organic and inorganic contaminants. Therefore, almost any raw biomass can be used directly to produce electricity without prior purification. PMID:25283435

  17. Biological conversion of biomass to methane. Quarterly progress report, September 1--November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T

    1978-12-01

    The viability of wheat straw as a feedstock for methane production by anaerobic digestion was investigated and the results obtained compared with that obtained with corn stover. Poor conversion was obtained with the wheat straw under thermophilic conditions, but better than that obtained with corn. In addition the residue has no value as an animal feed. A mild thermochemical pretreatment of the corn prior to anaerobic digestion improved the conversion efficiency and the value of the residue as an animal feed. It is assumed that similar pretreatment of wheat straw would improve its conversion efficiency. Slurry and pumping characteristics of wheat straw particles were reported. (JSR)

  18. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into olefins and aromatics with ZSM-5: the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Vispute, Tushar; Xiao, R; Huber, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of ten biomass-derived feedstocks, i.e.glucose, sorbitol, glycerol, tetrahydrofuran, methanol and different hydrogenated bio-oil fractions, with different hydrogen to carbon effective (H/C{sub eff}) ratios was conducted in a gas-phase flow fixed-bed reactor with a ZSM-5 catalyst. The aromatic + olefin yield increases and the coke yield decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed. There is an inflection point at a H/C{sub eff} ratio = 1.2, where the aromatic + olefin yield does not increase as rapidly as it does prior to this point. The ratio of olefins to aromatics also increases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. CO and CO₂ yields go through a maximum with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. The deactivation rate of the catalyst decreases significantly with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Coke was formed from both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the ten feedstocks showed that the formation of coke from homogeneous reactions decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Feedstocks with a H/C{sub eff} ratio less than 0.15 produce large amounts of undesired coke (more than 12 wt%) from homogeneous decomposition reactions. This paper shows that the conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into aromatics and olefins using zeolite catalysts can be explained by the H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed.

  19. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  20. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  1. Development of an efficient catalyst for the pyrolytic conversion of biomass into transport fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tang Son

    2014-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis is a promising technique to convert biomass into a liquid fuel/fuel precursor, known as bio-oil. However, compared to conventional crude oil, bio-oil has much higher oxygen content which results in various detrimental properties and limits its application. Thus the first part of this

  2. Biotechnological research and development for biomass conversion to chemicals and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, R.

    1980-08-01

    Revitalization of the older fermentation industry and development of biotechnology largely based on lignocellulose are proposed. Specific research projects are outlined in these two areas and also for the following: microbial formation of hydrocarbons; methane from anaerobic digestion; lignin; methanol. For cellulose conversion to ethanol the relative merits using added cellulases or, alternatively, direct fermentation with anaerobic thermophiles, are discussed. In selecting suitable feedstocks for biotechnological processes there is a need to use a production extraction conversion system as a basis for evaluation.

  3. Thermochemical Conversion of Woody Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, Hemant P. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Maine and its industries identified more efficient utilization of biomass as a critical economic development issue. In Phase I of this implementation project, a research team was assembled, research equipment was implemented and expertise was demonstrated in pyrolysis, hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oils, catalyst synthesis and characterization, and reaction engineering. Phase II built upon the infrastructure to innovate reaction pathways and process engineering, and integrate new approaches for fuels and chemical production within pulp and paper and other industries within the state. This research cluster brought together chemists, engineers, physicists and students from the University of Maine, Bates College, and Bowdoin College. The project developed collaborations with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory. The specific research projects within this proposal were of critical interest to the DoE - in particular the biomass program within EERE and the catalysis/chemical transformations program within BES. Scientific and Technical Merit highlights of this project included: (1) synthesis and physical characterization of novel size-selective catalyst/supports using engineered mesoporous (1-10 nm diameter pores) materials, (2) advances in fundamental knowledge of novel support/ metal catalyst systems tailored for pyrolysis oil upgrading, (3) a microcalorimetric sensing technique, (4) improved methods for pyrolysis oil characterization, (5) production and characterization of woody biomass-derived pyrolysis oils, (6) development of two new patented bio oil pathways: thermal deoxygenation (TDO) and formate assisted pyrolysis (FASP), and (7) technoeconomics of pyrolysis of Maine forest biomass. This research cluster has provided fundamental knowledge to enable and assess pathways to thermally convert biomass to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.

  4. Overview of recent advances in thermo-chemical conversion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy from biomass, bioenergy, is a perspective source to replace fossil fuels in the future, as it is abundant, clean, and carbon dioxide neutral. Biomass can be combusted directly to generate heat and electricity, and by means of thermo-chemical and bio-chemical processes it can be converted into bio-fuels in the forms of solid (e.g., charcoal), liquid (e.g., bio-oils, methanol and ethanol), and gas (e.g., methane and hydrogen), which can be used further for heat and power generation. This paper provides an overview of the principles, reactions, and applications of four fundamental thermo-chemical processes (combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction) for bioenergy production, as well as recent developments in these technologies. Some advanced thermo-chemical processes, including co-firing/co-combustion of biomass with coal or natural gas, fast pyrolysis, plasma gasification and supercritical water gasification, are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages, potential for future applications and challenges of these processes are discussed. The co-firing of biomass and coal is the easiest and most economical approach for the generation of bioenergy on a large-sale. Fast pyrolysis has attracted attention as it is to date the only industrially available technology for the production of bio-oils. Plasma techniques, due to their high destruction and reduction efficiencies for any form of waste, have great application potential for hazardous waste treatment. Supercritical water gasification is a promising approach for hydrogen generation from biomass feedstocks, especially those with high moisture contents.

  5. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chien-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially

  6. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially

  7. Biomass Conversion Strategies and the Renewable Production of Hydrogen using Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo-Flores, Ronald

    Biomass is a renewable carbon source that can be processed into fuels and chemicals in a biorefinery. However, there are a number of challenges that need to be overcome for biomass utilization to be viable. The work presented herein aims to address two existing challenges in biomass processing schemes, namely the efficient utilization of all fractions of lignocellulosic biomass and the renewable production of the hydrogen necessary to reduce the oxygen functionalities native in biomass. First, lignin was depolymerized to produce a renewable phenolic solvent mixture. Biphasic reactions with this solvent and aqueous solution of glucose or xylose produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural, respectively, at high yields. HMF and furfuryl alcohol could also be upgraded into levulinic acid at high yields. The yields are due to the capacity of the solvent to partition these molecules and prevent their degradation. Second, propyl guaiacol, a component of the phenolic solvent, was used for biphasic reactions where ball milled biomass substrates were used. These substrates are converted to furfural and HMF at high yields due to the partition of these molecules into the solvent and the on-demand production of glucose and xylose from the substrate, minimizing the formation of humins. A study of the water-gas shift reaction over Pt-based catalysts was conducted. Alloying Pt with Re was found to increase the catalytic activity and microkinetic modeling revealed Pt is a good representation of the active site and Re acts as a promoter slightly destabilizing CO binding. A study on formic acid decomposition over Au catalysts was performed. Experiments, density functional theory and microkinetic modeling results indicate the reaction proceeds completely on highly undercoordinated Au atoms with any high coordination atom being largely inert. Motivated by the results on Au catalysts, the metal-support interaction was investigated for the reverse water-gas shift reaction. Using a

  8. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    that the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel references for electricity production takes place in a combined heat and power plant, but as a sensitivity analysis, we also consider combustion in a condensing mode power plant where only electricity is produced. Our results show that the production of 1 k......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...

  9. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez París, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest global threats of the 21st century. Fossil fuels constitute by far the most important energy source for transportation and the different governments are starting to take action to promote the use of cleaner fuels. Biomass-derived fuels are a promising alternative for diversifying fuel sources, reducing fossil fuel dependency and abating greenhouse gas emissions. The research interest has quickly shifted from first-generation biofuels, obtained from food co...

  10. Two-Stage Conversion of Land and Marine Biomass for Biogas and Biohydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nkemka, Valentine

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of fossil fuels by renewable fuels such as biogas and biohydrogen will require efficient and economically competitive process technologies together with new kinds of biomass. A two-stage system for biogas production has several advantages over the widely used one-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). However, it has not yet been widely implemented on a large scale. Biohydrogen can be produced in the anaerobic two-stage system. It is considered to be a useful fuel for t...

  11. Biomass thermal conversion : pelletisation of lignocelluloses and the effect on the gasification process

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Kyriakos Xenofon

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural residues and energy crops constitute an important part of the energy chain although they are not being used extensively in the energy generation processes since they are associated with disadvantages such as low bulk and energy densities and handling problems. One solution is the pelletisation of these residues, which solves a great deal of these problems and enables the competition of biomass with other types of fuels. A large amount of work, concerning the combus...

  12. Primary conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of furfural and levulinic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, karla Dussan

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed The production of energy and chemicals from renewable resources has gained significant attention as a means to support the transition from fossil fuels towards clean and sustainable technologies. Due to its availability and rich carbohydrate composition, lignocellulosic biomass represents a valuable starting material and requires primary processes to unlock its components. The main focus of this research was to study and develop further knowledge on the primary ...

  13. Microwave-assisted conversion of biomass derived hemicelluloses into xylo-oligosaccharides by novel sulfonated bamboo-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemicelluloses are the major constituent of biomass and their hydrolysis products xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are of great importance to the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, catalytic conversion of bamboo hemicelluloses into XOS was developed using novel solid acid catalysts of sulfonated bamboo-based carbon material (BCS). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy characterization of BCS confirmed the successful introduction of acid groups (including –SO3H, –COOH and phenolic –OH) onto its surface. The effects of reaction temperature, residence time and solid acid-to-water ratio on the performance of catalytic conversion were investigated. The maximum XOS yield of 54.7 wt% based on xylan content was obtained at 150 °C for 45 min with a solid acid to water mass ratio of 1:200. The use of water solvent with BCS provides a green and efficient process for hemicellulose conversion. - Highlights: • Sulfonated bamboo-based carbon (BCS) with active groups was synthesized. • Microwave irradiation was adopted to increase the reaction efficiency. • XOS with higher DP was preferentially obtained under mild conditions. • Xylose and XOS with lower DP were preferentially obtained under severe conditions. • Limited byproducts were detected in the hydrolysis reaction

  14. Conversion of levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone using Fe3(CO)12: mimicking a biorefinery setting by exploiting crude liquors from biomass acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Gustavo; Burtoloso, Antonio C B

    2015-09-28

    The conversion of biomass-derived levulinic acid (LA) into gamma-valerolactone (GVL) using formic acid (FA) and Fe3(CO)12 as the catalyst precursor was achieved in 92% yield. To mimic a biorefinery setting, crude liquor (containing 20% LA) from the acid hydrolysis of sugarcane biomass in a pilot plant facility was directly converted into GVL in good yield (50%), without the need for isolating LA. PMID:26258183

  15. Utilization of biomass: Conversion of model compounds to hydrocarbons over zeolite H-ZSM-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Uffe Vie; Holm, Martin Spangsberg

    2011-01-01

    coking and results in higher selectivity towards aromatics compared to conversion of pure methanol. The reaction pattern of the different oxygenates did not simply follow the effective H/C ratio of the additives since structural isomers with identical effective H/C ratios showed significant differences...

  16. Elemental and thermo-chemical analysis of oil palm fronds for biomass energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm frond is the most abundant yet untapped biomass waste in Malaysia. This paper investigates the characteristics of raw oil palm fronds and its ash to evaluate its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for gasification process using single throat downdraft gasifier. The morphological nature, elemental content, proximate and ultimate analysis and calorific value were studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence were used to investigate the surface morphology, elemental and mineralogical nature of oil palm frond and its ash. The results were compared with other agricultural and forestry biomass wastes. From proximate analysis volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash were found to be 83.5%, 15.2% and 1.3%, respectively on dry basis. From ultimate analysis result values of 44.58%, 4.53%, 0.71% and 0.07% for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur were found respectively on dry basis. Oxygen was determined by difference and found to be 48.81%. The proximate and ultimate analysis results indicate that oil palm frond is better than agricultural wastes and less than most forestry wastes to use as a feedstock in the gasification process in order to get a better quality of syngas. The amount of ash content in OPF was found to be much less than in agricultural wastes and higher than most forestry wastes. From x-ray fluorescence analysis CaO and K2O were found as the major oxides in oil palm fronds and rice husk ash with the amount of 28.46% and 15.71% respectively. The overall results of oil palm fronds were found to be satisfactory to use as a feedstock for the process of gasification.

  17. Biological research survey for the efficient conversion of biomass to biofuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Michael Stuart; Andrews, Katherine M. (Computational Biosciences)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this four-week late start LDRD was to assess the current status of science and technology with regard to the production of biofuels. The main focus was on production of biodiesel from nonpetroleum sources, mainly vegetable oils and algae, and production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. One goal was to assess the major technological hurdles for economic production of biofuels for these two approaches. Another goal was to compare the challenges and potential benefits of the two approaches. A third goal was to determine areas of research where Sandia's unique technical capabilities can have a particularly strong impact in these technologies.

  18. Circulating fluidized-bed technologies for the conversion of biomass into energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper introduces circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion and CFB gasification. CFB combustion units are state-of-the-art and have proven their ability to convert biomass into power and/or steam. The existing units and projects in developing countries are discussed as examples of conventional technology. To illustrate advanced technologies, CFB gasification is discussed. Important process parameters of plants already in operation or under construction in developed countries are shown, Criteria for the selection of CFB combustion or gasification based on available feedstocks and products required are discussed. Finally, a procedure for implementing Lurgi's CFB technology in developing countries is proposed. (author)

  19. Un exemple de conversion d'une table de production en volume en tables de production en biomasse : le chene dans le secteur ligerien

    OpenAIRE

    BISCH, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    La table de production du chêne sessile dans le secteur ligérien, proposée par Pardé en 1962, est convertie en quatre tables de production en biomasse correspondant chacune à une partie de l’arbre ou à l’arbre entier, biomasse foliaire exclue. La conversion est réalisée par l’intermédiaire de tarifs de la forme Biomasse = a + b VBF (VBF = volume bois fort), établis avec un échantillon de 18 arbres convenablement choisis. Ces tarifs sont appliqués au volume bois fort de l’arbre moyen enle...

  20. Evaluation of research in plant biomass production for liquid fuel conversion: The case of India, Brazil and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.M. (Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify research activities in the field of plant biomass production for liquid fuel conversion and to evaluate research in areas outside the USA and EEC. Results are presented for three countries: Japan, India and Brazil. Research groups were identified from a range of information sources. Data were collected by interview and related to funding, information access, staffing, publication policy and degree of awareness of other research groups in the field. Bibliometric analysis and peer review were used as indicators in an attempt to assess research output. The findings are discussed in relation to agro-industrial policy in Japan, the use of marginal land in India and the Proalcohol program in Brazil.

  1. Biomass conversion through radiation immobilization of enzymes and microorganisms and pre-irradiation techniques at IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for alternative renewable sources of energy is receiving increasing attention in developed and less developed countries. At the IPEN-CNEN/SP several interconnected radiation technology applications in the field of biomass conversion have been developed, which included: 1) wood powdering of pre-irradiated wood chips for fuel production; 2) saccharification of lignocellulosic materials by combining electron beam processing (EBP) with other physical and chemical pre-treatments; 3) radiation immobilization of enzymes and microorganisms (yeasts) used in the saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes and ethanol production processes; 4) production of complementary cattle feed by NH3 and NaOH impregnation of pre-irradiated sugarcane bagasse; 5) study of radiosensitivity of yeast cells and yeast ethanol production system; 6) initial tests of bioreactivity of radiation-induced polymers. (author). 19 refs, 2 tabs

  2. The structural characterization of corn stalks hemicelluloses during active oxygen cooking as a pretreatment for biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bin Shi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The structural characteristics of corn stalks hemicelluloses during the active oxygen cooking process as a pretreatment of biomass conversion were investigated in this work. The hemicelluloses obtained from the corn stalks, pulp, and yellow liquor were evaluated by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and 1H-13C 2D hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC spectroscopy. Based on the sugar and GPC analysis, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy, it could be concluded that the hemicelluloses were composed of backbones of (1→4-β-D-xylopyranose substituted α-L-arabinofuranose and 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid. During the cooking process, the hemicelluloses with more side chains were removed from raw material. The backbones were significantly damaged as well. Additionally, the ester linkages in the raw material were completely broken after the cooking.

  3. Fuel-nitrogen conversion in the combustion of small amines using dimethylamine and ethylamine as biomass-related model fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucassen, Arnas; Zhang, Kuiwen; Warkentin, Julia;

    2012-01-01

    . For this, thermochemical values for a number of intermediates had to be determined from quantum chemistry calculations. Also, specific sets of reactions were incorporated for the two fuels. While many trends seen in the experiments can be successfully reproduced by the simulations, additional efforts......Laminar premixed flames of the two smallest isomeric amines, dimethylamine and ethylamine, were investigated under one-dimensional low-pressure (40mbar) conditions with the aim to elucidate pathways that may contribute to fuel-nitrogen conversion in the combustion of biomass. For this, identical...... flames of both fuels diluted with 25% Ar were studied for three different stoichiometries (Φ=0.8, 1.0, and 1.3) using in situ molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Quantitative mole fractions of reactants, products and numerous stable and reactive intermediates were determined by electron ionization...

  4. Conversion of raw lignocellulosic biomass into branched long-chain alkanes through three tandem steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunrui; Ding, Daqian; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-07-01

    Synthesis of branched long-chain alkanes from renewable biomass has attracted intensive interest in recent years, but the feedstock for this synthesis is restricted to platform chemicals. Here, we develop an effective and energy-efficient process to convert raw lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., corncob) into branched diesel-range alkanes through three tandem steps for the first time. Furfural and isopropyl levulinate (LA ester) were prepared from hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of corncob in toluene/water biphasic system with added isopropanol, which was followed by double aldol condensation of furfural with LA ester into C15 oxygenates and the final hydrodeoxygenation of C15 oxygenates into branched long-chain alkanes. The core point of this tandem process is the addition of isopropanol in the first step, which enables the spontaneous transfer of levulinic acid (LA) into the toluene phase in the form of LA ester through esterification, resulting in LA ester co-existing with furfural in the same phase, which is the basis for double aldol condensation in the toluene phase. Moreover, the acidic aqueous phase and toluene can be reused and the residues, including lignin and humins in aqueous phase, can be separated and carbonized to porous carbon materials. PMID:27241180

  5. Engineering photosynthetic light capture: impacts on improved solar energy to biomass conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mussgnug, Jan H.; Thomas-Hall, Skye; Rupprecht, Jens; Foo, Alexander; Klassen, Viktor; McDowall, Alasdair; Schenk, Peer M.; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The main function of the photosynthetic process is to capture solar energy and to store it in the form of chemical 'fuels'. Increasingly, the photosynthetic machinery is being used for the production of biofuels such as bio-ethanol, biodiesel and bio-H-2. Fuel production efficiency is directly dependent on the solar photon capture and conversion efficiency of the system. Green algae (e.g. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) have evolved genetic strategies to assemble large light-harvesting antenna com...

  6. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  7. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)-(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized.

  8. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  9. Integrated Process for the Catalytic Conversion of Biomass-Derived Syngas into Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Smith, Colin D.; Flake, Matthew D.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gray, Michel J.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-04-19

    Efficient synthesis of renewable fuels that will enable cost competitiveness with petroleum-derived fuels remains a grand challenge for U.S. scientists. In this paper, we report on an integrated catalytic approach for producing transportation fuels from biomass-derived syngas. The composition of the resulting hydrocarbon fuel can be modulated to meet specified requirements. Biomass-derived syngas is first converted over an Rh-based catalyst into a complex aqueous mixture of condensable C2+ oxygenated compounds (predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate). This multi-component aqueous mixture then is fed to a second reactor loaded with a ZnxZryOz mixed oxide catalyst, which has tailored acid-base sites, to produce an olefin mixture rich in isobutene. The olefins then are oligomerized using a solid acid catalyst (e.g., Amberlyst-36) to form condensable olefins with molecular weights that can be targeted for gasoline, jet, and/or diesel fuel applications. The product rich in long-chain olefins (C7+) is finally sent to a fourth reactor that is needed for hydrogenation of the olefins into paraffin fuels. Simulated distillation of the hydrotreated oligomerized liquid product indicates that ~75% of the hydrocarbons present are in the jet-fuel range. Process optimization for the oligomerization step could further improve yield to the jet-fuel range. All of these catalytic steps have been demonstrated in sequence, thus providing proof-of-concept for a new integrated process for the production of drop-in biofuels. This unique and flexible process does not require external hydrogen and also could be applied to non-syngas derived feedstock, such as fermentation products (e.g., ethanol, acetic acid, etc.), other oxygenates, and mixtures thereof containing alcohols, acids, aldehydes and/or esters.

  10. Biotechnological research and development for biomass conversion to chemicals and fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.

