WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass conversion plants

  1. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  2. A-xylosidase enhanced conversion of plant biomass into fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Borrusch, Melissa

    2016-08-02

    The invention relates to increasing the availability of fermentable sugars from plant biomass, such as glucose and xylose. As described herein, .alpha.-xylosidases can be employed with cellulases to enhance biomass conversion into free, fermentable sugar residues.

  3. Biotechnology of biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers: An introduction to biomass crops; The microbiology of fermentation processes; The production of ethanol from biomass crops, such as sugar cane and rubbers; The energy of biomass conversion; and The economics of biomass conversion

  4. Pilot project concerning the establishment of a collective biomass conversion plant on the island of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pilot project comprises a feasibility study in connection with plans to establish a biomass conversion plant, on the Danish island of Mors, which would provide methane to be used as fuel, in combination with natural gas, for a cogeneration plant serving six villages. The subjects of location, organization, the transportation of biomass, the design of the biomass conversion plant, economical aspects and conditions of the use of the methane are discussed as a basis for decisions in this respect. Environmental considerations are also dealt with. (AB)

  5. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels. PMID:22779440

  6. Description of possibilities for control and regulation of biomass conversion plants. Udredning vedroerende styrings- og reguleringsmuligheder paa biogasanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K. (DTH/DTI (DK)); Angelidaki, R. (DTH/DTI (DK)); Johansen, K. (Jysk Biogas (DK)); Norddahl, B. (Bioscan (DK)); Noergaard, P. (Krueger/Bigadan (DK)); Oestergaard, N. (Ramboell og Hannemann (DK))

    1990-08-15

    As the number of biomass conversion plants has increased considerably in Denmark during recent years, so has the need for process control in order to ensure stable operation under all conditions. This form of control should also contribute to an improvement in economy. A survey of current information on the conversion process is given in addition to an analysis of a biomass conversion plant that has been operating for over a year. In this respect interviews with operational personel have been carried out with the aim of pinpointing operational problems and the influence these have had on the biomass conversion process. (AB).

  7. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  8. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experime...

  9. Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Progress report, June 15, 1996--March 10, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danna, K.J.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, we want to determine the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu). The apoplast not only contains cellulose, the substrate for the enzymes, but also can tolerate large amounts of foreign protein. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulase expression in plants, we have chosen enzymes with high temperature optima; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source.

  10. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  11. Irradiation enhancement of biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast supply of cellulosic agricultural residues and industrial by-products that is produced each year is a prospective resource of biomass suitable for conversion to useful products such as feedstock for the chemicals industry and feedstuffs for the livestock industry. Conversions of such biomass is poor at present, and utilization is inefficient, because of physio-chemical barriers to biological degradation and/or anti-quality components such as toxicants that restrict biological usages. Improvements in biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic materials have been accomplished by gamma-ray and electron-beam irradiation at intermediate dosage (approx. 50 Mrad; 0.5 MGy); but applications of the technology have been hampered by questionable interpretations of results. Recent research with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and straw suggests opportunity for important applications of irradiation technology in enhancement of biomass conversion. Data from experiments using irradiated straw as feed for ruminants are presented and discussed in relation to research on prospective usage of sewage products as feed for ruminants. Findings are discussed in regard to prospective applications in industrial fermentation processes. Possible usage of irradiation technology for destruction of toxicants in exotic plants is considered in regard to prospective new feedstuffs. (author)

  12. Biomass Conversion Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-05

    To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today’s vehicles and infrastructure.

  13. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  14. Evaluation of research in plant biomass production for liquid fuel conversion: The case of India, Brazil and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.M. (Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify research activities in the field of plant biomass production for liquid fuel conversion and to evaluate research in areas outside the USA and EEC. Results are presented for three countries: Japan, India and Brazil. Research groups were identified from a range of information sources. Data were collected by interview and related to funding, information access, staffing, publication policy and degree of awareness of other research groups in the field. Bibliometric analysis and peer review were used as indicators in an attempt to assess research output. The findings are discussed in relation to agro-industrial policy in Japan, the use of marginal land in India and the Proalcohol program in Brazil.

  15. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  16. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  17. GIS-BASED location optimization of a biomass conversion plant on contaminated willow in the Campine region (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Campine region is diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium. Since traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred as a remediation technique. In a previous study, the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium was assessed. Based on recently upgraded figures of willow potential from phytoremediation on agricultural land in the seven most contaminated municipalities of the Belgian Campine region, the current paper uses GIS-knowledge to investigate which of three previously identified locations is most suitable for a biomass plant, taking into account the spatial distribution of the contaminated willow supply and the total cost of willow transport. Biomass transport distance from the centroid of each contaminated agricultural parcel to each of the three potential biomass plant locations was determined following Euclidian distance calculations and distance calculations over the existing road network. A transport cost model consisting of distance fixed and distance dependent biomass transport costs was developed. Of the locations identified, the Overpelt Fabriek site results in the lowest biomass transport distance and costs. When willow allocation for each parcel occurs based on the nearest potential plant location, transport costs are on average 23% lower than when all biomass is transported to the single Overpelt Fabriek site location. Therefore, when only considering transport costs, installing a smaller plant at each of the three potential plant locations would be less expensive than when installing a single biomass plant at the Overpelt Fabriek site. -- Highlights: ► Overpelt Fabriek site most attractive for time frames considered. ► Average tortuosity factor in Campine region between 1.27 and 1.42. ► Share of willow transport costs in willow supply costs 21%. ► Optimal allocation of willow results in lower transport costs

  18. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  20. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  1. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to the plethora of chemicals used in modern society is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Due to the significant differences between biomass resources and the current feedstock, crude oil, new technologies need to be developed encompassing all steps in the...... value chain, from pretreatment to purification. Heterogeneous catalysis is at the heart of the petrochemical refinery and will likely play an equally important role in the future biomass-based chemical industry. Three potentially important routes to chemicals from biomass are highlighted in this chapter....... The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source...

  3. Biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using the MixAlco™ process at a pilot-plant scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texas A and M University has built a MixAlco™ pilot plant that converts biomass to hydrocarbons (i.e., jet fuel, gasoline) using the following steps: fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, and oligomerization. This study describes the pilot plant and reports results from an 11-month production campaign. The focus was to produce sufficient jet fuel to be tested by the U.S. military. Because the scale was relatively small, energy-saving features were not included in the pilot plant. Further, the equipment was operated in a manner to maximize productivity even if yields were low. During the production campaign, a total of 6.015 Mg of shredded paper and 120 kg of chicken manure (dry basis) were fermented to produce 126.5 m3 of fermentation broth with an average concentration of 12.5 kg m−3. A total of 1582 kg of carboxylate salts were converted to 587 L of raw ketones, which were distilled and hydrogenated to 470 L of mixed alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. These alcohols, plus 300 L of alcohols made by an industrial partner (Terrabon, Inc.) were shipped to an independent contractor (General Electric) and transformed to jet fuel (∼100 L) and gasoline (∼100 L) byproduct. - Highlights: • We produce hydrocarbons from paper and chicken manure in a pilot-scale production using the MixAlco™ process. • About 100 L of jet fuel were produced for military testing. • High production rates and good product quality were preferred rather than high yields or energy efficiency. • The MixAlco™ process converted successfully lignocellulosic biomass to hydrocarbons and viable for commercial-scale production

  4. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  5. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the inventi

  6. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  7. Biomass thermo-conversion. Research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is studied the state of the art in order to identify the main trends of the processes of thermo conversion of biomass into fuels and other chemicals. In Cuba, from total supply of biomass, wood is the 19% and sugar cane bagasse and straw the 80%, is why research in the country, should be directed primarily toward these. The methods for energy production from biomass can be group into two classes: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. The technology of thermo-chemical conversion includes three subclasses: pyrolysis, gasification, and direct liquefaction. Although pyrolysis is still under development, in the current energy scenario, has received special attention, because can convert directly biomass into solid, liquid and gaseous by thermal decomposition in absence of oxygen. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, where great quantities of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash are produced. In Cuba, studies of biomass thermo-conversion studies are limited to slow pyrolysis and gasification; but gas fuels, by biomass, are mainly obtained by digestion (biogas). (author)

  8. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  9. Biomass conversion technologies - advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The municipal and agricultural wastes are one of the most promising renewable energy resources in Bulgaria because of their high biomass content (65-70%). In the light of forthcoming selection of suitable biomass conversion technology, the authors review and compare some technological features and environmental impact of the most widely used processes like: combustion, pyrolysis, biogas and methanol production. Biomass combustion causes large emissions of CO2, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrofluoric acid etc., but at the same time the residual heat could be utilized for municipal needs. One big advantage of the pyrolytic process is that it reduces the volume of produced emissions as compared to the conventional incinerators. The biogas production by anaerobic digestion is very hazardous because of the presence of very strong poisonous substances as indole and skatole given off along with methane. Some suggestions for propagating the use of biomass conversion technology at the national level are given. 2 figs

  10. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  11. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Understanding catalytic biomass conversion through data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Ras; B. McKay; G. Rothenberg

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of biomass is a key challenge that we chemists face in the twenty-first century. Worldwide, research is conducted into obtaining bulk chemicals, polymers and fuels. Our project centres on glucose valorisation via furfural derivatives using catalytic hydrogenation. We present her

  13. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol) from biomass, which has been to some degree successful, its conversion to high value-added chemicals is equally important. Among various biomass conversion pathways, catalytic conversion is usually preferred, as it provides a cost-effective and eco-benign route to the desired products with high selectivities. The research of this thesis is focused on the conversion of biomass to various chemicals of commercial interest by selective catalytic oxidation. Molecular oxygen is chosen as the oxidant considering its low cost and environment friendly features in comparison with commonly used hydrogen peroxide. However, the activation of molecular oxygen usually requires high reaction temperatures, leading to over oxidation and thus lower selectivities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop effective catalysts for such conversion systems. We use kegging-type heteropoly acids (HPAs) as a platform for catalysts design because of their high catalytic activities and ease of medication. Using HPA catalysts allows the conversion taking place at relatively low temperature, which is beneficial to saving production cost as well as to improving the reaction selectivity. The strong acidity of HPA promotes the hydrolysis of biomass of giant molecules (e.g. cellulose), which is the first as well as the most difficult step in the conversion process. Under certain circumstances, a HPA combines the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, acting as an efficient homogeneous catalyst during the reaction while being easily separated as a heterogeneous catalyst after the reaction. We have successfully applied HPAs in several biomass conversion systems. Specially, we prepared a HPA-based bi-functional catalyst

  14. CFD Studies on Biomass Thermochemical Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Yan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical conversion of biomass offers an efficient and economically process to provide gaseous, liquid and solid fuels and prepare chemicals derived from biomass. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD modeling applications on biomass thermochemical processes help to optimize the design and operation of thermochemical reactors. Recent progression in numerical techniques and computing efficacy has advanced CFD as a widely used approach to provide efficient design solutions in industry. This paper introduces the fundamentals involved in developing a CFD solution. Mathematical equations governing the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions in thermochemical systems are described and sub-models for individual processes are presented. It provides a review of various applications of CFD in the biomass thermochemical process field.

  15. CRITICAL ECONOMIC FACTORS FOR SUCCESS OF A BIOMASS CONVERSION PLANT FOR AGRICULTURAL RESIDUE, YARD RESIDUE AND WOOD WASTE IN FLORIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Granja, Ivan R.; VanSickle, John J.; Ingram, Lonnie; Weldon, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    This model evaluates the potential success of a cellulosic ethanol plant in Florida. Critical Economic factors of the plant were simulated to assess the ability of this project. These critical factors include the feedstock to be used, the cost of the facility, transportation costs and the discount rate for the net present value (NPV). Results and observations are presented in this paper.

  16. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  17. Biomass Conversion into Solid Composite Fuel for Bed-Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the conversion of different types of biomass into solid composite fuel. The subject of research is the heat conversion of biomass into solid composite fuel. The research object is the biomass of the Tomsk region (Russia: peat, waste wood, lake sapropel. Physical experiment of biomass conversion is used as method of research. The new experimental unit for thermal conversion of biomass into carbon residue, fuel gas and pyrolysis condensate is described. As a result of research such parameters are obtained: thermotechnical biomass characteristics, material balances and product characteristics of the heat-technology conversion. Different methods of obtaining solid composite fuel from the products of thermal technologies are considered. As a result, it is established: heat-technology provides efficient conversion of the wood chips and peat; conversion of the lake sapropel is inefficient since the solid composite fuel has the high ash content and net calorific value.

  18. Biomass thermochemical conversion. Overview of results; Biomassan jalostus. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The BIOENERGY Programme comprised two research institute projects, one enterprise project and two demonstration projects in 1996. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of the storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants. Development of biomass gasification/gas engine concepts suitable for diesel power plants was also initiated. In addition to techno-economic assessments, experimental work was carried out focusing on the cleaning of gasification gas for engine use. Conversion of by-products from the pulping industry, in particular crude soap, into liquid fuels was studied by laboratory tests. Results obtained within IEA Bioenergy Agreement are also surveyed and a new three-year work plan is presented in the overview. (orig.)

  19. Decommissioning of uranium conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since about 20 years have passed after the construction of the uranium conversion plant, most equipments installed have worn out. Liquid wastes stored in lagoons which were generated during the operation of this plant are needed to be treated safely. Therefore, the decommissioning project on the uranium conversion plant was started from 2001. This study is a preliminary step for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant. It was reviewed on the plant status overall, especially facility descriptions and operational histories for the installations located inside and outside of the plant and methods of decontamination and of dismantling to the contamination conditions. And some proper options on each main object was proposed

  20. Proceedings of the Chernobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium (137Cs) and strontium (90Sr). The 137Cs and 90Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place

  1. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tokarevsky, V. [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  2. Catalytic conversion of biomass to fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, R. L.; Ushiba, K. K.; Cooper, M.; Mahawili, I.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents an assessment and perspective concerning the application of catalytic technologies to the thermochemical conversion of biomass resources to fuels. The major objectives of the study are: to provide a systematic assessment of the role of catalysis in the direct thermochemical conversion of biomass into gaseous and liquid fuels; to establish the relationship between potential biomass conversion processes and catalytic processes currently under development in other areas, with particular emphasis on coal conversion processes; and to identify promising catalytic systems which could be utilized to reduce the overall costs of fuels production from biomass materials. The report is divided into five major parts which address the above objectives. In Part III the physical and chemical properties of biomass and coal are compared, and the implications for catalytic conversion processes are discussed. With respect to chemical properties, biomass is shown to have significant advantages over coal in catalytic conversion processes because of its uniformly high H/C ratio and low concentrations of potential catalyst poisons. The physical properties of biomass can vary widely, however, and preprocessing by grinding is difficult and costly. Conversion technologies that require little preprocessing and accept a wide range of feed geometries, densities, and particle sizes appear desirable. Part IV provides a comprehensive review of existing and emerging thermochemical conversion technologies for biomass and coal. The underlying science and technology for gasification and liquefaction processes are presented.

  3. Thermoelectric cells cogeneration from biomass power plant: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, Augusto; Donini, Filippo; Pellegrini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric cells convert directly heat into electricity but, due to the low conversion efficiency (up to 5%), most applications are in waste heat recovery. Another promising application is in biomass boiler. In this case, the installation of thermoelectric modules converts a biomass boiler into a cogeneration system, where the aim of the integration is not the electricity production for external power supply, but the realization of a stand-alone biomass power plant which could match the c...

  4. Process and apparatus for the conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  5. Zeolite-catalyzed biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Yang, Xiaobo;

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been a central element in the efficient conversion of fossil resources to fuels and chemicals, but their role in biomass utilization is more ambiguous. Zeolites constitute a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts and developments in recent years have demonstrated...... their potential to find broad use in the conversion of biomass. In this perspective we review and discuss the developments that have taken place in the field of biomass conversion using zeolites. Emphasis is put on the conversion of lignocellulosic material to fuels using conventional zeolites as well...

  6. Conversion of biomass into energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assists the identification of possible application and markets of the CHP-plants in the NAS states, and forms the first part of a detailed study on economical and ecological prospects of small scale and large heat pipe reformers in NAS. It is well known that the energy strategy of the European Union, foresees the increase of the participation of the renewable energy from the total of the energy resources of the European Union, up to 12% in 2010. This participation is of a great importance for the adequate reduction of green house effect gases. From the energy production point of view it is proven the fact that in 2010 the production of renewable energy will be: electricity - 675 tWh; heat - 80 Mtoe (930 TWh). From the above mentioned energy demand, the biomass will cover: electricity - 230 TWh-34,1%; heat - 75 Mtoe (93,8%)

  7. The Mecca Biomass Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmac Energy, Inc. is constructing a 47 MW biomass-fired, electrical power generating plant in Mecca, California. Commercial operation is scheduled for April, 1992. Electrical power will be sold to Southern California Edison Company. The plant is unusual in its fuel choice and utilization. The fuel includes both wood chips and a variety of waste agricultural materials. These are processed and blended to provide a stable fuel product for the boiler. a recirculating fluidized bed boiler is used. The use of agricultural waste for fuel provides several benefits. Local truckers benefit by an added need for services. The plant itself, of course, provides employment opportunities and locally-generated electrical power

  8. Innovative biomass to power conversion systems based on cascaded supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the small to medium power range the main technologies for the conversion of biomass sources into electricity are based either on reciprocating internal combustion or organic Rankine cycle engines. Relatively low energy conversion efficiencies are obtained in both systems due to the thermodynamic losses in the conversion of biomass into syngas in the former, and to the high temperature difference in the heat transfer between combustion gases and working fluid in the latter. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that higher efficiencies in the conversion of biomass sources into electricity can be obtained using systems based on the supercritical closed CO2 Brayton cycles (s-CO2). The s-CO2 system analysed here includes two cascaded supercritical CO2 cycles which enable to overcome the intrinsic limitation of the single cycle in the effective utilization of the whole heat available from flue gases. Both part-flow and simple supercritical CO2 cycle configurations are considered and four boiler arrangements are investigated to explore the thermodynamic performance of such systems. These power plant configurations, which were never explored in the literature for biomass conversion into electricity, are demonstrated here to be viable options to increase the energy conversion efficiency of small-to-medium biomass fired power plants. Results of the optimization procedure show that a maximum biomass to electricity conversion efficiency of 36% can be achieved using the cascaded configuration including a part flow topping cycle, which is approximately 10%-points higher than that of the existing biomass power plants in the small to medium power range. - Highlights: • Supercritical CO2 cycles are proposed for biomass to electricity conversion. • Four boiler design options are considered. • High total system efficiency is due to the part-flow cascaded configuration. • The efficiency is higher than that of other small/medium size alternative systems

  9. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  10. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Thermochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, Paul E. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  11. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Leslie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  12. Biomass to Butanol Conversion: Recent Technologies and Process Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To gain independence from foreign oil, we focused our research program on biological conversion of biomass to butanol. The biomass feedstocks that we have investigated include wheat straw, barley straw, corn stover, and switchgrass with a significant degree of hydrolysis and fermentation variability...

  13. Biomass thermochemical conversion - overview of results; Biomassan jalostus - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    In this Bioenergy research program the thermochemical conversion activities are mainly concentrated in three fields (1) flash pyrolysis and the use of wood oil in boilers and engines (2) biomass gasification for gas engine power plants and finally (3) conversion of black liquor and extractives in a pulp mill to various liquid fuels. Parallel to activities in Finland also significant work has been done in EU-Joule and Apas projects and in the IEA Bioenergy Agreement. In the area of flash pyrolysis technology, three new laboratory and PDU-units have been installed to VTT in order to produce various qualities of bio oils from wood and straw. The quality of pyrolysis oils have been characterized by physical and chemical methods supported by EU and IEA networks. Several companies are carrying out pyrolysis activities as well: Neste Oy is testing the wood oil in a 200 kW boiler, Waertsilae Diesel Oy is testing Canadian wood oil in a 1.5 MWe diesel power plant engine and Vapo Oy is carrying out investigations to produce pyrolysis oils in Finland. The biomass gasification coupled to a gas engine is an interesting alternative for small scale power production parallel to existing fluid bed boiler technology. VTT has installed a circulating fluid bed gasifier with advanced gas cleaning system to test various technologies in order to feed the gas to an engine. In order to produce liquid fuels at a pulp mill, the laboratory work has continued using crude soap as a raw material for high pressure liquid phase treatment and atmospheric pyrolysis process. The quality of the oil is like light fuel oil or diesel fuel, possibilities to use it as a lubricant will be investigated

  14. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potential and competitive source for bioenergy production, reasons for such acclamation include: biomass is one the few energy sources that can actually be utilized to produce several types of energy (motor fuel, electricity, heat) and cellulosic biomass is renewable and relatively found everywhere. Despite these positive advantages, issues regarding cellulosic biomass availability, supply chain, conversion process and economics need a more comprehensive understanding in order to identify the near short term routes in biomass to bioenergy production. Cellulosic biomass accounts for around 35% to 45% of cost share in cellulosic ethanol production, in addition, different feedstock have very different production rate, (dry ton/acre/year), availability across the year, and chemical composition that affect process yield and conversion costs as well. In the other hand, existing and brand new conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production offer different advantages, risks and financial returns. Ethanol yield, financial returns, delivered cost and supply chain logistic for combinations of feedstock and conversion technology are investigated in six studies. In the first study, biomass productivity, supply chain and delivered cost of fast growing Eucalyptus is simulated in economic and supply chain models to supply a hypothetic ethanol biorefinery. Finding suggests that Eucalyptus can be a potential hardwood grown specifically for energy. Delivered cost is highly sensitive to biomass productivity, percentage of covered area. Evaluated at different financial expectations, delivered cost can be competitive compared to current forest feedstock supply. In the second study, Eucalyptus biomass conversion into cellulosic ethanol is simulated in the dilute acid pretreatment, analysis of conversion costs, cost share, CAPEX and ethanol yield are examined. In the third study, biomass supply and delivered cost of loblolly pine is simulated in economic

  15. Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to ethanol by Saccharomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    As interest in alternative energy sources rises, the concept of agriculture as an energy producer has become increasingly attractive (Outlaw et al. 2005). Renewable biomass, including lignocellulosic materials and agricultural residues, are low-cost materials for bioethanol production (Bothast and ...

  16. Nanostructure enzyme assemblies for biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass represents a vast resource for production of the world’s fuel and chemical feedstock needs. The use of enzymes to effect these bioconversions offers an alternative that is potentially more specific and environmentally-friendly than harsher chemical methodologies. Some species of anaerobic ...

  17. Subcritical hydrothermal conversion of organic wastes and biomass. Reaction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amadeus Castro Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal conversion is a procedure which emulates organic matter’s natural conversion into bio-crude having physical and chemical properties analogous to petroleum. The artificial transformation of biomass requi- res previous knowledge of the main reaction routes and product availability. The main component of biomass (depolymerisation by hydrolysis is presented in hydrothermal cellulose conversion, producing oligosaccharides which exhibit dehydration and retro-aldol condensation reactions for transforming into furfurals and carboxylic acids. Other biomass components (such as lignin, proteins, and fat esters present both hydrolysis and pyrolysis reaction routes. As long as biomass mainly contains carbohydrates, subcritical hydrothermal conversion products and their wastes will be fundamentally analogous to those displaying cellulose. These substances have added- value by far surpassing raw material’s acquisition cost. When the main hydrothermal conversion products’ O/C, H/C molar ratios as reported in literature are plotted, an evolutionary tralectory for conversion products appears to be closely or even overlapped with fossil fuels’ geological evolution.

  18. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  19. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-18

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  20. Thermochemical conversion routes of lignocellulosic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbinet, Saïcha; Léonard, Angélique

    2012-01-01

    The thermo-chemical route, especially the gasification process is considered. This process converts carbonaceous biomass into combustible gas (CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and impurities) called syngas and this syngas can be converted into a large range of products. Production of four of these compounds is specifically investigated: ethylene, propylene, diesel and DME. Diesel can be produced via a Fischer-Tropsch process, whereas DME (dimethyl ether) can be obtained directly or from methanol which is ob...

  1. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  2. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  3. The economic efficiency of biomass conversion for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of hydrogen from biomass is among the schemes which are under discussion regarding the substitution of fossil energy sources. The commercial realization of hydrogen production from biomass, and of all other schemes developed for the utilization of renewable raw materials (alcohol, vegetable oil, direct combustion), is mainly determined by the method's economic efficiency. This study places emphasis on the cost-benefit analysis of biomass conversion for hydrogen production. The present and future market potentials are assessed, and the competitiveness of hydrogen from renewable raw materials under the present and under changed conditions is evaluated. (orig.)

  4. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  5. Woody biomass availability for bioethanol conversion in Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated woody biomass from logging residues, small-diameter trees, mill residues, and urban waste as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol conversion in Mississippi. The focus on Mississippi was to assess in-state regional variations and provide specific information of biomass estimates for those facilities interested in locating in Mississippi. Supply and cost of four woody biomass sources were derived from Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) information, a recent forest inventory conducted by the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory, and primary production costs. According to our analysis, about 4.0 million dry tons of woody biomass are available for production of up to 1.2 billion liters of ethanol each year in Mississippi. The feedstock consists of 69% logging residues, 21% small-diameter trees, 7% urban waste, and 3% mill residues. Of the total, 3.1 million dry tons (930 million liters of ethanol) can be produced for $34 dry ton-1 or less. Woody biomass from small-diameter trees is more expensive than other sources of biomass. Transportation costs accounted for the majority of total production costs. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the largest impacts in production costs of ethanol come from stumpage price of woody biomass and technological efficiency. These results provide a valuable decision support tool for resource managers and industries in identifying parameters that affect resource magnitude, type, and location of woody biomass feedstocks in Mississippi. (author)

  6. Biomass conversion. The interface of biotechnology, chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskar, Chinnappan [Myongji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology; Baskar, Shikha [Uttarakhand Technical Univ. (India). THDC Inst. of Hydropower Engineering and Technology, Tehri; Dhillon, Ranjit S. (eds.) [Punjab Aricultural Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-11-01

    Gives state-of-the-art of biomass conversion plus future development. Connects the applications into the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science. Written by international experts. The consumption of petroleum has surged during the 20th century, at least partially because of the rise of the automobile industry. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas provide more than three quarters of the world's energy. Unfortunately, the growing demand for fossil fuel resources comes at a time of diminishing reserves of these nonrenewable resources. The worldwide reserves of oil are sufficient to supply energy and chemicals for only about another 40 years, causing widening concerns about rising oil prices. The use of biomass to produce energy is only one form of renewable energy that can be utilized to reduce the impact of energy production and use on the global environment. Biomass can be converted into three main products such as energy, biofuels and fine chemicals using a number of different processes. Today, it is a great challenge for researchers to find new environmentally benign methodology for biomass conversion, which are industrially profitable as well. This book focuses on the conversion of biomass to biofuels, bioenergy and fine chemicals with the interface of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry and materials science. An international scientific authorship summarizes the state-of-the-art of the current research and gives an outlook on future developments.

  7. A review on conversion of biomass to biofuel by nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Akia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The world’s increasing demand for energy has led to an increase in fossil fuel consumption. However this source of energy is limited and is accompanied with pollution problems. The availability and wide diversity of biomass resources have made them an attractive and promising source of energy. The conversion of biomass to biofuel has resulted in the production of liquid and gaseous fuels that can be used for different means methods such as thermochemical and biological processes. Thermochemical processes as a major conversion route which include gasification and direct liquefaction are applied to convert biomass to more useful biofuel. Catalytic processes are increasingly applied in biofuel development. Nanocatalysts play an important role in improving product quality and achieving optimal operating conditions. Nanocatalysts with a high specific surface area and high catalytic activity may solve the most common problems of heterogeneous catalysts such as mass transfer resistance, time consumption, fast deactivation and inefficiency. In this regard attempts to develop new types of nanocatalysts have been increased. Among the different biofuels produced from biomass, biodiesel has attained a great deal of attention. Nanocatalytic conversion of biomass to biodiesel has been reported using different edible and nonedible feedstock. In most research studies, the application of nanocatalysts improves yield efficiency at relatively milder operating conditions compared to the bulk catalysts.

  8. The contribution of thermochemical biomass conversion to the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to convert or upgrade the biomass into a more useful and hence more valuable energy product which, in turn, can be converted into an even more valuable end-product such as electricity or a motor fuel, and in all cases the carboniferous energy products are eventually converted into carbon dioxide in order to release the maximum amount of energy. The main thermochemical processes are outlined by reference to the operational parameters and products. Two examples of utilization of biomass are used to show how carbon dioxide emissions vary with technology - transport fuels and electricity generation. A system may be selected as optimised using the ultimate product or effect for comparison with gross or net carbon dioxide emission/absorption and minimum cost of this change in carbon dioxide as the criteria. It is claimed that the use of biomass is carbon dioxide neutral, and even that new biomass resulting from use absorbs carbon dioxide at a greater rate than the old biomass that is consumed. On this basis it is shown that the least efficient overall biomass conversion process is the most effective at reducing carbon dioxide levels. Further, it is shown that the most economically effective way of reducing carbon dioxide levels is that of the lowest cost to efficiency-of-conversion ratio. For transport fuels methanol is the clear choice for both criteria while for electricity generation, air gasification with integrated combined cycles is preferred for short to medium term opportunities. 2 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Biomass energy conversion workshop for industrial executives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The rising costs of energy and the risks of uncertain energy supplies are increasingly familiar problems in industry. Bottom line profits and even the simple ability to operate can be affected by spiralling energy costs. An often overlooked alternative is the potential to turn industrial waste or residue into an energy source. On April 9 and 10, 1979, in Claremont, California, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the Western Solar Utilization Network (WSUN) held a workshop which provided industrial managers with current information on using residues and wastes as industrial energy sources. Successful industrial experiences were described by managers from the food processing and forest product industries, and direct combustion and low-Btu gasification equipment was described in detail. These speakers' presentations are contained in this document. Some major conclusions of the conference were: numerous current industrial applications of wastes and residues as fuels are economic and reliable; off-the-shelf technologies exist for converting biomass wastes and residues to energy; a variety of financial (tax credits) and institutional (PUC rate structures) incentives can help make these waste-to-energy projects more attractive to industry. However, many of these incentives are still being developed and their precise impact must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  10. Biomass Conversion in Ionic Liquids - in-situ Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas

    Due to rising oil prices and global warming caused by CO2 emissions, there is an increased demand for new types of fuels and chemicals derived from biomass. This thesis investigates catalytic conversion of cellulose into sugars in ionic liquids and the important platform chemical 5...... activation energies suggest that the ionic liquid acts co-catalytic by stabilizing the oxocarbenium transition state. The chromium catalyzed conversion of glucose to HMF in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with CrCl3⋅6H2O and CrCl2 as catalysts was investigated. The CrCl3⋅6H2O catalyst......-30 times higher with an activation energy of 74 kJ/mol. The thesis identifies the product inhibition as a major challenge for technical utilization of chromium catalysts in biomass conversion....

  11. Biomass combustion: Italian ENEA experimental plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the key design features of an experimental biomass combustion plant built at the ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) Saluggia research center. Based on the results of performance tests using rice husks as fuel, indications are given as to the energy efficiency, economic feasibility and environmental compatibility of the innovative biomass combustion process

  12. Summary of the project on further development and practical testing methods for control and regulation of biomass conversion plants; Sammenfatning af projekt ``Videreudvikling og praktisk afproevning af metoder til styring og regulering af biogasanlaeg``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard, P.; Ahring, B.K.; Jungersen, G.; Norddahl, B.

    1994-07-01

    Summary of the results of a project on the further development and practical testing of methods for the control and regulation of biomass conversion plants. In relation to control based on measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA), the automatic titration equipment was developed and tested using an on-line method and was found to be satisfactory. A model for regulation, and the use of immuno probes, were developed and tested on a pilot plant. A control algorithm based on the principle of adaptive regulation and a simple model of the biological system was developed and tested in reactors. Carbohydrates were added. The take up of manures stopped when the concentration of VHAs rose and started again when it dropped to a predetermined level. The reactor`s load increased but was more evenly distributed. Methane production increased. It was concluded that an adaptive regulation would result in a more stable production of methane when loads are irregular and temperatures vary. Organic overloading resulted in a higher concentration of VHA. Conditions concerning methane bacteria are described in addition to methanogenic activity. The installation and operating costs of the computerized control system are given. (AB)

  13. Renewable energy obtained by thermochemical conversion of biomass and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production of energy from alternative sources is one of the main strategic tools for the sustainable development of modern society. In this regard, different kinds of biomass and wastes can contribute to the production of energy by means of chemical, thermal and biological processes. Energy technologies based on biomass and waste are undergoing rapid development: processes are optimized, new ideas are proposed for technical application. Despite the growing interest for the use of these technologies, in many countries their implementation still is at a low level, mainly for reasons other than technical and economical (i.e., low public acceptability, bad experience from the past, insufficient knowledge and experience, and others). Due to the wide range of feedstocks, biomass has a broad geographic distribution, in some cases offering a least-cost and near-term alternative. Renewable sources of energy will have a major role to the energy balance in upcoming years. Romania has an important renewable energy potential in solar, wind energy and biomass and offers utilization availabilities at local and national level. The 'Strategy of capitalizing renewable energy sources', drawn up by the Ministry of Economy and Commerce proposes year 2015 as target for the share of renewable sources to reach about 10-12 % of the overall energy supply. Thermochemical biomass conversion does include a number of possible roots to produce useful fuels and chemicals from the initial biomass feedstock. The basis of thermochemical conversion is the pyrolysis process. This paper focuses on this process in order to produce gas mixtures with high H2 content as the main products, significant amounts of liquid and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main by-products.The relationship between the composition of the starting materials, the process conditions and the desired product yields has also investigated to find out what are the optimum parameters of thermochemical conversion

  14. Biomass-fueled power plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, M. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Hulkkonen, S. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-07-01

    Combined heat and power production (CHP) from biomass is a commercially viable alternative when district heat or process steam is needed in small towns or in a process industry. The high nominal investment cost of a small power plant that uses local biomass fuels is compensated by the revenues from the heat. The price of the district heat or the steam generated in the CHP-plant can be valued at the same price level as the heat from a mere steam boiler. Also, the price of heat produced by a small-generation-capacity plant is local and higher, whereas electricity has a more general market price. A typical small Finnish CHP-plant consists of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler and a simplified steam turbine cycle generating 4 to 10 MW of electricity and 10 to 30 MW of district heat or process steam. There are about 10 power plants of this type in commercial operation in Finland. As a whole, biomass, which is used in more than 200 plants, provides about 20% of the primary energy consumption in Finland. Roughly half of these produce only heat but the rest are combined heat and power plants. The majority of the plants is in pulp and paper industry applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is the biggest energy producer in Finland. IVO builds, owns and operates several biomass-fired power plants and carries out active R and D work to further develop the biomass-fueled small power plant. This paper discusses the experiences of the biomass-fueled power plants. (author)

  15. Corn stover availability for biomass conversion: situation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, analysis of a conventional large square bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting, collection, and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes.

  16. Corn Stover Availability for Biomass Conversion: Situation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, this study of a large, square-bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional-bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting and collection and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes

  17. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  18. Comparison of conversion pathways for lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel in Mid-Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Heidi Ødegård

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates one biochemical and one thermochemical biomass-to-liquid biofuel conversion pathway in terms of lignocellulose conversion to liquid Fischer-Tropsch diesel. The focus has been on comparing the two conversion pathways in terms of identifying their energy flows and respective feed to fuel ratios. The conversion pathways investigated comprise two-stage conversion sequences including biomass-to-gas conversion and gas-to-liquid conversion, exerted by anaerobic digestion or ga...

  19. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  20. Plant biomass briquetting : a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China). College of Engineering; Tumuluru, J.S.; Tabil, L.; Meda, V. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The technology of converting straws into briquettes for biofuel or energy applications was discussed with particular reference to the factors that affect the quality of briquette, such as the loading pressure, particle size of the chopped material, the preheating temperature, the moisture content and residence time of the die. The study results of briquetting materials such as corn stover, switch grass, alfalfa, cotton stalks and reed canary grass were also presented. The main briquetting related technologies, systems and equipment were also reviewed. The study showed that in order to produce an economically competitive feedstock, further research should be extended to other biomass materials as well as developing technologies to obtain a high quality briquette with better efficiencies from a wide range of biomass materials.

  1. Secondary reactions of tar during thermochemical biomass conversion[Dissertation 14341

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morf, P.O.

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich presents and discusses the results obtained during the examination of the processes involved in the formation and conversion of tar in biomass gasification plant. Details are given on the laboratory reactor system used to provide separated tar production and conversion for the purposes of the experiments carried out. The results of analyses made of the tar and the gaseous products obtained after its conversion at various temperatures are presented. The development of kinetic models using the results of the experiments that were carried out is described. The results of the experiments and modelling are compared with the corresponding results obtained using a full-scale down-draft, fixed-bed gasifier. The author is of the opinion that the reaction conditions found in full-scale gasifiers can be well simulated using heterogeneous tar conversion experiments using the lab reactor system.

  2. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods...... of HTT and facilitated a reduction in optimum HTT temperature of 10 to 20 °C. This could, however, not be proven for grass, since the overall release of mono- and oligosaccharides for the combined pretreatment of grass did not exceed HTT of grass alone. This was due to a combination of high loss of WSC.......3. Furthermore, the HTT pretreatment of both grass and grass silage gave considerably lower xylan convertibility than HTT of wheat straw and wheat straw silage. The reason for the inaccessible xylan in grass is believed to be found in a high complexity of branching and cross linkages creating a heterogeneous...

  3. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.;

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...... number of biomass and refuse fired combined heat and power plant boilers, b) Laboratory exposures and metallurgical examinations of material specimens with ash deposits in well-defined gas environments with HCl and SO2 in a furnace....

  4. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  5. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  6. Structural analysis of Catliq® bio-oil produced by catalytic liquid conversion of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    The potential offered by biomass for solving some of the world's energy problems is widely recognized. The energy contained in biomass can be utilized either directly as in combustion or by converting the biomass into a liquid fuel for transportation. The Catliq® (catalytic liquid conversion...... work, catalytic conversion of DDGS was performed in a pilot plant with a capacity of 10-20 L/h of wet biomass. The oil obtained was characterized using FTIR and GC-MS for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the product.......) process is a second generation process for the production of bio-oil from different biomass-based waste materials. The process is carried out at subcritical conditions (280-350 °C and 180-250 bar) and in the presence of homogeneous (KOH) and heterogeneous (ZrO2) catalysts. The great advantage with the Cat...

  7. Marine biomass power plant using methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Saito, H.; Amano, T.; Sugawara, H.; Seki, T.; Abe, T. [Technology Research Inst., Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This study presented an effective way to produce biogas from the large quantities of seaweed waste in Japan. A large-scale marine biomass pilot plant was built to produce biogas from marine biomass. Methane fermentation was the process used to produce biogas from Laminaria sp. The maximum treating capacity of the pilot plant is 1 ton of seaweed per day. The pilot plant includes a pretreatment facility, fermentation, biogas storage and power generation. The maximum methane yield from the biomass plant is 22 cubic ton-seaweed. The purified biogas has generated 10 kW of electricity and 23 kW of heat. The biogas was also mixed with natural gas for use in a gas engine generator. The engine operation remained stable despite changes in quantity and composition of the collected biogas caused by changes with the source of biomass and sea conditions. The thermal efficiency of the gas engine running on mixed biogas and natural gas was more than 10 per cent higher than an engine running on biogas fuel alone. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to liquid energy sources; Hydrothermale Konversion von Biomasse zu fluessigen Energietraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Michael; Peters, Mario; Klemm, Marco; Nelles, Michael [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Beside thermo-chemical processes like pyrolysis, torrefaction and gasification another process group called hydrothermal conversion of biomass comes into the focus of research and development. Especially for wet biomass this process has several advantages: as the reaction medium is water wet biomass not needs to be dried. Beside the reaction pathways, which are still not completely understood, it is important to investigate reactor concepts. That gives the possibility to continuously process the given biomass to deduce specific process conditions for the production of chemicals and fuels. Experiments were conducted in a newly developed tubular reactor at temperatures from 150 to 270 C and reaction times from 1 to 6 min. By studying the HPLC analysis of the liquid products the formation and degradation of several products which may be utilized as base materials for chemicals and fuels (furfural, 5-HMF etc.) was conducted. The experiments illustrate the possibility to influence product composition to a certain extend only by varying temperature and time of the hydrothermal process. That could result in an economic and feasible way to produce intermediate chemicals from biomass. In a second step these product analysis will be used to develop catalysts and investigate the possibilities of in-situ-hydrogenation and synthesis of further valuable chemicals and fuels. (orig.)

  9. Homogeneous catalysis for the conversion of biomass and biomass-derived platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuss, Peter J.; Barta, Katalin; de Vries, Johannes G.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from a petroleum-based infrastructure to an industry which utilises renewable resources is one of the key research challenges of the coming years. Biomass, consisting of inedible plant material that does not compete with our food production, is a suitable renewable feedstock. In recen

  10. Status of Uranium Conversion Plant Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) constructed a pilot plant for the uranium conversion process for the development of the technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels for HWR (heavy water reactor) in 1982. The final product of the plant was a UO2 powder of ceramic grade for HWR and its capacity was 100 ton-U/year. After that, a part of the AUC (Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate) process was added and the process was improved for automatic operation. 320 tons of UO2 powder was produced and supplied to the fabrication plant at KAERI for the fuel of the Wolsong-1 CANDU (Canadian deuterium uranium) reactor. The conversion plant has building area of 2916 m2 and two main conversion processes. ADU (Ammonium Di-Uranate) and AUC process are installed in the backside and the front side of the building, respectively. Conversion plant has two lagoons, which is to store all wastes generated from the plant operation. Sludge wastes stored 150m3 and 100m3 in Lagoon 1 and 2, respectively. Main compounds of sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, and calcium carbonate. In early 1992, it was determined that the plant operation would be stopped due to a much higher production cost than that of the international market. The conversion plant has been shutdown and minimally maintained for the prevention of contamination by deterioration of the equipment and the lagoon

  11. A Review of the Role of Amphiphiles in Biomass to Ethanol Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gibbons

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the concerns for economical production of ethanol from biomass is the large volume and high cost of the cellulolytic enzymes used to convert biomass into fermentable sugars. The presence of acetyl groups in hemicellulose and lignin in plant cell walls reduces accessibility of biomass to the enzymes and makes conversion a slow process. In addition to low enzyme accessibility, a rapid deactivation of cellulases during biomass hydrolysis can be another factor contributing to the low sugar recovery. As of now, the economical reduction in lignin content of the biomass is considered a bottleneck, and raises issues for several reasons. The presence of lignin in biomass reduces the swelling of cellulose fibrils and accessibility of enzyme to carbohydrate polymers. It also causes an irreversible adsorption of the cellulolytic enzymes that prevents effective enzyme activity and recycling. Amphiphiles, such as surfactants and proteins have been found to improve enzyme activity by several mechanisms of action that are not yet fully understood. Reduction in irreversible adsorption of enzyme to non-specific sites, reduction in viscosity of liquid and surface tension and consequently reduced contact of enzyme with air-liquid interface, and modifications in biomass chemical structure are some of the benefits derived from surface active molecules. Application of some of these amphiphiles could potentially reduce the capital and operating costs of bioethanol production by reducing fermentation time and the amount of enzyme used for saccharification of biomass. In this review article, the benefit of applying amphiphiles at various stages of ethanol production (i.e., pretreatment, hydrolysis and hydrolysis-fermentation is reviewed and the proposed mechanisms of actions are described.

  12. Veterinary research, monitoring and advisory services in connection with the establishment and operation of a communal biomass conversion plant. Partial project 3 (VET-BIO-3). Veterinaer forskning, overvaagning og raadgivning i forbindelse med etablering og drift af biogasfaellesanlaeg. Delprojekt 3 (VET-BIO-3); Pilotprojekt vedroerende etablering af sygdomsovervaagning i forbindelse med biogasfaellesanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willadsen, C.M.

    1991-06-15

    The health of domestic animals which contribute to thermophilic biomass conversion plants has been monitored during a period of 15-18 months. The aim was to evaluate the possible risk of infection by animal diseases through liquid manures which are converted in the plants. Data from 39 stocks has been collected and evaluated for the surveilliance of the general health conditions and the occurrence of specific germs, for cattle Salmonella Dublin, and for swine Actinobacillus pleuropneumiae (serotype 2) and Treponema hyodysenteriae. (CLS) 24 refs.

  13. Evolutionarily Engineered Ethanologenic Yeast Detoxifies Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion Inhibitors by Reprogrammed Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion inhibitors furfural and HMF inhibit microbial growth and interfere with subsequent fermentation of ethanol, posing significant challenges for a sustainable cellulosic ethanol conversion industry. Numerous yeast genes were found to be associated with the inhibitor ...

  14. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  15. Biomass conversion and expansion factors are afected by thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Duque Enes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of Biomass Conversion and Expansion Factors (BCEFs in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. stands subjected to thinning.Area of the study: The study area refers to different ecosystems of maritime pine stands inNorthern Portugal.Material and methods: The study is supported by time data series and cross sectional data collected in permanent plots established in the North of Portugal. An assessment of BCEF values for the aboveground compartments and for total was completed for each studied stand. Identification of key variables affecting the value of the BCEFs in time and with thinning was conducted using correlation analysis. Predictive models for estimation of the BCEFs values in time and after thinning were developed using nonlinear regression analysis.Research highlights: For periods of undisturbed growth, the results show an allometric relationship between the BCEFs, the dominant height and the mean diameter. Management practices such as thinning also influence the factors. Estimates of the ratio change before and after thinning depend on thinning severity and thinning type. The developed models allow estimating the biomass of the stands, for the aboveground compartments and for total, based on information of stand characteristics and of thinning descriptors. These estimates can be used to assess the forest dry wood stocks to be used for pulp, bioenergy or other purposes, as well as the biomass quantification to support the evaluation of the net primary productivity.Keywords: carbon; softwood; thinning; volume; wood energy; maritime pine.

  16. Advancements and future directions in enzyme technology for biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zisheng; Donaldson, Adam A; Ma, Xiaoxun

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal alternative to acid hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production, limited primarily by pre-treatment requirements and economic considerations arising from enzyme production costs and specific activities. The quest for cheaper and better enzymes has prompted years of bio-prospecting, strain optimization through genetic engineering, enzyme characterization for simple and complex lignocellulosic feedstock, and the development of pre-treatment strategies to mitigate inhibitory effects. The recent shift to systematic characterizations of de novo mixtures of purified proteins is a promising indicator of maturation within this field of study, facilitating progression towards feedstock assay-based rapid enzyme mixture optimization. It is imperative that international standards be developed to enable meaningful comparisons between these studies and the construction of a database of enzymatic activities and kinetics, aspects of which are explored here-in. Complementary efforts to improve the economic viability of enzymatic hydrolysis through process integration and reactor design are also considered, where membrane-confinement shows significant promise despite the associated technological challenges. Significant advancements in enzyme technology towards the economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass should be expected within the next few years as systematic research in enzyme activities conforms to that of traditional reaction engineering. PMID:22306162

  17. MULTISCALE MATHEMATICS FOR BIOMASS CONVERSION TO RENEWABLE HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachos, Dionisios; Plechac, Petr; Katsoulakis, Markos

    2013-09-05

    The overall objective of this project is to develop multiscale models for understanding and eventually designing complex processes for renewables. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first attempt at modeling complex reacting systems, whose performance relies on underlying multiscale mathematics. Our specific application lies at the heart of biofuels initiatives of DOE and entails modeling of catalytic systems, to enable economic, environmentally benign, and efficient conversion of biomass into either hydrogen or valuable chemicals. Specific goals include: (i) Development of rigorous spatio-temporal coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) mathematics and simulation for microscopic processes encountered in biomass transformation. (ii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links stochastic simulation to a deterministic partial differential equation (PDE) model for an entire reactor. (iii) Development of hybrid multiscale simulation that links KMC simulation with quantum density functional theory (DFT) calculations. (iv) Development of parallelization of models of (i)-(iii) to take advantage of Petaflop computing and enable real world applications of complex, multiscale models. In this NCE period, we continued addressing these objectives and completed the proposed work. Main initiatives, key results, and activities are outlined.

  18. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes......, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. "Biomass Recalcitrance" is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology....

  19. Process modelling of biomass conversion to biofuels with combined heat and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Shinde, Yogesh; Pareek, Vishnu; Zhang, Dongke

    2015-12-01

    A process model has been developed to study the pyrolysis of biomass to produce biofuel with heat and power generation. The gaseous and solid products were used to generate heat and electrical power, whereas the bio-oil was stored and supplied for other applications. The overall efficiency of the base case model was estimated for conversion of biomass into useable forms of bio-energy. It was found that the proposed design is not only significantly efficient but also potentially suitable for distributed operation of pyrolysis plants having centralised post processing facilities for production of other biofuels and chemicals. It was further determined that the bio-oil quality improved using a multi-stage condensation system. However, the recycling of flue gases coming from combustor instead of non-condensable gases in the pyrolyzer led to increase in the overall efficiency of the process with degradation of bio-oil quality. PMID:26402874

  20. Biomass structure of exotic invasive plant Galinsona parviflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyan QI; Wenduo XU; Yan WEN

    2008-01-01

    Galinsona parviflora (Asteraceae) is a wide-spread annual weed that is invasive,colonizing new ground where it is able to persist.We studied the bio-mass structure of the G.Parviflora population at the module level by using the methods of field plot invest-igation and weighing at 10 sample plots.Modular bio-mass was calculated and used for analysis of relation-ships between various modules.The results show that there was a positive correlation between plant height and modular biomass,between stem biomass and root biomass,stem biomass and capitulum biomass,above-ground biomass and underground biomass,and lastly,stem biomass and leaf biomass.The preferred model which measured all the relationships was a power func-tion model with absolute coefficients(R2) ranging from 0.6303 to 0.9782.

  1. Yearbook 1993: Bioenergy Research Programme. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakangas, Eija

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of the energy technology programs of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. The aim of the program is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. R&D projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling, and utilization of biofuels. The total funding for 1993 was 45 million FIM and the number of projects 50. The research area of biomass conversion consists of 7 projects in 1993, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 10 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1993 and the plans for 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry and power plants than it is possible at present day appliances. The conversion research in 1993 was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extraction of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and combustion tests. The target of the bioenergy utilization research is to demonstrate three to four new utilization technologies or methods. Each of these plants should have a potential of 0.2 - 0.3 million toe. The 1993 projects consisted of three main categories: reduction of emissions from small-scale combustion equipment, development of different equipment and methods for new power plant technologies, and the studies concerning additional usage of wood fuels in forest industry.

  2. Thermochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    The state-of-the-art thermochemical conversion pilot plant includes several configurable, complementary unit operations for testing and developing various reactors, filters, catalysts, and other unit operations. NREL engineers and scientists as well as clients can test new processes and feedstocks in a timely, cost-effective, and safe manner to obtain extensive performance data on processes or equipment.

  3. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. V.; S. B. A. Hamid; Zain, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulo...

  4. A Review of Thermal Co-Conversion of Coal and Biomass/Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime Hilaire Tchapda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is relatively cleaner than coal and is the only renewable carbon resource that can be directly converted into fuel. Biomass can significantly contribute to the world’s energy needs if harnessed sustainably. However, there are also problems associated with the thermal conversion of biomass. This paper investigates and discusses issues associated with the thermal conversion of coal and biomass as a blend. Most notable topics reviewed are slagging and fouling caused by the relatively reactive alkali and alkaline earth compounds (K2O, Na2O and CaO found in biomass ash. The alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM present and dispersed in biomass fuels induce catalytic activity during co-conversion with coal. The catalytic activity is most noticeable when blended with high rank coals. The synergy during co-conversion is still controversial although it has been theorized that biomass acts like a hydrogen donor in liquefaction. Published literature also shows that coal and biomass exhibit different mechanisms, depending on the operating conditions, for the formation of nitrogen (N and sulfur species. Utilization aspects of fly ash from blending coal and biomass are discussed. Recommendations are made on pretreatment options to increase the energy density of biomass fuels through pelletization, torrefaction and flash pyrolysis to reduce transportation costs.

  5. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein.

  6. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. V.; Hamid, S. B. A.; Zain, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

  7. Bioenergy guide. Projecting, operation and economic efficiency of biomass power plants; Leitfaden Bioenergie. Planung, Betrieb und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Bioenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deimling, S. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Kaltschmitt, M; Schneider, B. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This guide gives an survey over planning, operation and economics of biomass conversion plants. Main topics are: production and supply of biomass fuels, combustion properties, licensing, cost and financing. It shows planning and management of projects and the legal background for Germany and the European Union.

  8. Bimodal and multimodal plant biomass particle mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.

    2013-07-09

    An industrial feedstock of plant biomass particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein the particles are individually characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L, wherein the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces, and wherein the particles in the feedstock are collectively characterized by having a bimodal or multimodal size distribution.

  9. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Thermochemical Conversion Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biomass Program Peer Review for the Thermochemical Platform, held on July 9th and 10th in Golden, Colorado.

  10. Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John

    2014-07-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.

  11. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  12. Catalytic conversion of biomass to bio-syncrude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mante, Ofei Daku [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Biological Systems Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster A. [Utah State University, Biological Engineering, Logan, UT (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The conversion of biomass to transportation fuels and chemicals has been of immense interest in recent years. In this study, the production of high quality bio-oil (bio-syncrude oil) was achieved by catalytically cracking pyrolysis vapors from hybrid poplar in a dual-fluidized bed reactor. The catalytic deoxygenation of the primary pyrolysis vapors was achieved with a commercial HZSM-5 at 425-450 C. The organic, water, char, coke, and gas yields were 11.9, 20.9, 16.5, 3.8, and 46.8 wt.%, respectively. This work demonstrated that the use of a fluidized bed reactor for the catalytic upgrading reduces coke formation and increases catalyst lifetime. The concentration of the permanent gases was in the order of CO > CO{sub 2}> C{sub 3}H{sub 6}> CH{sub 4}> H{sub 2}> other C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}. The light bio-syncrude (LBS) oil collected from the condenser was predominately aromatic hydrocarbons. The heavy bio-syncrude (HBS) oil collected from the electrostatic precipitator consisted of mainly phenols, methyl-substituted phenols, naphthalenes, benzenediols, and naphthalenol. The bio-syncrude oils were low in oxygen, less viscous, less acidic, stable, and high in energy density. The higher heating value of the light and heavy bio-syncrude oil was 36.89 and 33.98 MJ/kg, respectively. The distillate yields from the atmospheric distillation showed that 91 wt.% of the LBS oil distills up to 220 C and 76 wt.% of the HBS oil distills up to 440 C. Accelerated stability test of the oils at 90 C for 24 h and storage of the oils at room temperature for 10 months showed that the bio-syncrude oils were stable. The catalytic deoxygenation of the pyrolysis vapors resulted in the removal of undesirable oxygenates such as levoglucosan, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones. The bio-syncrude oil can be considered as a suitable feed for use in a petroleum refinery for the production of transportation fuels and chemicals. (orig.)

  13. Sulfur balance in biomass-fueled plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project has been to establish a standard deduction for sulphur retained in the ash. This is accomplished by establishing sulphur balances for biomass plants in order to document the in- and outgoing flows. The ingoing flow is the sulphur in the input fuel while the outgoing flows are different ash fractions and sulphur dioxide measured in the stack. Four balances have been established for straw fired units, three balances for wood chip fired units, and two balances for wood pellet fired units. Two previous projects provide further data on both straw and wood fired units. The main conclusions and recommendations are: For wood pellets the sulphur tax should be removed as the sulphur content in the pellets is extremely low and the emitted fraction very small. For pellets manufactured with a binder containing sulphur, the taxation should continue but with a standard deduction of 60 to 70%. Also, the rate should be reduced as the sulphur content in pellets produced with a binder containing sulphur is lower than the estimated 0,2% of the fuel. Statistics indicate that 0,1% reflects the true sulphur content in these pellets; For wood chips the tax should be removed as the sulphur content based on the fuel is considerably lower than the limit in the law (0,034% versus 0,05%). Furthermore, the emission from these plants are only between 20 and 32%. It is recommended that the plants keep the ph-value in the scrubber water above 7 as it is believed that this improves the absorption of SO2 greatly; For straw the tax should remain, but a standard deduction of 35-40% should be made. Technologies for improving the sulphur retentions should be developed. This could be scrubbers as they are very efficient towards removing especially sulphur in the form of SO2, which is by far the largest source of sulphur emission from straw fired plants. (au) 11 refs

  14. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  15. Overexpression of GA20-OXIDASE1 impacts plant height, biomass allocation and saccharification efficiency in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorend, Wannes; Nelissen, Hilde; Vanholme, Ruben; De Vliegher, Alex; Van Breusegem, Frank; Boerjan, Wout; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Muylle, Hilde; Inzé, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Increased biomass yield and quality are of great importance for the improvement of feedstock for the biorefinery. For the production of bioethanol, both stem biomass yield and the conversion efficiency of the polysaccharides in the cell wall to fermentable sugars are of relevance. Increasing the endogenous levels of gibberellic acid (GA) by ectopic expression of GA20-OXIDASE1 (GA20-OX1), the rate-limiting step in GA biosynthesis, is known to affect cell division and cell expansion, resulting in larger plants and organs in several plant species. In this study, we examined biomass yield and quality traits of maize plants overexpressing GA20-OX1 (GA20-OX1). GA20-OX1 plants accumulated more vegetative biomass than control plants in greenhouse experiments, but not consistently over two years of field trials. The stems of these plants were longer but also more slender. Investigation of GA20-OX1 biomass quality using biochemical analyses showed the presence of more cellulose, lignin and cell wall residue. Cell wall analysis as well as expression analysis of lignin biosynthetic genes in developing stems revealed that cellulose and lignin were deposited earlier in development. Pretreatment of GA20-OX1 biomass with NaOH resulted in a higher saccharification efficiency per unit of dry weight, in agreement with the higher cellulose content. On the other hand, the cellulose-to-glucose conversion was slower upon HCl or hot-water pretreatment, presumably due to the higher lignin content. This study showed that biomass yield and quality traits can be interconnected, which is important for the development of future breeding strategies to improve lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production. PMID:26903034

  16. Direct conversion of chitin biomass to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in concentrated ZnCl2 aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Deng, Tiansheng;

    2013-01-01

    The direct conversion of chitin biomass to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in ZnCl2 aqueous solution was studied systemically. D-Glucosamine (GlcNH2) was chosen as the model compound to investigate the reaction, and 5-HMF could be obtained in 21.9% yield with 99% conversion of GlcNH2. Optimization...

  17. Quantification of employment from biomass power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the attractions of developing bioenergy systems is the potential for job creation and economic development of rural economies. This paper seeks to quantify the expected employment impacts of individual bioenergy developments. The assessment includes agricultural labour growing energy crops for SRC and miscanthus options, transport and processing of the feedstock, staffing at the thermal conversion plant, employment within the equipment supply chain and the induced employment impact. Power only bioenergy systems are shown to typically create 1.27 man years of employment per GWh electricity produced, regardless of technology or scale of implementation. CHP systems can create more than 2 man years of employment per GWh electricity produced, although most of this enhanced economic impact can be attributed to the fact that a comparative analysis per unit of electricity produced ignores the heat output of the system. (author)

  18. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 10 and biomass conversion 6. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2- 0.3 million toe/a till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small-scale combustion concepts, but large-scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilisation of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe/a by the year 2000 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  19. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Didion, Thomas; Anne S. Meyer; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Kádár, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Udvikling af intelligente teknologier til omdannelse af biomasse vil blive stadig vigtigere i mange år frem da planetariske bounderies drive udviklingen i retning af et biobaseret samfund. Forbehandling af lignocelluloseholdigt biomasse er i denne forbindelse en central teknologi. Nuværende forbehandlingsmetoder, baseret på hårdhændede fysisk og kemisk processesering, er effektive, men er også energikrævende og dyre. Ensilering udgør en potentiel alternativ forbehandlings metode, baseret på v...

  20. Technology is not a barrier for biomass power: Experiences from 130 biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aijala, M.; Hulkkonen, S.

    1998-07-01

    Finland is one of the leading countries in the utilization of biomass fuels for power production. The biomass fuels in Finland are peat and wood biomass, which are also the only indigenous fuels available. Peat and wood biomass cover about 26% of the primary energy consumption in Finland and their share in power generation is about 18% (peat 8% and wood biomass 10%). There are about 230 biomass fired boilers in operation of which 130 are used for combined heat and power (CHP) production. The wood and peat-fired power plants range in size from a small CHP plant of 5 MWe to the largest condensing plant of 154 MWe. The most common technology today for the biomass fuels is fluidized bed combustion with back pressure steam cycle for district heat or process steam production. Bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) is best for wood and peat combustion and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) is needed, when coal is wanted as a back up fuel. The largest bubbling fluidized bed in Finland has a capacity of 295 MWth using peat and wood wastes as fuels. The smallest ones are only a few MWth. Circulating fluidized bed boilers range from 25 to 290 MWth in biomass applications. Condensing power generation from solid fuels in the relatively small size scale is not economical at todays conditions. Gasification is used only in a few small heating stations. One promising application area for the gasification technology, however, is in the co-combustion processes. The peat and wood biomass fuels are good fuels from combustion point of view, and do not create any major operating problems. The investment cost biomass fired CHP plants range from ECU 1,100 to 1,800/kWe depending on the size range. The costs of electricity in the municipal CHP plants is ECU 20-35/MWh. In industrial plants with longer operating time and low fuel price the cost of electricity can be even lower than ECU 17/MWh.