    1980-08-01

    It is likely that a growing need to produce chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will stimulate the development of biotechnology as a commerical enterprise of considerable potential. The purpose of the analysis and the development structure that could lead to establishing this new technology are presented. Two general goals are recommended: (i) in the near term, to revive the older fermentation industry and, by the addition of sophisticated technology, to make it competitive; (ii) in the longer term, to develop a new biotechnology largely based on lignocellulose. Specific research projects are outlined in these two areas and also for the following: microbial formation of hydrocarbons; methane from anaerobic digestion; lignin; methanol. For cellulose conversion to ethanol the relative merits of using added cellulases or, alternatively, direct fermentation with anaerobic thermophiles, are discussed. In selecting suitable feedstocks for biotechnological processes there is a need to use a production-extraction-conversion system as a basis for evaluation. An effective research workforce for developing biotechnology must be pluridisciplinary. The strategy adopted at the Solar Energy Research Institute is to design the Biotechnology Branch as an integrated set of three Groups: Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics; Microbiology; Chemical and Biochemical Engineering.

  11. Exploring the myth of nascent hydrogen and its implications for biomass conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábos, Viktória; Yuen, Alexander K L; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Iron (and to a lesser extent manganese) in the wall of a 316 stainless steel (SS) reactor is responsible for the hydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexanol when using an aqueous formic acid solution under high temperature and pressure water (HTPW) conditions. However, not only dilute formic acid but also aqueous solutions of several other organic and mineral acids in the presence of iron are active in this reaction covering a range of aldehydes and ketones, even under ambient conditions. The stoichiometry, kinetics, and the possible mechanisms of both dihydrogen production as well as of the hydrogenation of the model compound cyclohexanone were examined. The reduction is essentially stoichiometric with respect to metallic iron, and the conversions are highly dependent on the speed of stirring as well as temperature and reactant concentrations. Importantly, it is established unequivocally that water participates in dihydrogen gas formation (hydrogen atoms originate from both the acid and water molecules) and facilitates substrate reduction. PMID:22952036

  12. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  13. Cellulase immobilization on superparamagnetic nanoparticles for reuse in cellulosic biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current cellulosic biomass hydrolysis is based on the one-time use of cellulases. Cellulases immobilized on magnetic nanocarriers offer the advantages of magnetic separation and repeated use for continuous hydrolysis. Most immobilization methods focus on only one type of cellulase. Here, we report co-immobilization of two types of cellulases, β-glucosidase A (BglA and cellobiohydrolase D (CelD, on sub-20 nm superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles demonstrated 100% immobilization efficiency for both BglA and CelD. The total enzyme activities of immobilized BglA and CelD were up to 67.1% and 41.5% of that of the free cellulases, respectively. The immobilized BglA and CelD each retained about 85% and 43% of the initial immobilized enzyme activities after being recycled 3 and 10 times, respectively. The effects of pH and temperature on the immobilized cellulases were also investigated. Co-immobilization of BglA and CelD on MNPs is a promising strategy to promote synergistic action of cellulases while lowering enzyme consumption.

  14. Decentralized energy conversion of biomass from Amstelland. The feasibility of decentralized use of energy from green wastes in the municipality Amstelveen and its environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to determine the enviro-technical and economical feasibility of decentralized biomass conversion as part of the green area and energy infrastructure of the region Amstelland, Netherlands. The parts of the study concern a regional inventory of green wastes in Amstelland, an energy demand analysis of conversion sites in the region, a logistic analysis, an evaluation of technical options (cogeneration, combustion, gasification), business economical analysis of the investments, determining the support and willingness to contribute and cooperate, and drafting a final report. Based on the results of the report decisions can be made whether or not the design and installation of a decentralized biomass conversion system should be elaborated in detail. 16 refs

  15. Linking pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion (Py-AD) for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Daniele; Torri, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    Biogas is a mixture of CO2 and CH4 produced by a consortia of Bacteria and Archeae operating in anaerobic digestion (AD) plants. Biogas can be burnt as such in engines to produce electricity and heat or upgraded into biomethane. Biomethane is a drop-in fuel that can be injected in the natural gas grid or utilised as a transport fuel. While a wide array of biomass feedstock can be degraded into biogas, unconverted lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose end up in the co-product digestate leaving a large portion of chemical energy unutilised. Pyrolysis (Py) transforms in a single step and without chemical reagents the lignocellulose matrix into gaseous (syngas), liquid (bio-oil, pyrolysis oil) and solid (biochar) fractions for the development of renewable fuels and materials. The Py route applied downstream to AD is actively investigated in order to valorise the solid digestate presently destined only for soil applications. Coupling Py upstream to AD is an emerging field of research aimed at expanding the feedstock towards biologically recalcitrant substrates (wood, paper, sludge). The biomethanation potential was demonstrated for gaseous (H2/CO) and water soluble pyrolysis products, while the influence of insoluble pyrolytic lignin remains fairly unexplored. Biochar can promote the production of biomethane by acting as a support for microorganism colonisation, conductor for direct interspecies electron transfer, sorbent for hydrophobic inhibitors, and reactant for in situ biogas upgrading. Enhancing the advantages (carbon source) over the side effects (toxicity) of Py fractions represents the main challenge of Py-AD. This can be addressed by increasing the selectivity of the thermochemical process or improving the ecological flexibility of mixed bacterial consortia towards chemically complex environments. PMID:26948108

  16. Conversion of Biomass-Derived Small Oxygenates over HZSM-5 and its Deactivation Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Flake, Matthew D.; Zhang, He; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-28

    HZSM-5 catalyst deactivation was studied using aqueous feed mixtures containing ethanol, ethanol+ acetic acid, ethanol+ethyl acetate, or ethanol+acetaldehyde in a fixed bed reactor at 360°C and 300psig. Compared to ethanol alone experiment, addition of other oxygenates reduced catalyst life in the order of: ethyl acetateconversion to the desired products. Therefore, it is necessary to pre-treat the mixture of oxygenates to produce a feed stream containing the same or similar functional group compounds before converting the feed stream to hydrocarbon compounds over HZSM-5 catalyst.

  17. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes......, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. "Biomass Recalcitrance" is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology....

  18. Removal and Conversion of Tar in Syngas from Woody Biomass Gasification for Power Utilization Using Catalytic Hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification has yet to obtain industrial acceptance. The high residual tar concentrations in syngas prevent any ambitious utilization. In this paper a novel gas purification technology based on catalytic hydrocracking is introduced, whereby most of the tarry components can be converted and removed. Pilot scale experiments were carried out with an updraft gasifier. The hydrocracking catalyst was palladium (Pd. The results show the dominant role of temperature and flow rate. At a constant flow rate of 20 Nm3/h and temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C the tar conversion rates reached 44.9%, 78.1% and 92.3%, respectively. These results could be increased up to 98.6% and 99.3% by using an operating temperature of 700 °C and lower flow rates of 15 Nm3/h and 10 Nm3/h. The syngas quality after the purification process at 700 °C/10 Nm3/h is acceptable for inner combustion (IC gas engine utilization.

  19. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.; Meyer, P.; Snowden-Swan, L.; Padmaperuma, A.; Tan, E.; Dutta, A.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  20. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Tan, Eric; Dutta, Abhijit; Jacobson, Jacob; Cafferty, Kara

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  1. Conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone by using water-soluble and reusable iridium complexes in acidic aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jin; Wang, Yan; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-07-01

    Mild-mannered manipulation: A catalytic method for the conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone in acidic aqueous media has been developed. The water-soluble iridium complexes were observed to be extremely catalytically active for providing γ-valerolactone in high yields with high TONs. The homogeneous catalysts can also be recycled and reused by applying a simple phase separation process. PMID:23757330

  2. The conversion of biomass to ethanol using geothermal energy derived from hot dry rock to supply both the thermal and electrical power requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The potential synergism between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion of biomass to fuel ethanol is considerable. In addition, combining these two renewable energy resources to produce transportation fuel has very positive environmental implications. One of the distinct advantages of wedding an HDR geothermal power source to a biomass conversion process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating conditions. The latter obtains since an HDR system is an injection conditions of flow rate, pressure, temperature, and water chemistry are under the control of the operator. The former obtains since, unlike a naturally occurring geothermal resource, the HDR resource is very widespread, particularly in the western US, and can be developed near transportation and plentiful supplies of biomass. Conceptually, the pressurized geofluid from the HDR reservoir would be produced at a temperature in the range of 200{degrees} to 220{degrees}c. The higher enthalpy portion of the geofluid thermal energy would be used to produce a lower-temperature steam supply in a countercurrent feedwater-heater/boiler. The steam, following a superheating stage fueled by the noncellulosic waste fraction of the biomass, would be expanded through a turbine to produce electrical power. Depending on the lignin fraction of the biomass, there would probably be excess electrical power generated over and above plant requirements (for slurry pumping, stirring, solids separation, etc.) which would be available for sale to the local power grid. In fact, if the hybrid HDR/biomass system were creatively configured, the power plant could be designed to produce daytime peaking power as well as a lower level of baseload power during off-peak hours.

  3. Critical success factors for biomass. Identification/specification of critical success factors in the development and market introduction of biomass conversion systems for the production of electricity and/or heat and/or gaseous/liquid secondary energy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch government has set the policy target that in 2020 10% of the total energy consumption has to be provided by means of renewable energy sources. Biomass is expected to play a major role (25-30%) in this future renewable energy based energy supply system. However, it is still unclear if this biomass-based target will be reached. Although studies showed that success or failure of innovations and projects depend on a multitude of scientific, technical, economic and societal variables, a number of questions still remained unanswered. This information often concentrated exclusively on the cost price aspects. This study is conducted to identify the internal and external barriers or constraints other than cost aspects, which are of vital importance to a successful penetration of biomass in the Dutch energy market. Barriers with a decreasing influence on the market introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands are: short-term contractability of biomass (organic waste streams) for energy purposes, applicable emission and waste policies, and unfamiliarity of bioenergy by the public and government. Barriers that potentially could play an important role on the market introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands in the near future are: long-term contractability of biomass (organic waste streams and energy crops) for energy purposes, the 'new' emission constraints and their potential negative influence on the implementation of small-scale biomass-based combined-cycle plants, the rivalry of bioenergy with other renewable energy based technologies in a liberalising energy market, the social acceptance of bioenergy, the future European agriculture policy (energy crops), and the current status and development perspectives of biomass-based energy conversion technologies. 66 refs

  4. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model. Volume I. Biomass allocation model. Technical progress report for the period ending September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A biomass allocation model has been developed to show the most profitable combination of biomass feedstocks thermochemical conversion processes, and fuel products to serve the seasonal conditions in a regional market. This optimization model provides a tool for quickly calculating the most profitable biomass missions from a large number of potential biomass missions. Other components of the system serve as a convenient storage and retrieval mechanism for biomass marketing and thermochemical conversion processing data. The system can be accessed through the use of a computer terminal, or it could be adapted to a portable micro-processor. A User's Manual for the system has been included in Appendix A of the report. The validity of any biomass allocation solution provided by the allocation model is dependent on the accuracy of the data base. The initial data base was constructed from values obtained from the literature, and, consequently, as more current thermochemical conversion processing and manufacturing costs and efficiencies become available, the data base should be revised. Biomass derived fuels included in the data base are the following: medium Btu gas low Btu gas, substitute natural gas, ammonia, methanol, electricity, gasoline, and fuel oil. The market sectors served by the fuels include: residential, electric utility, chemical (industrial), and transportation. Regional/seasonal costs and availabilities and heating values for 61 woody and non-woody biomass species are included. The study has included four regions in the United States which were selected because there was both an availability of biomass and a commercial demand for the derived fuels: Region I: NY, WV, PA; Region II: GA, AL, MS; Region III: IN, IL, IA; and Region IV: OR, WA.

  5. From waste water treatment to land management: Conversion of aquatic biomass to biochar for soil amelioration and the fortification of crops with essential trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Cole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-07-01

    Macroalgae can be grown in industrial waste water to sequester metals and the resulting biomass used for biotechnological applications. We have previously cultivated the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium at a coal-fired power station to treat a metal-contaminated effluent from that facility. We then produced biochar from this biomass and determined the suitability of both the biomass and the biochar for soil amelioration. The dried biomass of Oedogonium cultivated in the waste water contained several elements for which there are terrestrial biosolids criteria (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se and Zn) and leached significant amounts of these elements into solution. Here, we demonstrate that these biomass leachates impair the germination and growth of radishes as a model crop. However, the biochar produced from this same biomass leaches negligible amounts of metal into solution and the leachates support high germination and growth of radishes. Biochar produced at 750 °C leaches the least metal and has the highest recalcitrant C content. When this biochar is added to a low-quality soil it improves the retention of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Mo) from fertilizer in the soil and the growth of radishes by 35-40%. Radishes grown in the soils amended with the biochar have equal or lower metal contents than radishes grown in soil without biochar, but much higher concentrations of essential trace elements (Mo) and macro nutrients (P, K, Ca and Mg). The cultivation of macroalgae is an effective waste water bioremediation technology that also produces biomass that can be used as a feedstock for conversion to biochar for soil amelioration. PMID:25881153

  6. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category and...... advances a more contextually sensitive approach to understanding the contingency of transgender lives and politics. Such insights are important in facilitating more nuanced understandings of the situatedness of transgression and transgender bodies within work and professional settings....

  7. Subclinical primary psychopathy, but not physical formidability or attractiveness, predicts conversational dominance in a zero-acquaintance situation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H Manson

    Full Text Available The determinants of conversational dominance are not well understood. We used videotaped triadic interactions among unacquainted same-sex American college students to test predictions drawn from the theoretical distinction between dominance and prestige as modes of human status competition. Specifically, we investigated the effects of physical formidability, facial attractiveness, social status, and self-reported subclinical psychopathy on quantitative (proportion of words produced, participatory (interruptions produced and sustained, and sequential (topic control dominance. No measure of physical formidability or attractiveness was associated with any form of conversational dominance, suggesting that the characteristics of our study population or experimental frame may have moderated their role in dominance dynamics. Primary psychopathy was positively associated with quantitative dominance and (marginally overall triad talkativeness, and negatively associated (in men with affect word use, whereas secondary psychopathy was unrelated to conversational dominance. The two psychopathy factors had significant opposing effects on quantitative dominance in a multivariate model. These latter findings suggest that glibness in primary psychopathy may function to elicit exploitable information from others in a relationally mobile society.

  8. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  9. Solid Heteropolyacids (HPAs) in Hydrolytic Conversion of Biomass%固体杂多酸在生物质水解转化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建明; 翟尚儒; 黄德智; 翟滨; 安庆大

    2012-01-01

    With global oil production flattening out, attention is being increasingly paid to a kind of renewable clean energy--biomass. Heteropolyacids are important catalysts in the so-called clean technologies. They possess strong acidity, structural flexibility and fairly high thermal stability. It would be preferable to carry out the heteropolyacids-catalyzed reaction in biomass hydrolytic conversion. The performance of heteropolyacids towards hydrolysis of biomass in pure water, organic solvents and biphasic systems exhibit different advantages and limitations. In this paper, we reviewed the latest progress in the hydrolytic conversion of biomass into valuable chemicals using heteropolyacids in different catalytic systems. Highly effective utilization of biomass has positive effects on solving energy problems and achieving sustainable development of energy and chemical industry. Heteropolyacids used as excellent green catalyst will possess extensive application prospect in biomass conversion.%随着化石资源的日益枯竭,寻求可替代清洁能源已成为全球重大课题。生物质是一种可再生的清洁能源,目前人们尝试通过利用生物质转化缓解日益增长的能源需求。杂多酸是应用在清洁工艺中的重要催化剂,结构和酸度的设计调变性及较高的热稳定性,使其广泛用于生物质的水解转化反应平台。目前固体杂多酸在水溶剂、有机溶剂及两相体系中降解生物质有着各自不同的优缺点。本文综述了杂多酸在不同反应体系中水解转化生物质制备精细化学品的研究进展,并对其在生物质水解转化利用中的应用前景进行了展望。

  10. Situating Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  11. Contributions at the DGMK conference ''conversion of biomass''. Conference report; Beitraege zur DGMK-Fachbereichstagung ''Konversion von Biomassen''. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference from 19th to 21st March 2012 in Rotenburg a.d. Fulda (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Biorefineries in the context of the considerations on a future bio economy (K. Wagemann); (2) Characterisation of ethylene glycol - pyrolysis coke slurries, the model fuel of bioliq {sup registered} gasifier (T. Nicoleit); (3) Additional gas generation from fermentation residues amounting to 25 % of the balanced yield of biogas due to the energy content (T. Lehmann); (4) Production of phenols from lignin by means of flash pyrolysis in a circulating fluidised bed - process development and product analytics (M. Franck); (5) Impact of the conditions of torrefication on the temporal decrease in mass of single particles of biomass (A. Becker); (6) Lignins to Aromatic compounds. The Base catalysed degradation in continuous reactors - a tentative review (D. Schmiedl); (7) Thermogravimetric investigations of the pyrolytic degradation of different residues of biomass (G. Pena Chipatecua); (8) Field test campaign for SOFC units with gasification product gas as a preliminary for the SOFC based cogeneration (S. Martini); (9) One-zone-model for pour reactors of industrial size (U. Hellwig); (10) On the actual state of the thermochemical gasification of biomass in Germany at the beginning of 2012 (D. Braekow); (11) Production of green hydrogen based on syngas from biomass gasification (H. Tautz); (12) The BioSyn process - biomass gasification for the generation of syngas free of tar (L. Rochlitz); (13) Efficiency and framework conditions of AER biomass gasification (J. Breilochs); (14) Processing and cleaning of syngas from biomass (S. Vodegel); (15) Processing of product gas from gasification of biomass by means of heat extraction with hot gas cooler with integrated structure pipes and tar extraction with quenching and wet electro filter (C. Hamel); (16) Comparing tests of catalyst for reforming tar and methane in product gases

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Sahir, A.; Tan, E.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Meyer, P.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  13. GIS-BASED location optimization of a biomass conversion plant on contaminated willow in the Campine region (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Campine region is diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium. Since traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred as a remediation technique. In a previous study, the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium was assessed. Based on recently upgraded figures of willow potential from phytoremediation on agricultural land in the seven most contaminated municipalities of the Belgian Campine region, the current paper uses GIS-knowledge to investigate which of three previously identified locations is most suitable for a biomass plant, taking into account the spatial distribution of the contaminated willow supply and the total cost of willow transport. Biomass transport distance from the centroid of each contaminated agricultural parcel to each of the three potential biomass plant locations was determined following Euclidian distance calculations and distance calculations over the existing road network. A transport cost model consisting of distance fixed and distance dependent biomass transport costs was developed. Of the locations identified, the Overpelt Fabriek site results in the lowest biomass transport distance and costs. When willow allocation for each parcel occurs based on the nearest potential plant location, transport costs are on average 23% lower than when all biomass is transported to the single Overpelt Fabriek site location. Therefore, when only considering transport costs, installing a smaller plant at each of the three potential plant locations would be less expensive than when installing a single biomass plant at the Overpelt Fabriek site. -- Highlights: ► Overpelt Fabriek site most attractive for time frames considered. ► Average tortuosity factor in Campine region between 1.27 and 1.42. ► Share of willow transport costs in willow supply costs 21%. ► Optimal allocation of willow results in lower transport costs

  14. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, E. C. D.; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, A.; Hensley, J.; Schaidle, J.; Biddy, M.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  16. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  17. Purification of biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and its catalytic conversion to 2,5-furandicarboxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guangshun; Teong, Siew Ping; Li, Xiukai; Zhang, Yugen

    2014-08-01

    A simple and effective water extraction method is presented for the purification 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) obtained from a biomass dehydration system. Up to 99% of the HMF can be recovered and the HMF in aqueous solution is directly converted to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) as the sole product. This purification technique allows an integrated process to produce FDCA from fructose via HMF prepared in an isopropanol monophasic system, with an overall FDCA yield of 83% obtained. From Jerusalem raw artichoke biomass to FDCA via HMF prepared in a water/MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone) biphasic system, an overall FDCA yield of 55% is obtained. PMID:24889713

  18. Technical and economic data biomass-based energy conversion systems for the production of gaseous and/or liquid energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to give an indication of the expected development of the currently mainly fossil fuel based Dutch energy supply system to a future CO{sub 2}-emission 'free' energy supply system, and (2) to present main technological, economic, and environmental characteristics of three promising renewable energy based technologies for the production of gaseous and/or liquid secondary energy carriers and/or electricity and/or heat, viz.: (a) biomass hydrogasification for SNG (synthetic natural gas) production; (b) trigeneration of methanol and CHP (combined heat and power) from biomass by integrating a 'once-through' LPMEOH (liquid phase methanol) process into a 'conventional BIG/CC (Biomass-Integrated-Gasifier/Combined Cycle) system; and (c) trigeneration of Fischer-Tropsch derived transportation fuels and CHP from biomass by integrating a 'once-through' FT-process (Fischer-Tropsch) into a 'conventional' BIG/CC-system. Biomass conversion systems, for the production of CHP, transportation fuels, and as biofeedstock for the petrochemical industry, will play a substantial role in meeting the future Dutch renewable energy policy goals. In case fossil fuel prices remain low, additional policies are needed to reach these goals. Biomass will also play a significant role in reaching significant CO{sub 2} emission reduction in Western Europe. In which sector the limited amount of biomass available/contractable can be applied best is still unclear, and therefore needs further research. By biomass hydrogasification it is possible to produce SNG with more or less the same composition as Groningen natural gas. In case relatively cheap hydrogen-rich waste gas streams are used in the short-term, the SNG production costs will he in the same order of magnitude as the market price for Dutch natural gas for small consumers (fl 0.6/Nm{sup 3}). The calculated minimum production costs for the 'green' fuels

  19. Technical and economic data biomass-based energy conversion systems for the production of gaseous and/or liquid energy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to give an indication of the expected development of the currently mainly fossil fuel based Dutch energy supply system to a future CO2-emission 'free' energy supply system, and (2) to present main technological, economic, and environmental characteristics of three promising renewable energy based technologies for the production of gaseous and/or liquid secondary energy carriers and/or electricity and/or heat, viz.: (a) biomass hydrogasification for SNG (synthetic natural gas) production; (b) trigeneration of methanol and CHP (combined heat and power) from biomass by integrating a 'once-through' LPMEOH (liquid phase methanol) process into a 'conventional BIG/CC (Biomass-Integrated-Gasifier/Combined Cycle) system; and (c) trigeneration of Fischer-Tropsch derived transportation fuels and CHP from biomass by integrating a 'once-through' FT-process (Fischer-Tropsch) into a 'conventional' BIG/CC-system. Biomass conversion systems, for the production of CHP, transportation fuels, and as biofeedstock for the petrochemical industry, will play a substantial role in meeting the future Dutch renewable energy policy goals. In case fossil fuel prices remain low, additional policies are needed to reach these goals. Biomass will also play a significant role in reaching significant CO2 emission reduction in Western Europe. In which sector the limited amount of biomass available/contractable can be applied best is still unclear, and therefore needs further research. By biomass hydrogasification it is possible to produce SNG with more or less the same composition as Groningen natural gas. In case relatively cheap hydrogen-rich waste gas streams are used in the short-term, the SNG production costs will he in the same order of magnitude as the market price for Dutch natural gas for small consumers (fl 0.6/Nm3). The calculated minimum production costs for the 'green' fuels (methanol: 15 Euroct/l or 9 Euro/GJ, and FT-fuels: 27 Euroct/l or 9 Euro

  20. Biological mineral range effects on biomass conversion to aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic fast pyrolysis over HZSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of 20 biomass samples, comprising 10 genotypes of switchgrass, sorghum and miscanthus grown in two different soils with high and low poultry manure input conditions, and having a wide biological range of mineral content, were subjected to catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) over HZMS-5 using py-G...

  1. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  2. Molybdenum-catalyzed conversion of diols and biomass-derived polyols to alkenes using isopropyl alcohol as reductant and solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel; Gorfo, Ayele Teshome;

    2015-01-01

    Chemical processes capable of reducing the high oxygen content of biomass-derived polyols are in demand in order to produce renewable substitutes for chemicals of fossil origin. Deoxydehydration (DODH) is an attractive reaction that in a single step transforms a vicinal diol into an alkene, but the...

  3. Removal and Conversion of Tar in Syngas from Woody Biomass Gasification for Power Utilization Using Catalytic Hydrocracking

    OpenAIRE

    Jiu Huang; Klaus Gerhard Schmidt; Zhengfu Bian

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification has yet to obtain industrial acceptance. The high residual tar concentrations in syngas prevent any ambitious utilization. In this paper a novel gas purification technology based on catalytic hydrocracking is introduced, whereby most of the tarry components can be converted and removed. Pilot scale experiments were carried out with an updraft gasifier. The hydrocracking catalyst was palladium (Pd). The results show the dominant role of temperature and flow rate. At a cons...

  4. Synthesis and design of optimal biorefinery using an expanded network with thermochemical and biochemical biomass conversion platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the development of an expanded biorefinery processing network for producing biofuels that combines biochemical and thermochemical conversion platforms. The expanded network is coupled to a framework that uses a superstructure based optimization approach to generate and compare...... for identifying at early stage optimal biorefinery concept with respect to technical, economic and environmental criteria....

  5. Conversion of Furnace oil fired boiler to biomass(Gliricidia) fired (External/Internal) furnace boiler : NA

    OpenAIRE

    Channa Gaya Siriwardhana, Kahandawa Arachchilage

    2010-01-01

    In the present era, with the prevailing competition, the cost of production plays a vital role. As the price of petroleum oils, especially diesel and furnace oil are growing at a steeper rate than solid fuel price, finding a substitute for furnace oil is one of the alternative available. Furnace oil used in boilers can be totally substitute by biomass with an equivalent ratio of 3.5:1 kg/liter on the basis of calorific value. This may results in saving of more than 60% of operating cost and w...

  6. A Theoretical Study of two Novel Concept Systems for Maximum Thermal-Chemical Conversion of Biomass to Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two concept systems that are based on the thermochemical process of high-temperature steam gasification of lignocellulosic biomass and municipal solid waste are introduced. The primary objectives of the concept systems are 1 to develop the best scientific, engineering, and technology solutions for converting lignocellulosic biomass, as well as agricultural, forest and municipal waste to clean energy (pure hydrogen fuel, and 2 to minimize water consumption and detrimental impacts of energy production on the environment (air pollution and global warming. The production of superheated steam is by hydrogen combustion using recycled hydrogen produced in the first concept system while in the second concept system concentrated solar energy is used for the steam production. A membrane reactor that performs the hydrogen separation and water gas shift reaction is involved in both systems for producing more pure hydrogen and CO2 sequestration. Based on obtaining the maximum hydrogen production rate the hydrogen recycled ratio is around 20% for the hydrogen combustion steam heating system. Combined with pure hydrogen production, both high temperature steam gasification systems potentially possess more than 80% in first law overall system thermodynamic efficiencies.

  7. Main routes for the thermo-conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Part 2: Gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasification as a thermo-chemical process is defined and limited to combustion and pyrolysis. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, which results in a high production of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash. The solid phase usually presents a carbon content higher than 76%, which makes it possible to use it directly for industrial purposes. The gaseous products can be burned to generate heat or electricity, or they can potentially be used in the synthesis of liquid transportation fuels, H2, or chemicals. On the other hand, the liquid phase can be used as fuel in boilers, gas turbines or diesel engines, both for heat or electric power generation. However, the main purpose of biomass gasification is the production of low- or medium heating value gas which can be used as fuel gas in an internal combustion engine for power production. In addition to limiting applications and often compounding environmental problems, these technologies are an inefficient source of usable energy.

  8. Potential of duckweed in the conversion of wastewater nutrients to valuable biomass: a pilot-scale comparison with water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonggui; Fang, Yang; Jin, Yanling; Huang, Jun; Bao, Shu; Fu, Tian; He, Zhiming; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Hai

    2014-07-01

    The application potential of duckweed (Lemna japonica 0234) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were compared in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment systems for more than one year. The results indicated duckweed had the same total nitrogen (TN) recovery rate as water hyacinth (0.4 g/m(2)/d) and a slightly lower total phosphorus (TP) recovery rate (approximately 0.1g/m(2)/d) even though its biomass production was half that of water hyacinth. The higher content of crude protein (33.34%), amino acids (25.80%), starch (40.19%), phosphorus (1.24%), flavonoids (2.91%) and lower fiber content provided duckweed with more advantages in resource utilization. Additionally, microbial community discovered by 454 pyrosequencing indicated that less nitrifying bacteria and more nitrogen-fixing bacteria in rhizosphere of duckweed provided it with higher nitrogen recovery efficiency (60%) than water hyacinth (47%). Under the presented condition, duckweed has more application advantages than water hyacinth because it more effectively converted the wastewater nutrients into valuable biomass. PMID:24787320

  9. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

    1996-03-21

    There is growing evidence that global warming could become a major global environmental threat during the 21st century. The precautionary principle commands preventive action, at both national and international levels, to minimize this potential threat. Many near-term, relatively inexpensive, mitigation options are available. In addition, long-term research is required to evaluate and develop advanced, possibly more expensive, countermeasures, in the eventuality that they may be required. The utilization of power plant CO{sub 2} and its recycling into fossil fuel substitutes by microalgae cultures could be one such long-term technology. Microalgae production is an expanding industry in the U.S., with three commercial systems (of approximately 10 hectare each) producing nutriceuticals, specifically beta-carotene, extracted from Dunaliella, and Spirulina biomass. Microalgae are also used in wastewater treatment. Currently production costs are high, about $10,000/ton of algal biomass, almost two orders of magnitude higher than acceptable for greenhouse gas mitigation. This report reviews the current state-of-the-art, including algal cultivation and harvesting-processing, and outlines a technique for achieving very high productivities. Costs of CO{sub 2} mitigation with microalgae production of oils ({open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}) are estimated and future R&D needs outlined.

  10. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sahir, A. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis. Both the in situ and ex situ conceptual designs, using the underlying assumptions, project MFSPs of approximately $3.5/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE). The performance assumptions for the ex situ process were more aggressive with higher distillate (diesel-range) products. This was based on an assumption that more favorable reaction chemistry (such as coupling) can be made possible in a separate reactor where, unlike in an in situ upgrading reactor, one does not have to deal with catalyst mixing with biomass char and ash, which pose challenges to catalyst performance and maintenance. Natural gas was used for hydrogen production, but only when off gases from the process was not sufficient to meet the needs; natural gas consumption is insignificant in both the in situ and ex situ base cases. Heat produced from the burning of char, coke, and off-gases allows for the production of surplus electricity which is sold to the grid allowing a reduction of approximately 5¢/GGE in the MFSP.

  11. Emission guidelines for energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the introduction of bio-energy on the Dutch market it is important to know the regulations for the emission limits for the use of biomass. An overview is made of emission regulations in the Netherlands with respect to thermal conversion of biomass. Also experiences of practical situations have been compiled and evaluated and an inventory was made of emission regulations in Germany, Finland, Denmark, England and Austria and the European Union. All the compiled information has been evaluated and the Dutch emission regulations for bio-energy is represented in the form of a decision making scheme or working paper and compared with emission regulations in foreign countries. 18 refs

  12. Investigation on syngas production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air–steam gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Innovation in gasifier design. • Integration of pyrolysis and steam gasification processes. • Energy saving, improvement of gasifier efficiency, syngas and hydrogen yield. • Overall investigation on gasification parameters. • Optimization conditions of integration of pyrolysis and gasification process. - Abstract: Fuel production from agro-waste has become an interesting alternative for energy generation due to energy policies and greater understanding of the importance of green energy. This research was carried out in a lab-scale gasifier and coconut shell was used as feedstock in the integrated process. In order to acquire the optimum condition of syngas production, the effect of the reaction temperature, equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass (S/B) ratio was investigated. Under the optimized condition, H2 and syngas yield achieved to 83.3 g/kg feedstock and 485.9 g/kg feedstock respectively, while LHV of produced gases achieved to 12.54 MJ/N m3

  13. The rumen as a source of fungal and bacterial enzymes for conversion of starch and cellulosic biomass to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, K.J.; Selinger, L.B.; Yanke, L.J.; McAllister, T.A. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Forsbert, V.W. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology

    1997-07-01

    The fuel alcohol industry has traditionally used soil fungi as the source of industrial fibrolytic enzymes to enhance product yield. Recently, new enzymes have been discovered that are better than those currently used. The microflora of the rumen has been shown to be a rich and under-utilized source of superior fibrolytic enzymes and amylases. A study has identified xylanase, produced by a fungus isolated from the rumen, with a specific activity three times greater than that of any known xylanases. This paper described a study in which biomass from selected isolates of ruminal fungi was produced in preparation for gene library construction to better understand the role of enzymes in fibre digestion. 10 refs.

  14. Biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using the MixAlco™ process at a pilot-plant scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texas A and M University has built a MixAlco™ pilot plant that converts biomass to hydrocarbons (i.e., jet fuel, gasoline) using the following steps: fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, and oligomerization. This study describes the pilot plant and reports results from an 11-month production campaign. The focus was to produce sufficient jet fuel to be tested by the U.S. military. Because the scale was relatively small, energy-saving features were not included in the pilot plant. Further, the equipment was operated in a manner to maximize productivity even if yields were low. During the production campaign, a total of 6.015 Mg of shredded paper and 120 kg of chicken manure (dry basis) were fermented to produce 126.5 m3 of fermentation broth with an average concentration of 12.5 kg m−3. A total of 1582 kg of carboxylate salts were converted to 587 L of raw ketones, which were distilled and hydrogenated to 470 L of mixed alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. These alcohols, plus 300 L of alcohols made by an industrial partner (Terrabon, Inc.) were shipped to an independent contractor (General Electric) and transformed to jet fuel (∼100 L) and gasoline (∼100 L) byproduct. - Highlights: • We produce hydrocarbons from paper and chicken manure in a pilot-scale production using the MixAlco™ process. • About 100 L of jet fuel were produced for military testing. • High production rates and good product quality were preferred rather than high yields or energy efficiency. • The MixAlco™ process converted successfully lignocellulosic biomass to hydrocarbons and viable for commercial-scale production

  15. Recovery Act. Demonstration of a Pilot Integrated Biorefinery for the Efficient, Direct Conversion of Biomass to Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetzle, Dennis [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Tamblyn, Greg [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Caldwell, Matt [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Hanbury, Orion [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Schuetzle, Robert [Greyrock Energy, Sacramento, CA (United States); Rodriguez, Ramer [Greyrock Energy, Sacramento, CA (United States); Johnson, Alex [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Deichert, Fred [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Jorgensen, Roger [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Struble, Doug [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-12

    The Renewable Energy Institute International, in collaboration with Greyrock Energy and Red Lion Bio-Energy (RLB) has successfully demonstrated operation of a 25 ton per day (tpd) nameplate capacity, pilot, pre-commercial-scale integrated biorefinery (IBR) plant for the direct production of premium, “drop-in”, synthetic fuels from agriculture and forest waste feedstocks using next-generation thermochemical and catalytic conversion technologies. The IBR plant was built and tested at the Energy Center, which is located in the University of Toledo Medical Campus in Toledo, Ohio.

  16. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times.

  17. Biological conversion of biomass to methane corn stover studies. Project report, December 1, 1977-August 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T; Quindry, G E

    1979-06-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the methane fermentation process using corn stover obtained from the University of Illinois farms and processed through four parallel fermenters each having a capacity of 775 liters. A continuous feed system was employed to determine the conversion efficiency. The dewatering characteristics of the effluents and the quality of the liquid and solid residues were determined. The biodegradability of corn stover is low. Data obtained at a fermentation temperature of 59 +-1/sup 0/C show that only 36 percent of the volatile solids are biodegradable. The first order rate constant for this conversion was found to be 0.25 day/sup -1/. Pretreatment with caustic (NaOH) concentration of 0.30 molar (5 g/100 g dry stover) and a temperature of 115/sup 0/C for one hour increased the biodegradable fraction to 71 percent of the volatile solids. The reactor slurries were easily dewatered by both vacuum filtration and centrifugation. Corn stover does not appear to be attractive economically at the present energy prices. At a chemical cost of $154/tonne ($140/ton), the NaOH pretreatment adds approximately $5.2/tonne to the cost of processing the stover. At a methane yield of 0.25 m/sup 3//kg of solids fed, this adds a total cost of $2/100 m/sup 3/ ($0.57/MCF) for this process alone. Addition of stover acquisition costs ($20/dry tonne of stover), total processing costs without gas cleanup ($21/tonne) and residue disposal ($3/tonne of wet cake), the cost of fuel gas would be in the neighborhood of $9.76/GJ ($10.30/10/sup 6/ Btu).This cost excludes all profit, taxes, etc. associated with private financing. Depending upon financing methods, tax incentives, etc., it may be necessary to add up to an additional $2.00/GJ to the cost of this fuel gas.

  18. Basic mechanisms of photosynthesis and applications to improved production and conversion of biomass to fuels and chemical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, M. [Georgia Institute of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Greenbaum, E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Wasielewski, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Natural photosynthesis, the result of 3.5 billion years of evolutionary experimentation, is the best proven, functional solar energy conversion technology. It is responsible for filling the vast majority of humanity`s energy, nutritional, and materials needs. Understanding the basic physical chemical principles underlying photosynthesis as a working model system is vital to further exploitation of this natural technology. These principles can be used to improve or modify natural photosynthesis so that it is more efficient or so that it can produce unusual products such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, ethanol, diesel fuel substitutes, biodegradable materials, or other high value chemical products. Principles garnered from the natural process can also be used to design artificial photosynthetic devices that employ analogs of natural antenna and reaction center function, self-assembly and repair concepts, photoinduced charge transfer processes, photoprotection, and dark reactions that facilitate catalytic action to convert light into, useful chemical or electrical energy. The present broad understanding of many structural and functional aspects of photosynthesis has resulted from rapid recent research progress. X-ray structures of several key photosynthetic reaction centers and antenna systems are available, and the overall principles controlling photoinduced energy and electron transfer are being established.

  19. Mesophilic and thermophilic conditions select for unique but highly parallel microbial communities to perform carboxylate platform biomass conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B Hollister

    Full Text Available The carboxylate platform is a flexible, cost-effective means of converting lignocellulosic materials into chemicals and liquid fuels. Although the platform's chemistry and engineering are well studied, relatively little is known about the mixed microbial communities underlying its conversion processes. In this study, we examined the metagenomes of two actively fermenting platform communities incubated under contrasting temperature conditions (mesophilic 40°C; thermophilic 55 °C, but utilizing the same inoculum and lignocellulosic feedstock. Community composition segregated by temperature. The thermophilic community harbored genes affiliated with Clostridia, Bacilli, and a Thermoanaerobacterium sp, whereas the mesophilic community metagenome was composed of genes affiliated with other Clostridia and Bacilli, Bacteriodia, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Although both communities were able to metabolize cellulosic materials and shared many core functions, significant differences were detected with respect to the abundances of multiple Pfams, COGs, and enzyme families. The mesophilic metagenome was enriched in genes related to the degradation of arabinose and other hemicellulose-derived oligosaccharides, and the production of valerate and caproate. In contrast, the thermophilic community was enriched in genes related to the uptake of cellobiose and the transfer of genetic material. Functions assigned to taxonomic bins indicated that multiple community members at either temperature had the potential to degrade cellulose, cellobiose, or xylose and produce acetate, ethanol, and propionate. The results of this study suggest that both metabolic flexibility and functional redundancy contribute to the platform's ability to process lignocellulosic substrates and are likely to provide a degree of stability to the platform's fermentation processes.

  20. Biomass-based gasifiers for internal combustion (IC) engines—A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Malik; S K Mohapatra

    2013-06-01

    The world is facing severe problems of energy crisis and environmental problem. This situation makes people to focus their attention on sustainable energy resources for their survival. Biomass is recognized to be the major potential source for energy production. There are ranges of biomass utilization technologies that produce useful energy from biomass. Gasification is one of the important techniques out of direct combustion, anaerobic digestion – Biogas, ethanol production. Gasification enables conversion of these materials into combustible gas (producer gas), mechanical and electrical power, synthetic fuels, and chemical. The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the techniques used for utilizing biomass, experimental investigation on biomass fuels, characterization, merits, demerits and challenges faced by biomass fuels.

  1. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols – FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

  2. Changes in Biomass Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks following the Conversion from a Secondary Coniferous Forest to a Pine Plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaifeng; Su, Jianrong; Liu, Wande; Lang, Xuedong; Huang, Xiaobo; Jia, Chengxinzhuo; Zhang, Zhijun; Tong, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C) and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF) in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0-1 m). The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-year-old stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1) with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0-0.1 m) contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded. PMID:26397366

  3. Biological conversion of forage sorghum biomass to ethanol by steam explosion pretreatment and simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation at high solid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Negro, Maria Jose; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Gonzalez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Mercedes [Renewable Energy Department-CIEMAT, Biofuels Unit, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    In this work, forage sorghum biomass was studied as feedstock for ethanol production by a biological conversion process comprising the steps of hydrothermal steam explosion pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes, and fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Steam explosion conditions were optimized using a response surface methodology considering temperature (180-230 C) and time (2-10 min). Sugar recovery in the pretreatment and the enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated solid were used to determine the optimum conditions, i.e., 220 C and 7 min. At these conditions, saccharification efficiency attained 89 % of the theoretical and the recovery of xylose in the prehydrolyzate accounted for 35 % of the amount of xylose present in raw material. Then, a simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation (SSF) process was tested at laboratory scale on the solid fraction of forage sorghum pretreated at optimum condition, in order to evaluate ethanol production. The effect of the enzyme dose and the supplementation with xylanase enzyme of the cellulolytic enzyme cocktail was studied at increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) in SSF media. Results show good performance of SSF in all consistencies tested with a significant effect of increasing enzyme load in SSF yield and final ethanol concentration. Xylanase supplementation allows increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) with good SSF performance and final ethanol content of 55 g/l after 4-5 days. Based on this result, about 190 l of ethanol could be obtained from 1 t of untreated forage sorghum, which means a transformation yield of 85 % of the glucose contained in the feedstock. (orig.)

  4. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica;

    2014-01-01

    can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed by dehy-dration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of the product are mostly de-pendent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass consists of various com-ponents such as......Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided into...... biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass into...