  1. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  3. Conversion of levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone using Fe3(CO)12: mimicking a biorefinery setting by exploiting crude liquors from biomass acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Gustavo; Burtoloso, Antonio C B

    2015-09-28

    The conversion of biomass-derived levulinic acid (LA) into gamma-valerolactone (GVL) using formic acid (FA) and Fe3(CO)12 as the catalyst precursor was achieved in 92% yield. To mimic a biorefinery setting, crude liquor (containing 20% LA) from the acid hydrolysis of sugarcane biomass in a pilot plant facility was directly converted into GVL in good yield (50%), without the need for isolating LA. PMID:26258183

  4. Progress in the technology of energy conversion from woody biomass in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tjutju Nurhayati; Yani Waridi; Han Roliadi

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable and renewable natural resources as biomass that contains carbon and hydrogen elements can be a potential raw materials for energy conversion. In Indonesia, they comprise variable-sized wood from forests (i.e. natural forests, plantations and community forests that commonly produce small-diameter logs used as firewood by local people), woody residues from logging and wood industries, oil-palm shell waste from crude palm oil factories, coconut shell wastes from coconut plantations, traditional markets as well as skimmed coconut oil and straws from rice cultivation.Four kinds of energy-conversion technologies have been empirically tested in Indonesia. First, gasification of rubber wood from unproductive rubber trees to generate heat energy for the drying of fermented chocolate seeds. Secondly, energy conversion from organic vegetable waste by implementing thermophylic fermentation methods that produce biogas as a fuel and for generating electricity and also concurrently generate organic by-products called hygen compost. Thirdly, gasification of charcoal and wood sawdust for electricity generation. Finally, environment-friendly energy conversion by carbonizing small-diameter logs, sawdust, wood slabs and coconut shells into charcoal. This yielded charcoal integrated with wood vinegar production through condensation of smoke/vapors emitted during carbonization, thereby mitigating the impact of air pollution. Among the four experimental technologies that of integrated charcoal and wood vinegar production had been spectacularly developed and favored by rural communities. This technology brought added value to the process and product due to the wood vinegar,useful as bio-pesticide,plant-growth hormone and organic fertilizer. Such integrated and environment-friendly production, therefore,should be sustained, because Indonesia occupies a significant and worldwide position as charcoal-producing and marketing country.The technology of integrated wood vinegar

  5. The prominent role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the ant-fungus biomass conversion symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L; Grell, M N

    2014-06-01

    Molecular studies have added significantly to understanding of the role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the efficient biomass conversion, which takes place in the fungus garden of leaf-cutting ants. It is now clear that the fungal symbiont expresses the full spectrum of genes for degrading cellulose and other plant cell wall polysaccharides. Since the start of the genomics era, numerous interesting studies have especially focused on evolutionary, molecular, and organismal aspects of the biological and biochemical functions of the symbiosis between leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp. and Acromyrmex spp.) and their fungal symbiont Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Macroscopic observations of the fungus-farming ant colony inherently depict the ants as the leading part of the symbiosis (the myrmicocentric approach, overshadowing the mycocentric aspects). However, at the molecular level, it is fungal enzymes that enable the ants to access the nutrition embedded in recalcitrant plant biomass. Our hypothesis is that the evolutionary events that established fungus-farming practice were predisposed by a fascinating fungal evolution toward increasing attractiveness to ants. This resulted in the ants allowing the fungus to grow in the nests and began to supply plant materials for more fungal growth. Molecular studies also confirm that specialized fungal structures, the gongylidia, with high levels of proteins and rich blend of enzymes, are essential for symbiosis. Harvested and used as ant feed, the gongylidia are the key factor for sustaining the highly complex leaf-cutting ant colony. This microbial upgrade of fresh leaves to protein-enriched animal feed can serve as inspiration for modern biorefinery technology. PMID:24728757

  6. Food and fuel from plant biomass - will there be enough to go around?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, E. H.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Greenberg, J. A.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Kantola, I. B.; Long, S.; Parton, W. J.; Miller, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    The ever-growing need for food and renewable energy is increasing the demand for biomass from wild and cultivated plants. The annual production of carbon in biomass - net primary production (NPP) - from terrestrial ecosystems globally is 57 Gt; of this total, humans currently appropriate 23-40%. Recent estimates suggest that the amount of plant biomass available for bioenergy is too small to significantly reduce our reliance on fossil fuels, and increasing biomass allocated to fuel would compete with the food supply. These estimates assume that maximum sustainable NPP is represented by that location's native vegetation. We invalidate this assumption by comparing NPP from native and cultivated crops at several locations globally. We also estimate the theoretical maximum biomass production (NPPmax) and the maximum biomass production that can be sustained by local water availability (NPPwater). Across six unfertilized, non-irrigated ecoregions, NPP from cultivated and non-native wild plants surpassed that of native vegetation by up to 500%. Using the rain-fed Midwestern US as an example agricultural region, we estimate NPPmax from the theoretical solar conversion efficiency of 6% to be 137 tonnes/ha, i.e. 6.8x current maize yields. This value drops to 3.8x current maize yields when constrained by local plant-available water (NPPwater) or when using an empirically observed solar conversion efficiency of 3.7%. Our analysis of terrestrial NPPwater using the highest observed solar conversion efficiency for C3 and C4 was approximately 10x greater than current estimates. These global results provide an upper bound for NPP at any given location. Crop improvement aimed at increasing solar conversion efficiency has the potential to dramatically increase NPP, and incorrect assumptions guiding current models may lead to underestimates of biomass production. However, our findings indicate that the limiting factor to plant production in rain-fed agro-ecosystems is plant

  7. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 1: predictive model for cropland conversion to biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass cultivation requires detailed analysis of spatial production potential of possible biorefinery locations, with emphasis on feedstock production cost minimization. Integrated assessment of publicly available spatial data on current crop production, soil type, and yield potential, coupled with techno-economic production cost estimates, can support a functional method for rapid analysis of potential biorefinery sites. A novel predictive model was developed to determine cropland conversion using a probabilistic profit based equation for multiple biomass crops: giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, and sorghum (with either canola or barley as a winter crop. The three primary regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain were used as a case study and with a single parameter uncertainty analysis was completed. According to the model, the county chosen to represent the Coastal Plain (Duplin County had the largest potential acreage that would be converted (15,071 ha, 7.1% total land, 9.3% of cropland primarily to sorghum with canola as a winter crop. Large portions were also predicted to convert to giant reed and switchgrass, depending on the price and yield parameters used. The Piedmont (Granville County, 7697 ha, 5.5% total land, 6.9% cropland and Mountain (Henderson County, 2117 ha, 2.2% total land, 2.3% cropland regions were predicted to convert primarily to switchgrass acreage for biomass production, with much less available biomass overall compared to the Coastal Plain. This model provided meaningful insight into regional cropping systems and feedstock availability, allowing for improved business planning in designated regions. Determination of cropland conversion is imperative to develop realistic biomass logistical operations, which in conjunction can assist with rapid determination of profitable biomass availability. After this rapid analysis method is conducted in-depth on-ground biorefinery

  8. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Scarlata, C.; Tan, E. C. D.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Sexton, D.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  9. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.;

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  10. Visual Comparative Omics of Fungi for Plant Biomass Deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Shingo; Navarro, David; Grigoriev, Igor V; Lipzen, Anna; Riley, Robert; Chevret, Didier; Grisel, Sacha; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    Wood-decay fungi contain the cellular mechanisms to decompose such plant cell wall components as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. A multi-omics approach to the comparative analysis of wood-decay fungi gives not only new insights into their strategies for decomposing recalcitrant plant biomass, but also an understanding of how to exploit these mechanisms for biotechnological applications. We have developed an analytical workflow, Applied Biomass Conversion Design for Efficient Fungal Green Technology (ABCDEFGT), to simplify the analysis and interpretation of transcriptomic and secretomic data. ABCDEFGT utilizes self-organizing maps for grouping genes with similar transcription patterns, and an overlay with secreted proteins. The key feature of ABCDEFGT is simple graphic outputs of genome-wide transcriptomic and secretomic topographies, which enables visual inspection without a priori of the omics data and facilitates discoveries of co-regulated genes and proteins. Genome-wide omics landscapes were built with the newly sequenced fungal species Pycnoporus coccineus, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus grown on various carbon sources. Integration of the post-genomic data revealed a global overlap, confirming the pertinence of the genome-wide approach. ABCDEFGT was evaluated by comparison with the latest clustering method for ease of output interpretation, and ABCDEFGT gave a better biological representation of fungal behaviors. The genome-wide multi-omics strategy allowed us to determine the potential synergy of particular enzymes decomposing cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin such as Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases, modular enzymes associated with a cellulose binding module1, and Class II Peroxidase isoforms co-regulated with oxido-reductases. Overall, ABCDEFGT was capable of visualizing genome-wide transcriptional and secretomic profiles for intuitive interpretations and is suitable for exploration of newly-sequenced organisms. PMID:27605927

  11. Decomposition of fresh and anaerobically digested plant biomass in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] for waste water renovation produces biomass that must be disposed of. This biomass may be anaerobically digested to produce CH4 or added to soil directly as an amendment. In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested water hyacinth biomass, with either low or high N tissue content, were added to soil to evaluate C and N mineralization characteristics. The plant biomass was labeled with 15N before digestion. The fresh plant biomass and digested biomass sludge were freeze-dried and ground to pass a 0.84-mm sieve. The materials were thoroughly mixed with a Kindrick fine sand at a rate of 5 g kg-1 soil and incubated for 90 d at 270C at a moisture content adjusted to 0.01 MPa. Decomposition was evaluated by CO2 evolution and 15N mineralization. After 90 d, approximately 20% of the added C of the digested sludges had evolved as CO2 compared to 39 and 50% of the added C of the fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively. First-order kinetics were used to describe decomposition stages. Mineralization of organic 15N to 15NO3--N accounted for 8% of applied N for both digested sludges at 90 d. Nitrogen mineralization accounted for 3 and 33% of the applied organic N for fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively

  12. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to assess the competitiveness and market potential of small-scale power plant concepts based on biomass gasification and on diesel/gas engines, and to study the effect of process parameters on the efficiency of the circulating fluidized-bed gasifier and on the formation of tarry impurities. Alternative diesel/gas engine power plant concepts based on gasification in scale 6-50 MW{sub e} were assessed. In the basic version, where the electricity is generated only by the a diesel/gas engine, the efficiency level of 37 % is achieved in power generation. When steam cycle is added to the process the efficiency of power generation increases to 44-48 %. The efficiencies achieved in the process are very high compared with those of biomass power plant processes on a commercial level or under development. The most significant potential of biomass-based power generation is made up by wastes of sugar industries in south and Central America and in Asia. There are also very extensive growth potentials of bioenergy use in the NAFTA countries (USA, Canada and Mexico) and in Europe. In Europe, the bioenergy use is expected to grow most sharply in Italy, Spain, Germany and Poland. Carbon conversion obtained in the gasifier was in the range of 99.0-99.9 % for sawdust and 96-98 % for forest residue chips. The tar content of the product gas 10-15 g/m- m{sup 3}{sub n}, for sawdust in the gasification temperature of 830-930 deg C and with sand as circulating fluid-bed. When dolomite was used as circulating fluid-bed, the tar contents were 2-3 g/m{sup 3}{sub n} at as low temperatures as 880-890 deg C. The tar content of gas can be reduced sharply by phasing of gasification air and by using catalytic circulating fluid-bed material Bioenergy Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 Research Programme. 26 refs., 40 figs.

  13. Biomass valorisation by staged degasification A new pyrolysis-based thermochemical conversion option to produce value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, P. J.; den Uil, H.; Reith, J. H.; Kiel, J. H. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass leads to an array Of useful solid, liquid and gaseous products. Staged degasification is a pyrolysis-based conversion route to generate value-added chemicals from biomass. Because of different thermal stabilities of the main biomass constituents hemicellulose. ce

  14. Performance modelling and validation of biomass gasifiers for trigeneration plants

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Arnavat, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This thesis develops a simple but rigorous model for simulation, design and preliminary evaluation of trigeneration plants based on biomass gasification. It includes a review and study of various models proposed for the biomass gasification process and different plant configurations. A modified thermodynamic equilibrium model is developed for application to real processes that do not reach equilibrium. In addition, two artificial neural network models, based on experimental published data, ar...

  15. Mini digester and biogas production from plant biomass

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vindis; B. Mursec; C. Rozman; M. Janzekovic; F. Cus

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the construction of a mini digester for biogas production from different agriculture plant biomass and other organic wastes. The amount of biogas production (methane) is observed by the mini digester.Design/methodology/approach: The mini digester consisting of twelve units was built and some measurements with agriculture plant biomass were performed according to DIN 38414 part 8. Four tests simultaneously with three repetitions can be performed.Find...

  16. Biomass conversion into biofuels by non–classical methods / Yolandi Nortjé

    OpenAIRE

    Nortjé, Yolandi

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was launched in view of two imminent needs in industry today, viz. development of an alternative fuel to replace rapidly dwindling fossil fuel resources, preferably by biomass conversion, and production of a biofuel as a new energy source by implementing clean technology complying with the requirements of green chemistry. Seed from the diesel tree (Jatropha curcas L.) and sawdust from pine (Pinus taeda L.) were selected as biomass sources since their properties, like ric...

  17. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in thermochemical conversion of biomass : formation, distribution and fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qiuju

    2016-01-01

    In the transition to a sustainable energy supply there is an increasing need to use biomass for replacement of fossil fuel. A key challenge is to utilize biomass conversion technologies in an environmentally sound manner. Important aspects are to minimize potential formation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. This thesis involves studies of formation characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and naphthal...

  18. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    OpenAIRE

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas; Kádár, Zsófia; Anne S. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at ...

  19. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve the...

  20. Economics of biomass energy utilization in combustion and gasification plants: effects of logistic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substitution of conventional fossil fuels with biomass for energy production results both in a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and in the replacement of non-renewable energy sources. However, at present, generating energy from biomass is rather expensive due to both technological limits related to lower conversion efficiencies, and logistic constraints. In particular, the logistics of biomass fuel supply is likely to be complex owing to the intrinsic feedstock characteristics, such as the limited period of availability and the scattered geographical distribution over the territory. In this paper, the economical feasibility of biomass utilization for direct production of electric energy by means of combustion and gasification-conversion processes, has been investigated and evaluated over a capacity range from 5 to 50 MW, taking into account total capital investments, revenues from energy sale and total operating costs, also including a detailed evaluation of logistic costs. Moreover, in order to evaluate the impact of logistics on the bio-energy plants profitability, the effects of main logistic variables such as specific vehicle transport costs, vehicles capacity, specific purchased biomass costs and distribution density, have been examined. Finally, a mapping of logistic constraints on plant profitability in the specified capacity range has been carried out

  1. Chemical Conversions of Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals over Copper-Silica Nanocomposite Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upare, Pravin P; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jong-Min; Hwang, Dong Won; Chang, Jong-San

    2015-07-20

    Biomass and biomass-derived carbohydrates have a high extent of functionality, unlike petroleum, which has limited functionality. In biorefinery applications, the development of methods to control the extent of functionality in final products intended for use as fuels and chemicals is a challenge. In the chemical industry, heterogeneous catalysis is an important tool for the defunctionalization of functionalized feedstocks and biomass-derived platform chemicals to produce value-added chemicals. Herein, we review the recent progress in this field, mainly of vapor phase chemical conversion of biomass-derived C4 -C6 carboxylic acids and esters using copper-silica nanocomposite catalysts. We also demonstrate that these nanocomposite catalysts very efficiently convert biomass-derived platform chemicals into cyclic compounds, such as lactones and hydrofurans, with high selectivities and yields. PMID:26192888

  2. Fundamental mechanisms for conversion of volatiles in biomass and waste combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Hindiyarti, L.; Marshall, P.; Livbjerg, H.; Dagaut, P.; Jensen, Anker; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the volatile oxidation chemistry in biomass and waste fired systems, emphasizing reactions important for pollutants emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, HCl, aerosols). The project aims to extend existing models and databases with a number of chemical subsystems that are presently not well understood, but are particularly important in connection with combustion of biomass and waste. The project is divided into 3 tasks. Task 1: Conversion of chlorine, sulfur and alkali gas phase components in combustion of biomass. Task 2: Formation mechanisms for NO{sub x} in the freeboard of grate combustion of biomass. Task 3: Oxidation mechanisms for oxygenated hydrocarbons in the volatiles from pyrolysis of biomass. (au)

  3. Uranium refining and conversion plant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge was constructed in 1981 for the purpose of demonstrating on refining and conversion process from yellow cake (or uranium trioxide) to uranium hexafluoride by way of uranium tetrafluoride. For 20 years, 385 tons of natural uranium hexafluoride and 336 tons of reprocessed uranium hexafluoride (approximately) was produced. There are two different type of refining processes in the URCP. One is the wet process by converting the natural uranium and the other is the dry conversion process for the reprocessed uranium. The dismantling of the dry process facilities began in March, 2008. It was found the large amount of uranium residuals such as wet slurry and powder uranium inside the vessels and pipes. Therefore, we have to take care of the spread of the contamination during dismantling works. The basic strategy concerning plant dismantling were the optimization of the total labor costs and the minimization of the radioactive wastes generated. The dismantling procedure is shown below; 1) measuring doserate by using high sensitivity surveymeters, and nuclide identification by using gamma ray spectrometry, 2) estimating uranium mass inventory, 3) planning work force distributions with radiological survey staffs, 4) deciding dismantling methods concretely, 5) decontaminating schematically if required, 6) collecting detailed data of working conditions, 7) measuring and classifying contaminated materials, 8) managements of radioactive waste drum and non-contaminated equipment, 9) control for personal exposures. Almost all equipment will be decontaminated except building decontamination it by around 2013FY. In addition, the secondary wastes were also yielded. Few thousands man-days were necessary for this project. The measurement data have not showed the high environmental radiation doserate, generally less than 0.3μSv/h. However, by the trace of the reprocessed uranium, the trans-uranium nuclides such as uranium

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  5. Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

    2003-12-01

    Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals. Extracellular cellulases produced by fungi are commercially developed for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation by appropriate biocatalysts in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial biocatalysts, SSF of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity leading to higher than required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial biocatalysts whose growth and fermentation requirements match the optimum conditions for commercial fungal cellulase activity (pH 5.0 and 50 deg. C). These isolates fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to L(+)-lactic acid. Xylose was metabolized through the pentose-phosphate pathway by these organisms as evidenced by the fermentation profile and analysis of the fermentation products of 13C1-xylose by NMR. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, 13C-lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products. All three strains fermented crystalline cellulose to lactic acid with the addition of fungal cellulase (Spezyme CE) (SSF) at an optimum of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. These isolates also fermented cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate simultaneously. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these

  6. Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL`s BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

  7. Enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass into fermentable sugars for biorefinery operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dahai

    2011-12-01

    Depleting petroleum reserves and potential climate change caused by fossil fuel consumption have attracted significant attention towards the use of alternative renewable resources for production of fuels and chemicals. Lignocellulosic biomass provides a plentiful resource for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals and could serve as an important contributor to the world energy portfolio in the near future. Successful biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass requires an efficient and economical pretreatment method, high glucose/xylose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of both hexose and pentose to ethanol. High enzyme loading is a major economic bottleneck for the commercial processing of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Optimizing the enzyme cocktail for specific types of pretreated biomass allows for a significant reduction in enzyme loading without sacrificing hydrolysis yield. Core glycosyl hydrolases were isolated and purified from various sources to help rationally optimize an enzyme cocktail to digest ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) treated corn stover. The four core cellulases were endoglucanase I (EG I), cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II) and beta-Glucosidase (betaG). The two core hemicellulases were an endoxylanase (EX) and a beta-xylosidase (betaX). A diverse set of accessory hemicellulases from bacterial sources was found necessary to enhance the synergistic action of cellulases hydrolysing AFEX pretreated corn stover. High glucose (around 80%) and xylose (around 70%) yields were achieved with a moderate enzyme loading (˜20 mg protein/g glucan) using an in-house developed enzyme cocktail and this cocktail was compared to commercial enzyme. Studying the binding properties of cellulases to lignocellulosic substrates is critical to achieving a fundamental understanding of plant cell wall saccharification. Lignin auto-fluorescence and degradation products

  8. Environmental impacts of thermochemical biomass conversion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermochemical conversion in this study is limited to fast pyrolysis, upgrading of fast pyrolysis oils, and gasification. Environmental impacts of all types were considered within the project, but primary emphasis was on discharges to the land, air, and water during and after the conversion processes. The project discussed here is divided into five task areas: (1) pyrolysis oil analysis; (2) hydrotreating of pyrolysis oil; (3) gas treatment systems for effluent minimization; (4) strategic analysis of regulatory requirements; and (5) support of the IEA Environmental Systems Activity. The pyrolysis oil task was aimed at understanding the oil contaminants and potential means for their removal. The hydrotreating task was undertaken to better define one potential means for both improving the quality of the oil but also removing contaminants from the oil. Within Task 3, analyses were done to evaluate the results of gasification product treatment systems. Task 4 was a review and collection of regulatory requirements which would be applicable to the subject processes. The IEA support task included input to and participation in the IEA Bioenergy activity which directly relates to the project subject. Each of these tasks is described along with the results. Conclusions and recommendations from the overall project are given

  9. THERMO-MECHANICAL PULPING AS A PRETREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS FOR BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP, an existing and well known technology in the pulp and paper industry, is proposed as a potential pretreatment pathway of agriculture biomass for monomeric sugar production in preparation for further fermentation into alcohol species. Three agricultural biomass types, corn stover, wheat straw, and sweet sorghum bagasse, were pretreated in a TMP unit under two temperature conditions, 160 ºC and 170 ºC, and hydrolyzed using cellulase at 5, 10, and 20 FPU/g OD biomass. Wheat straw biomass was further pretreated at different conditions including: i soaking with acetic acid, ii longer steaming residence time (15 and 30 min, and iii refined at lower disk gap (0.0508 and 0.1524 mm. Preliminary results showed that carbohydrate conversion increased from 25% to 40% when the TMP temperature was increased from 160 to 170 ºC. Carbohydrate conversion was relatively similar for the three biomasses under the same pretreatment conditions and enzyme loading. Acetic acid soaking and refining at a reduce disk gap increases carbohydrate conversion. Further studies within this technological field to identify optimum process and TMP conditions for pretreatment are suggested.

  10. Characterization of second generation biomass under thermal conversion and the fate of nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuntoli, J.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the characterization of several biomass materials under thermal conversion conditions using small--scale equipment. The fuels are tested under the conditions of slow and fast heating rate pyrolysis and combustion, with the main goal of investigating the chemistry of fuel

  11. One-Pot Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose and of Woody Biomass Solids to Liquid Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, Theodore D.; Barta, Katalin; Iretskii, Alexei V.; Ford, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient methodologies for converting biomass solids to liquid fuels have the potential to reduce dependence on imported petroleum while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. Here, we report quantitative catalytic conversions of wood and cellulosic solids to liquid and gaseous products in a

  12. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for consolidated bioprocessing in starch and biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of starch or biomass to biofuel is a two-stage process involving enzymatic treatment, followed by yeast fermentation. An alternative route would be to consolidate the process by engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of both saccharification and fermentation. An approach was d...

  13. Parametric Optimization of Biomass Steam-and-Gas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a parametric analysis of the simplest scheme of a steam-and gas plant for the conditions required for biomass burning. It has been shown that application of gas-turbine and steam-and-gas plants can significantly exceed an efficiency of steam-power supply units which are used at the present moment. Optimum thermo-dynamical conditions for application of steam-and gas plants with the purpose to burn biomass require new technological solutions in the field of heat-exchange equipment designs.

  14. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Solvent effects in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellmer, Max A; Sener, Canan; Gallo, Jean Marcel R; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A

    2014-10-27

    Reaction kinetics were studied to quantify the effects of polar aprotic organic solvents on the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose into furfural. A solvent of particular importance is γ-valerolactone (GVL), which leads to significant increases in reaction rates compared to water in addition to increased product selectivity. GVL has similar effects on the kinetics for the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propanal and for the hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose. Based on results obtained for homogeneous Brønsted acid catalysts that span a range of pKa values, we suggest that an aprotic organic solvent affects the reaction kinetics by changing the stabilization of the acidic proton relative to the protonated transition state. This same behavior is displayed by strong solid Brønsted acid catalysts, such as H-mordenite and H-beta. PMID:25214063

  16. Implications of cellobiohydrolase glycosylation for use in biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Stephen R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cellulase producing ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina, is known to secrete a range of enzymes important for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It is also widely used for the commercial scale production of industrial enzymes because of its ability to produce high titers of heterologous proteins. During the secretion process, a number of post-translational events can occur, however, that impact protein function and stability. Another ascomycete, Aspergillus niger var. awamori, is also known to produce large quantities of heterologous proteins for industry. In this study, T. reesei Cel7A, a cellobiohydrolase, was expressed in A. niger var. awamori and subjected to detailed biophysical characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme contains six times the amount of N-linked glycan than the enzyme purified from a commercial T. reesei enzyme preparation. The activities of the two enzyme forms were compared using bacterial (microcrystalline and phosphoric acid swollen (amorphous cellulose as substrates. This comparison suggested that the increased level of N-glycosylation of the recombinant Cel7A (rCel7A resulted in reduced activity and increased non-productive binding on cellulose. When treated with the N-glycosidase PNGaseF, the molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme approached that of the commercial enzyme and the activity on cellulose was improved.

  17. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dael, M.; Van Passel, S.; Witters, N. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R. [VITO, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Reumermann, P. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Josink Esweg 34, 7545 PN Enschede (Netherlands); Marquez Luzardo, N. [School of Life Sciences and Environmental Technology, Avans Hogeschool, Hogeschoollaan 1, 4800 RA Breda (Netherlands); Broeze, J. [Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2, 6703 HD Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conversion Park (ECP) is introduced. A biomass ECP can be defined as a synergetic, multi-dimensional biomass conversion site with a highly integrated set of conversion technologies in which a multitude of regionally available biomass (residue) sources are converted into energy and materials. A techno-economic assessment is performed on a case study in the Netherlands to illustrate the concept and to comparatively assess the highly integrated system with two mono-dimensional models. The three evaluated models consist of (1) digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, (2) co-digestion of manure and co-substrates, and (3) integration. From a socio-economic point of view it can be concluded that it is economically and energetically more interesting to invest in the integrated model than in two separate models. The integration is economically feasible and environmental benefits can be realized. For example, the integrated model allows the implementation of a co-digester. Unmanaged manure would otherwise represent a constant pollution risk. However, from an investor's standpoint one should firstly invest in the municipal solid waste digester since the net present value (NPV) of this mono-dimensional model is higher than that of the multi-dimensional model. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the most influencing parameters. Our results are of interest for companies involved in the conversion of biomass. The conclusions are useful for policy makers when deciding on policy instruments concerning manure processing or biogas production.

  18. Contributions at the DGMK conference conversion of biomass. Conferene report; Beitraege zur DGMK-Fachbereichstagung Konversion von Biomassen. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference on conversion of biomass between 10th and 12th May 2010 in Gelsenkirchen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) How much does carbon need humans? (H. Puetter); (2) Enhanced exergy and energetic efficiency of utilization biomass by mean of bio methane and bio-SNG (E. Oettel); (3) Determination of specified costs and ecologic effects of BTL fuels (R. Stahlschmidt); (4) Conversion of cellulose in sugar alcohols as entry point of a biorefinery concept (R. Palkovits); (5) bio coke as a product of substitution for fossil metallurgical coke (S.H. Freitas Seabra da Rocha); (6) About the development of a thermochemical gasification of biomass for combined heat and power generation in Germany in the years 2008/2009 (D. Braekow); (7) Updraft gasification: A status on the harboore technology (R. Heeb); (8) Hydrogen production from biomass by means of an adsorption supported reformation in a dual circulation fluidised-bed plant (A. Schuster); (9) Flow gasification of high viscous suspension fuels (T. Kolb); (10) Gasification of different raw materials in a staged melt gasification with subsequent hot gas cleaning and CO shift catalysis (M. Kleinhappl); (11) Methanization of biogenic syngas - Influence of operation parameters of gasification on gas quality and catalyst deactivation (Th. Kienberger); (12) Bio-SNG - future regenerative energy source in the gas grid of E.ON (M. Adelt); (13) Heterogeneous degradation of pyrolysis oil at activated carbon (W. Wiest); (14) Ti-based Cu/Ni nanocatalyst for steam reformation of model tars (F. Wiedenmann); (15) Cleaning of fuel gas from the gasification of biomass by means of electro filter (H. Oldenburg); (16) Dedusting of product gas behind biomass gasification reactors with Herding {sup registered} ALPHA filter (W. Duerlich); (17) An investigation of enhancement of performance for the utilization of lean gas and syngas in gas motors (J. Krueger); (18) Amount of pollutants in waste

  19. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Two models of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel production plant were designed and analyzed in DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME by either recycle (RC) or once through (OT) catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis...... process that takes place at 200–300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plants are designed with focus on lowering the total CO2 emissions from the plants; this includes e.g. a recycle of a CO2...... rich stream to a CO2 capture plant, which is used in the conditioning of the syngas.The plant models predict energy efficiencies from torrefied biomass to DME of 66% (RC) and 48% (OT) (LHV). If the exported electricity is included, the efficiencies are 71% (RC) and 64% (OT). When accounting for energy...

  20. THE BREAKEVEN POINT GIVEN LIMIT COST USING BIOMASS CHP PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a renewable source, non-fossil, from which can be obtained fuels, which can be used in power generation systems. The main difference of fossil fuels is the availability biomass in nature and that it is in continue "reproduction". The use its enable the use of materials that could be destined destruction, as a source of energy "renewable", though result with many ecological values. In this paper we will study, applying a calculation model in view optimal sizing of the cogeneration plant based on biomass, biomass cost limit for the net present value is zero. It will consider that in cogeneration systems and in heating peak systems using biomass. After applying the mathematical model for limit value of biomass cost will determine the nominal optimal coefficient of cogeneration, for which discounted net revenue value is zero. Optimal sizing of CHP plants based on using biomass will be given by optimum coefficient of cogeneration determined following the application of the proposed mathematical model.

  1. Application of radiation technology to biomass conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work carried out at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is reported for the following research projects: wood powdering of pre-irradiated chips; effect of combining electron beam processing (EBP) with other pretreatments on the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials; radiation immobilization of enzymes. The EBP of eucalyptus chips at an average dose of 1.5 x 105 Gy allowed a reduction of the energy required to produce a given weight of wood particles smaller than 300 μm by a factor of five. Wood powder of this particle size proved to be an excellent fuel for suspension firing system and could be used as raw material to feed continuous hydrolytic processes. Conversion efficiencies of 25.8% and 53.4%, respectively, were obtained in the production of reducing sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus wood and sugarcane bagasse when materials were previously irradiated at 105 Gy, pulverized at 50 mesh and impregnated with 2% NaOH solution. Immobilization of cellulase by radiation induced polymerization of hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate(HEMA) was effective when made at - 780C in the presence of silica gel adsorbents or polyethylene glycol. (Author)

  2. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  3. Application of Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis in Biomass to Liquid Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwu Lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is a set of catalytic processes that can be used to produce fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas (mixture of CO and H2, which can be derived from natural gas, coal, or biomass. Biomass to Liquid via Fischer–Tropsch (BTL-FT synthesis is gaining increasing interests from academia and industry because of its ability to produce carbon neutral and environmentally friendly clean fuels; such kinds of fuels can help to meet the globally increasing energy demand and to meet the stricter environmental regulations in the future. In the BTL-FT process, biomass, such as woodchips and straw stalk, is firstly converted into biomass-derived syngas (bio-syngas by gasification. Then, a cleaning process is applied to remove impurities from the bio-syngas to produce clean bio-syngas which meets the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis requirements. Cleaned bio-syngas is then conducted into a Fischer–Tropsch catalytic reactor to produce green gasoline, diesel and other clean biofuels. This review will analyze the three main steps of BTL-FT process, and discuss the issues related to biomass gasification, bio-syngas cleaning methods and conversion of bio-syngas into liquid hydrocarbons via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Some features in regard to increasing carbon utilization, enhancing catalyst activity, maximizing selectivity and avoiding catalyst deactivation in bio-syngas conversion process are also discussed.

  4. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  5. Highly efficient electricity generation from biomass by integration and hybridization with combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration/co-firing with existing fossil fuel plants could give near term highly efficient and low cost power production from biomass. This paper presents a techno-economical analysis on options for integrating biomass thermal conversion (optimized for local resources ∝50 MWth) with existing CCGT (combined cycle gas turbine) power plants (800-1400 MWth). Options include hybrid combined cycles (HCC), indirect gasification of biomass and simple cycle biomass steam plants which are simulated using the software Ebsilon Professional and Aspen Plus. Levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) is calculated with cost functions derived from power plant data. Results show that the integrated HCC configurations (fully-fired) show a significantly higher efficiency (40-41%, LHV (lower heating value)) than a stand-alone steam plant (35.5%); roughly half of the efficiency (2.4% points) is due to more efficient fuel drying. Because of higher investment costs, HCC options have cost advantages over stand-alone options at high biomass fuel prices (>25 EUR/MWh) or low discount rates (<5%). Gasification options show even higher efficiency (46-50%), and the lowest LCoE for the options studied for fuel costs exceeding 10 EUR/MWh. It can be concluded that clear efficiency improvements and possible cost reductions can be reached by integration of biomass with CCGT power plants compared to stand-alone plants. (author)

  6. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  7. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into its molecular components by sequential combination of organic acid and base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yu

    The primary objective of this research is to explore a new concept of converting lignocellulosic biomass into liquid organic products via hydrolysis by sequentially combining acid and base treatments. The concept was examined by studying two-step hydrolytic reactions of biomass (spruce) using oxialic acid (OA) and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) at moderate reaction temperatures below 200 °C. Different selectivity of C-O bond cleavage of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin between the reactions with OA and TMAH was demonstrated, and the sequential combination of OA and TMAH treatments exhibited an enhancing effect on conversion of biomass, which proves the promise of the proposed concept. A similar enhancing effect of combination was further confirmed in the reactions with mineral acid and base. Interestingly, characterization of solid residue from reactions of biomass and further investigation of the reactions of commercial cellulose revealed that the A-B sequence (the first reaction with OA and the second with TMAH) enhanced the conversion of cellulose at the second step with TMAH. It was suggested from the NMR and XRD study of solid residues that this enhancement was caused by the reduction of crystallinity of cellulose by the first reaction with OA. This effect was shown to be an interesting feature of A-B treatment sequence for converting lignocellulosic biomass. To improve the yield of monomeric sugars, the effect of adding organic solvents to the system was also studied. No improvement on sugar yield was observed under the explored conditions. However, it was shown that some furans and phenols can be directly formed from the reactions of biomass in the binary solvent system, which may be beneficial for producing more value-added chemicals from biomass.

  8. Controversy over Biomass Plant at Florida State Heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that Florida State University officials are gearing up for what could be another bruising battle this month over a proposed biomass plant that could bring the campus cleaner, cheaper energy and monetary support for alternative-energy research. Or, it could bring noise and pollution to a nearby neighborhood, according to…

  9. Biomass Yield of Different Plants for Biogass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Balodis, Oskars; Bartuševics, Jānis; Gaile, Zinta

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate yield potential of plants probably suitable for biogas production preliminary field trials were carried out at Research and Study farm “Vecauce” in 2010 using eight annual plant species: maize, winter oil-seed rape, oil radish, sunflower, foxtail millet, millet, hemp and amaranth. All species (except oil radish) were represented with several varieties, and some species were harvested at 2-3 development stages. Obtained fresh biomass yield was from 33.05 (millet „Rudes‟...

  10. Poultry litter to fire Europe's biggest biomass plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrowatt, an independent British power developer, has started construction of the Thetford power station which, at 38.5 MW, will be Europe's largest producer of electricity from biomass. This plant will be fired by poultry litter, a fuel which Fibrowatt has developed considerable expertise with at two other plants. The company hopes to take this experience to the continent, where it has a number of projects under development. (UK)

  11. Characterization of second generation biomass under thermal conversion and the fate of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Giuntoli, J.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the characterization of several biomass materials under thermal conversion conditions using small--scale equipment. The fuels are tested under the conditions of slow and fast heating rate pyrolysis and combustion, with the main goal of investigating the chemistry of fuel--bound nitrogen. New energy policies put forward in almost every country in the world, and especially in the European Union, are strongly promoting the use of renewable energy sources. Decreasing ...

  12. Thermochemical conversion of raw and defatted algal biomass via hydrothermal liquefaction and slow pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardon, Derek R; Sharma, Brajendra K; Blazina, Grant V; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2012-04-01

    Thermochemical conversion is a promising route for recovering energy from algal biomass. Two thermochemical processes, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL: 300 °C and 10-12 MPa) and slow pyrolysis (heated to 450 °C at a rate of 50 °C/min), were used to produce bio-oils from Scenedesmus (raw and defatted) and Spirulina biomass that were compared against Illinois shale oil. Although both thermochemical conversion routes produced energy dense bio-oil (35-37 MJ/kg) that approached shale oil (41 MJ/kg), bio-oil yields (24-45%) and physico-chemical characteristics were highly influenced by conversion route and feedstock selection. Sharp differences were observed in the mean bio-oil molecular weight (pyrolysis 280-360 Da; HTL 700-1330 Da) and the percentage of low boiling compounds (bp<400 °C) (pyrolysis 62-66%; HTL 45-54%). Analysis of the energy consumption ratio (ECR) also revealed that for wet algal biomass (80% moisture content), HTL is more favorable (ECR 0.44-0.63) than pyrolysis (ECR 0.92-1.24) due to required water volatilization in the latter technique. PMID:22285293

  13. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1995, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 14 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1995 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry as at power plants than it is possible at present appliances. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel-oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. The main aim of the research in bioenergy utilization is to create the technological potential for increasing the bioenergy use. The aim is further defined as to get into commercial phase 3-4 new techniques or methods and to start several demonstrations, which will have 0.2-0.3 million toe bioenergy utilization potential

  14. Practical threshold limit values in a conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comurhex in a subsidiary of the Cogema group, and its business is the conversion to hexafluoride of the uranium contained in a variety of mining concentrates of differing origins. This report gives an example of the evaluation of the health aspects of a conversion plant. (author). 11 figs

  15. Feasibility study of a biomass-fired cogeneration plant Groningen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of the title plant is determined for district heating and electricity supply of more than 1,000 houses in Groningen, Netherlands. Also attention is paid to the feasibility of such installations in a planned area of the city. Prices and supply of several biomass resources are dealt with: prunings of parks, public and private gardens, clean wood wastes, wood wastes from forests, wood from newly planted forests, specific energy crops (willows in high densities and short cycles). Prices are calculated, including transport to the gate of the premises where the cogeneration installations is situated. For the conversion attention is paid to both the feasibility of the use of a conventional cogeneration installation (by means of a steam turbine) and the use of a new conversion technique: combined cycle of a gasification installation and a cogeneration installation. 5 figs., 5 ills., 22 tabs., 1 appendix, 33 refs

  16. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chien-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important

  17. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16

    bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important

  18. Preliminary forest plant biomass inventory in monsoon tropical forest in Cat Tien National park (South Vietnam)

    OpenAIRE

    Novichonok, A.; Evdokimova, E.; Markovskaya, E.; J. Kurbatova

    2012-01-01

    The results of forest plant biomass inventory in monsoon tropical forest in Cat Tien National Park are presented. The study demonstrates the differences in plant biomass production between forest areas with different levels of anthropogenic disturbance.

  19. The conversion of biomass to ethanol using geothermal energy derived from hot dry rock to supply both the thermal and electrical power requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The potential synergism between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion of biomass to fuel ethanol is considerable. In addition, combining these two renewable energy resources to produce transportation fuel has very positive environmental implications. One of the distinct advantages of wedding an HDR geothermal power source to a biomass conversion process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating conditions. The latter obtains since an HDR system is an injection conditions of flow rate, pressure, temperature, and water chemistry are under the control of the operator. The former obtains since, unlike a naturally occurring geothermal resource, the HDR resource is very widespread, particularly in the western US, and can be developed near transportation and plentiful supplies of biomass. Conceptually, the pressurized geofluid from the HDR reservoir would be produced at a temperature in the range of 200{degrees} to 220{degrees}c. The higher enthalpy portion of the geofluid thermal energy would be used to produce a lower-temperature steam supply in a countercurrent feedwater-heater/boiler. The steam, following a superheating stage fueled by the noncellulosic waste fraction of the biomass, would be expanded through a turbine to produce electrical power. Depending on the lignin fraction of the biomass, there would probably be excess electrical power generated over and above plant requirements (for slurry pumping, stirring, solids separation, etc.) which would be available for sale to the local power grid. In fact, if the hybrid HDR/biomass system were creatively configured, the power plant could be designed to produce daytime peaking power as well as a lower level of baseload power during off-peak hours.

  20. Lewis Acid Zeolites for Biomass Conversion: Perspectives and Challenges on Reactivity, Synthesis, and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Helen Y; Lewis, Jennifer D; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2016-06-01

    Zeolites containing Sn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, or Ta heteroatoms are versatile catalysts for the activation and conversion of oxygenated molecules owing to the unique Lewis acid character of their tetrahedral metal sites. Through fluoride-mediated synthesis, hydrophobic Lewis acid zeolites can behave as water-tolerant catalysts, which has resulted in a recent surge of experimental and computational studies in the field of biomass conversion. However, many open questions still surround these materials, especially relating to the nature of their active sites. This lack of fundamental understanding is exemplified by the many dissonant results that have been described in recent literature reports. In this review, we use a molecular-based approach to provide insight into the relationship between the structure of the metal center and its reactivity toward different substrates, with the ultimate goal of providing a robust framework to understand the properties that have the strongest influence on catalytic performance for the conversion of oxygenates. PMID:27146555

  1. Compact conversion of natural gas and biomass to DME in microstructured reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrstad, Rune

    2010-07-01

    Efficient production of easily distributable fuel from natural gas or biomass in the small-to-medium scale calls for a more compact and efficient process than using conventional technology. Microstructured reactors have improved heat and mass transfer properties which make them suitable for process intensified production of liquid fuel from synthesis gas and demonstration plants using such technology are announced. Dimethyl ether (DME) can be used as an intermediate in the production of several industrial chemicals and DME is also used as an aerosol propellant because of its environmentally benign properties. Since DME has high cetane number and is considered as an ultra-clean fuel with reduced NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and PM emissions, DME has emerged as a substitute for auto diesel fuel and bio-DME is one of the most promising second-generation biofuels. DME can be prepared in a one-step process from synthesis gas, which is thermodynamically and economically favourable to the two step process consisting of methanol synthesis followed by dehydration of methanol to DME. As the direct process is strongly exothermic, the reaction heat has to be effectively removed from the reaction system in order to maintain a safe and economic operational mode. Direct DME synthesis possesses a high volumetric heat production rate and hence the temperature control is a main challenge. Besides this, parameters such as syngas composition, pressure, contact time and catalytic system affect the conversion and yield. In this work direct DME synthesis from syngas in a microstructured packed bed reactor was demonstrated to operate at practically isothermal conditions. The performance of the catalyst was enhanced by elimination of the undesired phenomena related to the exothermic process, such as hot spot formation and side reactions. The influence of process parameters on methanol selectivity and DME productivity was studied. The highest CO conversion was achieved by a H{sub 2}-rich syngas at

  2. Tracking Dynamics of Plant Biomass Composting by Changes in Substrate Structure, Microbial Community, and Enzyme Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, H.; Tucker, M. P.; Baker, J. O.; Harris, M.; Luo, Y. H.; Xu, Q.; Himmel, M. E.; Ding, S. Y.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight) and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  3. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  4. Effective conversion of biomass tar into fuel gases in a microwave reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with conversion of naphthalene (C10H8) as a biomass tar model compound by means of thermal and catalytic treatments. A modified microwave oven with a maximum output power of 700 W was used as the experimental reactor. Experiments were performed in a wide temperature range of 450-1200°C at a predetermined residence time of 0.24-0.5 s. Dolomite and Y-zeolite were applied to convert naphthalene catalytically into useful gases. Experimental results on naphthalene conversion showed that conversion efficiency and yield of gases increased significantly with the increase of temperature. More than 90% naphthalene conversion efficiency was achieved by thermal treatment at 1200°C and 0.5 s. Nevertheless, this treatment was unfavorable for fuel gases production. The main product of this treatment was soot. Catalytic treatment provided different results with that of thermal treatment in which fuel gases formation was found to be the important product of naphthalene conversion. At a high temperature of 900°C, dolomite had better conversion activity where almost 40 wt.% of naphthalene could be converted into hydrogen, methane and other hydrocarbon gases.

  5. Veterinary research, monitoring and advisory services in connection with the establishment and operation of a communal biomass conversion plant. Partial project 2 (VET-BIO-2). Veterinaer forskning, overvaagning og raadgivning i forbindelse med etablering og drift af biogasfaellesanlaeg. Delprojekt 2 (VET-BIO-2); Forsknings- og overvaagningsprogram vedroerende bakterier og parasitter med henblik paa opstilling af et driftsovervaagningsprogram for biogasfaellesanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munch, B.; Bonde Larsen, A.

    1990-01-15

    From Feb. '88 through June '89, contents of Salmonella, M. paratuberculosis, total coliforms, faecal streptococci, eggs of Ascaris suum, eggs and larvae of Trichostrongylus spp., and oocysts of bovine Eimeria spp. were quantified in 481 samples of raw and treated biomass collected bi-monthly for up to 12 months from five biogas plants. All five were run semi- continuously, two being thermophilic, one mesophilic, and two mesophilic with thermophilic pre-treatment. Herds delivering slurry to each plant ranged rom 6 - 33 cattle and/or pig herds, and daily input of biomass from 40 - 100 tons. Slurry was treated when mixed with other types of biomass, e.g. waste from pig or poultry slaughterhouses, fish industries or oil mills, and separate samples of these biomasses were examined. It is concluded that thermophilic as well as mesophilic digestion with, thermophilic pre-treatment may be capable of reducing numbers of vegetative pathogenic bacteria and intestinal parasites potentially present in incoming material, thus to allow for unrestricted use of the degassed biomass in this respect. This requires a reducing capacity on faecal streptococci of at least 3-4 log{sub 10} units by digestons based on or including a thermophillic treatment, corresponding to a maximal concentration of these bacteria in treated biomass in the order of magnitude of 10{sup 2} per ml. Minimum temperature and biomass retention time in the reactors as registered automatically, together with determinations of faecal streptococci in the end-product, are suggested as suitable monitoring parameters in these cases, to check on compliance with criteria for unrestricted use of treated biomass. For mesophilic biogas plants adequate restrictions on the use of the end-product will depend on individual process technology and local conditions. (author) 24 refs.

  6. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  7. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  8. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  9. 2010 Status of Uranium Conversion Plant Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Conversion Plant (UCP) was used to manufacture 100 tons of UO2. This paper introduced briefly decommissioning activities in the first half year of 2010. powder for the Wolsong-1 CANDU reactor. The conversion plant has been shut down and minimally maintained for the prevention of a contamination by a deterioration of the equipment. The conversion plant has building area of 2916 m2 and two main conversion processes. ADU (Ammonium Di-Uranate) and AUC (Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate) process are installed in the backside and the front side of the building, respectively. Conversion plant has two lagoons, which is to store all wastes generated from the plant operation. Sludge wastes stored 150m3 and 100m3 in Lagoon 1 and 2, respectively. Main compounds of sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, and calcium carbonate. In 2000, the decommissioning of the plant was finally decided upon and a decommissioning program was launched to complete by 2010. In the middle of 2004, decommissioning program obtained the approval of regulatory body and decommissioning activities started. The scope of the project includes the removal of all equipment and the release of the building for re-use. The project is scheduled to be completed at the end of 2010 with a total budget of 10.9 billion This paper introduced briefly decommissioning activities in the first half year of 2010

  10. Biomass CHP plant Guessing: reliable solution for fossil free municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start up of the biomass gasification CHP plant in 2002 marked the last step of the small Austrian town of Guessing towards the supply with 100 % biomass based renewable energy. Furthermore a sustainable process of regional development has been set into force, which turned this former poor region into a prospering European centre of renewable energy. Reaching an electric efficiency of 25 % and a total efficiency of 80 %, the process of steam blown gasification and gas utilisation in an engine enables economic operation even in small plants. For more than 11,000 operating hours the system could prove its reliability. Due to the favourable characteristics of the product gas research projects beyond electricity production were already started. (authors)

  11. Separation of organic compounds binding risk elements in plant biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Tlustoš, P.; Balík, J.; Vašíčková, Soňa; Száková, J.

    Vol. 1. Nyíregyháza: Continent-Ph Ltd, 2005 - (Simon, L.), s. 277-282 ISBN 963 86918 16. [International Scientific Conference Innovation and Utility in the Visegrad Fours. Nyíregyháza (HU), 13.10.2005-15.10.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 631.002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : plant biomass * organic compounds binding risk elements * spinach Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  12. Switching to biomass co-firing in European coal power plants: Estimating the biomass and CO 2 breakeven prices

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of biomass co-firing in European coal power stations. We propose a tractable and original method, that enables us to get expressions of biomass and CO2 breakeven points for co-firing in different types of coal plants. We call them carbon switching price and biomass switching price. They correspond to carbon and biomass prices that make coal plants equally attractive under co-firing or classical conditions (i.e. when coal is the only input). The carbon switchin...

  13. Interrelationships among plant biomass, plant surface area and the interception of particulate deposition by grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interrelationships among plant biomass, plant surface area and interception fraction were determined for the interception by corn of 238Pu-bearing particles released to the atmosphere from the H-Area nuclear fuels chemical separations facility on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant in Barnwell County, South Carolina. The relationship between interception fraction and corn biomass was accurately approximated by a filtration model with an absorption coefficient of 3.60 m2 kg-1. A filtration model with an absorption coefficient of 2.91 m2 kg-1 accurately approximated the relationship between biomass and interception fraction for data compiled from the literature for a variety of grass species. A linear regression model accurately approximated the relationship between interception fraction and surface area, but was not a better predictor of interception fraction than the filtration model for biomass

  14. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal Biomass: Algal Biomass Production in Open Pond Systems and Processing Through Dewatering for Downstream Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grundl, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This report describes in detail a set of aspirational design and process targets to better understand the realistic economic potential for the production of algal biomass for subsequent conversion to biofuels and/or coproducts, based on the use of open pond cultivation systems and a series of dewatering operations to concentrate the biomass up to 20 wt% solids (ash-free dry weight basis).

  16. Photoreceptor effects on plant biomass, resource allocation, and metabolic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deyue; Seaton, Daniel D; Krahmer, Johanna; Halliday, Karen J

    2016-07-01

    Plants sense the light environment through an ensemble of photoreceptors. Members of the phytochrome class of light receptors are known to play a critical role in seedling establishment, and are among the best-characterized plant signaling components. Phytochromes also regulate adult plant growth; however, our knowledge of this process is rather fragmented. This study demonstrates that phytochrome controls carbon allocation and biomass production in the developing plant. Phytochrome mutants have a reduced CO2 uptake, yet overaccumulate daytime sucrose and starch. This finding suggests that even though carbon fixation is impeded, the available carbon resources are not fully used for growth during the day. Supporting this notion, phytochrome depletion alters the proportion of day:night growth. In addition, phytochrome loss leads to sizeable reductions in overall growth, dry weight, total protein levels, and the expression of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE genes. Because cellulose and protein are major constituents of plant biomass, our data point to an important role for phytochrome in regulating these fundamental components of plant productivity. We show that phytochrome loss impacts core metabolism, leading to elevated levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids, sugar derivatives, and notably the stress metabolites proline and raffinose. Furthermore, the already growth-retarded phytochrome mutants are less responsive to growth-inhibiting abiotic stresses and have elevated expression of stress marker genes. This coordinated response appears to divert resources from energetically costly biomass production to improve resilience. In nature, this strategy may be activated in phytochrome-disabling, vegetation-dense habitats to enhance survival in potentially resource-limiting conditions. PMID:27330114

  17. Combating corrosion in biomass and waste-fired plant

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Pamela; Hjörnhede, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Many biomass- or waste-fired plants have problems with high temperature corrosion especially if the steam temperature is greater than500°C.  An increase in the combustion of waste fuels means that an increasing number of boilers have had problems. Therefore, there is great interest in reducing the costs associated with high temperature corrosion and at the same time there exists a desire to improve the electrical efficiency of a plant by the use of higher steam temperatures.  Assuming that th...

  18. Quantifying above- and belowground biomass carbon loss with forest conversion in tropical lowlands of Sumatra (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Leuschner, Christoph; Triadiati, Triadiati; Meriem, Selis; Hertel, Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    Natural forests in South-East Asia have been extensively converted into other land-use systems in the past decades and still show high deforestation rates. Historically, lowland forests have been converted into rubber forests, but more recently, the dominant conversion is into oil palm plantations. While it is expected that the large-scale conversion has strong effects on the carbon cycle, detailed studies quantifying carbon pools and total net primary production (NPPtotal ) in above- and belowground tree biomass in land-use systems replacing rainforest (incl. oil palm plantations) are rare so far. We measured above- and belowground carbon pools in tree biomass together with NPPtotal in natural old-growth forests, 'jungle rubber' agroforests under natural tree cover, and rubber and oil palm monocultures in Sumatra. In total, 32 stands (eight plot replicates per land-use system) were studied in two different regions. Total tree biomass in the natural forest (mean: 384 Mg ha(-1) ) was more than two times higher than in jungle rubber stands (147 Mg ha(-1) ) and >four times higher than in monoculture rubber and oil palm plantations (78 and 50 Mg ha(-1) ). NPPtotal was higher in the natural forest (24 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) than in the rubber systems (20 and 15 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), but was highest in the oil palm system (33 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) due to very high fruit production (15-20 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ). NPPtotal was dominated in all systems by aboveground production, but belowground productivity was significantly higher in the natural forest and jungle rubber than in plantations. We conclude that conversion of natural lowland forest into different agricultural systems leads to a strong reduction not only in the biomass carbon pool (up to 166 Mg C ha(-1) ) but also in carbon sequestration as carbon residence time (i.e. biomass-C:NPP-C) was 3-10 times higher in the natural forest than in rubber and oil palm plantations. PMID:25980371

  19. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    that the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel references for electricity production takes place in a combined heat and power plant, but as a sensitivity analysis, we also consider combustion in a condensing mode power plant where only electricity is produced. Our results show that the production of 1 k......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...

  20. Assessment of the phytoextraction potential of high biomass crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Allica, Javier; Becerril, José M; Garbisu, Carlos

    2008-03-01

    A hydroponic screening method was used to identify high biomass crop plants with the ability to accumulate metals. Highest values of shoot accumulation were found in maize cv. Ranchero, rapeseed cv. Karat, and cardoon cv. Peralta for Pb (18 753 mg kg(-1)), Zn (10 916 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (242 mg kg(-1)), respectively. Subsequently, we tested the potential of these three cultivars for the phytoextraction of a metal spiked compost, finding out that, in cardoon and maize plants, increasing Zn and Cd concentrations led to lower values of root and shoot DW. By contrast, rapeseed shoot growth was not significantly affected by Cd concentration. Finally, a metal polluted soil was used to check these cultivars' phytoextraction capacity. Although the soil was phytotoxic enough to prevent the growth of cardoon and rapeseed plants, maize plants phytoextracted 3.7 mg Zn pot(-1). We concluded that the phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies depending on the screening method used. PMID:17644228

  1. Structural analysis of Catliq® bio-oil produced by catalytic liquid conversion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Rudolf, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The potential offered by biomass for solving some of the world's energy problems is widely recognized. The energy contained in biomass can be utilized either directly as in combustion or by converting the biomass into a liquid fuel for transportation. The Catliq® (catalytic liquid conversion) process is a second generation process for the production of bio-oil from different biomass-based waste materials. The process is carried out at subcritical conditions (280-350 °C and 180-250 bar) and in...

  2. First-principles quantum-mechanical investigations of biomass conversion at the liquid-solid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hongli; Xue, Wenhua; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-01

    We report first-principles density-functional calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for the reactions involving furfural, which is an important intermediate in biomass conversion, at the catalytic liquid-solid interfaces. The different dynamic processes of furfural at the water-Cu(111) and water-Pd(111) interfaces suggest different catalytic reaction mechanisms for the conversion of furfural. Simulations for the dynamic processes with and without hydrogen demonstrate the importance of the liquid-solid interface as well as the presence of hydrogen in possible catalytic reactions including hydrogenation and decarbonylation of furfural. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). This research used the supercomputer resources of the XSEDE, the NERSC Center, and the Tandy Supercomputing Center.

  3. Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1988-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... to 24 (w/w)% (45 to 57% cellulose convertibility), and at 180°C glucose yield improved from 22 to 29 (w/w)% (54 to 69% cellulose convertibility). Direct HTT of grass at 190°C gave the same high glucose yield as for grass silage (35 (w/w)% (77% cellulose convertibility)) and improved xylan yields (27......% xylan convertibility). The effect of ensiling of grass prior to HTT improved the enzymatic conversion of cellulose for HTT at 170 and 180°C, but the increased glucose release did not make up for the loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during ensiling. Overall, sugar yields (C6 + C5) were similar...

  5. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  6. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  7. The Evritania (Greece) demonstration plant of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabaniotou, A.A.; Karabela, A.J. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute

    1999-06-01

    This paper is focused on describing the Evritania demonstration plant for pyrolysis of forestry biomass. This plant was constructed in the village of Voulpi, district of Evritania, in central Greece, in 1995, with a threefold purpose; development of know-how, forest fire prevention and rural development. The products are charcoal and bio-oil. The plant capacity is 1200-1450 kg/h of wet biomass and the pyrolysis temperature is approx. 400 deg C. The raw material used is Arbutus unedo, which is an evergreen broad-leaf tree which covers the area. Other agricultural waste could also be used, such as olive pits and cuttings, almond shells and cotton kernels. The paper includes the conceptual process flow sheet, the changes and improvements made during the trial phase, data from the start-up phase, and product characteristics. Comparison of the process with the Alten process is presented. Additionally, comparisons are made of product characteristics with those from other pyrolysis processes. In general, the results obtained are encouraging even though several improvements of the pilot plant are required. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the conversion efficiency of the 180Nm3/h Johansson Biomass Gasifier™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntshengedzeni S. Mamphweli, Edson L. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification is the thermochemical conversion of biomass materials into a producer gas, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, nitrogen and water vapour. The 180Nm3/h System Johansson Biomass Gasifier (SJBG at Eskom research and Innovation Centre is used for research and development initiatives, and also for demonstration purposes. The aim of this research was to investigate the efficiency of the gasifier and. This is done through an analysis of the gas profiles at the gasifier using a custom-built gas and temperature measurement system. Non-Dispersive Infrared gas detection technique is applied to monitor the volume and quality of producer gas. Palladium/Nickel gas sensing is applied to monitor the hydrogen content in the gas stream. Temperature in the gasifier is monitored through the use of type K thermocouples. The gas and temperature sensors are connected to the data logger interfaced to a computer. The heating value of the producer gas was determined from the percentage composition of the combustible gases. Evaluation of the efficiency of this gasifier was done before the installation of a 300Nm3/h at a rural village. The gasifier achieved an efficiency of 75% with an average gas heating value of 6MJ/Nm3.

  9. Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Meineke

    Full Text Available The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1 dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type.

  10. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass Fired Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly...... ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10 and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants....... With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. This paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants. Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with fossil fuels are summarised...

  11. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass fired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    fuel resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can...... be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Cofiring of straw (10 and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw fired...... plants. With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. The present paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants. Results from 100% straw firing, woodchip and cofiring of straw with fossil fuels...

  12. Thermal power plant efficiency enhancement with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to greenhouse gas emissions, coastal thermal power plants would gain further opposition due to their heat rejection distressing the local ecosystem. Therefore, these plants need to enhance their thermal efficiency while reducing their environmental offense. In this study, a hybrid plant based on the principle of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion was coupled to a 740 MW coal-fired power plant project located at latitude 28°S where the surface to deepwater temperature difference would not suffice for regular OTEC plants. This paper presents the thermodynamical model to assess the overall efficiency gained by adopting an ammonia Rankine cycle plus a desalinating unit, heated by the power plant condenser discharge and refrigerated by cold deep seawater. The simulation allowed us to optimize a system that would finally enhance the plant power output by 25–37 MW, depending on the season, without added emissions while reducing dramatically the water temperature at discharge and also desalinating up to 5.8 million tons per year. The supplemental equipment was sized and the specific emissions reduction was estimated. We believe that this approach would improve the acceptability of thermal and nuclear power plant projects regardless of the plant location. -- Highlights: • An Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion hybrid plant was designed. • The waste heat of a power plant was delivered as an OTEC heat source. • The effect of size and operating conditions on plant efficiency were studied. • The OTEC implementation in a Chilean thermal power plant was evaluated. • The net efficiency of the thermal power plant was increased by 1.3%

  13. Energy conversion/power plant cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, K.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Kenneth Nichols, Barber-Nichols, Inc., is about cost-cutting in the energy conversion phase and power plant phase of geothermal energy production. Mr. Nichols discusses several ways in which improvements could be made, including: use of more efficient compressors and other equipment as they become available, anticipating reservoir resource decline and planning for it, running smaller binary systems independent of human operators, and designing plants so that they are relatively maintenance-free.

  14. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony

    2012-04-13

    This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

  16. Combating corrosion in biomass and waste fired plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Research and Development; Hjoernhede, Anders [Vattenfall AB, Gothenburg (Sweden). Power Consultant

    2010-07-01

    Many biomass- or waste-fired plants have problems with high temperature corrosion especially if the steam temperature is greater than 500 C. An increase in the combustion of waste fuels means that an increasing number of boilers have had problems. Therefore, there is great interest in reducing the costs associated with high temperature corrosion and at the same time there exists a desire to improve the electrical efficiency of a plant by the use of higher steam temperatures. Assuming that the fuel is well-mixed and that there is good combustion control, there are in addition a number of other measures which can be used to reduce superheater corrosion in biomass and waste fired plants, and these are described in this paper. These include the use of fuel additives, specifically sulphur-containing ones; design aspects like placing superheaters in less corrosive positions in a boiler, using tube shielding, a wider pitch between the tubes; operational considerations such as more controlled soot-blowing and the use of better materials. (orig.)

  17. Feedback Experience from Decommissioning of Uranium Conversion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has been conducting decommissioning activities of Uranium Conversion Plant (UCP) for the last decade. As a result of all this work KAERI has accumulated significant experience in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On the basis of the experience gained from decommissioning activities, this paper describes several lessons learned

  18. Accelerated Sequestration of Terrestrial Plant Biomass in the Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most efficient uses of aboveground agricultural residues to reduce atmospheric CO2 is burial in sites removed from contact with the atmosphere and in which degradation of lignocellulose is inhibited (Strand and Benford 2009). Similarly by burying forest residues greater benefits for atmospheric carbon accrue compared to incineration or bioethanol production. Accessible planetary sites that are most removed from contact with the atmosphere are primarily the deep ocean sediments. Many deep ocean sediment ecologies are acclimated to massive inputs of terrestrial plant biomass. Nonetheless, marine degradation rates of lignocellulose are slower than terrestrial rates (Keil et al. 2010). Additionally, anaerobic conditions are easily achieved in many deep ocean sediments, inhibiting lignocellulose degradation further, while the dominance of sulfate in the water column as electron acceptor prevents the release of methane from methanogenesis to the atmosphere. The potential benefit of massive removal of excess terrestrial biomass to the deep ocean will be estimated and compared to other uses including biochar and BECS. The impact of the biomass on the marine environment will be discussed and potential sequestration sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic compared. Keil, R. G., J. M. Nuwer, et al. (2010). "Burial of agricultural byproducts in the deep sea as a form of carbon sequestration: A preliminary experiment." Marine Chemistry (In Press, online 6 August 2010). Strand, S. E. and G. Benford (2009). "Ocean sequestration of crop residue carbon: recycling fossil fuel carbon back to deep sediments." Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(4): 1000-1007.

  19. Impact of different national biomass policies on investment costs of biomass district heating plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The BIO-COST project - co-ordinated by E.V.A. - was funded by the European Commission's THERMIE Type B Programme. The objective of BIO-COST was to analyse the impact of national biomass policies on the investment costs of biomass district heating (DH) plants. The European comparison should help identifying measures to reduce investment costs for biomass DH plants and/or components down to a 'best practice' level. The investigation is based on the comparison of 20 biomass DH plants by country, with Denmark and Sweden having mainly high energy taxes as driver, while Austria and France rely mainly on subsidy systems. The results of BIO-COST show, that governmental policies can have a big impact especially on grid and buildings costs, effecting of course the overall costs of the plant enormously. Emission standards have their effects especially on the costs for technical equipment, however, this fact was not reflected in the BIO-COST data. The results do not show a clear advantage of either the energy tax approach or the subsidy approach: The French subsidy approach leads to fairly low cost levels compared to the Danish tax approach, while the Swedish tax approach seems to yield the lowest cost level. On the other hand the Austrian subsidy approach seems to intercrease investment costs. In principle both the tax as the subsidy approach can lead to the same effect: a project is calculated in such a way, that it just meets economic breakeven. This is typically the case when the project is not carried out by a private enterprise but by an operator aiming at enhanced public welfare (e.g. co-operative, municipality). In this case a subsidy model might yield more possibilities to encourage an economically efficient development, than a tax. Instead of giving subsidies as a fixed percentage of investments they could be adjusted to the actual needs of the project as proven by a standardised calculation. Of course this can create the incentive to expect higher

  20. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  1. Genome and Transcriptome of Clostridium phytofermentans, Catalyst for the Direct Conversion of Plant Feedstocks to Fuels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Petit

    Full Text Available Clostridium phytofermentans was isolated from forest soil and is distinguished by its capacity to directly ferment plant cell wall polysaccharides into ethanol as the primary product, suggesting that it possesses unusual catabolic pathways. The objective of the present study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of biomass conversion to ethanol in a single organism, Clostridium phytofermentans, by analyzing its complete genome and transcriptome during growth on plant carbohydrates. The saccharolytic versatility of C. phytofermentans is reflected in a diversity of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette sugar transporters and glycoside hydrolases, many of which may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. These genes are frequently organized as operons that may be controlled individually by the many transcriptional regulators identified in the genome. Preferential ethanol production may be due to high levels of expression of multiple ethanol dehydrogenases and additional pathways maximizing ethanol yield. The genome also encodes three different proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments with the capacity to compartmentalize pathways that divert fermentation intermediates to various products. These characteristics make C. phytofermentans an attractive resource for improving the efficiency and speed of biomass conversion to biofuels.