  5. Biomass supply management for advanced energy: applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced biomass energy systems, including new biomass resource enhancement technologies, should be developed only where compelling situations for investors or communities exist to economically do so. These situations, or minimum viable operating conditions, are assessed from a pragmatic perspective. They are determined by specific circumstances and divergent interests that take time to define and integrate. Customized solutions are necessary and can change quickly with geography and market circumstances New technologies offer more options but are not necessarily the best. The example of energy crop technology is used to demonstrate the interdependencies that exist between new resource enhancement technology and biomass energy systems operations. The ability to genetically increase the energy density of energy crops is compared to other enhancement measures such as increasing the number of tonnes grown per hectare-year, reducing costs per tonne and improving other characteristics. Issues that need to be considered include significant knowledge gaps, lack of commitments in R and D, specificity of conversion system requirements, handling capabilities and opportunity costs. Broader biomass procurement strategies, which may be more important than resource enhancement technologies, are discussed. Biomass cost-supply is utilized as a strong analytical feature to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass procurement strategies and new biomass production technologies. Some past experiences are reviewed. Cost-supply is assessed from the perspective of the whole biomass energy system to expose the interdependencies between production operations, conversion scale and technologies, and community markets and service. Investment limits, for example, may be as important a determinant as the cost-efficiency of a new technology, which, in turn, affects biomass cost-supply-quality requirements. The cost of new technologies can then be compared to the changed performance of the overall

  6. A Paradigm for Biomass Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The questions 1) what is it, 2) how is it converted, 3) how is it analyzed and measured have been applied to improved forages, proposed new strategies for grass as a biofuel, and the processing and quality of natural fibers and co-products. For forages, improvements have been made in particular cel...

  7. Biomass to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  8. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  9. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, Februray 1, 1980-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The project will result in two distinct products: (1) a biomass allocation model which will serve as a tool for the energy planner. (2) the experimental data is being generated to help compare and contrast the behavior of a large number of biomass material in thermochemical environments. Based on information in the literature, values have been developed for regional biomass costs and availabilities and for fuel costs and demands. This data is now stored in data banks and may be updated as better data become available. Seventeen biomass materials have been run on the small TGA and the results partially analyzed. Ash analysis has been performed on 60 biomass materials. The Effluent Gas Analyzer with its associated gas chromatographs has been made operational and some runs have been carried out. Using a computerized program for developing product costs, parametric studies on all but 1 of the 14 process configurations being considered have been performed. Background economic data for all the configuration have been developed. Models to simulate biomass gasifications in an entrained and fixed bed have been developed using models previously used for coal gasification. Runs have been carried out in the fluidized and fixed bed reactor modes using a variety of biomass materials in atmospheres of steam, O/sub 2/ and air. Check aout of the system continues using fabricated manufacturing cost and efficiency data. A users manual has been written.

  10. Current Situation of Densified Biomass Briquette Fuel Production and Prospect%生物质固化成型燃料生产现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴再兴; 陈玉和; 包永洁; 陈章敏; 李能

    2014-01-01

    Presentation was made on current production situation of densified biomass briquette fuel at home and abroad from the aspect of production equipment, raw material, technology, market and applied techniques. Countermeasures were proposed for further development in China.%介绍了国内外生物质固化成型燃料的生产现状,从生产设备、原料、工艺、市场、应用技术与设备5个方面分析了生物质固化成型燃料生产与进一步发展存在的问题,并提出了相应的对策。

  11. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1979-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.C.; Nelson, E.T.; Stringer, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    Market analyses information now stored in the biomass feedstock data base includes for each species: feedstock amount by region and season in tons/year; heating values in Btu/lb for those feedstock for which published data are available, and; feedstock cost in $/mm Btu. Information now stored in the product data base includes for each product: product amount by region in mm Btu/year and product cost in $/mm Btu. Biomass characterization procedures have now been developed and these will be used to characterize approximately 100 biomass species. TGA analyses will be supplemented with a pyrogram and a pyrochromatogram to further characterize each biomass. Tests were run on the PDU in the fluidized bed mode to determine the effects of particle size on reaction time. Thirteen tests were run during this quarter to verify the results from previous testing. The PDU is being modified to accommodate future sustained runs. Allocation modeling program is now functional and being tested as data is provided to the feedstock and product data banks. A mathematical model has been developed by modifying the Texaco Entrained Bed Pilot Plant Gasifier Model to simulate biomass gasification in an Entrained Bed. Results are being evaluated. Models for other reaction modes are being evaluated. A biomass economic program has been developed to provide average product fuel costs using 15 thermochemical processes.

  12. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    This report provides an economic analysis and feasibility study for the utilization by microalgal systems of carbon dioxide generated from coal-fired power plants. The resulting biomass could be a fuel substitute for fossil fuels.

  13. Use of Life Cycle Assessment to determine the environmental impact of thermochemical conversion routes of lignocellulosic biomass: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbinet, Saïcha; Léonard, Angélique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The biomass is a promising way to substitute fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass valorisation is part of second generation technologies. They are interesting in that they imply less competition with food crops for land and water, and they allow for the whole plant to be processed. Moreover, lignocellulose is abundant in cheap and non-food materials extracted from plants such as wood and energy crops. The thermo-chemical route is being considered more extensively, especially the...

  14. Routing of biomass for sustainable agricultural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetically derived biomass and residues, including waste products from food processing industries are renewable. They accumulate every year in large quantities, causing deterioration to the environment and loss of potentially valuable resources. The conserved energy is potentially convertible; thermodynamically the energy can be tapped into forms which are more amenable for value added agricultural applications or for other higher value products such as chemicals or their feedstocks. The forms and types in which this biomass has to be modified for the intended use depend on the costs or the respective alternatives. Under current situations, where chemical feedstocks are available in abundance at very competitive prices, biomass is obviously more suitably placed in the agro-industrial sector. Recycling of the biomass or residues into the soil as biofertilizers or for some other uses for agricultural applications requires less intense energy inputs for their improvements. Highly efficient biological processes with microorganisms as the primary movers in the production of the desired end products indeed require less capital costs than in most other industrial entities. In this paper, the various processes, which are potentially valuable and economically feasible in the conversion of biomass and residues for several products important in the agricultural sector, are described. Emphasis is given to the approach and the possible permutations of these processes to arrive at the desired good quality products for sustainable agricultural development. (Author)

  15. Electrifying biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's (BC) energy plan was outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. BC Hydro is the third largest electric utility in Canada with a generating capacity of 11,000 MW, 90 per cent of which is hydro generation. Various independent power project (IPP) biomass technologies were outlined, including details of biogas, wood residue and municipal solid waste facilities. An outline of BC Hydro's overall supply mix was presented, along with details of the IPP supply mix. It was suggested that the cancellation of the Duke Point power project has driven growth in the renewable energy sector. A chart of potential energy contribution by resource type was presented, as well as unit energy cost ranges. Resources included small and large hydro; demand side management; resource smart natural gas; natural gas; coal; wind; geothermal; biomass; wave; and tidal. The acquisition process was reviewed. Details of calls for tenders were presented, and issues concerning bidder responsibility and self-selection were examined. It was observed that wood residue presents a firm source of electricity that is generally local, and has support from the public. In addition, permits for wood residue energy conversion are readily available. However, size limitations, fuel risks, and issues concerning site control may prove to be significant challenges. It was concluded that the success of biomass energy development will depend on adequate access and competitive pricing. tabs., figs

  16. Secondary Forest Age and Tropical Forest Biomass Estimation Using TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. F.; Kimes, D. S.; Salas, W. A.; Routhier, M.

    1999-01-01

    The age of secondary forests in the Amazon will become more critical with respect to the estimation of biomass and carbon budgets as tropical forest conversion continues. Multitemporal Thematic Mapper data were used to develop land cover histories for a 33,000 Square kM area near Ariquemes, Rondonia over a 7 year period from 1989-1995. The age of the secondary forest, a surrogate for the amount of biomass (or carbon) stored above-ground, was found to be unimportant in terms of biomass budget error rates in a forested TM scene which had undergone a 20% conversion to nonforest/agricultural cover types. In such a situation, the 80% of the scene still covered by primary forest accounted for over 98% of the scene biomass. The difference between secondary forest biomass estimates developed with and without age information were inconsequential relative to the estimate of biomass for the entire scene. However, in futuristic scenarios where all of the primary forest has been converted to agriculture and secondary forest (55% and 42% respectively), the ability to age secondary forest becomes critical. Depending on biomass accumulation rate assumptions, scene biomass budget errors on the order of -10% to +30% are likely if the age of the secondary forests are not taken into account. Single-date TM imagery cannot be used to accurately age secondary forests into single-year classes. A neural network utilizing TM band 2 and three TM spectral-texture measures (bands 3 and 5) predicted secondary forest age over a range of 0-7 years with an RMSE of 1.59 years and an R(Squared) (sub actual vs predicted) = 0.37. A proposal is made, based on a literature review, to use satellite imagery to identify general secondary forest age groups which, within group, exhibit relatively constant biomass accumulation rates.

  17. Scientific and Technical Demand and Current Situations of Cassava Biomass Energy Industry in China%我国木薯生物质能源产业发展现状与科技需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦昌联; 卢柳忠; 黎贞崇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of current situations of cassava biomass energy industry in China and the relative advances in science and technology,the major existed problems in this industry were put forward.Furthermore,scientific and technical demands for further development of cassava biomass energy industry were discussed covering the following aspects:strengthening the research on the culture and the matching cultivation technology of new varieties of high-yield high-starch cassava,launching the development of cassava full-process automated manufacturing equipments,strengthening the research on cassava comprehensive utilization and the development of new cassava products,and strengthening the research on the recycle use of cassava waste and the relative techniques.%在分析我国木薯生物质能源产业现状和科技发展进展的基础上,指出了当前木薯生物质能源产业科技发展存在的主要问题。提出了下一步产业发展的科技需求,重点是加强高产高粉木薯新品种培育和配套栽培技术研究,开展木薯全程机械化系列产品的研发,加强木薯综合利用技术和产品攻关及木薯废弃物的资源化利用技术的研发力度。

  18. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. 4th Quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.

    1994-12-28

    Microalgae cultivation in large open ponds is the only photosynthetic process likely to directly utilize power plant flue gas CO{sub 2} for production of biomass. The algal biomass can be converted into substitutes for fossil fuels, in particular liquid fuels such as biodiesel (vegetable oil methyl or ethyl esters), thus reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and the potential for global warming. This concept is being investigated, among others, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory at Golden, Colorado, with support from PETC.

  19. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-01

    At the Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory, NREL scientists have more than 20 years of experience supporting the biomass conversion industry. They develop, refine, and validate analytical methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before, during, and after conversion processing. These high-quality compositional analysis data are used to determine feedstock compositions as well as mass balances and product yields from conversion processes.

  20. Clean fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  1. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion:On the way towards realisation of inline NIRS in large-scale agricultural biomass conversion facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global warming and environmental concerns. Anaerobic digestion applied in agriculture can simultaneously convert heterogeneous biomasses and wastes from the primary agricultural sector and from the bio process...

  2. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapours over Sodium-Based Catalyst; A Study on teh State of Sodium on the Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tang Son; Lefferts, Leon; Gupta, K.B. Sai Sankar; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2015-01-01

    In situ upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours over Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts was studied in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor at 500 °C. Catalytic oil exhibits a significant improvement over its non-catalytic counterpart, such as lower oxygen content (12.3 wt % compared to 42.1 wt %), higher ener

  3. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon that was not...

  4. Fluidized-bed gasification of biomass: Conversion of fine carabon particles in the freeboard; Biomassevergasung in der Wirbelschicht: Umsatz von feinen Kohlenstoffpartikeln im Freeboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miccio, F. [Ist. Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR, Napoli (Italy); Moersch, O.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1998-09-01

    The conversion of carbon particles in gasification processes was investigated in a fluidized-bed reactor of the Institute of Chemical Engineering and Steam Boiler Technology of Stuttgart University. This reactor is heated electrically to process temperature, and freeboard coal particles can be sampled using an isokinetic probe. The fuel used in the experiments consisted of beech wood chips. The temperature and air rating, i.e. the main parameters of the process, were varied in order to investigate their influence on product gas quality and carbon conversion. The conversion rate is influenced to a significant extent by grain disintegration and discharge of carbon particles. In gasification conditions, a further conversion process takes place in the freeboard. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird die Umsetzung von Kohlenstoffpartikeln unter Vergasungsbedingungen untersucht. Die Versuche wurden an einem Wirbelschichtreaktor des Instituts fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen der Universitaet Stuttgart durchgefuehrt. Dieser Reaktor wird elektrisch auf Prozesstemperatur beheizt. Mit Hilfe einer isokinetischen Sonde koennen Proben von Kohlenstoffpartikeln im Freeboard genommen werden. Als Brennstoff wurden zerkleinerte Buchenholz-Hackschnitzel eingesetzt. Variiert wurden als Hauptparameter des Prozesses Temperatur und Luftzahl. Untersucht wurde der Einfluss dieser Parameter auf die Qualitaet des Produktgases und die Umsetzung des Kohlenstoffes. Kornzersetzungs- und Austragsvorgaenge von Kohlenstoffpartikeln spielen eine wichtige Rolle fuer den Kohlenstoffumsatz. Unter Vergasungsbedingungen findet im Freeboard eine weitere Umsetzung der Partikel statt. (orig.)

  5. Biomass to energy; La valorisation energetique de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  6. Vegetal and animal biomass; Les biomasses vegetales et animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combarnous, M. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. Energetique et Phenomenes de Transfert, UMR CNRS ENSAM, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation concerns all types of biomass of the earth and the seas and the relative implicit consumptions. After an evaluation of the food needs of the human being, the author discusses the solar energy conversion, the energetic flux devoted to the agriculture production, the food chain and the biomass. (A.L.B.)

  7. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantage Jet Fuel: Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elander, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-04

    NREL will provide scientific and engineering support to Virent Energy Systems in three technical areas: Process Development/Biomass Deconstruction; Catalyst Fundamentals; and Technoeconomic Analysis. The overarching objective of this project is to develop the first fully integrated process that can convert a lignocellulosic feedstock (e.g., corn stover) efficiently and cost effectively to a mix of hydrocarbons ideally suited for blending into jet fuel. The proposed project will investigate the integration of Virent Energy System’s novel aqueous phase reforming (APR) catalytic conversion technology (BioForming®) with deconstruction technologies being investigated by NREL at the 1-500L scale. Corn stover was chosen as a representative large volume, sustainable feedstock.

  8. Catalytic steam gasification of biomass in fluidized bed at low temperature: Conversion from livestock manure compost to hydrogen-rich syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing large amounts of animal waste as a source of renewable energy has the potential to reduce its disposal problems and associated pollution issues. Gasification characteristics of the manure compost make it possible for low temperature gasification. In this paper, an energy efficient approach to hydrogen-rich syngas from manure compost is represented at relatively low temperature, around 600 oC, in a continuous-feeding fluidized bed reactor. The effects of catalyst performance, reactor temperature, steam, and reaction type on gas yield, gas composition, and carbon conversion efficiency are discussed. The Ni-Al2O3 catalyst simultaneously promotes tar cracking and steam reforming. Higher temperature contributes to higher gas yield and carbon conversion. The steam introduction increases hydrogen yield, by steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. Two-stage gasification is also tried, showing the advantage of better catalyst utilization and enhancing the catalytic reactions to some extent.

  9. Chemical Imaging of Catalyst Deactivation during the Conversion of Renewables at the Single Particle Level: The Etherification of Biomass-based Polyols with Alkenes over H-Beta Zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Parvulescu; D Mores; E Stavitski; C Teodorescu; P Bruijnicx; R Klein Gebbing; B Weckhuysen

    2011-12-31

    The etherification of biomass-based alcohols with various linear {alpha}-olefins under solvent-free conditions was followed in a space- and time-resolved manner on 9 {micro}m large H-Beta zeolite crystals by confocal fluorescence microscopy. This allowed us to visualize the interaction with the substrate and distribution of the coke products into the catalyst at the level of an individual zeolite crystal during the etherification process. The spectroscopic information obtained on the micrometer-scale zeolite was in line with the results obtained with bulk characterization techniques and further confirmed by the catalytic results obtained both for micrometer-scale and nanoscale zeolites. This allowed us to explain the influence of the substrate type (glycerol, glycols, and alkenes) and zeolite properties (Si/Al ratio and particle size) on the etherification activity. The etherification of the biomass-based alcohols takes place mainly on the external surface of the zeolite particles. The gradual blockage of the external surface of the zeolite results in a partial or total loss of etherification activity. The deactivation could be attributed to olefin oligomerization. The high conversions obtained in the etherification of 1,2-propylene glycol with long linear alkenes (up to 80%) and the pronounced deactivation of the zeolite observed in the etherification of glycerol with long linear alkenes (max. 20% conversion) were explained by the spectroscopic measurements and is due to differences in the adsorption, i.e., in the center of the zeolite particle for glycerol and on the external surface in the case of glycols.

  10. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    can participate in the world. We experience a new participatory culture on the go. These developments offer new possibilities for civic engagement in participatory land use planning: to engage people where they are. This dissertation coins the notion of situated engagement, which seeks to ’situate......’ civic engagement activities in those spatial contexts that are at stake in land use planning. This approach enables engagement activities to be better integrated with people’s everyday lived experiences through connecting to the places that are personally meaningful and relevant to them. A ’research...... through design’ approach is applied across four participatory design experiments to explore how to design for situated engagement in land use planning. A notion of a situated engagement infrastructure made up of mobile, stationary, ubiquitous, and remote systems frames the design experiments suggesting a...

  11. Situation Songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch...... findings of the study show that situation songs are regularly used by pediatric music therapists, especially during the work with children at an early developmental age. The various intentions behind the use of situation songs can be summarized as such: to create a therapeutic space; to support the...... therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order to...

  12. Emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  13. Situational Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, R A

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the various theories of economics have the potential to add value when they are applied to the appropriate situation, yet educational institutions each seem overly committed to only a single theory. The resulting intense debates between economists are destructive and should be replaced with attempts to combine multiple theories in situations where they are most appropriate. An econometric example demonstrates that combining the valuable information and relationships in ...

  14. Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

    2011-05-01

    The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

  15. Emission guidelines for energy production from biomass; Emissierichtlijnen voor energieopwekking uit biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Loo, S. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1998-08-01

    For the introduction of bio-energy on the Dutch market it is important to know the regulations for the emission limits for the use of biomass. An overview is made of emission regulations in the Netherlands with respect to thermal conversion of biomass. Also experiences of practical situations have been compiled and evaluated and an inventory was made of emission regulations in Germany, Finland, Denmark, England and Austria and the European Union. All the compiled information has been evaluated and the Dutch emission regulations for bio-energy is represented in the form of a decision making scheme or working paper and compared with emission regulations in foreign countries. 18 refs.

  16. Biomass boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Nahodil, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor’s thesis deals with the use of biomass for heating houses and apartment houses. The first part is dedicated to biomass. Here are mentioned the possibility of energy recovery, treatment and transformation of biomass into a form suitable for burning, its properties and combustion process itself. The second part is devoted to biomass boilers, their separation and description. The last section compares the specific biomass boiler with a boiler to natural gas, particularly from an economi...

  17. Book review - Biomass Energy Project Development Guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985 the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Biomass Energy Program sponsored the writing of a biomass energy project development guidebook. Subject matter included the following topics: Planning for Fuel Supply; Fuel Characteristics, Storage and Use; Selecting an Energy Conversion Process; Conversion Technologies; Environmental Considerations; Economics of Biomass Projects; Financing Biomass Projects; Plant Specific Specifications; Contracting for Fuel; Wood Residue Recovery, Collection and Processing; Small to Medium Sized Modular Combustion Systems; Agricultural Residues. Also included were case studies of biomass energy projects and a glossary

  18. Allocation of biomass resources for minimising energy system greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union (EU) energy policy has three targets: supply security, development of a competitive energy sector and environmental sustainability. The EU countries have issued so-called National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) for increased renewable energy generation. Biomass is stipulated to account for 56% of renewable energy generation by 2020, corresponding to an increase in bioenergy generation from 2.4 × 109 GJ in 2005 to 5.7 × 109 GJ in 2020. There is uncertainty about the amounts of biomass available in the EU, and import challenges policy targets on supply security and sustainability. We address issues about how, from a technical point of view, the EU may deploy its biomass resources to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy consumption. We investigate if deployment patterns depend on resource availability and technological development. In situations with adequate biomass availability the analysis suggests that liquid fuel production should be based on agricultural residues. Electricity production should be based on forest residues and other woody biomass and heat production on forest and agricultural residues. Improved conversion technologies implicitly relax the strain on biomass resources and improve supply security. - Highlights: • Optimal allocation of biomass to energy is analysed conceptually for the EU by 2020. • Allocation is influenced not only by GHG performance, also by resource availability. • Surplus biomass could be allocated to electricity generation to reduce GHG emissions

  19. Chemical evaluation of chars produced by thermochemical conversion (gasification, pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization) of agro-industrial biomass on a commercial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technologies for agro-industrial feedstock utilization such as pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization at industrial scale develop rapidly. The thermochemically converted biomasses of these production technologies have fundamentally different properties controlled by the production technology. This is reflected by general properties such as pH or elemental composition. The 13C NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and black carbon results confirmed these observations showing that hydrochars have lower proportions of aromatic compounds than biochars (less stable) but are rich in functional groups (higher cation exchange capacity) than biochars. Analyses of pollutants indicate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as dioxin contents of most samples were under the threshold values recommended by International Biochar Initiative and European Biochar Certificate. In conclusion, biochars and hydrochars are entirely different from each other and these materials will probably have a complementary reaction in a soil environment. -- Highlights: • Production technologies influences fundamentally chemical properties of chars. • Carbonized materials have different behaviour in soil environment. • Environmental risk of chars is low with respect to PAH and dioxin contents. • Certification standard for biochars is not suitable for hydrochars. • Commercial scale reactors are able to produce high quality biochars according to the regulations of the EBC or IBI

  20. Simulation of the maximum yield of sugar cane at different altitudes: effect of temperature on the conversion of radiation into biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To minimize the production costs of sugar cane, for the diverse sites of production found in La Réunion, an improved understanding of the influence of temperature on the dry matter radiation quotient is required. Existing models simulate poorly the temperature-radiation interaction. A model of sugar cane growth has been fitted to the results from two contrasting sites (mean temperatures: 14-30 °C; total radiation: 10-25 MJ·m-2·d-1), on a ratoon crop of cv R570, under conditions of non-limiting resources. Radiation interception, aerial biomass, the fraction of millable stems, and their moisture content, were measured. The time-courses of the efficiency of radiation interception differed between sites. As a function of the sum of day-degrees, they were similar. The dry matter radiation quotient was related to temperature. The moisture content of millable stems depended on the day-degree sum. On the other hand, the leaf/stem ratio was independent of temperature. The relationships established enabled the construction of a simple model of yield potential. Applied to a set of sites representing the sugar cane growing area of La Réunion, it gave a good prediction of maximum yields. (author)

  1. Deep situationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejskova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    a Slovak national with immigration experi- ence, a nominal outsider to both the country of research, Germany, and its immigrant subjects, the post-Soviet Russian-speaking migrants. Focusing on the production of time-spaces of proximity as a deeply situational process, I stress in particular the un...

  2. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  3. Bioenergy from wastewater-based biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Sims

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE has stated that biomass is the only renewable resource that can supplant petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels in the near term. Wastewater is beginning to be viewed as a potential resource that can be exploited for biomass production and conversion to bioenergy. We suggest that using wastewater from municipalities and industries as a resource for cultivating biomass and combining wastewater treatment with the production of biomass for bioenergy would provide benefits to both industries. Two waste-based biomass production systems that currently have large nationwide infrastructures include: (1 wastewater treatment systems that can be used to cultivate algae biomass, and (2 land application/treatment systems for non-food terrestrial biomass. These existing infrastructures could be used in the relatively near future for waste-based biomass production and conversion to bioenergy, thereby reducing capital costs and scalability challenges while making a contribution to energy independence and national security.

  4. Bioenergy from wastewater-based biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Ronald C.; Sean K. Bedingfield; Reese Thompson; Sims, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has stated that biomass is the only renewable resource that can supplant petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels in the near term. Wastewater is beginning to be viewed as a potential resource that can be exploited for biomass production and conversion to bioenergy. We suggest that using wastewater from municipalities and industries as a resource for cultivating biomass and combining wastewater treatment with the production of biomass for bioenergy would...

  5. A Path Forward for Low Carbon Power from Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda D. Cuellar; Howard Herzog

    2015-01-01

    The two major pathways for energy utilization from biomass are conversion to a liquid fuel (i.e., biofuels) or conversion to electricity (i.e., biopower). In the United States (US), biomass policy has focused on biofuels. However, this paper will investigate three options for biopower: low co-firing (co-firing scenarios refer to combusting a given percentage of biomass with coal) (5%–10% biomass), medium co-firing (15%–20% biomass), and dedicated biomass firing (100% biomass). We analyze the ...

  6. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  7. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  8. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically...... process could prove to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of...... production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...

  9. Solid biomass barometer - EurObserv'ER - December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Reanalysis and Observations for Monitoring (EURO4M) project experts report that the year 2014 was unusually hot on the European continent, with the highest temperatures on record, following on from 2013 whose winter conditions were also exceptionally mild, and ahead of 2015 which is also set to be very warm. This situation led to a fall in solid biomass consumption for heating across the European Union. In 2014 electricity output increased by 4.5% on its 2013 level to 84.8 TWh, as the vagaries of climate have less impact on demand and it was also boosted by the expansion of biomass cogeneration and new coal-fired power plant conversions

  10. Summary of the project on further development and practical testing methods for control and regulation of biomass conversion plants; Sammenfatning af projekt ``Videreudvikling og praktisk afproevning af metoder til styring og regulering af biogasanlaeg``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard, P.; Ahring, B.K.; Jungersen, G.; Norddahl, B.

    1994-07-01

    Summary of the results of a project on the further development and practical testing of methods for the control and regulation of biomass conversion plants. In relation to control based on measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA), the automatic titration equipment was developed and tested using an on-line method and was found to be satisfactory. A model for regulation, and the use of immuno probes, were developed and tested on a pilot plant. A control algorithm based on the principle of adaptive regulation and a simple model of the biological system was developed and tested in reactors. Carbohydrates were added. The take up of manures stopped when the concentration of VHAs rose and started again when it dropped to a predetermined level. The reactor`s load increased but was more evenly distributed. Methane production increased. It was concluded that an adaptive regulation would result in a more stable production of methane when loads are irregular and temperatures vary. Organic overloading resulted in a higher concentration of VHA. Conditions concerning methane bacteria are described in addition to methanogenic activity. The installation and operating costs of the computerized control system are given. (AB)

  11. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  12. 生物质醋液生产原料筛选及其转化技术研究%Row Materials Screening and Conversion Technologies of Vinegar Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时新宁; 柳金凤; 彭丽; 秦军; 邓平

    2011-01-01

    中国是农业大国,农林生物资源丰富,但农林生物质利用还很局限,项目将从植物资源综合利用的角度出发,重点介绍生物质醋液生产原料的筛选、基本理化性质与得率的变化情况以及转化技术的研究,并确定生物质醋液的最佳工艺参数和生产流程.最终寻求一种农林生物质高效、无公害、资源化利用的方法,研制出高效稳定的醋液,对下一步作为植物生长调节剂、发展有机生态农牧业和走可持续发展之路提供技术支撑和服务平台.试验结果表明:在相同条件(温度、通风量等)下,以芦苇为原材料,将含水率调节到15%左右,热解温度调到600℃,通过精制方法所获得的醋液得率高、焦油含量低、质量好,再利用静置方法静置4-6个月,所获得的醋液pH变化小、性质较为稳定、成本低、效果最好.%China is a large agricultural country, which has rich in biological resources, agriculture and forestry, but forest biomass is still limited to be used. So from the perspective of comprehensive utilization of plant resources, focusing on the raw production screening of biomass vinegar, physical and chemical properties, yield changes and the technology conversion, and determined the optimal process parameters and production processes of biomass vinegar. Ultimately find a highly efficient, non-pollution, resource use of the method for forestry biomass, and to develop a highly efficient and stable vinegar solution. The next step as a plant growth regulator, the way to develop organic farming and sustainable ecological would provide technical support and service platform. The results showed that in the same conditions (temperature, ventilation, etc), the reed as raw materials would be adjusted the moisture content to 15% and of the pyrolysis temperature to 600℃, and the vinegar obtained were high yield, low tar and good quality, Then, standing for 4-6 months, the vinegar obtained were small

  13. The Development Situation of Screening Technology for Biomass Pellet Fuel%农林生物质原料筛分技术与设备发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍; 赵立欣; 郭占斌; 杨宏志; 孟海波; 姚宗路

    2015-01-01

    针对目前生物质原料中杂质多、筛分设备不匹配等问题,对各类生物质原料进行分类,总结国内外筛分技术的发展现状。同时,通过对杂质的特性分析,针对目前的筛分方法、筛分机械进行相对应的应用,旨在提出一种适合我国生物质成型燃料大规模生产的筛分技术及配套设备,为生物质原料清选工艺提供技术支撑。%For the current biomass feedstock has many impurities , screening equipment does not match the supply of bio-mass feedstock and the other issues , this thesis classifies various types of biomass feedstock , summarizes screening tech-nology development at home and abroad .And through the analysis of the characteristics of impurities , for the current screening methods and screening machinery , the thesis is expected to propose a screening technology and equipment suit-able for Chinese large-scale production of biomass briquettes , to provide technical support for cleaning process .

  14. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different composition to and different properties from crude oil. This makes its direct use in those applications and conversion processes originally developed for fossil feeds problematic. Improvement of the ...

  15. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds

  16. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  17. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE’s) Biomass Program works with industry, academia and its national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This document provides Program accomplishments for 2007.

  18. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO2, to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case with

  19. Biomass energy systems program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  20. PNEUMATIC CONVEYING OF BIOMASS PARTICLES: A REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping; Cui

    2006-01-01

    Processes involving biomass are of growing interest, but handling and conveying biomass particles are challenging due to the unusual physical properties of biomass particles. This paper reviews recent work on pneumatic conveying of biomass particles, especially agricultural particles and pulp fibres. Experimental work has been mainly carried out to determine a range of parameters, such as pressure drop, particle velocity, flow regime and electrostatic charging for both horizontal and vertical conveying. Models ranging from empirical to CFD models are also being developed. Difficulties in representing turbulence and interactions among biomass particles and between the particles and fluid have so far limited the success of advanced modeling. Further work is needed to improve understanding of multiphase biomass pneumatic conveying and to assist in the development of biomass energy and conversion processes.

  1. Biomass power; Biomasse-Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woergetter, M.

    2003-07-01

    The author reports about use of biomass in Austria and Bavaria: power generation, production of biodiesel, bioethanol, energy efficiency of small biomass furnaces. (uke) [German] Bioenergie wird von breiten Kreisen als wichtiger Ansatz in Richtung einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung in Europa gesehen. Die Herausforderung liegt dabei im neuen Herangehen an Entscheidungen; Dimensionen der Wirtschaft, der Umwelt und der Gesellschaft sind dabei zu beruecksichtigen. Bioenergie ist somit keine reine Frage der Umwelt, sondern zielt auf den Umbau unseres Systems in Richtung Nachhaltigkeit. (orig.)

  2. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  3. Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnoloģijās Aizstājot Fosilos Resursus (Pārskata Raksts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitis, J.; Abolins, J.

    2013-10-01

    Exhausting of world resources, increasing pollution, and climate change are compelling the shift of the world economy from continuous growth to a kind of economy based on integration of technologies into zero emissions production systems. Transition from non-renewable fossil resources to renewable resources provided by solar radiation and the current processes in biosphere is seen in the bio-refinery approach - replacing crude oil refineries by biomass refineries. Biotechnology and nano-technologies are getting accepted as important players along with conventional biomass refinery technologies. Systems design is a significant element in the integration of bio-refinery technologies in clusters. A number of case-studies, steam explosion auto-hydrolysis (SEA) in particular, are reviewed to demonstrate conversion of biomass into value-added chemicals and fuels. Analysis of energy flows is made as part of modelling the SEA processes, the eMergy (energy memory) approach and sustainability indices being applied to assess environmental impacts. Resursu izsīkums, vides piesārņojums un globāla mēroga klimatiskās izmaiņas ir civilizācijas izdzīvošanai būtiski faktori, kas virza pasaules ekonomikas pārmaiņas, atsakoties no nepārtrauktas izaugsmes idejas par labu tādai ekonomikai, kas balstās uz atjaunojošamies resursiem un dažādu tehnoloģiju integrācijemisiju principam atbilstošās ražošanas sistēmās. Saules radiācijas ierosinātajos planētas biosfērā notiekošajos procesos radīto organisko vielu pārstrādes kompleksi, kas operē ievērojot sabalansētu nulles emisiju principu, tiek uzlūkoti kā tās ekonomiskās (ražošanas) struktūras, kurām jānodrošina pāreja uz atjaunojošos resursu izmantošanu, aizstājot esošās fosilo resursu (naftas, ogļu) pārstrādes rūpnīcas. Līdzās jau apgūtajām biomasas rafinēšanas tehnoloģijām svarīga un pieaugoša loma ekonomiskās sistēmas resursu bāzes nomaiņā ir bio- un nanotehnolo

  4. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  5. Biomass availability and commercialization trend analysis in China. A marketing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the different energy sources utilized in China, biomass energy takes a very important part. The importance of the biomass energy can be proved particularly in the rural area. In the period 1991 to 1995 the average consumption of bio-energy represented about 40% of the total rural energy consumption and about 70% of rural household energy consumption. The annual bio-energy consumption is more than 220 Mtce. According to prediction, all kinds of biomass fuels produced by new technology will take 40% of the total energy consumption all over the world at the middle of next century. In future decades, R and D for new technologies of producing all kinds of biomass energies as substitute fuels will be extremely important to China. The biomass energy resources in China mainly come from 4 sources: (1)The residues from agriculture and forestry processing such us straw, stalk, wood residues, high concentrated organic effluents from the agriculture products processing, etc.; (2) Firewood; (3) Human and animal excreta; and (4) Urban household solid wastes. The utilization technology of biomass energy can be generally classified as (a) The direct burn technology, which refers the method and equipment using crop straws and firewood as fuels through direct burning; (b) Physical conversion technology, which includes gasification technology by physical method - mainly heating and relevant equipment; (c) Biological conversion technology, which refers technology and equipment converting and gasifying the biomass through biological method - mainly anaerobic biodegradation; (d) Liquefaction technology; and (e) Conversion technology for solid waste. Chinese government has been giving great attention to the development and utilization of biomass energy. However, at present the bio-energy as one of the most important energy resources, its development and commercialized utilization are just at beginning stage. The basic conditions composing a market and commercialization environment

  6. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  7. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, Christopher J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Aulich, Ted R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Folkedahl, Bruce C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Strege, Joshua R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Patel, Nikhil [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Shockey, Richard E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2009-05-27

    The Center for Biomass Utilization® 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.

  8. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  9. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  10. Veterinary research, monitoring and advisory services in connection with the establishment and operation of a communal biomass conversion plant. Partial project 3 (VET-BIO-3). Veterinaer forskning, overvaagning og raadgivning i forbindelse med etablering og drift af biogasfaellesanlaeg. Delprojekt 3 (VET-BIO-3); Pilotprojekt vedroerende etablering af sygdomsovervaagning i forbindelse med biogasfaellesanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willadsen, C.M.

    1991-06-15

    The health of domestic animals which contribute to thermophilic biomass conversion plants has been monitored during a period of 15-18 months. The aim was to evaluate the possible risk of infection by animal diseases through liquid manures which are converted in the plants. Data from 39 stocks has been collected and evaluated for the surveilliance of the general health conditions and the occurrence of specific germs, for cattle Salmonella Dublin, and for swine Actinobacillus pleuropneumiae (serotype 2) and Treponema hyodysenteriae. (CLS) 24 refs.

  11. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guodong Yin; Yuan Zhang; Yan Sun; Tao Wang; Zhenzhong Zeng; Shilong Piao

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level gr...

  12. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 2200C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw

  13. Dose conversion factors for external photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose conversion factors for radionuclides have been computed and tabulated for two situations: photon doses resulting from immersion in contaminated air, and exposure to a contaminated land surface. Computed dose conversion factors relates absorbed dose rate in human tissue to activity concentration. Tabulated dose conversion factors includes contributions from naturally occurring radionuclides as well as manmade radionuclides: activation products, fission products, actinides. (Auth.)

  14. Dose conversion factors for external photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose conversion factors for radionuclides have been computed and tabulated for two situations: photon doses resulting from immersion in contaminated air, and exposure to a contaminated land surface. Computed dose conversion factors relates absorbed dose rate in human tissue to activity concentration. Tabulated dose conversion factors includes contributions from naturally occuring radionuclides as well as manmade radionuclides: activation products, fission products, actinides. (author)

  15. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word ''policy'' connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification

  16. Catalytic routes from biomass to fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The carbon-based chemicals and fuels that are necessary to meet the energy demand for our society originate presently almost exclusively from inexpensive fossil resources – coal, oil and natural gas. The forecast of diminishing and more expensive petroleum reserves has, however, engaged the...... chemical industry to find new feasible chemocatalytic routes to convert the components of lignocellulosic plant biomass (green biomass) as well as aquatic biomass (blue biomass) into potential platform chemicals that can replace the fossil based chemicals in order to leave the chemical supply and value...... chain unaffected. This presentation will survey the status of biofuels production from different sources, and discuss the sustainability of making transportation fuels from biomass. Furthermore, recently developed chemocatalytic technologies that allow efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass...

  17. Pragmatic choice in conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Raymond W; Van Orden, Guy

    2012-01-01

    How do people decide what to say in context? Many theories of pragmatics assume that people have specialized knowledge that drives them to utter certain words in different situations. But these theories are mostly unable to explain both the regularity and variability in people's speech behaviors. Our purpose in this article is to advance a view of pragmatics based on complexity theory, which specifically explains the pragmatic choices speakers make in conversations. The concept of self-organized criticality sheds light on how a history of utterances and subtle details of a situation surrounding a conversation may directly specify language behavior. Under this view, pragmatic choice in discourse does not reflect the output of any dedicated pragmatic module but arises from a complex coordination or coupling between speakers and their varying communicative tasks. PMID:22253174

  18. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  19. Multi-functional biomass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.

    2004-12-01

    The central research question of this thesis is: What is the potential of multi-functional biomass systems to improve the costs and the land use efficiency of saving non-renewable energy consumption and reducing GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions in quantitative terms? Therefore, in the following chapters the performance of multi-functional biomass systems is quantified. Biomass system costs are investigated from a societal perspective using e.g. low discount rates. A main focus will be on the review of methodologies for accounting GHG emissions, non-renewable energy consumption, agricultural land use and costs as well as the adaptation of these methodologies to special aspects of multifunctional biomass use. The analysis of the potential benefits of multi-functional biomass systems is carried out by several case studies of biomass systems including various waste treatment technologies for the short term that appeared promising after a first review. Because at present the shift of biomass production to more favourable areas seems to be an alternative for more efficient biomass systems, these case studies are situated in Europe and concentrate on Poland in order to investigate the potential of biomass production in the new EU-member states of Central Eastern Europe. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, the concept of multi-product use and its potential impacts on fuel costs of bioenergy and GHG emission reduction per area of agricultural land use are investigated. Especially, the relation between the economic value and the specific GHG emission reduction of a possible material application and the potential benefits of multiproduct use is analysed. Material uses regarded for multi-product use are the use of wheat grains for food, wheat straw for animal litter, hemp bark fibres for reinforced composites, hemp core fibres for animal litter, hemp seeds for food and cosmetics and poplar wood chips for pulp. For energy uses parts of the crops are used as solid fuel for electricity

  20. Research progress of hydrogen production and chemicals through biomass conversion under photocatalysis by titanium dioxide photocatalyst%基于二氧化钛光催化剂生物质转化制备氢气和化学品的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    种瑞峰; 吴文鹏; 张凌; 李德亮; 常志显

    2015-01-01

    With the depletion of fossil energy and the increase of environmental concerns ,the development of renewable energy resources becomes more and more important .Solar energy and biomass energy are two kinds of important sustainable energy sources .Therefore ,the con‐version of biomass by solar energy to H2 and chemicals can reduce the dependence on fossil fu‐els ,which is an ideal way for solving the energy and environmental problems .This review fo‐cuses on the progress in the photocatalytic conversion of biomass to H2 and chemicals in the presence of TiO2‐based photocatalysts , and in particular , the issues of the selectivity and mechanism in the conversion of methanol ,ethanol ,glycerol and glucose are highlighted ,and the existing problems and possible countermeasures are discussed .Furthermore ,suggestions are also provided about the development trend of biomass conversion by solar energy affording H2 and chemicals .%随着化石能源的枯竭和环境问题的日益严重,发展可再生资源变得越来越重要。太阳能和生物质是自然界中的两大可再生资源。利用太阳能转化生物质制备 H2和化学品可以缓解对化石能源的依赖,是解决能源和环境问题的途径之一。本文作者概述了基于 TiO2催化剂的光催化生物质制备 H2和化学品的研究进展;着重介绍了甲醇、乙醇、甘油和葡萄糖的光催化反应选择性问题和机理研究,分析了存在的问题和可能的解决措施,并就其发展趋势进行了展望。

  1. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Badger, Philip C [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  2. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  3. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  4. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  5. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  6. Biomass Power Generation through Direct Integration of Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine Combustion System

    OpenAIRE

    Jai-Houng Leu

    2010-01-01

    Biomass is the largest renewable energy source in the world. Its importance grows gradually in the future energy market. Since most biomass sources are low in energy density and are widespread in space, small-scale biomass conversion system is therefore more competitive than a large stand-alone conversion plant. The current study proposes a small-scale solid biomass power system to explore the viability of direct coupling of an updraft fixed bed gasifier with a Stirling engine. The modified u...