  2. Genome and Transcriptome of Clostridium phytofermentans, Catalyst for the Direct Conversion of Plant Feedstocks to Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Elsa; Coppi, Maddalena V.; Hayes, James C.; Tolonen, Andrew C.; Warnick, Thomas; Latouf, William G.; Amisano, Danielle; Biddle, Amy; Mukherjee, Supratim; Ivanova, Natalia; Lykidis, Athanassios; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos; Henrissat, Bernard; Lau, Joanne; Schnell, Danny J.; Church, George M.; Leschine, Susan B.; Blanchard, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium phytofermentans was isolated from forest soil and is distinguished by its capacity to directly ferment plant cell wall polysaccharides into ethanol as the primary product, suggesting that it possesses unusual catabolic pathways. The objective of the present study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of biomass conversion to ethanol in a single organism, Clostridium phytofermentans, by analyzing its complete genome and transcriptome during growth on plant carbohydrates. The saccharolytic versatility of C. phytofermentans is reflected in a diversity of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette sugar transporters and glycoside hydrolases, many of which may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. These genes are frequently organized as operons that may be controlled individually by the many transcriptional regulators identified in the genome. Preferential ethanol production may be due to high levels of expression of multiple ethanol dehydrogenases and additional pathways maximizing ethanol yield. The genome also encodes three different proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments with the capacity to compartmentalize pathways that divert fermentation intermediates to various products. These characteristics make C. phytofermentans an attractive resource for improving the efficiency and speed of biomass conversion to biofuels. PMID:26035711

  3. Circulating fluidized-bed technologies for the conversion of biomass into energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper introduces circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion and CFB gasification. CFB combustion units are state-of-the-art and have proven their ability to convert biomass into power and/or steam. The existing units and projects in developing countries are discussed as examples of conventional technology. To illustrate advanced technologies, CFB gasification is discussed. Important process parameters of plants already in operation or under construction in developed countries are shown, Criteria for the selection of CFB combustion or gasification based on available feedstocks and products required are discussed. Finally, a procedure for implementing Lurgi's CFB technology in developing countries is proposed. (author)

  4. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two models of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel production plant were designed and analyzed in DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME by either recycle (RC) or once through (OT) catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300 oC. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plants are designed with focus on lowering the total CO2 emissions from the plants; this includes e.g. a recycle of a CO2 rich stream to a CO2 capture plant, which is used in the conditioning of the syngas. The plant models predict energy efficiencies from torrefied biomass to DME of 66% (RC) and 48% (OT) (LHV). If the exported electricity is included, the efficiencies are 71% (RC) and 64% (OT). When accounting for energy loss in torrefaction, the total efficiencies are reduced to 64% (RC) and 58% (OT). The two plants produce DME at an estimated cost of $11.9/GJLHV (RC) and $12.9/GJLHV (OT). If a credit is given for storing the CO2 captured, the future costs may become as low as $5.4/GJLHV (RC) and $3.1/GJLHV (OT).

  5. Critical success factors for biomass. Identification/specification of critical success factors in the development and market introduction of biomass conversion systems for the production of electricity and/or heat and/or gaseous/liquid secondary energy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch government has set the policy target that in 2020 10% of the total energy consumption has to be provided by means of renewable energy sources. Biomass is expected to play a major role (25-30%) in this future renewable energy based energy supply system. However, it is still unclear if this biomass-based target will be reached. Although studies showed that success or failure of innovations and projects depend on a multitude of scientific, technical, economic and societal variables, a number of questions still remained unanswered. This information often concentrated exclusively on the cost price aspects. This study is conducted to identify the internal and external barriers or constraints other than cost aspects, which are of vital importance to a successful penetration of biomass in the Dutch energy market. Barriers with a decreasing influence on the market introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands are: short-term contractability of biomass (organic waste streams) for energy purposes, applicable emission and waste policies, and unfamiliarity of bioenergy by the public and government. Barriers that potentially could play an important role on the market introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands in the near future are: long-term contractability of biomass (organic waste streams and energy crops) for energy purposes, the 'new' emission constraints and their potential negative influence on the implementation of small-scale biomass-based combined-cycle plants, the rivalry of bioenergy with other renewable energy based technologies in a liberalising energy market, the social acceptance of bioenergy, the future European agriculture policy (energy crops), and the current status and development perspectives of biomass-based energy conversion technologies. 66 refs

  6. Biochemical Conversion Processes of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethauer, Simone; Studer, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass - such as wood, agricultural residues or dedicated energy crops - is a promising renewable feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals that is available at large scale at low cost without direct competition for food usage. Its biochemical conversion in a sugar platform biorefinery includes three main unit operations that are illustrated in this review: the physico-chemical pretreatment of the biomass, the enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrates to a fermentable sugar stream by cellulases and finally the fermentation of the sugars by suitable microorganisms to the target molecules. Special emphasis in this review is put on the technology, commercial status and future prospects of the production of second-generation fuel ethanol, as this process has received most research and development efforts so far. Despite significant advances, high enzyme costs are still a hurdle for large scale competitive lignocellulosic ethanol production. This could be overcome by a strategy termed 'consolidated bioprocessing' (CBP), where enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation is integrated in one step - either by utilizing one genetically engineered superior microorganism or by creating an artificial co-culture. Insight is provided on both CBP strategies for the production of ethanol as well as of advanced fuels and commodity chemicals. PMID:26598400

  7. Enhancement of biomass conversion in catalytic fast pyrolysis by microwave-assisted formic acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Ning; Xiao, Bo; Li, Jian; Wang, Yujue

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated microwave-assisted formic acid (MW-FA) pretreatment as a possible way to improve aromatic production from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignocellulosic biomass. Results showed that short duration of MW-FA pretreatment (5-10min) could effectively disrupt the recalcitrant structure of beech wood and selectively remove its hemicellulose and lignin components. This increased the accessibility of cellulose component of biomass to subsequent thermal conversion in CFP. Consequently, the MW-FA pretreated beech wood produced 14.0-28.3% higher yields (26.4-29.8C%) for valuable aromatic products in CFP than the untreated control (23.2C%). In addition, the yields of undesired solid residue (char/coke) decreased from 33.1C% for the untreated control to 28.6-29.8C% for the MW-FA pretreated samples. These results demonstrate that MW-FA pretreatment can provide an effective way to improve the product distribution from CFP of lignocellulose. PMID:27176672

  8. Plant-soil feedback induces shifts in biomass allocation in the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata

    OpenAIRE

    te Beest, Mariska; Stevens, Nicola; Olff, Han; van der Putten, Wim H.; van der Wal, Rene

    2009-01-01

    P> Soil communities and their interactions with plants may play a major role in determining the success of invasive species. However, rigorous investigations of this idea using cross-continental comparisons, including native and invasive plant populations, are still scarce. We investigated if interactions with the soil community affect the growth and biomass allocation of the (sub)tropical invasive shrub Chromolaena odorata. We performed a cross-continental comparison with both native and non...

  9. Assessment of the phytoextraction potential of high biomass crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydroponic screening method was used to identify high biomass crop plants with the ability to accumulate metals. Highest values of shoot accumulation were found in maize cv. Ranchero, rapeseed cv. Karat, and cardoon cv. Peralta for Pb (18 753 mg kg-1), Zn (10 916 mg kg-1), and Cd (242 mg kg-1), respectively. Subsequently, we tested the potential of these three cultivars for the phytoextraction of a metal spiked compost, finding out that, in cardoon and maize plants, increasing Zn and Cd concentrations led to lower values of root and shoot DW. By contrast, rapeseed shoot growth was not significantly affected by Cd concentration. Finally, a metal polluted soil was used to check these cultivars' phytoextraction capacity. Although the soil was phytotoxic enough to prevent the growth of cardoon and rapeseed plants, maize plants phytoextracted 3.7 mg Zn pot-1. We concluded that the phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies depending on the screening method used. - The phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies significantly depending on the screening method used

  10. Assessment of the phytoextraction potential of high biomass crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Allica, Javier [NEIKER-tecnalia, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Becerril, Jose M. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos [NEIKER-tecnalia, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain)], E-mail: cgarbisu@neiker.net

    2008-03-15

    A hydroponic screening method was used to identify high biomass crop plants with the ability to accumulate metals. Highest values of shoot accumulation were found in maize cv. Ranchero, rapeseed cv. Karat, and cardoon cv. Peralta for Pb (18 753 mg kg{sup -1}), Zn (10 916 mg kg{sup -1}), and Cd (242 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. Subsequently, we tested the potential of these three cultivars for the phytoextraction of a metal spiked compost, finding out that, in cardoon and maize plants, increasing Zn and Cd concentrations led to lower values of root and shoot DW. By contrast, rapeseed shoot growth was not significantly affected by Cd concentration. Finally, a metal polluted soil was used to check these cultivars' phytoextraction capacity. Although the soil was phytotoxic enough to prevent the growth of cardoon and rapeseed plants, maize plants phytoextracted 3.7 mg Zn pot{sup -1}. We concluded that the phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies depending on the screening method used. - The phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies significantly depending on the screening method used.

  11. Mini digester and biogas production from plant biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vindis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the construction of a mini digester for biogas production from different agriculture plant biomass and other organic wastes. The amount of biogas production (methane is observed by the mini digester.Design/methodology/approach: The mini digester consisting of twelve units was built and some measurements with agriculture plant biomass were performed according to DIN 38414 part 8. Four tests simultaneously with three repetitions can be performed.Findings: With the mini digester the amount of biogas production is observed. The parameters such as biogas production and biogas composition from maize and sugar beet silage in certain ratio were measured and calculated. The highest biogas and methane yield was 493 NI kg VS-1 or 289 NI CH4 kg VS-1.Research limitations/implications: The scope of substrates for the anaerobic digestion process is on the increase so the interest in the use of the biogas as a source of a renewable energy is very high. With mini digester it is possible to observe the amount of biogas (methane production and so the most suitable plant giving the maximum methane yield, can be determined.Practical implications: The aim of biogas as renewable source of energy is to replace fossil fuels with sustainable energy production systems and to fulfil the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. On big farms the liquid manure and different energy crops can be used for biogas production. That can improve the economical efficiency of the farm and reduce the CO2 emissions.Originality/value: Mini digester for biogas production was built as special equipment. The quality of produced biogas is determined with a gas analyser GA 45.

  12. Safeguards approaches for conversion and gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes recent studies and investigations of new safeguards measures and inspection tools to strengthen international safeguards at GCEPs (Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants) and conversion plants. The IAEA has indicated that continuous, unattended process monitoring should play a central role in future safeguards approaches for conversion plants and GCEPs. Monitoring safeguards relevant information from accountancy scales, process load cells, and unit header pipes can make existing safeguards approaches more efficient by replacing repetitive, routine, labor-intensive inspection activities with automated systems. These systems can make the safeguards approach more effective by addressing more completely the safeguards objectives at these facilities. Automated collection and analysis of the data can further enable the IAEA to move towards a fully-information driven inspection regime with randomized (from the operator's perspective), short-notice inspections. The reduction in repetitive on-site inspection activities would also be beneficial to plant operators, but only if sensitive and proprietary information can be protected and the new systems prove to be reliable. New facilities that incorporate Safeguards by Design into the earliest design stages can facilitate the effective DIV (Design Information Verification) of the plant to allow the inspectors to analyze the capacity of the plant, to project maximum production from the plant, and to provide a focus on the areas in the plant where credible diversion scenarios could be attempted. Facilitating efficient nuclear material accountancy by simplifying process pipework and making flow measurement points more accessible can allow for easier estimation of plant holdup and a potential reduction in the number of person-days of inspection. Lastly, a universal monitoring standard that tracks the location, movement, and use of UF6 cylinders may enhance the efficiency of operations at industry sites and would

  13. Direct conversion of chitin biomass to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in concentrated ZnCl2 aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Deng, Tiansheng; Qiao, Yan; Hou, Xianglin

    2013-09-01

    The direct conversion of chitin biomass to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in ZnCl2 aqueous solution was studied systemically. D-Glucosamine (GlcNH2) was chosen as the model compound to investigate the reaction, and 5-HMF could be obtained in 21.9% yield with 99% conversion of GlcNH2. Optimization of the reaction parameters including the screening of 8 co-catalysts was carried out. Among them, AlCl3 and B(OH)3 improved 5-HMF yield, whereas CdCl2, CuCl2 and NH4Cl had no effect. CrCl3, SnCl4 and SnCl2 showed negative effects, i.e. lower yields. Consequently, the optimal reaction conditions were found to be 67 wt.% ZnCl2 aqueous solution, at 120 °C without co-catalyst. The reactions were further studied by in situ NMR, and no intermediate or other byproducts, except humins, were observed. Finally, the substrate scope was expanded from GlcNH2 to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and various chitosan polymers with different molecular weights, 5-HMF yield from polymers were generally lower than that from GlcNH2. PMID:23819974

  14. Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.

  15. Plant diversity drives soil microbial biomass carbon in grasslands irrespective of global environmental change factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Madhav Prakash; Milcu, Alexandru; Manning, Pete; Niklaus, Pascal A; Roscher, Christiane; Power, Sally; Reich, Peter B; Scheu, Stefan; Tilman, David; Ai, Fuxun; Guo, Hongyan; Ji, Rong; Pierce, Sarah; Ramirez, Nathaly Guerrero; Richter, Annabell Nicola; Steinauer, Katja; Strecker, Tanja; Vogel, Anja; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-11-01

    Soil microbial biomass is a key determinant of carbon dynamics in the soil. Several studies have shown that soil microbial biomass significantly increases with plant species diversity, but it remains unclear whether plant species diversity can also stabilize soil microbial biomass in a changing environment. This question is particularly relevant as many global environmental change (GEC) factors, such as drought and nutrient enrichment, have been shown to reduce soil microbial biomass. Experiments with orthogonal manipulations of plant diversity and GEC factors can provide insights whether plant diversity can attenuate such detrimental effects on soil microbial biomass. Here, we present the analysis of 12 different studies with 14 unique orthogonal plant diversity × GEC manipulations in grasslands, where plant diversity and at least one GEC factor (elevated CO2 , nutrient enrichment, drought, earthworm presence, or warming) were manipulated. Our results show that higher plant diversity significantly enhances soil microbial biomass with the strongest effects in long-term field experiments. In contrast, GEC factors had inconsistent effects with only drought having a significant negative effect. Importantly, we report consistent non-significant effects for all 14 interactions between plant diversity and GEC factors, which indicates a limited potential of plant diversity to attenuate the effects of GEC factors on soil microbial biomass. We highlight that plant diversity is a major determinant of soil microbial biomass in experimental grasslands that can influence soil carbon dynamics irrespective of GEC. PMID:26118993

  16. Ash characteristics and plant nutrients in some aquatic biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; Pandit, Ankita; George, Joshy; Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Selvi, Vetrivel; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic biomasses are explored as potential fuel source for direct combustion because of their faster growth and no land requirement. The energy density and the ash characteristics of the aquatic biomasses are to be evaluated for their suitability for energy extraction. In the study, four aquatic plant samples namely Eichornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticilleta, Lemna minor, Spirogyra spp were collected from a pond in Digwadih Campus of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad. The biomasses were air dried, powdered and ashed at different temperatures. Volatile C was relatively lower in Spirogyra and Hydrilla (53 %) than Eichornia (62.6 %) or Lemna (59.7 %), whereas fixed C was higher for Eichornia and Lemna (about 10 %) and lower for Hydrilla (1 %). Ultimate analysis showed that the carbon content was in the order Eichornia > Lemna > Spirogyra > Hydrilla. The IR spectra of each raw biomass is compared to their respective ashes obtained at different temperatures (500-900°C). With increase in ashing temperature from 500-900°C there is gradual breakdown of the cellulosic structure hence, peaks around 2900-2800cm-1 caused by aliphatic C-H vibration tends to disappear slowly in ash. More number of peaks appears at lower wavenumbers in ashes of all the biomass samples indicating towards increased percentage of inorganic ion species. Considerable enrichment of SiO2 is validated with prominent peaks at 1100-900 cm-1 in all the ashes. Lemna and Spirogyra has a similar ash composition (Si > Al > Ca > K), whereas, Ca was higher in Hydrilla (Si > Ca > K > Al). Eichornia (Si > K > Ca > Al) has higher K and Ca than Al. SiO2 and Al2O3 were higher in Spirogyra, while SiO2 and CaO in Eichornia and Hydrilla. K first increased from 500-700/800⁰C, and then decreased from 800-900⁰C. Cl is lost slowly in ash from 500-700/800⁰C and then by a drastic reduction from 800-900⁰C. S is enhanced in ash at all temperatures although the change is quite small. Most of the Cl

  17. BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falster, Daniel; Duursma, Remko; Ishihara, Masae; Barneche, Diego; Fitzjohn, Richard; Varhammar, Angelica; Aiba, Masahiro; Ando, M.; Anten, Niels; Aspinwall, Michael J.; Baltzer, Jennifer; Baraloto, Christopher; Battaglia, Michael; Battles, John; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; van Breugel, Michiel; Camac, James; Claveau, Yves; Coll Mir, Llus; Dannoura, Dannoura; Delagrange, Sylvain; Domec, Jean-Cristophe; Fatemi, Farrah; Feng, Wang; Gargaglione, Veronica; Goto, Yoshiaki; Hagihara, Akio; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hamilton, Steve; Harja, Degi; Hiura, Tsutom; Holdaway, Robert; Hutley, L. B.; Ichie, Tomoaki; Jokela, Eric; Kantola, Anu; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Kenzo, Tanaka; King, David A.; Kloeppel, Brian; Kohyama, Takashi; Komiyama, Akira; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Lusk, Christopher; Maguire, Doug; le Maire, Guerric; Makela, Annikki; Markesteijn, Lars; Marshall, John; McCulloh, Kate; Miyata, Itsuo; Mokany, Karen; Mori, Shigeta; Myster, Randall; Nagano, Masahiro; Naidu, Shawna; Nouvellon, Yann; O' Grady, Anthony; O' Hara, Kevin; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Osada, Noriyuki; Osunkoya, Olusegun O.; Luis Peri, Pablo; Petritan, Mary; Poorter, Lourens; Portsmuth, Angelika; Potvin, Catherine; Ransijn, Johannes; Reid, Douglas; Ribeiro, Sabina C.; Roberts, Scott; Rodriguez, Rolando; Saldana-Acosta, Angela; Santa-Regina, Ignacio; Sasa, Kaichiro; Gailia Selaya, Nadezhda; Sillett, Stephen; Sterck, Frank; Takagi, Kentaro; Tange, Takeshi; Tanouchi, Hiroyuki; Tissue, David; Umehara, Tohru; Utsugi, Hajime; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew; Valladares, Fernando; Vanninen, Petteri; Wang, Jian; Wenk, Elizabeth; Williams, Dick; Ximenes, Fabiano de Aquino; Yamaba, Atsushi; Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamakura, Takuo; Yanai, Ruth; York, Robert

    2015-05-07

    Quantifying the amount of mass or energy invested in plant tissues is of fundamental interest across a range of disciplines, including ecology, forestry, ecosystem science, and climate change science (Niklas, 1994; Chave et al. 2005; Falster et al. 2011). The allocation of net primary production into different plant components is an important process affecting the lifetime of carbon in ecosystems, and resource use and productivity by plants (Cannell & Dewar, 1994; Litton et al. 2007; Poorter et al. 2012). While many studies in have destructively harvested woody plants in the name of science, most of these data have only been made available in the form of summary tables or figures included in publications. Until now, the raw data has resided piecemeal on the hard drives of individual scientists spread around the world. Several studies have gathered together the fitted (allometric) equations for separate datasets (Ter-Mikaelian & Korzukhin, 1997; Jenkins et al. 2003; Zianis et al. 2005; Henry et al. 2013), but none have previously attempted to organize and share the raw individual plant data underpinning these equations on a large scale. Gathered together, such data would represent an important resource for the community, meeting a widely recognised need for rich, open data resources to solve ecological problems (Costello et al. 2013; Fady et al. 2014; Harfoot & Roberts, 2014; Costello et al. 2013). We (D.S. Falster and R.A. Duursma, with the help of D.R. Barneche, R.G. FitzJohn and A. Vårhammar) set out to create such a resource, by asking authors directly whether they would be willing to make their raw data files freely available. The response was overwhelming: nearly everyone we contacted was interested to contribute their raw data. Moreover, we were invited to incorporate another compilation led by M. Ishihara and focussing on Japanese literature. As a result, we present BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants, comprising data collected in 174

  18. Biomass Cofiring in Coal Power Plants and its Impact on Agriculture in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Dumortier, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effects on local biomass supply, demand, and prices of co-firing requirement for existing coal-fired power plants. The co-firing requirement is imposed on 398 existing power plants. The biomass feedstock can come from corn stover, wheat straw, switchgrass, and/or forest residues. Our model incorporates county-level biomass supply as well as national crop commodity demand. A solution to the model consists of county biomass prices and national crop prices. Keywords: Biomass, co-f...

  19. Demonstration of a 1 MWe biomass power plant at USMC Base Camp Lejeune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomass energy conversion project is being sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to demonstrate an environmentally and economically sound electrical power option for government installations, industrial sites, rural cooperatives, small municipalities, and developing countries. Under a cooperative agreement with EPA, Research Triangle Institute is initiating operation of the Camp Lejeune Energy from Wood (CLEW) biomass plant. Wood gasification combined with internal combustion engines was chosen because of (1) recent improvements in gas cleaning, (2) simple, economical operation for units less than 10 MW, and (3) the option of a clean, cheap fuel for the many existing facilities generating expensive electricity from petroleum fuels with reciprocating engines. The plant incorporates a downdraft, moving bed gasifier utilizing hogged waste wood from the Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, NC. A moving bed bulk wood dryer and both spark ignition and diesel engines are included. Unique process design features are briefly described relative to the gasifier, wood drying, tar separation, and process control. A test plan for process optimization and demonstration of reliability, economics, and environmental impact is outlined. (author)

  20. Existing status of uranium refining and conversion plant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report shows the situation of the dismantling of the main equipment in the radiation-controlled area of a uranium refining and conversion plant. The dismantling was carried out at the beginning of the uranium refining and conversion plant decommissioning project. We started the dismantling in April 2008 and finished it in 29 September 2011. The dismantled waste and equipment were stored in 200 small drums. All the contaminated devices were sealed and kept in this stage. The radioactivity inventory of the uranium refining and conversion plant did not change in this stage. However, the risk of contamination due to the deterioration of this facility with time became remarkably small. Moreover, we were able to get many information and experience about dismantling. Then, we began decommissioning. We were in a new stage from April 2012. We are going to dismantle or tightly close the fluidization media storage underground tank, the neutralization and precipitation system of a waste fluid with fluorine, and the uranium and ventilation system in about three years from now on. (author)

  1. Cleaning of radioactive liquid waste by n new biomass plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metapure biomass is a low cost patented material based on a dried plant (Azolla). It binds and concentrates various metal ions from water over a broad range of concentration (ppm to below ppt) and pH (2-12.5). Filtering system based on Metapure can be used for the remediation of industrial waste water and especially for the nuclear industry for the removal of radionuclides from liquid waste. After ts use, it can be easily incinerated at low temperature (350 - 500 deg C) to radionuclides enriched ashes, reducing the waste for disposal up to 1/10, without any loss of the accumulated radioactive isotopes. Meta pure biomass has low affinity for Na ions, while retaining its binding properties for other metal ions, and was proved to be quite efficient in brine solutions. Laboratory experiments, have shown the Metapure efficiency for the removal of isotope traces from high hardness tap water and from brine solution. The removal of Co-60 by Metapure from waste water was tested on site at the Comanche Peak power station (USA). A small scale filtering system for Co-60 removal from high alkaline waste water, is now in operation at Soreq Nuclear Research Center

  2. A review of biomass quality research relevant to the use of poplar and willow for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A. (Toronto Univ., Ontario (CA). Faculty of Forestry); Sennerby-Forsse, L. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SE). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research); Layton, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    It has been recognized that the chemical and physical properties of biomass feedstocks can play an important role in the efficiency of most energy conversion processes. These properties include the ratio of bark to wood, moisture content, specific gravity, calorific or heating value, and the relative content of extractives, {alpha}-cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. A review of the literature dealing with the quality of poplar and willow biomass feedstock for energy conversion revealed that considerable variation existed in many of these traits. This variation may make it possible to improve the quality of feedstock through breeding and selection. Little information exists with respect to heritability (both in the broad sense and narrow sense), the genetic correlation between characters, and the presence of genotype-environment interaction. A better understanding of these parameters is essential if the apparent variability is to be used to improve biomass quality. (author).

  3. Biomass and biomass and biogas yielding potential of sorghum as affected by planting density, sowing time and cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas from biomass is a promising renewable energy source whose importance is increasing in European as well as in other countries. A field experiment at one location (Experimental Station Giessen, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany) over two years was designed to study the effect of altering sowing time (ST), planting density and cultivar on the biomass yield and chemical composition of biomass sorghum, and its potential for methane production. Of the two cultivars tested, cv. Goliath (intraspecific hybrid) was more productive with respect to biomass yield than cv. Bovital (S. bicolor x S. sudanense hybrid). ST also influenced biomass yield and most of the quality parameters measured. Delayed sowing was in general advantageous. The choice of cultivar had a marked effect on biogas and methane yield. The highest biogas and methane yields were produced by late sown cv. Bovital. Sub-optimal planting densities limited biomass accumulation of the crop, however neither the chemical composition nor the methane yield was affected by planting density. (author)

  4. Engineered plant biomass particles coated with bioactive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Plant biomass particles coated with a bioactive agent such as a fertilizer or pesticide, characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to a grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces.

  5. Deactivation of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard

    in such biomass fuels, however, causes enhanced strain on the different equipment in these power plants. One of the affected units is the catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides, which undergoes accelerated deactivation due to deposition of potassium rich particles and subsequent...... poisoning. The potassium poisoning of commercial vanadia based SCR catalysts have been studied for more than two decades, and a broad understanding have been obtained. However, more detailed information on the overall mechanism of deposition, reaction and transport of potassium, and its function of catalyst...... composition and operating conditions, is not available. The main objective of the work presented in this thesis has been to conduct an in depth investigation of the deactivation mechanism of vanadia based SCR catalysts, when subjected to potassium rich aerosols. It has furthermore been a goal to suggest...

  6. Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Shook, Christine D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Athari; Saeed Soltani; Marc A. Rosen; Seyed Mohammad Seyed Mahmoudi; Tatiana Morosuk

    2015-01-01

    Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1) increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the bioma...

  9. Availability of local woody biomass for large-scale energy production in the Netherlands. Case study : Vattenfall biomass plant in Utrecht.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Several potential studies have demonstrated that there is a relatively high potential for the combustion of local woody biomass. Vattenfall investigates the feasibility of building a plant in Utrecht, which will fully run on woody biomass. The pl

  10. Comparative life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing plants with carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Meerman, Hans; Talaei, Alireza; Ramírez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Combining co-firing biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) in power plants offers attractive potential for net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of co-firing biomass (wood pellets and straw pellets) on the emission profile of power plants with carbo

  11. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  12. Proliferation of diversified clostridial species during biological soil disinfestation incorporated with plant biomass under various conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mowlick, Subrata; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】 Biological soil disinfestation (BSD) involves the anaerobic decomposition of plant biomass by microbial communities leads to control of plant pathogens. We analyzed bacterial communities in soil of a model experiment of BSD, as affected by biomass incorporation under various conditions, to find out the major anaerobic bacterial groups emerged after BSD treatments. The soil was treated with Brassica juncea plants, wheat bran or Avena strigosa plants, irrigated at 20% or 30% moisture...

  13. Phosphorus-assisted biomass thermal conversion: reducing carbon loss and improving biochar stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde; Zheng, Wei; Kan, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is often over 50% carbon loss during the thermal conversion of biomass into biochar, leading to it controversy for the biochar formation as a carbon sequestration strategy. Sometimes the biochar also seems not to be stable enough due to physical, chemical, and biological reactions in soils. In this study, three phosphorus-bearing materials, H3PO4, phosphate rock tailing (PRT), and triple superphosphate (TSP), were used as additives to wheat straw with a ratio of 1: 0.4-0.8 for biochar production at 500°C, aiming to alleviate carbon loss during pyrolysis and to increase biochar-C stabilization. All these additives remarkably increased the biochar yield from 31.7% (unmodified biochar) to 46.9%-56.9% (modified biochars). Carbon loss during pyrolysis was reduced from 51.7% to 35.5%-47.7%. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the additives had no effect on thermal stability of biochar but did enhance its oxidative stability. Microbial mineralization was obviously reduced in the modified biochar, especially in the TSP-BC, in which the total CO2 emission during 60-d incubation was reduced by 67.8%, compared to the unmodified biochar. Enhancement of carbon retention and biochar stability was probably due to the formation of meta-phosphate or C-O-PO3, which could either form a physical layer to hinder the contact of C with O2 and bacteria, or occupy the active sites of the C band. Our results indicate that pre-treating biomass with phosphors-bearing materials is effective for reducing carbon loss during pyrolysis and for increasing biochar stabilization, which provides a novel method by which biochar can be designed to improve the carbon sequestration capacity. PMID:25531111

  14. Conversion and utilisation of biomass from Swedish agriculture; Foeraedling och avsaettning av jordbruksbaserade biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    Biomass feedstock from agriculture can be refined and converted into several different energy carriers and utilised for different energy services, such as production of heat, electricity or transportation fuel. The feedstock may be residues and by-products, such as straw and manure, or energy crops cultivated under different conditions depending on variations in regional and local conditions. Similar variations exist in the regional and local conditions for the refining and utilisation of the bioenergy and its by-products. The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the technical and physical conditions of different agriculture-based bioenergy systems using the existing infrastructure and potential new systems expected to be developed in the future. To which extent this technical/physical potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. Furthermore, potential possibilities to utilise existing infrastructure within the forest industry are not included. The report starts with an analysis and description of the energy efficiency of different bioenergy systems, from the production of the biomass to the final use of the refined energy carrier, expressed as the amount of heat, electricity or transportation fuel produced per hectare and year. The possibilities to co-produce different energy carries in bio-refineries are also analysed. The next part of the report includes an analysis of the variation in the regional conditions for the conversion and utilisation of the different energy carriers, based on existing infrastructure, for instance, district heating systems, individual heating systems, combined heat and power production, utilisation of by-products as feed in animal production, utilisation of digestion residues as fertilisers, the supply of forest fuels, etc. The report also includes a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased

  15. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  16. Plant Biomass Leaching for Nutrient Recovery in Closed Loop Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy P.; Wheeler, Raymond (Compiler); Lunn, Griffin

    2015-01-01

    Plants will be important for food and O2 production during long term human habitation in space. Recycling of nutrients (e.g., from waste materials) could reduce the resupply costs of fertilizers for growing these plants. Work at NASA's Kennedy Space Center has shown that ion exchange resins can extract fertilizer (plant essential nutrients) from human waste water, after which the residual brine could be treated with electrodialysis to recover more water and produce high value chemicals (e.g., acids and bases). In habitats with significant plant production, inedible biomass becomes a major source of solid waste. To "close the loop" we also need to recover useful nutrients and fertilizer from inedible biomass. We are investigating different approaches to retrieve nutrients from inedible plant biomass, including physical leaching with water, processing the biomass in bioreactors, changing the pH of leaching processing, and/or conducting multiple leaches of biomass residues.

  17. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  18. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  19. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip; Chollacoop, Nuwong; Cheali, Peam

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels such as...... Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because there...

  20. Catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis-derived compounds with chemical liquid deposition (CLD) modified ZSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Luo, Mengmeng; Xiao, Rui; Shao, Shanshan; Jin, Baosheng; Xiao, Guomin; Zhao, Ming; Liang, Junyu

    2014-03-01

    Chemical liquid deposition (CLD) with KH550, TEOS and methyl silicone oil as the modifiers was used to modify ZSM-5 and deposit its external acid sites. The characteristics of modified catalysts were tested by catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis-derived compounds. The effects of different modifying conditions (deposited amount, temperature, and time) on the product yields and selectivities were investigated. The results show KH550 modified ZSM-5 (deposited amount of 4%, temperature of 20°C and time of 6h) produced the maximum yields of aromatics (24.5%) and olefins (16.5%), which are much higher than that obtained with original ZSM-5 catalyst (18.8% aromatics and 9.8% olefins). The coke yield decreased from 44.1% with original ZSM-5 to 26.7% with KH550 modified ZSM-5. The selectivities of low-molecule-weight hydrocarbons (ethylene and benzene) decreased, while that of higher molecule-weight hydrocarbons (propylene, butylene, toluene, and naphthalene) increased comparing with original ZSM-5. PMID:24413482

  1. Production of renewable phenolic resins by thermochemical conversion of biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effendi, A.; Gerhauser, H.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Bio-Energy Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    This review covers the production and utilisation of liquids from the thermal processing of biomass and related materials to substitute for synthetic phenol and formaldehyde in phenol formaldehyde resins. These resins are primarily employed in the manufacture of wood panels such as plywood, MDF, particle-board and OSB. The most important thermal conversion methods for this purpose are fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, pressure liquefaction and phenolysis. Many feedstocks have been tested for their suitability as sources of phenolics including hard and softwoods, bark and residual lignins. Resins have been prepared utilising either the whole liquid product, or a phenolics enriched fraction obtained after fractional condensation or further processing, such as solvent extraction. None of the phenolics production and fractionation techniques covered in this review are believed to allow substitution of 100% of the phenol content of the resin without impacting its effectiveness compared to commercial formulations based on petroleum derived phenol. This survey shows that considerable progress has been made towards reaching the goal of a price competitive renewable resin, but that further research is required to meet the twin challenges of low renewable resin cost and satisfactory quality requirements. Particular areas of concern are wood panel press times, variability of renewable resin properties, odour, lack of reactive sites compared to phenol and potential for increased emissions of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  2. Biochemical conversions of lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable fuel-ethanol production in the upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J.