  7. Development of small, modular biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, J.H. [Peninsula Energy Partners, Los Altos, CA (United States); Hulkkonen, S. [IVO/EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dracker, R. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a collaborative effort between the Electric Power Research Institute, Bechtel Corporation and Imatran Voima Oy. The goal is commercialization of a biomass-fueled, modular (50 to 250 kW) heat and power technology for distributed applications. The technology to be selected will not present any major technical challenges, but first and foremost must be simple and reliable. Additional criteria include: acceptable capital cost, fuel flexibility, and the capability for meeting local environmental standards. As the capital cost of small units will be influenced by economies of fabrication, the economic viability of these systems depends upon the size of the domestic and international markets. Thus, evaluation of available conversion technologies was undertaken concurrently with a broad-based market assessment. The technology scan included all the commercial and pre-commercial biomass systems that could be located. Information was sorted into five categories: (1) gasifiers with either diesel or spark-ignited engines; (2) indirectly fired gas turbines; (3) directly fired gas turbines; (4) pyrolysis processes with diesel engines; or (5) conventional steam-cycles. The evaluation of the technologies was based on the above criteria, along with the recognition that the levelized cost of power from the system must be competitive with available diesel generation. The market for these systems within the contiguous 48 states is expected to be limited to situations involving forest ecosystem improvements and the reduction of forest fire hazards, and/or clean-up and remediation following natural disasters. Another North American market is remote villages in Canada and Alaska. By far the largest market is in developing nations where two billion people are without electricity for lighting, water pumping or refrigeration. Serving this latter market presents a major challenge, as each system will require establishment of a whole new local infrastructure.

  8. Biomass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels productions and uses should allow valorization of raw materials belonging to biomass: plants used in food utilization, ligno-cellulose plants, or by-products even wastes from animal or vegetable origin. These bioenergies are renewable energies, and their developments pass through an economical competitivity, a clean and spare production, and atmospheric emissions control of vehicles. The principal advantage of bioenergies is the reduction of fossil carbon consumption and its replacement by a renewable carbon consumption. (A.B.). 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of the century an even lower proportion of the population-only one out of three Central Americans-will have access to the national grid). Finally, the paper recommends some actions to enhance alternative options for the conversion of biomass resources to energy in order to address the ever-increasing demand for power in the region. A key recommendation is a biomass technology assessment initiative that would facilitate the effective transfer of technology within the region. (author)

  10. Feasibility study of a biomass-fired cogeneration plant Groningen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of the title plant is determined for district heating and electricity supply of more than 1,000 houses in Groningen, Netherlands. Also attention is paid to the feasibility of such installations in a planned area of the city. Prices and supply of several biomass resources are dealt with: prunings of parks, public and private gardens, clean wood wastes, wood wastes from forests, wood from newly planted forests, specific energy crops (willows in high densities and short cycles). Prices are calculated, including transport to the gate of the premises where the cogeneration installations is situated. For the conversion attention is paid to both the feasibility of the use of a conventional cogeneration installation (by means of a steam turbine) and the use of a new conversion technique: combined cycle of a gasification installation and a cogeneration installation. 5 figs., 5 ills., 22 tabs., 1 appendix, 33 refs

  11. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF6 and UF4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  12. Genomic mechanisms of inhibitor-detoxification for low-cost lignocellulosic bioethanol conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One major challenges of sustainable lignocellulosic biomass conversion to ethanol is to overcome inhibitors generated from biomass pretreatment. Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, cinnamaldehyde, phenylacetylaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, are common and potent inhi...

  13. Technoeconomic assessment of biomass to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spreadsheet-based decision support system has been developed that allows easy evaluation of integrated biomass to electricity and biomass to ethanol systems. The Bioenergy Assessment Model (BEAM) has been developed to allow the techno-economic assessment of biomass to electricity and biomass to ethanol schemes, including investigation of the interfacing issues. Technical and economic parameters can be assessed for a variety of feedstocks, conversion technologies and generating cycles. Production modules are currently available for biomass supply from short rotation coppice and conventional forestry relevant to conditions and practices in NW Europe. The biomass conversion modules include pre-treatment (reception, storage, handling, comminution, screening and drying); atmospheric gasification (generic gasifier, wet gas scrubbing, dual fuel engine); pressure gasification (generic gasifier, hot gas filtration, gas turbine combined cycle); fast pyrolysis for liquid bio-fuel-oil (pyrolyser, oil storage, pilot-injected diesel engine); combustion (fluid bed combuster steam turbine), conventional acid hydrolysis fermentation and the NREL SSF process to ethanol. In addition there is a further module which can be used to examine the collection, mass burn and generation of electricity from MSW. BEAM has been used, and the results presented in this paper, to determine the costs of generating bio-electricity from short rotation coppice and conventional forestry over a range of power outputs and for each conversion technology. Alternative feedstock supply strategies have been examined and relations drawn between delivered feedstock cost and cost of electricity. (author)

  14. Perspectives on gasification systems to produce energy carriers and other chemicals with low CO2 emissions : techno‐economic system analysis on current and advanced flexible thermo‐chemical conversion of fossil fuels and biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Meerman, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    To prevent dangerous climate change, the emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHG) need to be reduced. Two key mitigation options to reduce GHG involve a transition from the current fossil-fuel based infrastructure towards one based on renewable and the implementation of CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS). Gasification facilities could be attractive for both of these options. Gasification is a relatively new technology where carbonaceous feedstocks (including coal and biomass),...

  15. Modeling of biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Optimal conversion of chemical energy of the biomass or other solid fuel into the desired gas depends on proper configuration, sizing, and choice of gasifier operating conditions. Optimum operating conditions are often derived through trials on the unit or by experiments on pilot plants. Simulation, or mathematical modeling, allows the designer or plant engineer to reasonably optimize the operation or the design of the plant. The good mathematical model can: find optimum operating conditions or a design for the gasifier, provide information on extreme operating conditions (high temperature, high pressure) where experiments are difficult to perform, provide information over a much wider range of conditions than one can obtain experimentally, better interpret experimental results and analyze abnormal behavior of a gasifier, if that occurs, assist scale-up of the gasifier from one successfully operating size to another, and from one feedstock to another. The equilibrium model is independent of the gasifier design which can make them more suitable for a system study of the most important process parameters. The use of an equilibrium model assumes that the residence time of the reactants in the gasifier is high enough to reach chemical equilibrium. For established biomass ultimate analysis, temperature of gasification air and temperature of produced gas, combining the mass balance equations with the equations for the equilibrium constants and equation of energy balance, the equivalence ratio (ER) and composition of produced gas can be obtained. A mathematical model for investigation of the influence of temperature of the produced gas and temperature of gasification air on the process parameters was developed. It can be used for estimation and design of gasification equipment. key words: biomass gasification, mathematical modeling, equilibrium model

  16. Liquid fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various options for Danish production of liquid motor fuels from biomass have been studied in the context of the impact of EEC new common agricultural policy on prices and production quantities of crops, processes and production economy, restraints concerning present and future markets in Denmark, environmental aspects, in particular substitution of fossil fuels in the overall production and end-use, revenue loss required to assure competition with fossil fuels and national competence in business, industry and research. The options studied are rapeseed oil and derivates, ethanol, methanol and other thermo-chemical conversion products. The study shows that the combination of fuel production and co-generation of heat and electricity carried out with energy efficiency and utilization of surplus electricity is important for the economics under Danish conditions. Considering all aspects, ethanol production seems most favorable but in the long term, pyrolyses with catalytic cracking could be an interesting option. The cheapest source of biomass in Denmark is straw, where a considerable amount of the surplus could be used. Whole crop harvested wheat on land otherwise set aside to be fallow could also be an important source for ethanol production. Most of the options contribute favorably to reductions of fossil fuel consumption, but variations are large and the substitution factor is to a great extent dependent on the individual case. (AB) (32 refs.)

  17. Challenging Fieldwork Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Thomas; Østergaard Steenfeldt, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    understanding on the phenomenon of awkwardness as a natural way for researchers to respond to challenging fieldwork situations. Finally, they propose and unfold mutual interviewing and cooperative analysis as methods of investigating researcher’s subjectivity in facing such situations....

  18. About Stressful Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situation for you right now? It can help to write down your thoughts. For example: My family just ... you feel, given your situation. It can help to write down your feelings, too. For example: I feel ...

  19. Relationships between biomass composition and liquid products formed via pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eLin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conversion of biomass is a rapid, low-cost way to produce a dense liquid product, known as bio-oil, that can be refined to transportation fuels. However, utilization of bio-oil is challenging due to its chemical complexity, acidity, and instability—all results of the intricate nature of biomass. A clear understanding of how biomass properties impact yield and composition of thermal products will provide guidance to optimize both biomass and conditions for thermal conversion. To aid elucidation of these associations, we first describe biomass polymers, including phenolics, polysaccharides, acetyl groups, and inorganic ions, and the chemical interactions among them. We then discuss evidence for three roles (i.e., models for biomass components in formation of liquid pyrolysis products: (1 as direct sources, (2 as catalysts, and (3 as indirect factors whereby chemical interactions among components and/or cell wall structural features impact thermal conversion products. We highlight associations that might be utilized to optimize biomass content prior to pyrolysis, though a more detailed characterization is required to understand indirect effects. In combination with high-throughput biomass characterization techniques this knowledge will enable identification of biomass particularly suited for biofuel production and can also guide genetic engineering of bioenergy crops to improve biomass features.

  20. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  1. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  2. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  3. Ecosystems and biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass, particularly fuelwood and charcoal, is one of the main sources of fuel to meet the energy needs of traditional, commercial and industrial activities in developing countries. While it satisfies only about 14% of the world's primary energy needs, in some countries it satisfies up to 80% of those needs. As a result of population growth, urbanization, economic reforms, restructuring and new development targets in most of these countries, new forms of energy and a more intensive use of energy are expected for the years ahead. This additional demand for energy will be met mainly by hydroelectricity, coal and fossil fuels. However, where biomass is available or can be planted, bio fuels can be converted into new forms of energy (electricity and power) and energy carriers (liquid and gaseous fuels) to meet not only the energy needs of the modem sectors but also to maintain a sustainable supply to traditional users. In fact, FAO estimates that biomass could provide nearly three times more energy than it does without affecting the current supply of other commodities and goods such as food, fodder, fuel, timber and non-wood fuel products. The benefits derived from the utilization of biomass as a source of energy are twofold: (a) the task of supplying bio fuels can help to attract new investment, create new employment and income opportunities in rural areas, raise the value of natural resources and preserve the environment and (b) new forms of energy and energy carriers could foster increased production and productivity at the rural and community level, particularly in remote areas where conventional fuels are not easily available at affordable prices. Bioenergy can be easily developed in modular and decentralized schemes and offers many advantages. It could be an inexpensive source of energy, even at present energy prices, and it requires less capital investment for its implementation than alternative solutions. However, there are many disadvantages, too. For

  4. Numerical Study on Combustion Features of Gasified Biomass Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    There is a great interest to develop biomass combustion systems for industrial and utility applications. Improved biomass energy conversion systems are designed to provide better combustion efficiencies and environmental friendly conditions, as well as the fuel flexibility options in various applications. The gas derived from the gasification process of biomass is considered as one of the potential candidates to substitute traditional fuels in a combustion process. However, the gascomposition...

  5. Thermoelectric cells cogeneration from biomass power plant: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, Augusto; Donini, Filippo; Pellegrini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric cells convert directly heat into electricity but, due to the low conversion efficiency (up to 5%), most applications are in waste heat recovery. Another promising application is in biomass boiler. In this case, the installation of thermoelectric modules converts a biomass boiler into a cogeneration system, where the aim of the integration is not the electricity production for external power supply, but the realization of a stand-alone biomass power plant which could match the c...

  6. Thermodynamics second law efficiency analysis for high temperature biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key challenge for biomass-based system is to develop efficient conversion technologies to reduce impact of ecological drawbacks. The development of efficient technologies for biomass gasification requires correct use of thermodynamics. This paper addresses gasifier performance analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics to quantify irreversibilities in biomass gasification process at high temperatures in the range 800K-1400K. The analysis is based on exegetic model that account for the quality of energy by means of irreversibilities. (author)

  7. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, and reduced emissions of SO2, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO2 and SO2, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO2, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for achieving

  8. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  9. Mass Balances and Analytical Methods for Biomass Pretreatment Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel ethanol has generated much renewed interest because of spiraling oil prices. Standard technical techniques exist for evaluating new sources of biomass, but what is lacking is a framework with which to apply these protocols in an integrated fashion. T...

  10. Characterization and comparison of biomass produced from various sources: Suggestions for selection of pretreatment technologies in biomass-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Biomass with higher volatile matter content has a higher carbon conversion rate. ► Applying the suitable pretreatment techniques that will enhance the bioenergy yield. ► The ratio of H2O/fixed carbon is a critical factor for enhancing the energy conversion. -- Abstract: This study investigated the characteristics of 26 varieties of biomass produced from forestry, agriculture, municipality, and industry in Taiwan to test their applicability in thermal conversion technologies and evaluation of enhanced energy efficiency. Understanding the reactivity of the tested biomass, the cluster analysis was also used in this research to classify into characteristics groups of biomass. This research also evaluated the feasibility of energy application of tested biomass by comparing it to the physicochemical properties of various coals used in Taiwan’s power plants. The experimental results indicated that the volatile matter content of the all tested biomass was 60% and above. It can be concluded that the higher carbon conversion rate will occur in the thermal conversion process of all tested biomass. Based on the results of lower heating value (LHV) of MSW and non-hazardous industrial sludge, the LHV was lower than other tested biomass that was between 1000 and 1800 kcal/kg. This is due to the higher moisture content of MSW and sludge that resulted in the lower LHV. Besides, the LHV of other tested biomass and their derived fuels was similar to the tested coal. However, the energy densities of woody and agricultural waste were smaller than that of the coal because the bulky densities of woody and agricultural wastes were low. That is, the energy utilization efficiency of woody and agricultural waste was relatively low. To improve the energy density of tested biomass, appropriate pre-treatment technologies, such as shredding, pelletizing or torrefied technologies can be applied, that will enhance the energy utilization efficiency of all tested biomass.

  11. Situating emotional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the "default mode" network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life

  12. Situating Emotional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D Wilson-Mendenhall

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake, but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking. Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation. In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multimodal sensory regions and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the default mode network would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing

  13. Biochemical Conversion: Using Enzymes, Microbes, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-26

    This fact sheet describes the Bioenergy Technologies Office's biochemical conversion work and processes. BETO conducts collaborative research, development, and demonstration projects to improve several processing routes for the conversion of cellulosic biomass.

  14. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  15. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  16. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

  17. 75 FR 6263 - Biomass Crop Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... for use in biomass conversion facilities--a component of the BCAP. On June 11, 2009 (74 FR 27767-27772... (74 FR 21531-21532)). One aspect of the larger effort outlined in the memorandum is the issuance of... different notice published on May 13, 2009 (74 FR 22510-22511), to collect public input needed to prepare...

  18. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  19. Implementing situational awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkkonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of situational awareness system became an objective when Finnish national regulations for A-class systems, in the context of healthcare systems were updated. The updated criteria require IT service providers to have a capability to detect anomalies in information systems. Situational awareness was selected to meet those criteria because situational awareness can be used as a tool which helps the organization to improve its service. The objective was to implement a cost effe...

  20. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zein, Imad; Brenner, Everton A;

    2010-01-01

    Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes...

  1. Biomass energy - Definitions, resources and transformation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy is today considered as a new renewable energy source, and thus, has entered a regulatory framework aiming at encouraging its development for CO2 pollution abatement. This book addresses the constraints, both natural and technological, of the exploitation of the biomass resource, and then the economical and regulatory aspects of this industry. This second edition provides a complement about the plants used and the new R and D progresses made in this domain. Content: 1 - Definitions and general considerations: natural organic products, regulatory and standardized definitions, energy aspects of biomass fuels; 2 - Resources: energy production dedicated crops, biomass by-products, biomass from wastes; 3 - Biomass to energy transformation processes: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, torrefaction, methanation, alcoholic fermentation, landfill biogas, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol synthesis, trans-esterification, synthetic natural gas production, bio-hydrogen production; 4 - Biofuels: solid fuels, solid automotive biofuels, gaseous biofuels, liquid biofuels, comparative efficiency; 5 - Situation of biomass energy: regulations, impact on non-energy purpose biomass, advantages and drawbacks

  2. Reactivity Studies of Sludge and Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T Afzal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sludge and biomass are wastes with energy value. Both can provide a renewable energy in the form of gaseous fuels through thermal conversion processes. Proper understanding of the thermal properties and reaction kinetic of sludge and biomass is important for efficient design, operation and modeling of the conversion process. This study was carried out to obtain the kinetics data of the sludge and biomass in pure oxygen atmosphere at 30 mlmin-1 with the combustion temperature ranging from 50 to 900oC. The effect of sample size and heating rate on thermal degradation were studied and kinetic parameters of sludge, bagasse and sawdust combustion were described using Arrhenius equation. Two distinct reaction zones were observed for sludge, bagasse and sawdust samples. The activation energy and pre-exponential factors, in the first zone were found to be significantly higher than that of the second zone where as the opposite way for sawdust.

  3. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  4. Biomass. Energy carrier and biobased products; Biomasse. Energietraeger und biobasierte Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene; Groeger, G. (eds.) [BioRegionUlm Foerderverein Biotechnologie e.V., Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd Reivensburg Environmental Biotechnology Meeting at 29th June, 2007, at Castle Reivensburg near Guenzburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Challenges according to materials management, land use and power generation in the background of precarious economical situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (H.-G. Petersen); (b) Regenerative raw materials in Germany: Plant sources and potentials (W. Luehs, W. Friedt); (c) Biobased industrial products and bioraffinery systems (B. Kamm, M. Kamm); (d) Potential of biomass materials conversion in chemical industries (R. Busch); (e) Environmental compatible processes and low-priced ecological materials from the processing of biotechnological poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (H. Seliger, H. Haeberlein, R. Kohler, P. Sulzberger); (f) New starch from potatoes - a regenerative raw material (T. Servay); (g) Fuels from renewable energy sources: potential, production, perspectives (M. Specht, U. Zuberbuehler, A. Bandi); (h) Application of biogas as a fuel from the view of a car manufacturer (S. Schrahe); (i) Large-scale production of bioethanol (P. Johne, C. Sauter); (j) Environmental political evaluation of the use of biofuels and politics of biofuels of selected countries (J.M. Henke).

  5. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin (from Mississippie State University); Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia (from Jackson State University); Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell (from the University of Mississippi); Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester (from the University of Southern Mississippi).

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and

  6. Swiss Biomass Programme - Overview report on the 2007 research programme; Programm Biomasse: Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the results obtained in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Biomass research programme. The potential for biomass use in Switzerland is reviewed and the emphases of the national programme are discussed. The results obtained are noted for the following areas: process optimisation, including - amongst others - particle emissions and control aspects as well as combined wood-pellets and solar heating systems. Projects involving non-wood biomass are reported on, including biomass digesters and various biogas systems. Further reports deal with the analysis and optimisation of material flows, organic pollutants and methane losses. New conversion technologies are reported on. Further reports deal with basic strategies and concepts in the area of biomass usage. National and international co-operation is also discussed. A selection of innovative pilot and demonstration projects is also presented and research and development projects are listed.

  7. X-ray scattering studies of lignocellulosic biomass: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Shi, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Donghai

    2013-05-15

    The high processing cost of lignocellulosic ethanol is one of the most important barriers to its profitable commercialization. Pretreatments have been used to change the structure of biomass significantly and to improve sugar and ethanol yield. Great efforts have been made to understand the structural changes of biomass during these processes, including the molecular assembly of crystalline cellulose. Wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering are powerful techniques in studying the biomass structure at a molecular level. In this review, after we introduce the basic structure of lignocellulosic biomass, the effects of commonly used pretreatment methods on biomass structure, and the principle of X-ray scattering technique, the application of X-ray scattering, including studies of crystallinity, crystallite size, orientation distribution, and pore structure, and the related results in biomass conversion are summarized and discussed. Future study of biomass with X-ray scattering also is proposed. PMID:23544649

  8. A Path Forward for Low Carbon Power from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Cuellar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The two major pathways for energy utilization from biomass are conversion to a liquid fuel (i.e., biofuels or conversion to electricity (i.e., biopower. In the United States (US, biomass policy has focused on biofuels. However, this paper will investigate three options for biopower: low co-firing (co-firing scenarios refer to combusting a given percentage of biomass with coal (5%–10% biomass, medium co-firing (15%–20% biomass, and dedicated biomass firing (100% biomass. We analyze the economic and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions impact of each of these options, with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS. Our analysis shows that in the absence of land use change emissions, all biomass co-combustion scenarios result in a decrease in GHG emissions over coal generation alone. The two biggest barriers to biopower are concerns about carbon neutrality of biomass fuels and the high cost compared to today’s electricity prices. This paper recommends two policy actions. First, the need to define sustainability criteria and initiate a certification process so that biomass providers have a fixed set of guidelines to determine whether their feedstocks qualify as renewable energy sources. Second, the need for a consistent, predictable policy that provides the economic incentives to make biopower economically attractive.

  9. Twenty-five years of digital conversion. Current situation

    OpenAIRE

    Robledano Arillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with the support of the Project “Los Medios Audiovisuales en la Transición Española (1975-1985): las imágenes del Cambio Democrático”. Ref. CSO2009-09291. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación.

  10. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  11. Speech Situations and TEFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴树奇; 高建国

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with how speech situations or ratherspeech implicatures affect TEFL.As far as the writer is concerned,they have much influence on many aspect of language teaching.To illustrate this point explicitly,the writer focuses on the influence of speech situations upon pronunciation,intonation,lexical meanings,sentence comprehension and the grammatical study of the English language.