    Biofuels are an increasingly important component of worldwide energy supply. This research aims to understand the pathways and impacts of biofuels production, and to improve these processes to make them more efficient. In Chapter 2, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented for cellulosic ethanol production from five potential feedstocks of regional importance to the upper Midwest — hybrid poplar, hybrid willow, switchgrass, diverse prairie grasses, and logging residues — according to the requirements of Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). Direct land use change emissions are included for the conversion of abandoned agricultural land to feedstock production, and computer models of the conversion process are used in order to determine the effect of varying biomass composition on overall life cycle impacts. All scenarios analyzed here result in greater than 60% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum gasoline. Land use change effects were found to contribute significantly to the overall emissions for the first 20 years after plantation establishment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the effects of biomass mixtures on overall sugar recovery from the combined processes of dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass mixtures studied were aspen, a hardwood species well suited to biochemical processing; balsam, a high-lignin softwood species, and switchgrass, an herbaceous energy crop with high ash content. A matrix of three different dilute acid pretreatment severities and three different enzyme loading levels was used to characterize interactions between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yield for any species was 70% of theoretical for switchgrass, and maximum xylose yield was 99.7% of theoretical for aspen. Supplemental β-glucosidase increased glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis by an average of 15%, and total sugar recoveries for mixtures could be predicted to within 4% by linear interpolation of the pure

  3. Spectroscopic and Kinetic Characterization of Catalytic Materials for the Conversion of Biomass-Derived Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    As economies look to transition away from petroleum for social, economic, and political reasons, biomass will continue to attract attention as a renewable feedstock for the fuels and chemicals industry. In order to turn biomass into end use fuels and chemicals, the oxygen content must be lowered significantly, requiring large hydrogen inputs. For these processes to be completely renewable, the hydrogen must come from biomass or biomass-derived compounds. In this work, catalysts for the aqueou...

  4. Biomass equipments. The wood-fueled heating plants; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R, 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the consequences of the classification of biomass fuels in the French 2910 by-law on the classification of biomass-fueled combustion installations. Biomass fuels used in such installations must be only wood wastes without any treatment or coating. The design of biomass combustion systems must follow several specifications relative to the fueling system, the combustion chamber, the heat exchanger and the treatment of exhaust gases. Other technical solutions must be studied for other type of wood wastes in order to respect the environmental pollution laws. (J.S.)

  5. Evaluation of the uncertainty due to land cover observation and conversion into plant functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgievski, Goran; Hartley, Andrew; MacBean, Natasha; Hagemann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Land surface processes represented in the latest generation of climate models (IPCC AR5) use the concept of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) to group different vegetation types and species according to similar physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics. The 5th IPCC Assessment Report recognizes the role of the Land Surface Models (LSMs) as one of the key contributors to uncertainty in climate change impacts projections. In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI), a new global land cover (LC) data set was derived. We aim to investigate two sources of uncertainties in LSMs and their ranges: (i) uncertainty of ESA-CCI state of the art satellite observation of LC classes, and (ii) uncertainty due to LC conversion ("cross-walking (CW) procedure") into PFTs. Therefore, we have derived 5 perturbations of PFTs maps: (i) reference map (REF), (ii) map that minimizes biomass in LC observation and CW procedure (MinLC MinCW), (iii) map that minimizes biomass in LC observation with reference CW procedure (MinLC RefCW), (iv) map that maximizes biomass in LC observation with reference CW procedure (MaxLC RefCW), and (v) map that maximizes biomass in LC observation and CW procedure (MaxLC MaxCW). Our analysis demonstrates that there is still considerable uncertainty in the methods used to convert LC classes into the PFTs used by LSMs. Furthermore, uncertainty in the labelling of LC classes has an equal magnitude compared to the cross-walking uncertainty. In the next phase, we aim to quantify the sensitivity of the carbon, hydrological and energy cycles to LC and CW uncertainty with 3 LSMs (JSBACH, JULES, and ORHCIDEE). This work will enable us to both advice the land cover mapping community about the accuracy requirements for land cover maps, and to provide insights to the earth system modelling community on the implications of decisions taken when converting from land cover classes to PFTs.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of plant biomass and animal manure: effect on C retention in soil and plant available N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Kahn, Arab R.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    We compared the release of C and N from untreated and anaerobically digested plant biomasses and animal manures. Based on losses of C during the plant biomass (feed) passage in cattle, during anaerobic digestion (AD), and during incubation with soil, the retention of C in soil was estimated. When...... relationship between N release and C retention. The increase in N availability due to AD was equivalent to 10-35% of total N in slurry, but after AD of plant biomass and faeces the N availability increased significantly more....

  7. Plant design aspects of catalytic biosyngas conversion to higher alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although biomethanol production has attracted most of the attention in the past years, there is a current trend for the synthesis of higher alcohols (i.e. ethanol, plus C3–C4) from biomass gasification. These compounds could be used directly as fuel or fuel additives for octane or cetane number enhancement. These also serve as important intermediates for the chemical industry. In this paper a comparison is performed between the different process configurations a higher alcohols production plant from biomass gasification can take. These options are modelled in Aspenplus™; all steps and important unit operations are presented with the aim to correctly evaluate the peripheral energy requirements and conclude with the overall thermodynamic limitations of the processes. The differentiation between black liquor and solid biomass gasification, the type of catalyst employed, and the effect of the recycling scheme adopted for the reutilization of unreacted syngas are evaluated. The design has to cope with the limited yields and poor selectivity of catalysts developed so far. The gas cleaning is different depending on the different requirements of the catalysts as far as H2S purity. The process modelling results reveal that the hydrogenation of CO to higher alcohols is favoured by high pressure, temperature around 325 °C and high reactor residence times. A biorefinery using modified Fisher–Tropsch (FT) catalysts (MoS2) prevail over modified MeOH catalyst (Cu–Zn based) for HA production. The efficiency of HA production in HHV terms can reach up to 25%. -- Graphical abstract: Process flow diagrams of different biorefinery systems derived from a) woody biomass and b) black liquor. Highlights: ► An integrated gasification/gas-cleaning/synthesis system was modelled in Aspenplus. ► HA production from wood and black liquor gasification is compared. ► Modified FT catalysts prevail over modified methanol catalyst for HA production. ► HA productivity is favoured by

  8. Automated logic conversion method for plant controller systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated method is proposed for logic conversion from functional description diagrams to detailed logic schematics by incorporating expertise knowledge in plant controller systems design. The method uses connection data of function elements in the functional description diagram as input, and synthesizes a detailed logic structure by adding elements to the given connection data incrementally, and to generate detailed logic schematics. In logic synthesis, for building up complex synthesis procedures by combining generally-described knowledge, knowledge is applied by groups. The search order of the groups is given by upper-level knowledge. Furthermore, the knowledge is expressed in terms of two classes of rules; one for generating a hypothesis of individual synthesis operations and the other for considering several hypotheses to determine the connection ordering of elements to be added. In the generation of detailed logic schematics, knowledge is used as rules for deriving various kinds of layout conditions on schematics, and rules for generating two-dimensional coordinates of layout objects. Rules in the latter class use layout conditions to predict intersections among layout objects without their coordinates being fixed. The effectiveness of the method with 150 rules was verified by its experimental application to some logic conversions in a real power plant design. Evaluation of the results showed them to be equivalent to those obtained by well qualified designers. (author)

  9. Critical Influence of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Aging and Decomposition on the Utility of Biomass Conversion in Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Konstantin I; Krivodaeva, Elena A; Romashov, Leonid V; Zalesskiy, Sergey S; Kachala, Vadim V; Burykina, Julia V; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2016-07-11

    Spectral studies revealed the presence of a specific arrangement of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) molecules in solution as a result of a hydrogen-bonding network, and this arrangement readily facilitates the aging of 5-HMF. Deterioration of the quality of this platform chemical limits its practical applications, especially in synthesis/pharma areas. The model drug Ranitidine (Zantac®) was synthesized with only 15 % yield starting from 5-HMF which was isolated and stored as an oil after a biomass conversion process. In contrast, a much higher yield of 65 % was obtained by using 5-HMF isolated in crystalline state from an optimized biomass conversion process. The molecular mechanisms responsible for 5-HMF decomposition in solution were established by NMR and ESI-MS studies. A highly selective synthesis of a 5-HMF derivative from glucose was achieved using a protecting group at O(6) position. PMID:27271823

  10. Plant diversity and biomass of Marudu bay mangroves in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mangroves of Marudu Bay in the state of Sabah is situated at the tip of Borneo Island, and at the southern limit of the Coral Triangle whose waters hold the highest diversity of corals, fish, molluscks, crustaceans and marine plant species in the world. The ecosystem shows a deterioration due to unsustainable fishing, pollution and encroachment, and these are impacting the Marudu Bay coastal communities economically. Fishing is the major economic activity here. Realising the importance of conserving the mangroves to uplift the socio-economic livelihood of the coastal community, a resource inventory of the mangroves and its productivity study were carried out. A total of 16 plant species in 12 genera and 9 families were identified. It was also found that 0.7 ha is capable of capturing all the species in the mangrove forest. The mangrove forests of Marudu Bay are dominated by Rhizopora apiculata and R. mucronata. The highest Importance Value index (IVI) was given by Rhizophora mucronata. Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) for 1-ha of mangrove forest in Marudu Bay was estimated to be 98.4 t/ha. It was found in other parallel studies that the mangroves of Marudu Bay are productive ecosystems that provide valuable habitats, nurseries and spawning grounds for various commercially important species of fish and invertebrates such as shrimp besides many species of wildlife. The mangroves at Marudu Bay are not only aesthetically attractive but provide opportunities for ecotourism activities that can be undertaken by the local community inhabiting the area to uplift their meagre income, These activities include mangrove cruising, recreational fishing, educational tourism and mangrove honey production, amongst others. This way, the degradation of the mangrove in Marudu Bay can be halted and reversed. (author)

  11. Fusion of Plant Height and Vegetation Indices for the Estimation of Barley Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation. However, since biomass cannot be determined non-destructively, other plant parameters are used for estimations. In this study, plant height and hyperspectral data were used for barley biomass estimations with bivariate and multivariate models. During three consecutive growing seasons a terrestrial laser scanner was used to establish crop surface models for a pixel-wise calculation of plant height and manual measurements of plant height confirmed the results (R2 up to 0.98. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were conducted with a field spectrometer and used for calculating six vegetation indices (VIs, which have been found to be related to biomass and LAI: GnyLi, NDVI, NRI, RDVI, REIP, and RGBVI. Furthermore, biomass samples were destructively taken on almost the same dates. Linear and exponential biomass regression models (BRMs were established for evaluating plant height and VIs as estimators of fresh and dry biomass. Each BRM was established for the whole observed period and pre-anthesis, which is important for management decisions. Bivariate BRMs supported plant height as a strong estimator (R2 up to 0.85, whereas BRMs based on individual VIs showed varying performances (R2: 0.07–0.87. Fused approaches, where plant height and one VI were used for establishing multivariate BRMs, yielded improvements in some cases (R2 up to 0.89. Overall, this study reveals the potential of remotely-sensed plant parameters for estimations of barley biomass. Moreover, it is a first step towards the fusion of 3D spatial and spectral measurements for improving non-destructive biomass estimations.

  12. Consequences of forest conversion to pasture and fallow on soil microbial biomass and activity in the eastern Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Melo de, V. S.; Desjardins, Thierry; Silva, M.L.; E.R. Santos; Sarrazin, Max; Santos, M. M. L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The main change in soil use in Amazonia is, after slash and burn deforestation followed by annual crops, the establishment of pastures. This conversion of forest to pasture induces changes in the carbon cycle, modifies soil organic matter content and quality and affects biological activity responsible for numerous biochemical and biological processes essential to ecosystem functioning. The aim of this study was to assess changes in microbial biomass and activity in fallow and pasture soils af...

  13. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  14. Sodium conversion experiments in the Inert Carrier Process demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the sodium treatment studies reported here was to evaluate the use of the Inert Carrier Process (ICP) for converting sodium metal to a stable disposal form. The ICP demonstration plant consists of a closed loop of silicone oil that is circulated through a reservoir called a disperser. Solid sodium particles were fed to the disperser and kept suspended in the silicone oil carrier by turbulence. The sodium did not react with the silicone oil carrier. The dispersion of sodium in silicone oil was fed to an in-line mixer (''jet'' mixer) where it was mixed with a reactant. Water was used as the reactant in most of the tests, generating sodium hydroxide and hydrogen as the initial products. Analysis of the final solid product from the reaction indicated that the sodium hydroxide initial product interacted with the silicone oil. Complete reaction of the sodium in the demonstration plant required at least a 6/1 molar ratio of water to sodium. Good separation of the product solution was difficult because of the small difference in density between the aqueous product phase and the organic carrier phase. Emulsification of the silicone oil-aqueous solution was minimized by applying heat to the separator. Foaming of the silicone oil in the separator occurred, aggravated by the evolution of hydrogen from the sodium conversion reaction. Bench-scale tests were conducted to analyze and resolve several problems encountered in the plant experiments, such as incomplete reaction in the jet mixer, poor separation of the product from the silicone oil, formation of an oil aqueous solution emulsion in the separator, and oil foaming in the separator. Solidification tests were carried out to immobilize the sodium conversion product by mixing it with various binders. The most satisfactory binder was EPON 828, an epoxy resin

  15. Overexpression of GA20-OXIDASE1 impacts plant height, biomass allocation and saccharification efficiency in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Voorend, Wannes; Nelissen, Hilde; Vanholme, Ruben; De Vliegher, Alex; Van Breusegem, Frank; Boerjan, Wout; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Muylle, Hilde; Inzé, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Increased biomass yield and quality are of great importance for the improvement of feedstock for the biorefinery. For the production of bioethanol, both stem biomass yield and the conversion efficiency of the polysaccharides in the cell wall to fermentable sugars are of relevance. Increasing the endogenous levels of gibberellic acid (GA) by ectopic expression of GA20-OXIDASE1 (GA20-OX1), the rate-limiting step in GA biosynthesis, is known to affect cell division and cell expansion, resulting ...

  16. Thermal conversion of biomass with emphasis on product distribution, reaction kinetics and sulfur abatement.

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Roger A.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the work performed in this study has concentrated on the thermal decomposition of biomass. This was done because to the simple fact that biomass is mainly composed of volatiles that evaporates prior to the gasification stage.The characteristics of the devolatilized products during pyrolysis are reported in Paper I for several fuels types that have been considered as sources for energy production due to their fast growing abilities. Paper I also reports results for the same biomass typ...

  17. Main routes for the thermo-conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Part 1: Pyrolysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the energy crises of the 1970s, many countries have become interest in biomass as a fuel source to expand the development of domestic and renewable energy sources and reduce the environmental impacts of energy production. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The methods available for energy production from biomass can be divided into two main categories: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. There are several thermo-chemical routes for biomass-based energy production, such as direct combustion, liquefaction, pyrolysis, supercritical water extraction, gasification, air-steam gasification and so on. The pyrolysis is thermal degradation of biomass by heat in the absence of oxygen, which results in the production of charcoal (solid), bio-oil (liquid), and fuel gas products. Pyrolysis liquid is referred to in the literature by terms such as pyrolysis oil, bio-oil, bio-crude oil, bio-fuel oil, wood liquid, wood oil, liquid smoke, wood distillates, pyroligneous tar, and pyroligneous acid. Bio-oil can be used as a fuel in boilers, diesel engines or gas turbines for heat and electricity generation.

  18. Continuous monitoring of plutonium solution in a conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the implementation of a safeguards Tank Monitoring System (TAMS) in a Plutonium Conversion Plant (PCP). TAMS main objective is to provide the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (the Agency) with continuous data for safeguards evaluation and review of inventories and flows of plutonium solutions. It has been designed to monitor, in unattended mode, the inventory of each tank and transactions of solutions between tanks, as well as to confirm the absence of borrowing plutonium solutions from and to a neighboring reprocessing plant. The instrumentation consists of one electronic scanner that collects pressure data from electromanometers connected to the tank dip tubes, one uninterruptable power supply and one personal computer operating in a Windows-NT environment. The pressure data transmitted to the acquisition system is saved and converted to volume and density values, coupled with a graph capability to display events in each tank at intervals of 15 seconds. The system operation has not only strengthened the safeguards measures in PCP but also reduced inspection effort while minimizing intrusion to normal plant activities and radiation exposure to personnel. TAMS is a powerful, reliable tool that has significantly improved the effectiveness of safeguards implementation at PCP. The future combined use of TAMS with remote monitoring (RM) will further enhance efficiency of the safeguards measures at PCP. (author)

  19. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  20. A Novel NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 Involved in the Detoxification of Aldehyde Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and...

  1. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Venteris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. We summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. Our growth model is used to predict average biomass production for two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp., one fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412, and one freshwater strain (order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas, land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area, a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1. Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive strain, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 1.8 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank UFs are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations.

  2. Conversion of the fungicide, ziram in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) is a toliar fungicide used for the control of the blast disease of rice caused by Pyricularia oryzae, and is also used for the control of the plant diseases in crops like groundnut, cotton, etc. Since there is lack of data on the conversion products of this fungicide. This investigation was carried out. The results of the author's recent studies with 35S-labelled ziram in rice seedlings were reported. The 35S-Labelled ziram (specific activity 1.5 m Ci/m mole) was sprayed on the rice seedlings of 25 days old. At different intervals of time, the seedlings were removed, washed thoroughly, cut into pieces, and extracted with 80% ethanol. By the method described in ''K. Raghu et al., Origin and fate of chemical residents in food, agriculture and fisheries, I.A.E.A., Vienna, 1975, pp. 137-148,'' the segments corresponding to the standards of dimethyl dithio carbamate-alanine (DDCA), DDC-glucoside (DDCG), thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carbamic acid (TTCA), unidentified divolent fungicide (X), and ziram were cut out and the radioactivity was counted in cocktail D scintillation fluid using an LS-100 Beckmann liquid scintillation counter. It is indeed interesting to note that ziram is converted in plant tissues into dimethyldithiocarbamate derivatives like DDCG, DDCA, TTCA and X within 24 hr after spraying. The amounts of these derivatives varied in the course of sampling up to 8 days after spraying. Further studies are needed as to the quantitative nature of these products, but the present report clearly demonstrates the formation of these conversion products in the rice leaves treated with ziram. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Practical issues in catalytic and hydrothermal biomass conversion: concentration effects on reaction pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.W. Srokol; G. Rothenberg

    2010-01-01

    Converting biomass to biofuels and chemicals calls for practical and simple processes, since it must compete economically with both burning and anaerobic bacterial digestion. Here we employ concentrated glucose solutions as a biomass model compound, using a pressure-controlled batch reactor setup fo

  4. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dael, Van M.; Passel, van S.; Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R.; Reumermann, P.; Luzardo, N.M.; Witters, N.; Broeze, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conve

  5. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm3 y-1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  6. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  8. A high performance Trichoderma reesei strain that reveals the importance of xylanase III in cellulosic biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Hikaru; Kawai, Tetsushi; Ida, Noriko; Shida, Yosuke; Shioya, Kouki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Okada, Hirofumi; Tani, Shuji; Sumitani, Jun-ichi; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the Trichoderma reesei X3AB1strain enzyme preparations to convert cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is enhanced by the replacement of xyn3 by Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase 1 gene (aabg1), as shown in our previous study. However, subsequent experiments using T. reesei extracts supplemented with the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 xylanase III (XYN III) and GH Family 11 XYN II showed increased conversion of alkaline treated cellulosic biomass, which is rich in xylan, underscoring the importance of XYN III. To attain optimal saccharifying potential in T. reesei, we constructed two new strains, C1AB1 and E1AB1, in which aabg1 was expressed heterologously by means of the cbh1 or egl1 promoters, respectively, so that the endogenous XYN III synthesis remained intact. Due to the presence of wild-type xyn3 in T. reesei E1AB1, enzymes prepared from this strain were 20-30% more effective in the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated rice straw than enzyme extracts from X3AB1, and also outperformed recent commercial cellulase preparations. Our results demonstrate the importance of XYN III in the conversion of alkaline-pretreated cellulosic biomass by T. reesei. PMID:26672453

  9. Linking pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion (Py-AD) for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Daniele; Torri, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    Biogas is a mixture of CO2 and CH4 produced by a consortia of Bacteria and Archeae operating in anaerobic digestion (AD) plants. Biogas can be burnt as such in engines to produce electricity and heat or upgraded into biomethane. Biomethane is a drop-in fuel that can be injected in the natural gas grid or utilised as a transport fuel. While a wide array of biomass feedstock can be degraded into biogas, unconverted lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose end up in the co-product digestate leaving a large portion of chemical energy unutilised. Pyrolysis (Py) transforms in a single step and without chemical reagents the lignocellulose matrix into gaseous (syngas), liquid (bio-oil, pyrolysis oil) and solid (biochar) fractions for the development of renewable fuels and materials. The Py route applied downstream to AD is actively investigated in order to valorise the solid digestate presently destined only for soil applications. Coupling Py upstream to AD is an emerging field of research aimed at expanding the feedstock towards biologically recalcitrant substrates (wood, paper, sludge). The biomethanation potential was demonstrated for gaseous (H2/CO) and water soluble pyrolysis products, while the influence of insoluble pyrolytic lignin remains fairly unexplored. Biochar can promote the production of biomethane by acting as a support for microorganism colonisation, conductor for direct interspecies electron transfer, sorbent for hydrophobic inhibitors, and reactant for in situ biogas upgrading. Enhancing the advantages (carbon source) over the side effects (toxicity) of Py fractions represents the main challenge of Py-AD. This can be addressed by increasing the selectivity of the thermochemical process or improving the ecological flexibility of mixed bacterial consortia towards chemically complex environments. PMID:26948108

  10. Biomass of tree species as a response to planting density and interspecific competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Planting trees is an important way to promote the recovery of degraded areas in the Caatinga region. Experiments (E1, E2, and E3 were conducted in a randomized blocks design, with three, three, and five replicates, respectively. The objectives were to evaluate biomass of the shoots of: a gliricidia (G and sabiá (S, as a response to planting density; b G, S, and neem (N in competition; c G, and S in agroforestry. E1 was conducted in split-plots, and planting densities (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 plants ha-1 as subplots. E2 consisted of a factorial comprising the following plots: GGG, NGN, SGS, NNN, GNG, SNS, SSS, GSG, NSN (each letter represents a row of plants. E3 was conducted with G and S in agroforestry experiment. The trees were harvested after 54, 42, and 27 months old, in E1, E2 and E3, respectively. In E1, G presented higher green biomass of the stems and leaf at smaller densities than S, but lower green biomass of branches at most densities. The species did not differ for mean stem dry biomass and leaf dry biomass, but G showed higher branch dry biomass at most densities. Higher planting densities increased green and dry biomass of stems, branches, and leaves in S, but decreased those characteristics in G, with the exception of leaf dry mass, which was not influenced by density. In E2, the behavior of each species was identical in plots containing the same or different species. Griricidia showed the highest green biomass of stems and branches, and the highest values for geren biomass of the leaf were observed for gliricidia and neem. The highest stem, branch, and leaf dry biomass values were obtained for G, S, and N, respectively. In E3, G was superior for stem and leaf green biomass, and for stem and branch dry biomass. There were no differences between species for the other biomass values.

  11. Estimating fresh biomass of maize plants from their RGB images in greenhouse phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yufeng; Pandey, Piyush; Bai, Geng

    2016-05-01

    High throughput phenotyping (HTP) is an emerging frontier field across many basic and applied plant science disciplines. RGB imaging is most widely used in HTP to extract image-based phenotypes such as pixel volume or projected area. These image-based phenotypes are further used to derive plant physical parameters including plant fresh biomass, plant dry biomass, water use efficiency etc. In this paper, we investigated the robustness of regression models to predict fresh biomass of maize plants from image-based phenotypes. Data used in this study were from three different experiments. Data were grouped into five datasets, two for model development and three for independent model validation. Three image-derived phenotypes were investigated: BioVolume, Projected.Area.1, and Projected.Area.2. Models were assessed with R2, Bias, and RMSEP (Root Mean Squared Error of Prediction). The results showed that almost all models were validated with high R2 values, indicating that these digital phenotypes can be useful to rank plant biomass on a relative basis. However, in many occasions when accurate prediction of plant biomass is needed, it is important for researchers to know that models that relate image-based phenotypes to plant biomass should be carefully constructed. Our results show that the range of plant size and the genotypic diversity of the calibration sets in relation to the validation sets have large impact on the model accuracy. Large maize plants cause systematic bias as they grow toward the top-view camera. Excluding top-view images from modeling can there benefit modeling for the experiments involving large maize plants.

  12. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.; Stringer, R.P.; Bailie, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The biomass allocation model has been developed and is undergoing testing. Data bases for biomass feedstock and thermochemical products are complete. Simulated data on process efficiency and product costs are being used while more accurate data are being developed. Market analyses data are stored for the biomass allocation model. The modeling activity will assist in providing process efficiency information required for the allocation model. Process models for entrained bed and fixed bed gasifiers based on coal have been adapted to biomass. Fuel product manufacturing costs will be used as inputs for the data banks of the biomass allocations model. Conceptual economics have been generated for seven of the fourteen process configurations via a biomass economic computer program. The PDU studies are designed to demonstrate steady state thermochemical conversions of biomass to fuels in fluidized, moving and entrained bed reactor configurations. Pulse tests in a fluidized bed to determine the effect of particle size on reaction rates and product gas composition have been completed. Two hour shakedown tests using peanut hulls and wood as the biomass feedstock and the fluidized bed reactor mode have been carried out. A comparison was made of the gas composition using air and steam - O/sub 2/. Biomass thermal profiles and biomass composition information shall be provided. To date approximately 70 biomass types have been collected. Chemical characterization of this material has begun. Thermal gravimetric, pyrogaschromatographic and effluent gas analysis has begun on pelletized samples of these biomass species.

  13. Decommissioning of B and W's fuel conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B and W is managing an ongoing $65 million Project involving the site characterization, decontamination, and deconstruction of its former nuclear fuel fabrication plant in Apollo, Pennsylvania. This 90,000 ft facility was used from the late 1950's until the early 1980's for the conversion of uranium hexafluoride to various fuel forms, including uranium dioxide powder and pellets. Both high- and low-enriched uranium as well as thorium were processed in the facility. Upon discontinuing fuel manufacturing operations, the chemical processing equipment was decontaminated, removed, packaged, and shipped to a licensed low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) burial site. As a result of plant operations, uranium contamination existed within the building and in the soils on the plant site. A detailed site characterization program was completed to establish the extent of contamination and to plan the subsequent soil remediation and building deconstruction efforts. As a result of several factors, B and W made the decision in 1990 to accelerate the final decommissioning of the Apollo site. These factors also became constraints on the completion of the project: Rapidly escalating waste disposal costs, with LLRW burial site surcharges scheduled to increase from $40 to $120 per cubic foot in January 1992; Increasing regulatory confusion on the criteria for the residual radioactivity contamination levels that can remain on an NRC-licensed site being remediated for unlicensed, unrestricted use; The probable loss of burial site alternatives in January 1993 due to the provisions of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985; Delays in the siting and construction of the Appalachian Compact's burial site which is projected to have a capacity insufficient to handle the large volume of waste produced by a major decommissioning project. This paper presents an overview of this decontamination and decommissioning project with emphasis on the key business issues which

  14. Microbial biomass in red soils and its significance in plant availability of nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚槐应; 何振立; 黄昌勇

    2002-01-01

    A series of laboratory and pot experiments carried out to examine the role of soil microbial biomass in red soils' nitrogen availability and productivity showed that soil available N (NA), dry matter yield (DMY) of ryegrass, and plant uptake of nitrogen were each closely correlated with microbial biomass-C (Cmic) or -N (Nmic), suggesting that soil microbial biomass is a very important nitrogen pool available to plants in red soils. After correction for the substrate effect, the computed turnover of the Nmic in three tested soils ranged from 63 to 250 days. Soils with low Nmic or light texture generally had higher Nmic turnover rate than those with high Nmic or heavy texture. These results showed that soils with low Nmic, microbial biomass could also play an important role in the availability of nitrogen to plants due to these soils' high turnover rate.

  15. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinc...

  16. Thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid products in the aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-10-15

    Aqueous liquefaction of biomass samples was carried out in an autoclave in the reaction temperature range of 550-650 K. In this study, the maximum liquid yield (49%) was obtained from the spruce wood powder at 650 K. It is clear that the yield of liquid products increase with increasing liquefaction temperature for each biomass sample. In general, composition of liquefaction products depends on structural composition of the sample. The yield of water soluble fraction increases with increasing lignin content of the biomass sample, and the highest water soluble fraction (WSF) yield was obtained for hazelnut shell at liquefaction temperature around 650 K, which was about 21%. The yield of heavy oil generally decreases with increasing lignin content of the biomass sample, and the highest heavy oil yield was obtained for beech wood at liquefaction temperature around 650 K, which was about 28%. The yield of acetone insoluble fraction (residue) decreases with increasing liquefaction temperature for all of runs. (Author)

  17. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts. PMID:25707745

  18. Functional carbons and carbon nanohybrids for the catalytic conversion of biomass to renewable chemicals in the condensed phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthiesen, John; Hoff, Thomas; Liu, Chi; Pueschel, Charles; Rao, Radhika; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass provides opportunities to synthesize chemicals with new functionalities and grow a more sustainable chemical industry. However, new challenges emerge as research transitions from petrochemistry to biorenewable chemistry. Compared to petrochemisty, the selective conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates requires most catalytic reactions to take place at low temperatures (< 300°C) and in the condensed phase to prevent reactants and products from degrading. The stability of heterogeneous catalysts in liquid water above the normal boiling point represents one of the major challenges to overcome. Herein, we review some of the latest advances in the field with an emphasis on the role of carbon materials and carbon nanohybrids in addressing this challenge.

  19. Functional carbons and carbon nanohybrids for the catalytic conversion of biomass to renewable chemicals in the condensed phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Matthiesen; Thomas Hoff; Chi Liu; Charles Pueschel; Radhika Rao; Jean-Philippe Tessonnier

    2014-01-01

    The production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass provides opportunities to synthesize chemicals with new functionalities and grow a more sustainable chemical industry. However, new challenges emerge as research transitions from petrochemistry to biorenewable chemistry. Com-pared to petrochemisty, the selective conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates requires most catalytic reactions to take place at low temperatures (<300 °C) and in the condensed phase to pre-vent reactants and products from degrading. The stability of heterogeneous catalysts in liquid water above the normal boiling point represents one of the major challenges to overcome. Herein, we review some of the latest advances in the field with an emphasis on the role of carbon materials and carbon nanohybrids in addressing this challenge.

  20. Improving Heterogeneous Catalyst Stability for Liquid-phase Biomass Conversion and Reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Héroguel, Florent Emmanuel; Rozmysłowicz, Bartosz; Luterbacher, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a possible renewable alternative to fossil carbon sources. Today, many bio-resources can be converted to direct substitutes or suitable alternatives to fossil-based fuels and chemicals. However, catalyst deactivation under the harsh, often liquid-phase reaction conditions required for biomass treatment is a major obstacle to developing processes that can compete with the petrochemical industry. This review presents recently developed strategies to limit reversible and irreversible ...

  1. Effects of grassland conversion and tillage intensities on soil microbial biomass, residues and community structure

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, Rajasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has a strong impact on level of soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass stocks and microbial community structure in agro-ecosystems. The size of the microbial necromass C pool could be about 40 times that of the living microbial biomass C pool in soils. Due to the specificity, amino sugar analysis gives more important information on the relative contribution of fungal and bacterial residues to C sequestration potential of soils. Meanwhile, the relationship be...