  12. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  13. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  14. Evaluation of hydrotropic pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, Leena P; Kiran Kumar, M; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol from biomass is considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, providing a sustainable option for fuels production in an environmentally compatible manner. The presence of lignin poses a significant challenge for obtaining biofuels and bioproducts from biomass. Part of that problem involves understanding fundamental aspects of lignin structure which can provide a pathway for the development of improved technologies for biomass conversion. Hydrotropic pretreatment has several attractive features that make it an attractive alternative for biofuel production. This review highlights the recent developments on hydrotropic pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass on a molecular structure basis for recalcitrance, with emphasis on lignin concerning chemical structure, transformation and recalcitrance. The review also evaluates the hydrotropic delignification in comparison to alkaline delignification on lignin reduction and surface coverage by lignin. The effect of hydrotrope pretreatment on enzymatic saccharification has also been discussed. PMID:27013188

  15. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  16. La conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Béatrice Bakhouche; Billier, Jean-Cassien; Cuvillier, Elian

    2009-01-01

    Le numéro 6 des Cahiers ouvre le champ d’étude sur la conversion, thème que le CIER a décidé de parcourir pendant deux ans. Fidèle à sa tradition d’interdisciplinarité, ce numéro expose des points de vue philosophique, théologique et littéraire. En guise de présentation introductive, le philosophe Jean-Cassien Billier offre un large panorama des différents domaines concernés par le phénomène de conversion, au premier rang desquels se situe le point de vue politique. Suivent deux réflexions su...

  17. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  18. Quantum conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic momentum transferred transfered to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ($\\hbar k$) does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the transformation, including units, of the classical fields to wave-function equivalent fields.

  19. Thermophilic degradation of cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1982-12-01

    The conversion of cellulosic biomass to chemical feedstocks and fuel by microbial fermentation is an important objective of developing biotechnology. Direct fermentation of cellulosic derivatives to ethanol by thermophilic bacteria offers a promising approach to this goal. Fermentations at elevated temperatures lowers the energy demand for cooling and also facilitates the recovery of volatile products. In addition, thermophilic microorganisms possess enzymes with greater stability than those from mesophilic microorganisms. Three anaerobic thermophilic cocultures that ferment cellulosic substrate mainly to ethanol have been described: Clostridium thermocellum/Clostriidium thermohydrosulfuricum, C. thermocellum/Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, and C. thermocellum/Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus sp. nov. The growth characteristics and metabolic features of these cocultures are reviewed.

  20. Thermodynamic evaluation of biomass-to-biofuels production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is a renewable feedstock for producing modern energy carriers. However, the usage of biomass is accompanied by possible drawbacks, mainly due to limitation of land and water, and competition with food production. In this paper, the analysis concerns so-called second generation biofuels, like Fischer–Tropsch fuels or Substitute Natural Gas which are produced either from wood or from waste biomass. For these biofuels the most promising conversion case is the one which involves production of syngas from biomass gasification, followed by synthesis of biofuels. The thermodynamic efficiency of biofuels production is analyzed and compared using both the direct exergy analysis and the thermo-ecological cost. This analysis leads to the detection of exergy losses in various elements which forms the starting point to the improvement of conversion efficiency. The efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels is also evaluated for the whole production chain, including biomass cultivation, transportation and conversion. The global effects of natural resources management are investigated using the thermo-ecological cost. The energy carriers' utilities such as electricity and heat are externally generated either from fossil fuels or from renewable biomass. In the former case the production of biofuels not always can be considered as a renewable energy source whereas in the latter case the production of biofuels leads always to the reduction of depletion of non-renewable resources

  1. Value-added Chemicals from Biomass by Heterogeneous Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil

    been implemented. The subject on chemical production has received less attention. This thesis describes and evaluates the quest for an alternative conversion route, based on a biomass feedstock and employing a heterogeneous catalyst capable of converting the feedstock, to a value-added chemical. The...... obtained for such a process and the hypothesis that process feasibility in comparison with the conventional synthesis gas based technologies may further be attainable, taking advantage of the conservation of chemical C-C bonds in biomass based feedstocks. With ethanol as one example of a biomass based...... feedstock, having retained one C-C bond originating from the biomass precursor, the aspects of utilising heterogeneous catalysis for its conversion to value added chemicals is investigated. Through a simple analysis of known, but not industrialised catalytic routes, the direct conversion of ethanol to...

  2. Situated Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2007-01-01

    learn through our participation in communities of practice. In this view, learning entails both personal and social transformation. In late modernity the concept of qualification has been replaced by the concept of competence pointing to several changes in our view of work, education and labour. One of......Adult Learners' Formation of Identity in a Situated Learning Perspective In a situated learning perspective we do not only acquire professional qualifications in learning situations, we also work on our identity when we engage in change processes. Identity formation is part of our change as we...... learning approach, these questions are explored through a case study concerning general education for dismissed low-skilled workers....

  3. Opportunities for Small Biomass Power Systems. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, D. D.; Pinapati, V. S.

    2000-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to provide information to key stakeholders and the general public about biomass resource potential for power generation. Ten types of biomass were identified and evaluated. The quantities available for power generation were estimated separately for five U.S. regions and Canada. A method entitled ''competitive resource profile'' was used to rank resources based on economics, utilization, and environmental impact. The results of the analysis may be used to set priorities for utilization of biomass in each U.S. region. A review of current biomass conversion technologies was accomplished, linking technologies to resources.

  4. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  5. France's 2010 energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .9% corrected for climatic variations) returned to its 2008 level. The drop in oil was confirmed (-3.4%, after -3.9%). It accounted for only 31 per cent of total primary consumption, against 34.5 per cent in 2002. Crude oil imports dropped again with a reduction in refinery activity. Consumption of coal increased significantly, but was far from making up for its drop in 2009 (+6.5%, after a drop of 11.1%). The renewable energy directive introduced its own indicators, different from those used for the energy balance. According to these indicators, the share of renewables in France went from 12.4 per cent in 2009 to 12.9 per cent in 2010. The country has therefore exceeded its intermediary target set for 2010 in its national action plan to reach its 2020 target of 23 per cent. The good results are due to use of heat pumps, biomass (part of which, however, relates to over-consumption of wood due to the harsh weather conditions in 2010) and of biogas. Conversely, production was lower than planned for wind power, geothermal energy, production of electricity from biomass and thermal solar systems. Final energy consumption recovered by only 1.4 per cent after a drop of 3.7 per cent in 2009. At 158 Mtoe, it remains a little below the level at which it had stabilised since 2001, meaning that for 10 years final energy consumption has no longer been increasing. Formerly it progressed regularly: in the mid-1980's it was less than 130 Mtoe. The residential and services sector reduced its consumption by 1.2 per cent (corrected for climate). The strong rise in its use of renewable energy (+4.8%) and electricity (+4.3%) is more than offset by the reduction in gas (-2.5%) and oil (-5.5%, mainly affecting domestic heating fuel oil). Where heating, which accounts for most of sector's consumption, is concerned, the French have clearly turned away from fossil fuels, for which, it is true, prices seem to be pursuing an ongoing upward trend. Consumption for transport rose slightly (+0.8%), after two

  6. 2009 Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  7. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  8. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary

  9. Biomass decomposition in near critical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conversion of baby food (taken as model biomass for protein and carbohydrate containing biomass) to the valuable chemicals in near critical water (648 K and 24 MPa) in an autoclave is presented in this work. K2CO3, Nickel on silica and Zeolith (HZSM-5) are selected as catalysts. A detailed characterization of the aqueous phases is performed by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Total Organic Carbon Analyser. Solid particles recovered by the experiments are also subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis. This study determines the effect of reaction conditions on the reactivity of the major biomass component. Acetic, formic and glycolic acid, aldehydes (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde), phenol and phenol derivatives, furfural, methyl furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural are the intermediates found in the aqueous phase. Baby food contains mostly carbohydrates, proteins, a variety of salts and minerals, etc. Thus, the results show the effect of these ingredients on the hydrothermal conversion of biomass. It is found that the formation and degradation pathways of the intermediates are influenced by the biomass structure.

  10. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy is emerging as a real option for satisfying power needs in developing countries. Experience has shown improvements in GDP are directly linked to increased consumption of energy. Biomass energy can also be environmentally and developmentally beneficial where it will be both grown and used. Biomass production can offset deforestation, reduce soil erosion, increase rural employment, and stimulate development. Moreover, when biomass is grown renewably there is no net buildup of atmospheric carbon. Issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries are discussed. An integrated biomass energy system is dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, supportive of rural development, and environmentally beneficial, adapted to local conditions; takes advantage of by- and co-products and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in Southwest China indicates that biomass could be grown and converted to electricity at costs lower than alternatives and yield an internal rate of return of about 15%. The IRR based on a social and environmental benefits are substantial and investment in the facility is well-justified. However, assessing biomass energy systems is exceedingly complex. Considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementation requires considerations of energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. The conclusion that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal

  11. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 - Countries report. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Mandl, M. (Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2010-07-01

    This report has been developed by the members of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery: Co-production of Fuels, Chemicals, Power and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to improve international cooperation and information exchange between national bioenergy RD and D programs. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery covers a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals with a variety of market sectors with many interested stakeholders, a large number of biomass conversion technologies, and integrated concepts of both biochemical and thermochemical processes. This report contains an overview of the biomass, bioenergy and biorefinery situation, and activities, in the Task 42 member countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The overview includes: national bioenergy production, non-energetic biomass use, bioenergy related policy goals, national oil refineries, biofuels capacity for transport purposes, existing biorefinery industries, pilot and demo plants, and other activities of research and development (such as main national projects and stakeholders). Data are provided by National Task Leaders (NTLs), whose contact details are listed at the end of the report. (author)

  12. Ash chemistry and fuel design focusing on combustion of phosphorus-rich biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly used as a feedstock in global energy production. This may present operational challenges in energy conversion processes which are related to the inorganic content of these biomasses. As a larger variety of biomass is used the need for a basic understanding of ash transformation reactions becomes increasingly important. This is not only to reduce operational problems but also to facilitate the use of ash as a nutrient source for new biomass production. Ash transformatio...

  13. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  14. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  15. Energy from biomass and wastes: 1979 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The R and D activities in progress in the United States on the development of biomass and wastes as renewable energy sources have reached the point where all phases of the technology are under active investigation. Highlights of this effort are briefly reviewed from the standpoint of energy impact, funding, carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere, and biomass production and its conversion to energy and synthetic fuels. Special attention is given to alcohols because of the current interest in gasohol. Significant accomplishments were reported in 1979, and it is expected that commercial utilization of this information will begin to gather more momentum.

  16. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  17. Energy use of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    HOLEČKOVÁ, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is the research of different types of biomass, description of the various types of methods and technologies for energy usage of biomass and the mapping of large power plant units in the Czech Republic. The first part of this thesis deals with the definition of biomass, its distribution and the description of basic essential attributes describing its composition. The downstream part of this work is focused on the technologies of gaining energy out of biomass or ...

  18. Proteins in biomass streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study is to give an overview of traditional and new biomasses and biomass streams that contain proteins. When information was available, the differences in molecular structure and physical and chemical properties for the different proteins is given. For optimal biomass use, isolati

  19. Understanding existing exposure situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J-F

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 removed the distinction between practices and interventions, and introduced three types of exposure situation: existing, planned, and emergency. It also emphasised the optimisation principle in connection with individual dose restrictions for all controllable exposure situations. Existing exposure situations are those resulting from sources, natural or man-made, that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken. They have common features to be taken into account when implementing general recommendations, such as: the source may be difficult to control; all exposures cannot be anticipated; protective actions can only be implemented after characterisation of the exposure situation; time may be needed to reduce exposure below the reference level; levels of exposure are highly dependent on individual behaviour and present a wide spread of individual dose distribution; exposures at work may be adventitious and not considered as occupational exposure; there is generally no potential for accident; many stakeholders have to be involved; and many factors need to be considered. ICRP is currently developing a series of reports related to the practical implementation of Publication 103 to various existing exposure situations, including exposure from radon, exposure from cosmic radiation in aviation, exposure from processes using naturally occurring radioactive material, and exposure from contaminated sites due to past activities. PMID:26975365

  20. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  1. Planning as situated design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    situated, too. In this presentation it will be argued that the investigation of systematic planning as conflictual cooperation will help us see that situated activity is not only based on the present conditions, but also relates them to events spread out in time and space, thereby opening up for another......It is common to associate situated activity with concrete, craftlike or manual activity here and now and to reserve theoretical and abstract thinking for activities like theoretical experimentation and systematic planning. Much work has gone into demonstrating that these activities are concrete and...... understanding of theoretical thinking. Some material from the empirical research project developed with Klaus Nielsen on the design and engineering of a house will be presented. On this basis a conception of planning will be unfolded. It will be understood differently from the way it is understood in...

  2. Personalizing situation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  3. Situational theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services. PMID:2589352

  4. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T. [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  5. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene;

    2006-01-01

    values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture of the...... 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  6. Modeling compatible single-tree aboveground biomass equations for masson pine (Pinus massoniana) in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wei-sheng; TANG Shou-zheng

    2012-01-01

    Because of global climate change,it is necessary to add forest biomass estimation to national forest resource monitoring.The biomass equations developed for forest biomass estimation should be compatible with volume equations.Based on the tree volume and aboveground biomass data of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) in southern China,we constructed one-,two-and three-variable aboveground biomass equations and biomass conversion functions compatible with tree volume equations by using error-in-variable simultaneous equations.The prediction precision of aboveground biomass estimates from one variable equation exceeded 95%.The regressions of aboveground biomass equations were improved slightly when tree height and crown width were used together with diameter on breast height,although the contributions to regressions were statistically insignificant.For the biomass conversion function on one variable,the conversion factor decreased with increasing diameter,but for the conversion function on two variables,the conversion factor increased with increasing diameter but decreased with increasing tree height.

  7. Impact of novel energy sources: OTEC, wind, goethermal, biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Alternate energy conversion methods such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wind power, geothermal wells and biomass conversion are being explored, and re-examined in some cases, for commercial viability. At a time when United States fossil fuel and uranium resources are found to be insufficient to supply national needs into the twenty-first century, it is essential to broaden the base of feasible energy conversion technologies. The motivations for development of these four alternative energy forms are established. Primary technical aspects of OTEC, wind, geothermal and biomass energy conversion systems are described along with a discussion of relative advantages and disadvantages of the concepts. Finally, the sentiment is voiced that each of the four systems should be developed to the prototype stage and employed in the region of the country and in the sector of economy which is complimentary to the form of system output.

  8. Energy situation january 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation in France at january 2005 is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import, export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  9. Energy situation september 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France at september 2005, is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  10. Energy situation march 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France at March 2005, is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  11. Energy situation September 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation in France, at September 2006, is presented. Statistics are given for the energy expenses, consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  12. Energy situation, March 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France, at March 2006, is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  13. Energy situation, april 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France, at April 2006, is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  14. Energy situation february 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France at February 2005, is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy situation november 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France at November 2005 is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  16. Energy situation August 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly situation analysis in France is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  17. Energy situation - July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France at July 2006, is presented. Statistics are given for energy expenses, consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  18. Energy situation october 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France at october 2005, is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  19. Energy situation August 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France at August 2005 is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  20. Energy situation, January 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France, at January 2006, is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  1. Energy situation October 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation in France, at October 2006, is presented. Statistics are given for the energy expenses, consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  2. Energy situation August 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation in France at august 2004 is presented. Statistics are given on energy accounting, imports, exports, energy prices. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  3. Energy situation July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation in France at july 2004 is presented. Statistics are given on energy accounting, imports, exports, energy prices. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy situation November 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly energy situation in France, at November 2006, is presented. Statistics are given for the energy expenses, consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  5. The France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  6. LEVULINIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic performances were also improved by the adoption of microwave irradiation as an efficient heating method, allowing significant energy and time savings. The hydrothermal conversions of inulin and wheat straw were carried out in the presence of niobium phosphate, which up to now have never been employed in these reactions. The preliminary results appeared to be in need of further optimization.

  7. Recent advances in biomass utilization. An overview of available technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conversion, related environmental concerns and sustainability remain to be one of the most critical issues that will require tremendous attention by governments, industry and researchers. The role of biomass, fossil fuels, nuclear generation and renewable resources are frequently debated for future planning to meet the growing need of energy. Biomass can be utilized as a potential fuel source in advanced energy systems. Raw biomass is usually obtained from energy crops that are grown specifically for the purpose of biofuel production. Switchgrass, hybrid poplars and willows, are typical examples of such crops. Secondary biomass fuels are usually obtained form recycled materials such as paper and cardboard, leather, rubber, municipal solid wastes and, agricultural crop waste. Molten carbonate (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are considered to be best suited for biomass applications due to their high operating temperature level, flexibility to different fuel, and greater tolerance to contaminants. According to the biomass conversion methodology used, some of the other fuel cell types may also be useful. For example, landfill gas and digester gas are mostly used with Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) today and their usage with this kind of fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated. Additionally, the suitability of biogas as a fuel for PEMFC has been experimentally confirmed. In this paper, an overview of energy supply and demand, with a specific emphasis on biomass, is given. A critical comparison of biomass and fossil fuels and the current status of technology together with results from a number of case studies are presented. (author)

  8. Modeling the importance of biomass qualities in biomass supply chains for bioenergy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Upadhyay, J. H. Greibrokk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A tactical-operational level quantitative model can be an important decision support tool for bioenergy producers. Goal programming approach can help analyze the costs and volume implications of various competing goals in terms of biomass characteristics on part of the bioenergy producers. One cost and six quality characteristics goals, namely moisture and ash contents, and thermal values of two types of biomass (forest harvest residue and un/under-utilized species are selected for the four bioenergy producers in northwestern, Ontario, Canada. We run four models cenarios: i benchmark total cost and ceilings of mean values of six biomass qualities (Initial Goals, iirelaxing the quality goals by 10% from the Initial Goals scenario, iii increasing the conversion efficiency by 10%, and iv all goals as in Initial Goals except the Atikokan Generating Station (AGSbeing supplied with only un/under-utilized biomass. The smaller power plants have relatively less per unit biomass procurement cost. While per unit procurement costs increased, the total costs and biomass volume required to produce the same amount of bioenergy for each power plant decreased in all scenarios compared to the benchmark costs. The goal programming approach, and the results thereof are found to be useful in making effective decisions in the biomass supply chains for bioenergy production.

  9. Conversion to Organic Production Software (OrgPlan, OF0159)

    OpenAIRE

    Padel, Susanne

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for Defra Project OF0159. The Organic Conversion Planner (OrgPlan) is a computer program for farmers and advisors reducing the time input necessary for planning a conversion to organic farming. Conversion planning can help to identify whether organic management is suited to the farm and potential problems during the conversion period itself. This involves an assessment of the current situation of the farm, based on which proposals for an organic 'target (endpoint)...

  10. Reaction pathways of model compounds of biomass-derived oxygenates on Fe/Ni bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiting; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-10-01

    Controlling the activity and selectivity of converting biomass-derivatives to fuels and valuable chemicals is critical for the utilization of biomass feedstocks. There are primarily three classes of non-food competing biomass, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In the current work, glycolaldehyde, furfural and acetaldehyde are studied as model compounds of the three classes of biomass-derivatives. Monometallic Ni(111) and monolayer (ML) Fe/Ni(111) bimetallic surfaces are studied for the reaction pathways of the three biomass surrogates. The ML Fe/Ni(111) surface is identified as an efficient surface for the conversion of biomass-derivatives from the combined results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments. A correlation is also established between the optimized adsorption geometry and experimental reaction pathways. These results should provide helpful insights in catalyst design for the upgrading and conversion of biomass.

  11. Synthesis of Fuels from Biomass Derived Oxygenates

    OpenAIRE

    Cesak, Ondrej

    2013-01-01

    Direct conversion of wooden biomass to liquid fuels is performed in two-step process. First step is to transform cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin into to basic chemical compounds which they are assembled of (mainly basic sugars, cyclic C6 and C5 oxygenated hydrocarbons). These compounds are then further transformed to polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol.Nevertheless, this project is focuses on testing of catalysts for second step, which is transformation of obtained C2 and C3 pol...

  12. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  13. Biomass utilisation for combined heat and power generation: Status and perspectives for rural regions. Guelzow expert discussions; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung: Stand der Technik und Perspektiven fuer den laendlichen Raum. Guelzower Fachgespraeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Biomass has a high potential but biomass utilisation technologies have not yet reached sufficient maturity for a general breakthrough on the market. Political boundary conditions alone are not sufficient if technical conversion processes are neglected. For the time being, the potential of biomass can not be utilised.

  14. Transportation fuels from biomass via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2013-09-21

    Biomass is a renewable source of carbon, which could provide a means to reduce the greenhouse gas impact from fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Biomass is the only renewable source of liquid fuels, which could displace petroleum-derived products. Fast pyrolysis is a method of direct thermochemical conversion (non-bioconversion) of biomass to a liquid product. Although the direct conversion product, called bio-oil, is liquid; it is not compatible with the fuel handling systems currently used for transportation. Upgrading the product via catalytic processing with hydrogen gas, hydroprocessing, is a means that has been demonstrated in the laboratory. By this processing the bio-oil can be deoxygenated to hydrocarbons, which can be useful replacements of the hydrocarbon distillates in petroleum. While the fast pyrolysis of biomass is presently commercial, the upgrading of the liquid product by hydroprocessing remains in development, although it is moving out of the laboratory into scaled-up process demonstration systems.