  2. Book review - Biomass Energy Project Development Guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985 the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Biomass Energy Program sponsored the writing of a biomass energy project development guidebook. Subject matter included the following topics: Planning for Fuel Supply; Fuel Characteristics, Storage and Use; Selecting an Energy Conversion Process; Conversion Technologies; Environmental Considerations; Economics of Biomass Projects; Financing Biomass Projects; Plant Specific Specifications; Contracting for Fuel; Wood Residue Recovery, Collection and Processing; Small to Medium Sized Modular Combustion Systems; Agricultural Residues. Also included were case studies of biomass energy projects and a glossary

  3. Co-firing in coal power plants and its impact on biomass feedstock availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several states have a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and allow for biomass co-firing to meet the RPS requirements. In addition, a federal renewable fuel standard (RFS) mandates an increase in cellulosic ethanol production over the next decade. This paper quantifies the effects on local biomass supply and demand of different co-firing policies imposed on 398 existing coal-fired power plants. Our model indicates which counties are most likely to be able to sustain cellulosic ethanol plants in addition to co-firing electric utilities. The simulation incorporates the county-level biomass market of corn stover, wheat straw, switchgrass, and forest residues as well as endogenous crop prices. Our scenarios indicate that there is sufficient feedstock availability in Southern Minnesota, Iowa, and Central Illinois. Significant supply shortages are observed in Eastern Ohio, Western Pennsylvania, and the tri-state area of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky which are characterized by a high density of coal-fired power plants with high energy output. - Highlights: • Co-firing in coal-power plants can lead to biomass supply shortage. • The level of shortage depends also on the switchgrass production cost. • Little to no shortages occur in the Corn Belt and the Great Plains. • Biomass co-firing in power plants limits the supply for cellulosic ethanol plants

  4. Tactical supply chain planning for a forest biomass power plant under supply uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainty in biomass supply is a critical issue that needs to be considered in the production planning of bioenergy plants. Incorporating uncertainty in supply chain planning models provides improved and stable solutions. In this paper, we first reformulate a previously developed non-linear programming model for optimization of a forest biomass power plant supply chain into a linear programming model. The developed model is a multi-period tactical-level production planning problem and considers the supply and storage of forest biomass as well as the production of electricity. It has a one-year planning horizon with monthly time steps. Next, in order to incorporate uncertainty in monthly available biomass into the planning, we develop a two-stage stochastic programming model. Finally, to balance the risk and profit, we propose a bi-objective model. The results show that uncertainty in availability of biomass has an additional cost of $0.4 million for the power plant. Using the proposed stochastic optimization model could reduce this cost by half. - Highlights: • Developed a two-stage stochastic optimization model to consider supply uncertainty. • Maximized the profit of a forest biomass power plant value chain. • Minimized two risk measures, variability index and downside risk, to manage risks. • Stochastic optimization model provided feasible solution for all scenarios. • Results showed a trade-off between profit and risk management

  5. Biomass boiler energy conversion system analysis with the aid of exergy-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Conventional exergy analysis and advanced exergy analysis are performed. • The combustion process dominates the exergy destruction. • Increase excess air will decrease the overall boiler exergy efficiency. • Increase the SH temperatures will increase the overall boiler exergy efficiency. • The avoidable exergy destructions in the air heaters are very small. - Abstract: The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the exergy analysis and advanced exergy analysis of a real biomass boiler. These analyses can be used for both the diagnosis and optimization of a biomass boiler as well as for the design of a new biomass boiler. Conventional exergy analysis is performed to recognize the source(s) of inefficiency and irreversibility and identify exergy destruction in different components of the biomass boiler. An advanced exergy analysis is performed to provide comprehensive information about the avoidable exergy destruction and real fuel-saving potential for each component, as well as the overall system. Sensitivity studies of several design parameters including the excess air, biomass moisture and steam parameters were evaluated. The results show that the maximum exergy destruction occurs in the combustion process, followed by the Water Walls (WW) & Radiant Superheater (RSH) and the Low Temperature Superheater (LTSH). The fuel-saving and exergy efficiency improvement strategies for different components are discussed in this paper

  6. Experimental Fact-Finding in CFB Biomass Gasification for ECN's 500 kWth Pilot Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.R.A.; Prins, W.; Drift, van der A.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors an

  7. Chemical Decontamination of Metallic Waste from Uranium Conversion Plant Dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant. Pre-work was carried as follows; installation of the access control facility, installation of a changing room and shower room, designation of an emergency exit way and indicating signs, installation of a radiation management facility, preparation of a storage area for tools and equipments, inspection and load test of crane, distribution and packaging of existing waste, and pre-decontamination of the equipment surface and the interior. First, decommissioning work was performed in kiln room, which will be used for temporary radioactive waste storage room. Kiln room housed hydro fluorination rotary kiln for production of uranium tetra-fluoride. The kiln is about 0.8 m in diameter and 5.5 m long. The total dismantled waste was 6,690 kg, 73 % of which was metallic waste and 27 % the others such as cable, asbestos, concrete, secondary waste, etc. And effluent treatment room and filtration room were dismantled for installation of decontamination equipment and lagoon sludge treatment equipment. There were tanks and square mixer in these rooms. The total dismantled waste was 17,250 kg, 67% of which was metallic waste and 33% the others. These dismantled metallic wastes consist of stainless and carbon steel. In this paper, the stainless steel plate and pipe were decontaminated by the chemical decontamination with ultrasonic

  8. How efficient work biomass cogeneration plants? A survey of plant operators; Wie effizient arbeiten Biomasseheiz(kraft)werke? Befragung von Anlagenbetreibern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiller, Martin; Jakuttis, Michael [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Binder, Samir [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Bayerischer Forschungsverbund Foreta, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The use of biomass has increased very much in recent years. Due to the intensive use, the price of biomass fuels such as wood chips has increased substantially. This development bothers mainly biomass cogeneration plants. Many operators suffered considerable financial losses or even had to file for bankruptcy. The topic of efficiency is one of the central and critical success factors for the long-term viability of biomass-fired plants. (orig.)

  9. High-performance liquid-catalyst fuel cell for direct biomass-into-electricity conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Deng, Yulin

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we report high-performance fuel cells that are catalyzed solely by polyoxometalate (POM) solution without any solid metal or metal oxide. The novel design of the liquid-catalyst fuel cells (LCFC) changes the traditional gas-solid-surface heterogeneous reactions to liquid-catalysis reactions. With this design, raw biomasses, such as cellulose, starch, and even grass or wood powders can be directly converted into electricity. The power densities of the fuel cell with switchgrass (dry powder) and bush allamanda (freshly collected) are 44 mW cm(-2) and 51 mW cm(-2) respectively. For the cellulose-based biomass fuel cell, the power density is almost 3000 times higher than that of cellulose-based microbial fuel cells. Unlike noble-metal catalysts, POMs are tolerant to most organic and inorganic contaminants. Therefore, almost any raw biomass can be used directly to produce electricity without prior purification. PMID:25283435

  10. Biological conversion of biomass to methane. Quarterly progress report, September 1--November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T

    1978-12-01

    The viability of wheat straw as a feedstock for methane production by anaerobic digestion was investigated and the results obtained compared with that obtained with corn stover. Poor conversion was obtained with the wheat straw under thermophilic conditions, but better than that obtained with corn. In addition the residue has no value as an animal feed. A mild thermochemical pretreatment of the corn prior to anaerobic digestion improved the conversion efficiency and the value of the residue as an animal feed. It is assumed that similar pretreatment of wheat straw would improve its conversion efficiency. Slurry and pumping characteristics of wheat straw particles were reported. (JSR)

  11. Short leaf mutation and modified plant architecture as potential traits for improving biomass and abiotic stress tolerance in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The significant contributions of plant architecture to yield and biomass production have been the focus of attention in a number of crop plants. Recently, the relationship between plant architecture, biomass characteristics and responses to abiotic stresses has also been a subject of considerable in...

  12. Belowground plant biomass allocation in tundra ecosystems and its relationship with temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Heijmans, Monique M. P. D.; Mommer, Liesje; van Ruijven, Jasper; Maximov, Trofim C.; Berendse, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Climate warming is known to increase the aboveground productivity of tundra ecosystems. Recently, belowground biomass is receiving more attention, but the effects of climate warming on belowground productivity remain unclear. Enhanced understanding of the belowground component of the tundra is important in the context of climate warming, since most carbon is sequestered belowground in these ecosystems. In this study we synthesized published tundra belowground biomass data from 36 field studies spanning a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient from ‑20 °C to 0 °C across the tundra biome, and determined the relationships between different plant biomass pools and MAT. Our results show that the plant community biomass–temperature relationships are significantly different between above and belowground. Aboveground biomass clearly increased with MAT, whereas total belowground biomass and fine root biomass did not show a significant increase over the broad MAT gradient. Our results suggest that biomass allocation of tundra vegetation shifts towards aboveground in warmer conditions, which could impact on the carbon cycling in tundra ecosystems through altered litter input and distribution in the soil, as well as possible changes in root turnover.

  13. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the biomass flow rate; (2 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature decreases the air and biomass flow rates; (3 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the energy and exergy efficiencies, especially at lower pressure ratios; (4 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature raises both efficiencies; and (5 overspray increases the energy efficiency and net cycle power slightly. The gas turbine exhibits the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the combustor the lowest. A comparison of the cycle with similar cycles fired by natural gas and differently configured cycles fueled by biomass shows that the cycle with natural gas firing has an energy efficiency 18 percentage points above the biomass fired cycle, and that steam injection increases the energy efficiency about five percentage points relative to the cycle without steam injection. Also, the influence of steam injection on energy efficiency is more significant than fog cooling.

  14. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  15. Aruscular mycorhizal fungi alter plant allometry and biomass - density relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lu; Weiner, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    fungi (AMF) can promote plant growth and affect plant form. Here experiments were carried out to test whether AMF affect plant allometry and the self-thinning trajectory. Methods Two experiments were conducted on Medicago sativa L., a leguminous species known to be highly dependent on mycorrhiza. Two...

  16. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into olefins and aromatics with ZSM-5: the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Vispute, Tushar; Xiao, R; Huber, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of ten biomass-derived feedstocks, i.e.glucose, sorbitol, glycerol, tetrahydrofuran, methanol and different hydrogenated bio-oil fractions, with different hydrogen to carbon effective (H/C{sub eff}) ratios was conducted in a gas-phase flow fixed-bed reactor with a ZSM-5 catalyst. The aromatic + olefin yield increases and the coke yield decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed. There is an inflection point at a H/C{sub eff} ratio = 1.2, where the aromatic + olefin yield does not increase as rapidly as it does prior to this point. The ratio of olefins to aromatics also increases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. CO and CO₂ yields go through a maximum with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. The deactivation rate of the catalyst decreases significantly with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Coke was formed from both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the ten feedstocks showed that the formation of coke from homogeneous reactions decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Feedstocks with a H/C{sub eff} ratio less than 0.15 produce large amounts of undesired coke (more than 12 wt%) from homogeneous decomposition reactions. This paper shows that the conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into aromatics and olefins using zeolite catalysts can be explained by the H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed.

  17. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  18. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Li; Elena Allegrini; Sonia Castellucci; Silvia Cocchi; Maurizio Carlini

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with th...

  19. Development of an efficient catalyst for the pyrolytic conversion of biomass into transport fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tang Son

    2014-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis is a promising technique to convert biomass into a liquid fuel/fuel precursor, known as bio-oil. However, compared to conventional crude oil, bio-oil has much higher oxygen content which results in various detrimental properties and limits its application. Thus the first part of this

  20. Biotechnological research and development for biomass conversion to chemicals and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, R.

    1980-08-01

    Revitalization of the older fermentation industry and development of biotechnology largely based on lignocellulose are proposed. Specific research projects are outlined in these two areas and also for the following: microbial formation of hydrocarbons; methane from anaerobic digestion; lignin; methanol. For cellulose conversion to ethanol the relative merits using added cellulases or, alternatively, direct fermentation with anaerobic thermophiles, are discussed. In selecting suitable feedstocks for biotechnological processes there is a need to use a production extraction conversion system as a basis for evaluation.

  1. Thermoset-cross-linked lignocellulose: a moldable plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuri, Sriharsha; Hiziroglu, Salim; Kalkan, A Kaan

    2015-04-01

    The present work demonstrates a high biomass content (i.e., up to 90% by weight) and moldable material by controlled covalent cross-linking of lignocellulosic particles by a thermoset through epoxide-hydroxyl reactions. As an example for lignocellulosic biomass, Eastern redcedar was employed. Using scanning fluorescence microscopy and vibrational spectroscopy, macroscopic to molecular scale interactions of the thermoset with the lignocellulose have been revealed. Impregnation of the polymer resin into the biomass cellular network by capillary action as well as applied pressure results in a self-organizing structure in the form of thermoset microrods in a matrix of lignocellulose. We also infer permeation of the thermoset into the cell walls from the reaction of epoxides with the hydroxyls of the lignin. Compression tests reveal, at 30% thermoset content, thermoset-cross-linked lignocellulose has superior mechanical properties over a commercial wood plastic composite while comparable stiffness and strength to bulk epoxy and wood, respectively. The failure mechanism is understood to be crack propagation along the particle-thermoset interface and/or interparticle thermoset network. PMID:25734539

  2. ASEAN grid-connected biomass residues fired cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy supply is one of the major concerns in the world. With uncertainty in the main oil suppliers, the oil price is expected to remain high due to continuous demand from the world. Since oil is mostly used for electricity and transportation, its shortage would cause major disruptions in our daily activities. Thus to counter this scenario and faster depletion of fossil fuel resources, various measures have been taken to find alternative source of energy such as renewable energy. One of the renewable energy sources is from biomass residues which is aplenty particularly in ASEAN. Through one of the collaboration programme between ASEAN and EC which is The EC-ASEAN Cogeneration Programme, a number of Full-Scale Demonstration Projects (FSDP) using biomass residues have been commissioned and implemented successfully. Four of the FSDPs in Thailand and Malaysia are connected to the grid. These projects have been operating very well and since the fuel is commonly available in this ASEAN region, duplication should not be a problem. Thus, this paper would highlight the success stories in implementing biomass residues grid connected project while enhancing cooperation between ASEAN and EC. (Author)

  3. Valorisation of Jatropha curcas L. plant parts : Nut shell conversion to fast pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manurung, R.; Weuer, D. A. Z.; Wildschut, J.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Hidayat, H.; van Dam, J. E. G.; Leijenhorst, E. J.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Heeres, H. J.; Wever, D. A. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The biorefinery concept is a very powerful concept to optimise the conversion of biomass resources to value-added products with a minimum loss of energy and mass and a maximum overall value of the production chain. We here report our activities on the application of this concept to valorise the Jatr

  4. Valorisation of Jatropha curcas L. plant parts : nut shell conversion to fast pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manurung, R.; Wever, D.A.Z.; Wildschut, J.; Venderbosch, R.H.; Hidayat, H.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Leijenhorst, E.J.; Broekhuis, A.A.; Heeres, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The biorefinery concept is a very powerful concept to optimise the conversion of biomass resources to value-added products with a minimum loss of energy and mass and a maximum overall value of the production chain. We here report our activities on the application of this concept to valorise the Jatr

  5. Thermochemical Conversion of Woody Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, Hemant P. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Maine and its industries identified more efficient utilization of biomass as a critical economic development issue. In Phase I of this implementation project, a research team was assembled, research equipment was implemented and expertise was demonstrated in pyrolysis, hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oils, catalyst synthesis and characterization, and reaction engineering. Phase II built upon the infrastructure to innovate reaction pathways and process engineering, and integrate new approaches for fuels and chemical production within pulp and paper and other industries within the state. This research cluster brought together chemists, engineers, physicists and students from the University of Maine, Bates College, and Bowdoin College. The project developed collaborations with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory. The specific research projects within this proposal were of critical interest to the DoE - in particular the biomass program within EERE and the catalysis/chemical transformations program within BES. Scientific and Technical Merit highlights of this project included: (1) synthesis and physical characterization of novel size-selective catalyst/supports using engineered mesoporous (1-10 nm diameter pores) materials, (2) advances in fundamental knowledge of novel support/ metal catalyst systems tailored for pyrolysis oil upgrading, (3) a microcalorimetric sensing technique, (4) improved methods for pyrolysis oil characterization, (5) production and characterization of woody biomass-derived pyrolysis oils, (6) development of two new patented bio oil pathways: thermal deoxygenation (TDO) and formate assisted pyrolysis (FASP), and (7) technoeconomics of pyrolysis of Maine forest biomass. This research cluster has provided fundamental knowledge to enable and assess pathways to thermally convert biomass to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.

  6. Overview of recent advances in thermo-chemical conversion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy from biomass, bioenergy, is a perspective source to replace fossil fuels in the future, as it is abundant, clean, and carbon dioxide neutral. Biomass can be combusted directly to generate heat and electricity, and by means of thermo-chemical and bio-chemical processes it can be converted into bio-fuels in the forms of solid (e.g., charcoal), liquid (e.g., bio-oils, methanol and ethanol), and gas (e.g., methane and hydrogen), which can be used further for heat and power generation. This paper provides an overview of the principles, reactions, and applications of four fundamental thermo-chemical processes (combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction) for bioenergy production, as well as recent developments in these technologies. Some advanced thermo-chemical processes, including co-firing/co-combustion of biomass with coal or natural gas, fast pyrolysis, plasma gasification and supercritical water gasification, are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages, potential for future applications and challenges of these processes are discussed. The co-firing of biomass and coal is the easiest and most economical approach for the generation of bioenergy on a large-sale. Fast pyrolysis has attracted attention as it is to date the only industrially available technology for the production of bio-oils. Plasma techniques, due to their high destruction and reduction efficiencies for any form of waste, have great application potential for hazardous waste treatment. Supercritical water gasification is a promising approach for hydrogen generation from biomass feedstocks, especially those with high moisture contents.

  7. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  8. Technical, economic and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in coal and natural gas fired power plants in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the technical, economic, and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in existing Dutch coal and natural gas fired power plants, and industrial combined-cycles (CC), is addressed. Main criteria that are considered are: the availability and contractibility of biomass for energy purposes; the (technical) operation of the conventional fossil fuel based processes may not be disturbed; the gaseous and liquid plant emissions have to comply to those applicable for power plants/CCs, the commercial applicability of the solid residues may not be negatively influenced; applicable additional biomass conversion technologies must be commercially available; the necessary additional investment costs must be acceptable from an economic point of view, and the co-firing option must result in a substantial CO2-emission reduction. The main result of the study described in the paper is the presentation of a clear and founded indication of the total co-firing potential of biomass in existing power plants and industrial CCs in the Netherlands. This potential is determined by considering both technical, economic, and environmental criteria. In spite of the fact that the co-firing potential for the specific Dutch situation is presented, the results of the criteria considered are more generally applicable, and therefore are also very interesting for potential co-firing initiatives outside of the Netherlands

  9. C4 Plants as Biofuel Feedstocks: Optimising Biomass Production and Feedstock Quality from a Lignocellulosic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caitlin S.Byrt; Christopher P.L.Grof; Robert T.Furbank

    2011-01-01

    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum offic-inarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C4 grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C4 plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C3 species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall.

  10. Plants adapted to nutrient limitation allocate less biomass into stems in an arid-hot grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bangguo; Ji, Zhonghua; Fan, Bo; Wang, Xuemei; He, Guangxiong; Shi, Liangtao; Liu, Gangcai

    2016-09-01

    Biomass allocation can exert a great influence on plant resource acquisition and nutrient use. However, the role of biomass allocation strategies in shaping plant community composition under nutrient limitations remains poorly addressed. We hypothesized that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations, resulting in species turnover and changes in community-level biomass allocations across nutrient gradients. In this study, we measured species abundance and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves and soil nutrients in an arid-hot grassland. We quantified species-specific allocation parameters for stems vs leaves based on allometric scaling relationships. Species-specific stem vs leaf allocation parameters were weighted with species abundances to calculate the community-weighted means driven by species turnover. We found that the community-weighted means of biomass allocation parameters were significantly related to the soil nutrient gradient as well as to leaf stoichiometry, indicating that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations in the studied grassland. Species that allocate less to stems than leaves tend to dominate nutrient-limited environments. The results support the hypothesis that species-specific allocations affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations. The allocation trade-off between stems and leaves has the potential to greatly affect plant distribution across nutrient gradients. PMID:27101947

  11. Biomass Conversion Strategies and the Renewable Production of Hydrogen using Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo-Flores, Ronald

    Biomass is a renewable carbon source that can be processed into fuels and chemicals in a biorefinery. However, there are a number of challenges that need to be overcome for biomass utilization to be viable. The work presented herein aims to address two existing challenges in biomass processing schemes, namely the efficient utilization of all fractions of lignocellulosic biomass and the renewable production of the hydrogen necessary to reduce the oxygen functionalities native in biomass. First, lignin was depolymerized to produce a renewable phenolic solvent mixture. Biphasic reactions with this solvent and aqueous solution of glucose or xylose produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural, respectively, at high yields. HMF and furfuryl alcohol could also be upgraded into levulinic acid at high yields. The yields are due to the capacity of the solvent to partition these molecules and prevent their degradation. Second, propyl guaiacol, a component of the phenolic solvent, was used for biphasic reactions where ball milled biomass substrates were used. These substrates are converted to furfural and HMF at high yields due to the partition of these molecules into the solvent and the on-demand production of glucose and xylose from the substrate, minimizing the formation of humins. A study of the water-gas shift reaction over Pt-based catalysts was conducted. Alloying Pt with Re was found to increase the catalytic activity and microkinetic modeling revealed Pt is a good representation of the active site and Re acts as a promoter slightly destabilizing CO binding. A study on formic acid decomposition over Au catalysts was performed. Experiments, density functional theory and microkinetic modeling results indicate the reaction proceeds completely on highly undercoordinated Au atoms with any high coordination atom being largely inert. Motivated by the results on Au catalysts, the metal-support interaction was investigated for the reverse water-gas shift reaction. Using a

  12. Transferability of Models for Estimating Paddy Rice Biomass from Spatial Plant Height Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that plant height is a suitable parameter for estimating crop biomass. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity of spatial plant height data, which is derived from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, as a non-destructive estimator for biomass of paddy rice on the field scale. Beyond that, the spatial and temporal transferability of established biomass regression models were investigated to prove the robustness of the method and evaluate the suitability of linear and exponential functions. In each growing season of two years, three campaigns were carried out on a field experiment and on a farmer’s conventionally managed field. Crop surface models (CSMs were generated from the TLS-derived point clouds for calculating plant height with a very high spatial resolution of 1 cm. High coefficients of determination between CSM-derived and manually measured plant heights (R2: 0.72 to 0.91 confirm the applicability of the approach. Yearly averaged differences between the measurements were ~7% and ~9%. Biomass regression models were established from the field experiment data sets, based on strong coefficients of determination between plant height and dry biomass (R2: 0.66 to 0.86 and 0.65 to 0.84 for linear and exponential models, respectively. The spatial and temporal transferability of the models to the farmer’s conventionally managed fields is supported by strong coefficients of determination between estimated and measured values (R2: 0.60 to 0.90 and 0.56 to 0.85 for linear and exponential models, respectively. Hence, the suitability of TLS-derived spatial plant height as a non-destructive estimator for biomass of paddy rice on the field scale was verified and the transferability demonstrated.

  13. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirabedin, Ehsan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Rahim, Murad A.; Topal, Hüseyin

    2014-12-01

    Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP) which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP) systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP) can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  14. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabedin Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  15. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez París, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest global threats of the 21st century. Fossil fuels constitute by far the most important energy source for transportation and the different governments are starting to take action to promote the use of cleaner fuels. Biomass-derived fuels are a promising alternative for diversifying fuel sources, reducing fossil fuel dependency and abating greenhouse gas emissions. The research interest has quickly shifted from first-generation biofuels, obtained from food co...

  16. Two-Stage Conversion of Land and Marine Biomass for Biogas and Biohydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nkemka, Valentine

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of fossil fuels by renewable fuels such as biogas and biohydrogen will require efficient and economically competitive process technologies together with new kinds of biomass. A two-stage system for biogas production has several advantages over the widely used one-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). However, it has not yet been widely implemented on a large scale. Biohydrogen can be produced in the anaerobic two-stage system. It is considered to be a useful fuel for t...

  17. Biomass thermal conversion : pelletisation of lignocelluloses and the effect on the gasification process

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Kyriakos Xenofon

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural residues and energy crops constitute an important part of the energy chain although they are not being used extensively in the energy generation processes since they are associated with disadvantages such as low bulk and energy densities and handling problems. One solution is the pelletisation of these residues, which solves a great deal of these problems and enables the competition of biomass with other types of fuels. A large amount of work, concerning the combus...

  18. Primary conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of furfural and levulinic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, karla Dussan

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed The production of energy and chemicals from renewable resources has gained significant attention as a means to support the transition from fossil fuels towards clean and sustainable technologies. Due to its availability and rich carbohydrate composition, lignocellulosic biomass represents a valuable starting material and requires primary processes to unlock its components. The main focus of this research was to study and develop further knowledge on the primary ...

  19. Alternative catalysts and technologies for NOx removal from biomass- and wastefired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schill, Leonhard

    removed with the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using a vanadia-tungsta-titania (VWT) catalyst and ammonia (NH3) as reductant. For application in coal- and gas-red power plants this technology is mature. However, when ring biomass the ue gas contains potassium in large amounts which deactivates...... the VWT catalyst very rapidly. Firing of biomass increased strongly over the past decade and is expected to increase even further in the near future. Also waste incineration creates ue gases that are very challenging to the SCR catalyst. Therefore, SCR units in waste incineration plants are commonly...

  20. Biomass Co-Firing in Suspension-Fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Hvid, Søren Lovmand; Baxter, Larry

    The objective of the project is to investigate critical issues associated with cofiring with low-NOx burners and cofiring in advanced suspension-fired plants with for example high-temperature steam cycles. Experience has been gained using biofuels for cofiring in older power plant units. However...

  1. Microwave-assisted conversion of biomass derived hemicelluloses into xylo-oligosaccharides by novel sulfonated bamboo-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemicelluloses are the major constituent of biomass and their hydrolysis products xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are of great importance to the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, catalytic conversion of bamboo hemicelluloses into XOS was developed using novel solid acid catalysts of sulfonated bamboo-based carbon material (BCS). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy characterization of BCS confirmed the successful introduction of acid groups (including –SO3H, –COOH and phenolic –OH) onto its surface. The effects of reaction temperature, residence time and solid acid-to-water ratio on the performance of catalytic conversion were investigated. The maximum XOS yield of 54.7 wt% based on xylan content was obtained at 150 °C for 45 min with a solid acid to water mass ratio of 1:200. The use of water solvent with BCS provides a green and efficient process for hemicellulose conversion. - Highlights: • Sulfonated bamboo-based carbon (BCS) with active groups was synthesized. • Microwave irradiation was adopted to increase the reaction efficiency. • XOS with higher DP was preferentially obtained under mild conditions. • Xylose and XOS with lower DP were preferentially obtained under severe conditions. • Limited byproducts were detected in the hydrolysis reaction

  2. Strategy for optimal operation of a biomass-fired cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass-fired cogeneration not only is an environmentally friendly energy production, but also possesses high energy conversion efficiency. Generally, the wood product industry requires both heat and electricity. Combined heat and power generation (cogeneration) using wood residue has a three-fold benefit: waste minimization, reduction of an energy-related production cost and additional income from selling the excess electricity to the utility. In reality, the process heat demand fluctuates according to the production activities in the factory. The fluctuation of process heat demand affects the cogeneration efficiency and the electricity output and, consequently, the financial return, since the prices of heat and electricity are different. A study by computer simulation to establish a guideline for optimum operation of a process heat fluctuating cogeneration power plant is presented. The power plant was designed for a sawmill and an adjacent plywood factory using wood wastes from these two processes. The maximum boiler thermal load is 81.9 MW while the electricity output is in the range 19-24 MW and the process heat 10-30 MW. Two modes of operation were studied, namely the full (boiler) load and the partial (boiler) load. In the full load operation, the power plant is operated at a maximum boiler thermal load, while the extracted steam is varied to meet the steam demand of the wood-drying kilns and the plywood production. The partial load operation was designed for the partially fuelled boiler to provide sufficient steam for the process and to generate electricity at a desired capacity ranging from the firmed contract of 19 MW to the turbine maximum capacity of 24 MW. It was found that the steam for process heat has an allowable extracting range, which is limited by the low pressure feed water heater. The optimum operation for both full and partial load occurs at the lower limit of the extracting steam. A guideline for optimum operation at various combinations of

  3. Potential of Co-firing of Woody Biomass in Coal Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yosuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Taking the distributing woody biomass supply into account, this paper assesses the potential of a co-firing of woody biomass in utility's coal power plant from the both energy-saving and economical view points. Sawmill wastes, trimming wastes from fruit farms and streets, and thinning residues from forests in Aichi Prefecture are taken into account. Even though transportation energy is required, almost all of woody biomass can be more efficiently used in co-firing with coal than in a small-scale fuel cell system with gasification as a distributed utilization. When the capital cost of fuel cell system with 25% of total efficiency, including preprocess, gasification and power generation, is higher than 170× 103yen/kW, almost all of thinning residues can be more economically used in co-firing. The cost of woody biomass used in co-firing is also compared with the transaction cost of renewable power in the current RPS scheme. The result suggests the co-firing of woody biomass in coal fired power plant can be feasible measure for effective utilization of woody biomass.

  4. Effects of competitive interactions of different life forms submersed plants on biomass allocation in shallow lakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-feng

    2010-01-01

    Plant competition has been recognized as one of the most important factors influencing the structure and function of lake ecosystems.Competition from plants of dissimilar growth form may have profound effects on shallow lakes.An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of competitive interactions of submersed plants with dissimilar growth forms on the biomass allocations.Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were selected and were planted in a single-species monoculture and a mixed-species pattern.Results showed that the growth of Ⅴ.natans was significantly affected by the H.verticillata and caused a sharp reduction of biomass,but the root:shoot ratio of Ⅴ.natans was not affected significantly and there was a minimal increase in mixture: while for H.verticillata,the biomass and the root:shoot ratio were not significantly changed by the competitive interactions of Ⅴ.natans,there was minimal increase qf biomass and minimal decrease of the root:shoot ratio.These results may indicate that the phant which candevelop a dense mat or canopy at the water surface would be a stronger competitor relative to the plant that dependsmore on light availability near the sediment.

  5. Utilization of biomass: Conversion of model compounds to hydrocarbons over zeolite H-ZSM-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Uffe Vie; Holm, Martin Spangsberg

    2011-01-01

    coking and results in higher selectivity towards aromatics compared to conversion of pure methanol. The reaction pattern of the different oxygenates did not simply follow the effective H/C ratio of the additives since structural isomers with identical effective H/C ratios showed significant differences...

  6. A review on the synthesis of SiC from plant-based biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Silicon-containing plant-based biomass for the growth of SiC nanostructures. → Processes involved during growth of nanostructures. → Introduction of acid, alkali, enzyme or catalyst to improve quality of product. - Abstract: Substantial research efforts had been put in developing new ways to produce SiC and its nanostructures. SiC nanostructures showcase excellent hardness, chemical inertness, thermal and electrical properties. With this in mind, many methods have been reported in synthesizing SiC nanostructures. The use of biomass in producing SiC is one of these methods that is promising since it provides an alternative in converting these wastes into something useful and they are a cheap source of silicon and carbon for SiC formation. Thus, this paper will cover the definition of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass in terms of kinetics and processes, effect of different reaction parameters, pre-treatments available and finally SiC recovery process.

  7. Thermal analysis of solar biomass hybrid co-generation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushika, N. D.; Mishra, Anuradha; Chakravarty, M. N.

    2005-12-01

    This article describes a co-generation plant based on the biogas being produced from the waste of distillery plant and highlights the possible configuration in which the plant can be hybridized with auxiliary solar energy source having the advantage of using financial incentives in several countries. In hybridization, the solar heat is used for heating the boiler feed water. The solar heat-generating unit consists of line focus parabolic trough collector, heat transportation system and heat delivery unit such as heat exchanger. The simulation model of heat and mass transfer processes in the solar field as well as the balance of the system is developed to investigate the technological feasibility of the concept in terms of plant yield and matching of subsystems.

  8. Recovery Act. Demonstration of a Pilot Integrated Biorefinery for the Efficient, Direct Conversion of Biomass to Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetzle, Dennis [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Tamblyn, Greg [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Caldwell, Matt [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Hanbury, Orion [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Schuetzle, Robert [Greyrock Energy, Sacramento, CA (United States); Rodriguez, Ramer [Greyrock Energy, Sacramento, CA (United States); Johnson, Alex [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Deichert, Fred [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Jorgensen, Roger [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Struble, Doug [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-12

    The Renewable Energy Institute International, in collaboration with Greyrock Energy and Red Lion Bio-Energy (RLB) has successfully demonstrated operation of a 25 ton per day (tpd) nameplate capacity, pilot, pre-commercial-scale integrated biorefinery (IBR) plant for the direct production of premium, “drop-in”, synthetic fuels from agriculture and forest waste feedstocks using next-generation thermochemical and catalytic conversion technologies. The IBR plant was built and tested at the Energy Center, which is located in the University of Toledo Medical Campus in Toledo, Ohio.

  9. Environmental status of plant-based industries. Biomass and bio-materials; Bilan environnemental des filieres vegetales. Biomasse et biomateriaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindimian, E.; Boeglin, N.; Houillon, G.; Osset, Ph.; Vial, E.; Leguern, Y.; Gosse, G.; Gabrielle, B.; Dohy, M.; Bewa, H.; Rigal, L.; Guilbert, St.; Cesar, G.; Pandard, P.; Oster, D.; Normand, N.; Piccardi, M.; Garoux, V.; Arnaud, L.; Barbier, J.; Mougin, G.; Krausz, P.; Pluquet, V.; Massacrier, L.; Dussaud, J.

    2005-07-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and the agency of Agriculture for chemistry and energy (Agrice) have jointly organized these technical days about the potentialities of plant-based products in front of the big environmental stakes of the diversification of energy sources, the development of new outputs for agriculture and the opening of new fields of industrial innovation. This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the presentations given during these 2 days of conference: 1 - Biomass and life cycle analysis (LCA) - impacts and benefits: introduction to LCA (E. Vindimian), keys to understand this environmental evaluation tool (N. Boeglin); environmental status of plant-based industries for chemistry, materials and energy: LCA knowledge status, plant versus fossil (G. Houillon), detailed analysis of 2 industries: agro-materials and bio-polymers (J. Payet); example of environmental and LCA studies: energy and greenhouse gas statuses of the biofuel production processes (P. Osset, E. Vial), LCA of collective and industrial wood-fueled space heating (Y. Leguern), contribution and limitations of LCA for plant-based industries (G. Gosse, B. Gabrielle), conclusion of the first day (M. Dohy). 2 - Biomass and materials: a reality: biomaterials in the Agrice program (H. Bewa), plant-derived materials: resources, status and perspectives (L. Rigal); biopolymers: overview of the industrial use of biopolymers: materials and markets, applications (S. Guibert), degradation mechanisms of biopolymers used in agriculture: biodegradability, eco-toxicity and accumulation in soils (G. Cesar, P. Pandard), present and future regulatory framework: specifications and methods of biodegradability evaluation of materials for agriculture and horticulture (D. Oster), standardization: necessity and possibilities (N. Normand); vegetable fibers and composite materials: market of new vegetable fiber uses (M. Piccardi, V. Garoux), vegetable particulates and

  10. Demonstration of a 1 MWe biomass power plant at USMC Base Camp Lejeune. Report for July 1994-May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.; Purvis, C.R.

    1998-06-01

    The paper discusses a biomass energy conversion project being sponsored by EPA to demonstrate an enviromentally and economically sound electrical power option for government installations, industrial sites, rural cooperatives, small municipalities, and developing countries. Wood gasification combined with internal combustion engines was chosen because of (1) recent improvements in gas cleaning, (2) simple economical operation for units < 10 MW, and (3) the option of a clean cheap fuel for the many existing facilities generating expensive electricity from petroleum fuels with reciprocating engines. The plant incorporates a downdraft, moving-bed gasifier utilizing hogged waste wood from the Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, NC. A moving-bed bulk wood dryer and both spark ignition and diesel engines are included. Unique process design features are described briefly, relative to the gasifier, wood drying, tar separation, and process control. A test plan for process optimization and demonstration of reliability, economics, and environmental impact is outlined.

  11. Elemental and thermo-chemical analysis of oil palm fronds for biomass energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm frond is the most abundant yet untapped biomass waste in Malaysia. This paper investigates the characteristics of raw oil palm fronds and its ash to evaluate its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for gasification process using single throat downdraft gasifier. The morphological nature, elemental content, proximate and ultimate analysis and calorific value were studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence were used to investigate the surface morphology, elemental and mineralogical nature of oil palm frond and its ash. The results were compared with other agricultural and forestry biomass wastes. From proximate analysis volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash were found to be 83.5%, 15.2% and 1.3%, respectively on dry basis. From ultimate analysis result values of 44.58%, 4.53%, 0.71% and 0.07% for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur were found respectively on dry basis. Oxygen was determined by difference and found to be 48.81%. The proximate and ultimate analysis results indicate that oil palm frond is better than agricultural wastes and less than most forestry wastes to use as a feedstock in the gasification process in order to get a better quality of syngas. The amount of ash content in OPF was found to be much less than in agricultural wastes and higher than most forestry wastes. From x-ray fluorescence analysis CaO and K2O were found as the major oxides in oil palm fronds and rice husk ash with the amount of 28.46% and 15.71% respectively. The overall results of oil palm fronds were found to be satisfactory to use as a feedstock for the process of gasification.

  12. Base-line data on everglades soil-plant systems: elemental composition, biomass, and soil depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants and soils from plots in the Everglades Wildlife Management Area, Conservation Area 3, were examined. Chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, and Si) of most plant and soil digests was determined. Cladium jamaicense was the predominant plant species contributing to biomass in all plots except the wet prairie, where Rhynchospora sp. and Panicum hemitomon were most common. The biomass of dead C. jamaicense was greater than that of the living plants in unburned saw-grass plots. The burned saw grass, muck burn, and wet prairie were characterized by a large number of plant species per square meter but smaller average biomass production than the unburned saw-grass locations. Levels of Cu, Mn, Ca, Mg, K, and N in C. jamaicense differed significantly across locations. Highly significant differences in elemental composition existed between plant species. Concentrations of several elements (particularly Zn, Ca, Mg, P, and N) were low in live C. jamaicense compared with other plant species. Cesium-137 levels ranged from 670 to 3100 pCi/kg in sandy and in organic soils, respectively. Polygonum had a 137Cs level of 11,600 pCi/kg. Dead C. jamaicense indicated a rapid leaching loss of 137Cs from dead tissue

  13. Accurate inference of shoot biomass from high-throughput images of cereal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tester Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the establishment of advanced technology facilities for high throughput plant phenotyping, the problem of estimating plant biomass of individual plants from their two dimensional images is becoming increasingly important. The approach predominantly cited in literature is to estimate the biomass of a plant as a linear function of the projected shoot area of plants in the images. However, the estimation error from this model, which is solely a function of projected shoot area, is large, prohibiting accurate estimation of the biomass of plants, particularly for the salt-stressed plants. In this paper, we propose a method based on plant specific weight for improving the accuracy of the linear model and reducing the estimation bias (the difference between actual shoot dry weight and the value of the shoot dry weight estimated with a predictive model. For the proposed method in this study, we modeled the plant shoot dry weight as a function of plant area and plant age. The data used for developing our model and comparing the results with the linear model were collected from a completely randomized block design experiment. A total of 320 plants from two bread wheat varieties were grown in a supported hydroponics system in a greenhouse. The plants were exposed to two levels of hydroponic salt treatments (NaCl at 0 and 100 mM for 6 weeks. Five harvests were carried out. Each time 64 randomly selected plants were imaged and then harvested to measure the shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight. The results of statistical analysis showed that with our proposed method, most of the observed variance can be explained, and moreover only a small difference between actual and estimated shoot dry weight was obtained. The low estimation bias indicates that our proposed method can be used to estimate biomass of individual plants regardless of what variety the plant is and what salt treatment has been applied. We validated this model on an independent

  14. Biological research survey for the efficient conversion of biomass to biofuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Michael Stuart; Andrews, Katherine M. (Computational Biosciences)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this four-week late start LDRD was to assess the current status of science and technology with regard to the production of biofuels. The main focus was on production of biodiesel from nonpetroleum sources, mainly vegetable oils and algae, and production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. One goal was to assess the major technological hurdles for economic production of biofuels for these two approaches. Another goal was to compare the challenges and potential benefits of the two approaches. A third goal was to determine areas of research where Sandia's unique technical capabilities can have a particularly strong impact in these technologies.

  15. Un exemple de conversion d'une table de production en volume en tables de production en biomasse : le chene dans le secteur ligerien

    OpenAIRE

    BISCH, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    La table de production du chêne sessile dans le secteur ligérien, proposée par Pardé en 1962, est convertie en quatre tables de production en biomasse correspondant chacune à une partie de l’arbre ou à l’arbre entier, biomasse foliaire exclue. La conversion est réalisée par l’intermédiaire de tarifs de la forme Biomasse = a + b VBF (VBF = volume bois fort), établis avec un échantillon de 18 arbres convenablement choisis. Ces tarifs sont appliqués au volume bois fort de l’arbre moyen enle...

  16. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    This report provides an economic analysis and feasibility study for the utilization by microalgal systems of carbon dioxide generated from coal-fired power plants. The resulting biomass could be a fuel substitute for fossil fuels.

  17. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  18. The Phase-Formation Behavior of Composite Ceramic Powders Synthesized by Utilizing Rice Husk Ash from the Biomass Cogeneration Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjie Yuan; Mingyu Fan; Chengji Deng; Jun Li; Hongxi Zhu

    2015-01-01

    The development and utilization of biomass as a vital source of renewable energy were stimulated in order to reduce the global dependency on fossil fuels. A lot of rice husk ashes (RHA) were generated as the waste after the rice husk as the main fuel was burnt in the biomass cogeneration plant. The phase-formation behavior of composite ceramic powders synthesized by using rice husk ash from the biomass cogeneration plant at the different carbon ratios and temperatures was investigated. The se...

  19. Biomass conversion through radiation immobilization of enzymes and microorganisms and pre-irradiation techniques at IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for alternative renewable sources of energy is receiving increasing attention in developed and less developed countries. At the IPEN-CNEN/SP several interconnected radiation technology applications in the field of biomass conversion have been developed, which included: 1) wood powdering of pre-irradiated wood chips for fuel production; 2) saccharification of lignocellulosic materials by combining electron beam processing (EBP) with other physical and chemical pre-treatments; 3) radiation immobilization of enzymes and microorganisms (yeasts) used in the saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes and ethanol production processes; 4) production of complementary cattle feed by NH3 and NaOH impregnation of pre-irradiated sugarcane bagasse; 5) study of radiosensitivity of yeast cells and yeast ethanol production system; 6) initial tests of bioreactivity of radiation-induced polymers. (author). 19 refs, 2 tabs

  20. The structural characterization of corn stalks hemicelluloses during active oxygen cooking as a pretreatment for biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bin Shi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The structural characteristics of corn stalks hemicelluloses during the active oxygen cooking process as a pretreatment of biomass conversion were investigated in this work. The hemicelluloses obtained from the corn stalks, pulp, and yellow liquor were evaluated by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and 1H-13C 2D hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC spectroscopy. Based on the sugar and GPC analysis, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy, it could be concluded that the hemicelluloses were composed of backbones of (1→4-β-D-xylopyranose substituted α-L-arabinofuranose and 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid. During the cooking process, the hemicelluloses with more side chains were removed from raw material. The backbones were significantly damaged as well. Additionally, the ester linkages in the raw material were completely broken after the cooking.

  1. Fuel-nitrogen conversion in the combustion of small amines using dimethylamine and ethylamine as biomass-related model fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucassen, Arnas; Zhang, Kuiwen; Warkentin, Julia;

    2012-01-01

    . For this, thermochemical values for a number of intermediates had to be determined from quantum chemistry calculations. Also, specific sets of reactions were incorporated for the two fuels. While many trends seen in the experiments can be successfully reproduced by the simulations, additional efforts......Laminar premixed flames of the two smallest isomeric amines, dimethylamine and ethylamine, were investigated under one-dimensional low-pressure (40mbar) conditions with the aim to elucidate pathways that may contribute to fuel-nitrogen conversion in the combustion of biomass. For this, identical...... flames of both fuels diluted with 25% Ar were studied for three different stoichiometries (Φ=0.8, 1.0, and 1.3) using in situ molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Quantitative mole fractions of reactants, products and numerous stable and reactive intermediates were determined by electron ionization...

  2. Conversion of raw lignocellulosic biomass into branched long-chain alkanes through three tandem steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunrui; Ding, Daqian; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-07-01

    Synthesis of branched long-chain alkanes from renewable biomass has attracted intensive interest in recent years, but the feedstock for this synthesis is restricted to platform chemicals. Here, we develop an effective and energy-efficient process to convert raw lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., corncob) into branched diesel-range alkanes through three tandem steps for the first time. Furfural and isopropyl levulinate (LA ester) were prepared from hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of corncob in toluene/water biphasic system with added isopropanol, which was followed by double aldol condensation of furfural with LA ester into C15 oxygenates and the final hydrodeoxygenation of C15 oxygenates into branched long-chain alkanes. The core point of this tandem process is the addition of isopropanol in the first step, which enables the spontaneous transfer of levulinic acid (LA) into the toluene phase in the form of LA ester through esterification, resulting in LA ester co-existing with furfural in the same phase, which is the basis for double aldol condensation in the toluene phase. Moreover, the acidic aqueous phase and toluene can be reused and the residues, including lignin and humins in aqueous phase, can be separated and carbonized to porous carbon materials. PMID:27241180

  3. Engineering photosynthetic light capture: impacts on improved solar energy to biomass conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mussgnug, Jan H.; Thomas-Hall, Skye; Rupprecht, Jens; Foo, Alexander; Klassen, Viktor; McDowall, Alasdair; Schenk, Peer M.; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The main function of the photosynthetic process is to capture solar energy and to store it in the form of chemical 'fuels'. Increasingly, the photosynthetic machinery is being used for the production of biofuels such as bio-ethanol, biodiesel and bio-H-2. Fuel production efficiency is directly dependent on the solar photon capture and conversion efficiency of the system. Green algae (e.g. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) have evolved genetic strategies to assemble large light-harvesting antenna com...

  4. Use of Life Cycle Assessment to determine the environmental impact of thermochemical conversion routes of lignocellulosic biomass: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbinet, Saïcha; Léonard, Angélique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The biomass is a promising way to substitute fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass valorisation is part of second generation technologies. They are interesting in that they imply less competition with food crops for land and water, and they allow for the whole plant to be processed. Moreover, lignocellulose is abundant in cheap and non-food materials extracted from plants such as wood and energy crops. The thermo-chemical route is being considered more extensively, especially the...

  5. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte Holton; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application...

  6. Design of a pilot silvicultural biomass farm at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, D.J.; Henry, J.F.; Inman, R.E.

    1979-03-01

    Metrek has designed a detailed plan for the establishment and operation of a 1000-acre silvicultural biomass farm at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The plan includes a discussion of possible sites, layout and design, and installation and operation. The estimated costs of installation and operation are also presented.

  7. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper...

  8. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)-(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized.

  9. Performance Assessment and Optimization of Biomass Steam Turbine Power Plants by Data Envelopment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nattanin Ueasin; Anupong Wongchai; Sakkarin Nonthapot

    2015-01-01

    As rice husk is abundantly natural resource in Thailand, it has been used as the biomass energy resource in the stream turbine power plants, in particular to very small power producers (VSPPs). The VSPPs’ plants produced by rice husk is generally found in many regions of Thailand, however its performance efficiency and optimization has never been assessed at any level. This study aimed to fulfill this gap by adopting the method of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to relatively measure the perf...

  10. Integrated biomass gasification combined cycle distributed generation plant with reciprocating gas engine and ORC

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The paper theoretically investigates the performance of a distributed generation plant made up of gasifier, Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) machine as a bottoming unit. The system can be used for maximization of electricity production from biomass in the case where there is no heat demand for cogeneration plant. To analyze the performance of the gasifier a model based on the thermodynamic equilibrium approach is used. Performance of the gas...

  11. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  12. Pressurized gasification of biomass - complete power plant technology; Biomassan paineistettu kaasutus valmis voimalaitostekniikaksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virkkunen, L. [Enviropower Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    Enviropower Oy, which is an affiliate of Tampella Power Oy, has just finished a large gasification test program at the 20 MW test power plant situated at Tampere. Total amount of 3 000 m{sup 3} of finnish mixed wood chips were gasified during the tests in 1993. Enviropower has been the first which has gasified biomass using large-scale pressurized system. The technology can be applied both for biomass and coal. This so called multi-fuel boiler increases the possibilities to use biomass as fuels, and also improves the competitivity of it because it makes the merely utilization of biomass possible also in the coal fired power plants. Gasification technique, based on wood, waste wood and peat, will be commercialized fast in the plants which partially utilizes also other fuels than coal. The most economical way to increase the utilization of biomass is to gasify it with other fuels using the new technology. The gasification combined cycle power plant, based on pressurized fluidized bed gasification can coarsely be compared with common natural gas combined cycle power plants. Gas, produced by gasification from solid fuels, is used as fuel instead of natural gas. The process is very simple. Coal, waste wood, peat and other solid fuels are heated in a fluidized bed type pressurized reactor at the temperature of about one thousand degrees celsius, under the conditions in which the fuels are gasified. The sulfur, the dust and the other harmful compounds are removed from the product gas, and the clean gas is combusted in a gas turbine and the heat produced in the process is converted into electric power using heat recovery boiler and steam turbine

  13. Integrated Process for the Catalytic Conversion of Biomass-Derived Syngas into Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Smith, Colin D.; Flake, Matthew D.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gray, Michel J.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-04-19

    Efficient synthesis of renewable fuels that will enable cost competitiveness with petroleum-derived fuels remains a grand challenge for U.S. scientists. In this paper, we report on an integrated catalytic approach for producing transportation fuels from biomass-derived syngas. The composition of the resulting hydrocarbon fuel can be modulated to meet specified requirements. Biomass-derived syngas is first converted over an Rh-based catalyst into a complex aqueous mixture of condensable C2+ oxygenated compounds (predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate). This multi-component aqueous mixture then is fed to a second reactor loaded with a ZnxZryOz mixed oxide catalyst, which has tailored acid-base sites, to produce an olefin mixture rich in isobutene. The olefins then are oligomerized using a solid acid catalyst (e.g., Amberlyst-36) to form condensable olefins with molecular weights that can be targeted for gasoline, jet, and/or diesel fuel applications. The product rich in long-chain olefins (C7+) is finally sent to a fourth reactor that is needed for hydrogenation of the olefins into paraffin fuels. Simulated distillation of the hydrotreated oligomerized liquid product indicates that ~75% of the hydrocarbons present are in the jet-fuel range. Process optimization for the oligomerization step could further improve yield to the jet-fuel range. All of these catalytic steps have been demonstrated in sequence, thus providing proof-of-concept for a new integrated process for the production of drop-in biofuels. This unique and flexible process does not require external hydrogen and also could be applied to non-syngas derived feedstock, such as fermentation products (e.g., ethanol, acetic acid, etc.), other oxygenates, and mixtures thereof containing alcohols, acids, aldehydes and/or esters.

  14. A Consideration of the Constancy of Biomass Density in Plant Populations Undergoing Self-Thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constancy of biomass density was considered in an entire plant population p by combining two adjacent populations p1 and p2 for which the self-thinning rule is assumed to be satisfied independently and each biomass density is also assumed to be the same constant value. Under these assumptions, the biomass density d in a population p was formulated as d=c((km-a+1)(km+1)/(km1-a+1)(k+1)), where c is biomass density of p1 and p2, and k and m are stand area and density ratio of p1 to p2, respectively, and a is the self-thinning slope. In the case of m?1, the value of d in the above equation is always larger than unity. This fact indicates that the biomass density in a combined population p is not equal to the biomass density c in each population p1 or p2 because of systematic error.

  15. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants. PMID:27200071

  16. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Fang eXie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth versus for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g. light, nutrients and water using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome. Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  17. Biotechnological research and development for biomass conversion to chemicals and fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.

    1980-08-01

    It is likely that a growing need to produce chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will stimulate the development of biotechnology as a commerical enterprise of considerable potential. The purpose of the analysis and the development structure that could lead to establishing this new technology are presented. Two general goals are recommended: (i) in the near term, to revive the older fermentation industry and, by the addition of sophisticated technology, to make it competitive; (ii) in the longer term, to develop a new biotechnology largely based on lignocellulose. Specific research projects are outlined in these two areas and also for the following: microbial formation of hydrocarbons; methane from anaerobic digestion; lignin; methanol. For cellulose conversion to ethanol the relative merits of using added cellulases or, alternatively, direct fermentation with anaerobic thermophiles, are discussed. In selecting suitable feedstocks for biotechnological processes there is a need to use a production-extraction-conversion system as a basis for evaluation. An effective research workforce for developing biotechnology must be pluridisciplinary. The strategy adopted at the Solar Energy Research Institute is to design the Biotechnology Branch as an integrated set of three Groups: Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics; Microbiology; Chemical and Biochemical Engineering.

  18. Genetic modification of plant cell walls to enhance biomass yield and biofuel production in bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanting; Fan, Chunfen; Hu, Huizhen; Li, Ying; Sun, Dan; Wang, Youmei; Peng, Liangcai

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls represent an enormous biomass resource for the generation of biofuels and chemicals. As lignocellulose property principally determines biomass recalcitrance, the genetic modification of plant cell walls has been posed as a powerful solution. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the effects of distinct cell wall polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin, wall proteins) on the enzymatic digestibility of biomass under various physical and chemical pretreatments in herbaceous grasses, major agronomic crops and fast-growing trees. We also compare the main factors of wall polymer features, including cellulose crystallinity (CrI), hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara ratio, monolignol proportion and uronic acid level. Furthermore, the review presents the main gene candidates, such as CesA, GH9, GH10, GT61, GT43 etc., for potential genetic cell wall modification towards enhancing both biomass yield and enzymatic saccharification in genetic mutants and transgenic plants. Regarding cell wall modification, it proposes a novel groove-like cell wall model that highlights to increase amorphous regions (density and depth) of the native cellulose microfibrils, providing a general strategy for bioenergy crop breeding and biofuel processing technology. PMID:27269671

  19. NOx emissions and thermal efficiencies of small scale biomass-fuelled combustion plant with reference to process industries in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid biomass materials are an important industrial fuel in many developing countries and also show good potential for usage in Europe within a future mix of renewable energy resources. The sustainable use of wood fuels for combustion relies on operation of plant with acceptable thermal efficiency. There is a clear link between plant efficiency and environmental impacts due to air pollution and deforestation. To supplement a somewhat sparse literature on thermal efficiencies and nitrogen oxide emissions from biomass-fuelled plants in developing countries, this paper presents results for tests carried out on 14 combustion units obtained during field trials in Sri Lanka. The plants tested comprised steam boilers and process air heaters. Biomass fuels included: rubber-wood, fuelwood from natural forests; coconut shells; rice husks; and sugar can bagasse. Average NOx (NO and NO2) emissions for the plants were found to be 47 gNO2 GJ-1 with 18% conversion of fuel nitrogen. The former value is the range of NOx emission values quoted for combustion of coal in grate-fired systems; some oil-fired systems and systems operating on natural gas, but is less than the emission levels for the combustion of pulverized fuel and heavy fuel oil. This value is significantly within current European standards for NOx emission from large combustion plants. Average thermal efficiency of the plants was found to be 50%. Observations made on operational practices demonstrated that there is considerable scope for the improvement of this thermal efficiency value by plant supervisor training, drying of fuelwood and the use of simple instruments for monitoring plant performance. (Author)

  20. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 1. Main report. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. The Main Report is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Executive Study; (2.0) Project Objectives; (3.0) Review of Combustion Technology for Biomass Fueled Steam Generator Units; (4.0) Conceptual Design; (5.0) Plant Descriptions; (6.0) Plant Operations Staffing; (7.0) Project Schedule; (8.0) Project Cost Estimate; (9.0) Financial Analysis; Appendix - Financial Analysis

  1. Production of nickel bio-ore from hyperaccumulator plant biomass: applications in phytomining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boominathan, Rengasamy; Saha-Chaudhury, N M; Sahajwalla, Veena; Doran, Pauline M

    2004-05-01

    An important step in phytomining operations is the recovery of metal from harvested plant material. In this work, a laboratory-scale horizontal tube furnace was used to generate Ni-enriched bio-ore from the dried biomass of Ni hyperaccumulator plants. Prior to furnace treatment, hairy roots of Alyssum bertolonii were exposed to Ni in liquid medium to give biomass Ni concentrations of 1.9% to 7.7% dry weight; whole plants of Berkheya coddii were grown in Ni-containing soil to produce above-ground Ni levels of up to 0.49% dry weight. The concentration of Ca in the Ni-treated B. coddii biomass was about 15 times greater than in A. bertolonii. After furnace treatment at 1200 degrees C under air, Ni-bearing residues with crystalline morphology and containing up to 82% Ni were generated from A. bertolonii. The net weight loss in the furnace and the degree of concentration of Ni were significantly reduced when the furnace was purged with nitrogen, reflecting the importance of oxidative processes in Ni enrichment. Ni in the B. coddii biomass was concentrated by a factor of about 17 to yield a residue containing 8.6% Ni; this bio-ore Ni content is substantially higher than the 1% to 2% Ni typically found in mined ore. However, the B. coddii samples after furnace treatment also contained about 34% Ca, mainly in the form of hydroxyapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH. Such high Ca levels may present significant challenges for further metallurgical processing. This work demonstrates the feasibility of furnace treatment for generating Ni-rich bio-ore from hyperaccumulator plants. The results also suggest that minimizing the uptake of Ca and/or reducing the Ca content of the biomass prior to furnace treatment would be a worthwhile strategy for improving the quality of Ni bio-ore produced in phytomining operations. PMID:15083504

  2. Biomassas de partes aéreas em plantas da caatinga Aboveground biomass of caatinga plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grécia Cavalcanti Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As biomassas de partes aéreas de nove espécies da caatinga foram determinadas e relacionadas com as medidas das plantas, cortando-se 30 plantas de cada espécie e separando-as em caule, galhos, ramos e folhas. As espécies foram divididas em dois grupos: seis espécies com plantas grandes e três com plantas menores. Cada grupo foi separado em classes de diâmetro do caule (DAP. As alturas totais (HT dobraram (3,8 a 8,5 m da classe de menor para a de maior diâmetro (Biomass of aboveground parts of nine caatinga species were determined and related to plant measurements. Thirty plants of each species were collected and separated into stems, branches, twigs and leaves. The species were divided in two groups: six species of large plants and three species of smaller plants. Each group was divided into classes of stem diameter (DBH. Plant height (H doubled (3.8 to 8.5 m from the smallest-diameter class to the largest diameter ( 5 cm diameter, 20% of branches from 1 to 5 cm, 5% of twigs < 1 cm and 5% of leaves. DBH was the single variable that best predicted biomass of parts, in both species groups, according to a power equation (B = a DBH b. H and CPA were also significantly related to biomass for some parts and group, but with R² lower than DBH. Combining DBH and H improved estimation but not enough to justify the extra field effort in determining H. Therefore, plant part biomass can be estimated from measurements of stem diameter, in a non-destructive process.

  3. Exploring the myth of nascent hydrogen and its implications for biomass conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábos, Viktória; Yuen, Alexander K L; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Iron (and to a lesser extent manganese) in the wall of a 316 stainless steel (SS) reactor is responsible for the hydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexanol when using an aqueous formic acid solution under high temperature and pressure water (HTPW) conditions. However, not only dilute formic acid but also aqueous solutions of several other organic and mineral acids in the presence of iron are active in this reaction covering a range of aldehydes and ketones, even under ambient conditions. The stoichiometry, kinetics, and the possible mechanisms of both dihydrogen production as well as of the hydrogenation of the model compound cyclohexanone were examined. The reduction is essentially stoichiometric with respect to metallic iron, and the conversions are highly dependent on the speed of stirring as well as temperature and reactant concentrations. Importantly, it is established unequivocally that water participates in dihydrogen gas formation (hydrogen atoms originate from both the acid and water molecules) and facilitates substrate reduction. PMID:22952036

  4. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  5. Cellulase immobilization on superparamagnetic nanoparticles for reuse in cellulosic biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current cellulosic biomass hydrolysis is based on the one-time use of cellulases. Cellulases immobilized on magnetic nanocarriers offer the advantages of magnetic separation and repeated use for continuous hydrolysis. Most immobilization methods focus on only one type of cellulase. Here, we report co-immobilization of two types of cellulases, β-glucosidase A (BglA and cellobiohydrolase D (CelD, on sub-20 nm superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles demonstrated 100% immobilization efficiency for both BglA and CelD. The total enzyme activities of immobilized BglA and CelD were up to 67.1% and 41.5% of that of the free cellulases, respectively. The immobilized BglA and CelD each retained about 85% and 43% of the initial immobilized enzyme activities after being recycled 3 and 10 times, respectively. The effects of pH and temperature on the immobilized cellulases were also investigated. Co-immobilization of BglA and CelD on MNPs is a promising strategy to promote synergistic action of cellulases while lowering enzyme consumption.

  6. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper......-called 'big bags' filled with fly ash waste. Inhalation doses were estimated to be low. External doses received while working at the power plant do not appear to be highly significant compared with the doses from environmental contamination in the area where the power plant is expected to be constructed....

  7. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  8. Biomass Power Generation through Direct Integration of Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine Combustion System

    OpenAIRE

    Jai-Houng Leu

    2010-01-01

    Biomass is the largest renewable energy source in the world. Its importance grows gradually in the future energy market. Since most biomass sources are low in energy density and are widespread in space, small-scale biomass conversion system is therefore more competitive than a large stand-alone conversion plant. The current study proposes a small-scale solid biomass power system to explore the viability of direct coupling of an updraft fixed bed gasifier with a Stirling engine. The modified u...

  9. Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass in an IGCC Power Plant: Gasifier Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Correas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-gasification of coal and biomass in an existing coal-fired IGCC power plant is proposed as an efficient, flexible and environmentally friendly way to increase the biomass contribution to electricity generation. A model of an entrained flow gasifier is described and validated with nearly 3,000 actual steady-state operational data points (4,800 hours. The model is then used to study co-gasification of coal, petroleum coke and up to 10 percent of several types of biomass. As a result, the influence of fuel variations on gasifier performance and modifications in operation that should be made in co-gasification are obtained. A conclusion of our study is that co-gasification is possible provided that operation is properly adapted. A validated model can be very useful for predicting operating points for new fuel mixtures.

  10. Biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels : pretreatment–detoxification–hydrolysis–fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Soudham, Venkata Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic materials to replace fossil resources for the industrial production of fuels, chemicals, and materials is increasing. The carbohydrate composition of lignocellulose (i.e. cellulose and hemicellulose) is an abundant source of sugars. However, due to the feedstock recalcitrance, rigid and compact structure of plant cell walls, access to polysaccharides is hindered and release of fermentable sugars has become a bottle-neck. Thus, to overcome the recalcitrant barriers, ...

  11. Summary of uranium refining and conversion pilot plant at Ningyo-toge works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Ningyo-toge works, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., the construction of the uranium refining and conversion pilot plant was completed, and the operation will be started after the various tests based on the related laws. As for the uranium refining in Japan, the PNC process by wet refining method has been developed since 1958. The history of the development is described. It was decided to construct the refining and conversion pilot plant with 200 t uranium/year capacity as the comprehensive result of the development. This is the amount sufficient to supply UF6 to the uranium enrichment pilot plant in Ningyo-toge. The building for the refining and conversion pilot plant is a three-story ferro-concrete building with the total floor area of about 13,000 m2. The raw materials are the uranium ore produced in Ningyo-toge and the yellow cakes from abroad. Uranyl sulfate solution is obtained by solvent extraction using an extraction tower or a mixer-settler. The following processes are electrolytic reduction, precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride, filtration, drying, dehydration and UF6 conversion. The fluorine for UF6 conversion is produced by the facility in the plant. The operation of the pilot plant will be started in the latter half of the fiscal year 1981, the batch operation is carrried out in 1982, and the continuous operation from 1983. (Kako, I.)

  12. Decentralized energy conversion of biomass from Amstelland. The feasibility of decentralized use of energy from green wastes in the municipality Amstelveen and its environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to determine the enviro-technical and economical feasibility of decentralized biomass conversion as part of the green area