  15. Canada's forest biomass resources: deriving estimates from Canada's forest inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Biomass energy production. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    These 210 citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential.

  17. Learning through Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    2014-01-01

    implications of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and......Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why...... and in which ways the specificity and situatedness of PD practices are crucial for PD research. We do so by developing the notion of PD as situated innovation based on a pragmatic epistemology. PD research aims at devel oping and continuously unfolding what PD can, might and should be. We show...

  18. Situational Decomposition Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukabayeva Tamara Kokenovna; Khu Ven-Tsen

    2012-01-01

    The method of optimum control of the complex multivariate objects, based on the account of situations during the moment of acceptance of operating decisions is offered. The method allows to reduce the initial problem of management complicated for the decision, to set of more simple consistently solved problems representing the modified initial problem. The method is realized in a control system of the variable structure combining principles of centralized and decentralized management.

  19. Adaptative behaviors in aphasic conversational breackdown

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo-Paúls, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Aphasia is an element that causes conversational breakdowns in normal interaction, which the aphasic speakers and their partners must cope with. Clinical linguistic investigates this situation in order to provide strategies and resources to both kinds of speakers. In this communications a presentation of Perceptive Classification of Aphasic Language Impairment (Goverment, Concordance, Order and Integrity Impairment) is made, with special atention to their consequences in conversational intera...

  20. Current energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current energy situation in Cuba is that of a SIDS in the midst of a recovery from the dissolution of favourable trade agreements with the former Soviet Union for the import of crude oil and petroleum products. As with other SIDS, Cuba lacks sufficient proven indigenous fossil energy resources to support sustainable long term economic and social development. This situation, however, might change as a result of ongoing programmes in oil exploration in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the accelerated development of renewable sources is expected to make domestic energy supplies more accessible. Currently, the Cuban energy situation is characterized by a deficit in access to affordable energy services (especially in rural areas), the lack of finance for energy imports and energy infrastructure improvements and expansion as well as suboptimal institutional coordination. This section reviews the status of Cuba's energy system and how it developed. It is divided into four major sections: Section 2.1 outlines the organizational structure of the energy system; Section 2.2 presents the national energy balance; Section 2.3 assesses the country's energy status according to the economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions of sustainable development; and Section 2.4 summarizes the major issues facing that system

  1. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  2. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  3. Biomass based energy. A review on raw materials and processing methods; Energie aus Biomasse. Eine Uebersicht ueber Rohstoffe und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellauer, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book reviews the variety of biogenic raw materials and the technologically important biomass conversion techniques. The chapter on the different kinds of biomass includes a) wood from forestry, landscape culturing and saw mills, bark and old wood; b) plants (corn, miscanthus, cannabis, wheat, rye, sugar beets, grass, rape, etc.), residuals and wastes (straw, liquid manure, slaughthouse wastes, kitchen wastes, sewage sludge, others). The chapter on biomass conversion processing discusses combustion, oxidation in spercritical water, gasification and reforming, fermentation, extrusion or extraction, and downstream processes. The chapter on biomass based electricity and mechanical energy includes refrigeration engineering, direct utilization: Otto engines, Diesel engines, microgas turbine fuel cells, and heat processing: Striling engine, vapour turbine, ORC turbine, externally fired gas turbine, and the Kalina process.

  4. Ionic liquids as catalysts of lignocellulosic biomass processing

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Ana Vanessa Antunes

    2014-01-01

    The present work is devoted to study the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass, especially wheat straw, by the application of the acidic ionic liquid (IL) such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate. The ability of this IL to hydrolysis and conversion of biomass was scrutinised. The pre-treatment with hydrogen sulphate-based IL allowed to obtain a liquor rich in hemicellulosic sugars, furans and organic acids, and a solid fraction mainly constituted by cellulose and lignin. Quant...

  5. Direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw woody biomass into liquid alkanes

    OpenAIRE

    Qineng Xia, Zongjia Chen, Yi Shao, Xueqing Gong, Haifeng Wang, Xiaohui Liu, Stewart F. Parker, Xue Han, Sihai Yang & Yanqin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Being the only sustainable source of organic carbon, biomass is playing an ever-increasingly important role in our energy landscape. The conversion of renewable lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuels is particularly attractive but extremely challenging due to the inertness and complexity of lignocellulose. Here we describe the direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw woods into liquid alkanes with mass yields up to 28.1 wt% over a multifunctional Pt/NbOPO4 catalyst in cyclohexane. T...

  6. Particle Counter Determination of Bacterial Biomass in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Kogure, Kazuhiro; Koike, Isao

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of the Elzone particle counter to the determination of marine bacterial biomass was investigated. The biomass of bacterial pure cultures and a mixed natural population were followed by using the particle counter, a CHN analyzer, and an ATP analyzer. The particle counter showed the precise size distribution of number and volume of submicron-size particles in seawater. For the pure cultured bacterial strains, the conversion factor from volume to carbon is 0.209 mg of C per mm3...

  7. [Effects of situational and individual variables on critical thinking expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuko; Kusumi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined when people decide to choose an expression that is based on critical thinking, and how situational and individual variables affect such a decision process. Given a conversation scenario including overgeneralization with two friends, participants decided whether to follow the conversation by a critical-thinking expression or not. The authors controlled purpose and topic as situational variables, and measured critical-thinking ability, critical-thinking disposition, and self-monitoring as individual variables. We conducted an experiment in which the situational variables were counterbalanced in a within-subject design with 60 university students. The results of logistic regression analysis showed differences within individuals in the decision process whether to choose a critical-thinking expression, and that some situational factors and some subscales of the individual measurements were related to the differences. PMID:27180514

  8. Process for treating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Timothy J; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-11-04

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  9. Process for treating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-08-11

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  10. Gasification-based biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  11. Lime pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shushien

    Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis is constrained due to its structural features, so pretreatment is essential to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Of the chemicals used as pretreatment agents, it has been reported that alkalis improve biomass digestibility significantly. In comparison with other alkalis such as NaOH and ammonia, lime (calcium hydroxide) has many advantages; it is very inexpensive, is safe, and can be recovered by carbonating wash water. The effects of lime pretreatment were explored on switchgrass and poplar wood, representing herbaceous and woody biomass, respectively. The effects of pretreatment conditions (time, temperature, lime loading, water loading, particle size, and oxygen pressure) have been systematically studies. Lime alone enhances the digestibility of switchgrass significantly; under the recommended conditions, the 3-d total sugar (glucose + xylose) yields of lime-treated switchgrass were 7 times that of untreated sample. When treating poplar wood, lime must be combined with oxygen to achieve high digestibility; oxidative lime pretreatment increased the 3-d total sugar yield of poplar wood to 12 times that of untreated sample. In a fundamental study, to determine why lime pretreatment is effective, the effects of three structural features on enzymatic digestibility were studied: lignin content, acetyl content, and crystallinity index (CrI). Poplar wood was treated with peracetic acid, potassium hydroxide, and ball milling to produce model lignocelluloses with a broad spectrum of lignin contents, acetyl contents, and CrI, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed on the model lignocelluloses to determine the digestibility. Correlations between lignin/carbohydrate ratio, acetyl/carbohydrate ratio, CrI and digestibility were developed. The 95% prediction intervals show that the correlations predict the 1-h and 3-d total sugar conversions of

  12. Advances in High Throughput Screening of Biomass Recalcitrance (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G. B.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Law, C.; Doeppke, C.; Sykes, R. W.; Davis, M. F.; Ziebell, A.

    2012-06-01

    This was a poster displayed at the Symposium. Advances on previous high throughput screening of biomass recalcitrance methods have resulted in improved conversion and replicate precision. Changes in plate reactor metallurgy, improved preparation of control biomass, species-specific pretreatment conditions, and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters have reduced overall coefficients of variation to an average of 6% for sample replicates. These method changes have improved plate-to-plate variation of control biomass recalcitrance and improved confidence in sugar release differences between samples. With smaller errors plant researchers can have a higher degree of assurance more low recalcitrance candidates can be identified. Significant changes in plate reactor, control biomass preparation, pretreatment conditions and enzyme have significantly reduced sample and control replicate variability. Reactor plate metallurgy significantly impacts sugar release aluminum leaching into reaction during pretreatment degrades sugars and inhibits enzyme activity. Removal of starch and extractives significantly decreases control biomass variability. New enzyme formulations give more consistent and higher conversion levels, however required re-optimization for switchgrass. Pretreatment time and temperature (severity) should be adjusted to specific biomass types i.e. woody vs. herbaceous. Desalting of enzyme preps to remove low molecular weight stabilizers and improved conversion levels likely due to water activity impacts on enzyme structure and substrate interactions not attempted here due to need to continually desalt and validate precise enzyme concentration and activity.

  13. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Chong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass

  14. Chemicals from biomass - BioForest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiningen, A. van (Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Forest Products Technology), e-mail: adriaan.vanheiningen@aalto.fi; Granstroem, T. (Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept.of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology), e-mail: tom.granstrom@aalto.fi

    2011-11-15

    The objective of the BioForest project is to develop the science and technology of a series of integrated processing steps which economically convert mixed hardwood and softwood biomass and recycled fibers into commodity chemicals at an existing forest products complex which also produces wood and/or pulp and paper. The commodity products will be produced from the biomass carbohydrates using a novel biomass fractionation process, a modified ABE (Acetone- Butanol-Ethanol) fermentation process, and a novel continuous solvent recovery method from the fermentation liquid. The mixture of solvents produced by the modified ABE process consists of isopropanol, butanol and ethanol. The key technological barriers which have been accomplished in the Bioforest project are following: 1. Fundamental understanding of the kinetics of delignification, hemicellulose dissolution and cellulose degradation during SEW fractionation of softwood and hardwood 2. Optimization of SEW fractionation of softwood biomass with a total treatment time as short as 30 minutes 3. Simultaneous SEW fractionation of hardwood and softwood biomass 4. Production of a high concentration (> 100 g/L) hemicellulose monosugar solution from SEW spent fractionation liquor at a sugar yield larger than 85% by multistep conditioning 5. Construction of E.coli strain harboring isopropanol dehydrogenase gene capable of acetone conversion to isopropanol 6. Successful fermentation of the conditioned hemicellulose monosugar solution to ABE (Acetone, Butanol, Ethanol) solvents using advanced column technology (patent pending) or semi-solid pulp fermentations with the volumetric productivities of 5.5 and 13.5 g/L h respectively. (orig.)

  15. Biomass Compositional Analysis for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  16. Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-10-20

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  17. International Energy Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hongtu

    2007-01-01

    The international energy situation has entered a new phase of change and readjustment. On the one hand, while imbalances in petroleum market supply-demand have been alleviated , the consuming states are now focusing on demand side management and development of new and renewable energy. There has been great progress in international energy security dialogue and cooperation. On the other hand , supply-demand market balance remains fragile , and restrictions due to insufficient energy investment are more evident. The concerned states have taken a stronger grip over their own resources. Implementation of energy diplomacy has also further complicated the relationship between energy and geo-politics, causing an upsurge of competition.

  18. Biofuel from biomass via photo-electrochemical reactions: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Minggu, L. J.

    2014-08-01

    Biomass is attracting a great deal of attention as a renewable energy resource to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Converting biomass from municipal, agricultural and livestock into biofuel and electrical power has significant environmental and economic advantages. The conversion of biomass into practical energy requires elegant designs and further investigation. Thus, biomass is a promising renewable energy source due to its low production cost and simple manufacturing processes. Biofuel (hydrogen and methanol) from biomass will be possible to be used for transportation with near-zero air pollution, involves efficient uses of land and major contribution to reduce dependence on insecure source of petroleum. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) reactions study has potential pathway for producing fuel from biomass and bio-related compound in the near future. This review highlights recent work related to the PEC conversion of biomass and bio-related compounds into useful biofuels and electricity. This review covers different types of photochemical reaction cells utilizing various types of organic and inorganic waste. It also presents recent developments in photoelectrodes, photocatalysts and electrolytes as well as the production of different types of fuel from PEC cells and highlights current developments and problems in PEC reactions.

  19. Technical, economic and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in coal and natural gas fired power plants in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the technical, economic, and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in existing Dutch coal and natural gas fired power plants, and industrial combined-cycles (CC), is addressed. Main criteria that are considered are: the availability and contractibility of biomass for energy purposes; the (technical) operation of the conventional fossil fuel based processes may not be disturbed; the gaseous and liquid plant emissions have to comply to those applicable for power plants/CCs, the commercial applicability of the solid residues may not be negatively influenced; applicable additional biomass conversion technologies must be commercially available; the necessary additional investment costs must be acceptable from an economic point of view, and the co-firing option must result in a substantial CO2-emission reduction. The main result of the study described in the paper is the presentation of a clear and founded indication of the total co-firing potential of biomass in existing power plants and industrial CCs in the Netherlands. This potential is determined by considering both technical, economic, and environmental criteria. In spite of the fact that the co-firing potential for the specific Dutch situation is presented, the results of the criteria considered are more generally applicable, and therefore are also very interesting for potential co-firing initiatives outside of the Netherlands

  20. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  1. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia;

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are...... been demonstrated in several studies, but the atmospheric impact of soybean cultivation has not been tested in situ. Some of the models for climate impact (N2O emissions etc) are based on in vitro studies, while field data are scarce. The situation, which is outside the control of the EU, has not been...... environmental sustainability. This is exemplified by soy, whose cultivation undermines the climate benefit claimed for soy-based biodiesel. This paper concludes that to certify soy monocultures as sustainable would exacerbate existing climatic and environmental problems....

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction. In......This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During the...... hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed by...

  3. Termisk forgasning af biomasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    The title of this Ph.D. thesis is: Thermal Gasification of Biomass. Compilation of activities in the ”Biomass Gasification Group” at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This thesis gives a presentation of selected activities in the Biomass Gasification Group at DTU. The activities are related to...... thermal gasification of biomass. Focus is on gasification for decentralised cogeneration of heat and power, and on related research on fundamental processes. In order to insure continuity of the presentation the other activities in the group, have also been described. The group was started in the late...... nineteen eighties. Originally, the main aim was to collect and transfer knowledge about gasification of straw. Very quickly it became clear, that knowledge was insufficient and the available technology, in most cases, unsuitable for converting the Danish biomass. The need for such technology was...

  4. Remarks on energetic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a study of energy biomass by considering its three main sources (forest, agriculture and wastes) and three energy needs (heat, fuel for transports, electricity) in the French national context. After having recalled the various uses of biomass (animal feeding, energy production, materials, chemical products), the authors discuss the characteristics of biomass with respect to other energy sources. Then, they analyse and discuss the various energy needs which biomass could satisfy: heat production (in industry, in the residential and office building sector), fuel for transports, electricity production. They assess and discuss the possible biomass production of its three main sources: forest, agriculture, and wastes (household, agricultural and industrial wastes). They also discuss the opportunities for biogas production and for second generation bio-fuel production

  5. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniuk, J. R.; Wang, J.; Root, T. W.; Scott, C. T.; Klingenberg, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained using torque rheometry agree with those obtained using other rheometric methods, but torque rheometry can be used at much larger solids concentration (weight fractions of insoluble solids greater than 0.2). Yield stresses decrease with severity of hydrolysis, decrease when water-soluble polymers are added (for nonhydrolyzed biomass), and increase with particle length. Experimental results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained from particle-level simulations.

  6. Increasing Biomass Conversion Efficiencies to Ethanol by Engineering Energy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Government has targeted aggressive development of bioethanol as one route for decreasing oil dependence and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Achieving future production targets depends on expanding feedstock sources beyond corn and towards lignocellulose. This is expected to in...

  7. Fish waste management by conversion into heterotrophic bacteria biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.

    2006-01-01

    Just as all other types of animal production, aquaculture produces waste. This waste can be managed outside the production system, comparable to terrestrial husbandry systems. However, particularly recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) are suited to manage waste within the system. In this case, pr

  8. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Kang; Lise Appels; Tianwei Tan; Raf Dewil

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and t...

  9. Mixed culture biotechnology for syngas conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, J.I.; Pereira, Filipa Maria Rodrigues; Sousa, D.Z.; Alves, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Bioconversion of recalcitrant biomass/waste into bulk chemicals or biofuels is not practicable. Gasification of these materials produces syngas (mainly composed of CO2, CO and H2) that can be converted to products of interest, both by thermochemical or microbial processes. Thus far, industrial microbial processes focus on syngas conversion to ethanol, but other products such as butanol, acetic acid, butyric acid, hydrogen and methane can be obtained as well. In this work, microbial syngas con...

  10. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment: A Key to Its Successful Bioconversion to Fuel Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native lignocellulosic biomass is very resistant to degradation by enzymes. Prior pretreatment is essential for efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstock to ethanol. In this presentation, various pretreatment options such as dilute acid, alkali, alkaline peroxide, wet oxidation, steam expl...

  11. Sustainable Strategy Utilizing Biomass: Visible-Light-Mediated Synthesis of γ-Valerolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel sustainable approach to valued γ-valerolactone is described that exploits visible light mediated conversion of biomass-derived levulinic acid using a bimetallic catalyst on graphitic carbon nitride, AgPd@g-C3N4.

  12. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 2: biomass feedstock logistical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass logistics operations account for a major portion of the feedstock cost of running a biorefinery, and make up a significant portion of total system operational costs. Biomass is a bulky perishable commodity that is required in large quantities year round for optimal biorefinery operations. As a proof of concept for a decision making tool for biomass production and delivery, a heuristic was developed to determine biorefinery location, considering city size, agricultural density, and regional demographics. Switchgrass and sorghum (with winter canola were selected to examine as viable biomass feedstocks based on positive economic results determined using a predictive model for cropland conversion potential. Biomass harvest systems were evaluated to examine interrelationships of biomass logistical networks and the least cost production system, with results demonstrating a need to shift to maximize supply-driven production harvest operations and limit storage requirements. For this supply-driven production harvest operations approach a harvest window from September until March was selected for producing big square bales of switchgrass for storage until use, forage chopped sorghum from September to December, and forage chopped switchgrass from December to March. A case study of the three major regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain was used to assess logistical optimization of the proposed supply-driven production harvest system. Potential biomass production fields were determined within a hundred mile radius of the proposed biorefinery location, with individual fields designated for crop and harvest system by lowest transportation cost. From these selected fields, crops and harvest system regional storage locations were determined using an alternate location-allocation heuristic with set storage capacity per site. Model results showed that the supply-driven production harvest system greatly reduced system complexity

  13. Study of biomass combustion characteristics for the development of a catalytic combustor/gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Dody, Joseph W.

    1985-01-01

    The research reported here explored, a "new" approach to biomass energy conversion for small-scale process heat-applications. The conversion process uses close-coupled catalytic. combustion to burn combustibles in effluent generated by primary combustion or gasification of biomass fuels. Computer control of primary and secondary air flow rates allow control of the devices output power while maintaining fuel-lean or stoichiometric conditions in the effluent entering the catalytic combustion...

  14. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu

    2014-09-30

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids and salts as the molybdenum-containing multi-functional catalysts for biomass conversion. In embodiments of the invention, the reactions employ successive hydrolysis, retro-aldol fragmentation, and selective oxidation in a noble metal-free system.

  15. The biomass file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As biomass represents the main source of renewable energy to reach the 23 per cent objective in terms of energy consumption by 2020, a first article gives a synthetic overview of its definition, its origins, its possible uses, its share in the French energy mix, its role by 2020, strengths and weaknesses for its development, the growth potential of its market, and its implications in terms of employment. A second article outlines the assets of biomass, indicates the share of some crops in biomass energy production, and discusses the development of new resources and the possible energy valorisation of various by-products. Interviews about biomass market and development perspectives are proposed with representatives of institutions, energy industries and professional bodies concerned with biomass development and production. Other articles comments the slow development of biomass-based cogeneration, the coming into operation of a demonstration biomass roasting installation in Pau (France), the development potential of biogas in France, the project of bio natural gas vehicles in Lille, and the large development of biogas in Germany

  16. Simulation, situated conceptualization, and prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2009-01-01

    Based on accumulating evidence, simulation appears to be a basic computational mechanism in the brain that supports a broad spectrum of processes from perception to social cognition. Further evidence suggests that simulation is typically situated, with the situated character of experience in the environment being reflected in the situated character of the representations that underlie simulation. A basic architecture is sketched of how the brain implements situated simulation. Within this fra...

  17. Situational simulations in interactive video

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Advanced Training Technologies section is using situational simulations in several Interactive Video training courses. Two applications of situational simulations will be discussed. In the first, used in the Hanford General Employee Training course, the student evaluates employee's actions in simulations of possible workplace situations. In the second, used in the Criticality Safety course, students must follow well-defined procedures to complete tasks. Design and incorporation of situational simulations will be discussed. 3 refs

  18. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Bentsen Niclas; Felby Claus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the cur...

  19. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Nam V.; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Robert J. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many dipl...

  20. Potential for genetic improvement of sugarcane as a source of biomass for biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Nam V.; Agnelo eFurtado; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Robert J. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar+fiber) content and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid...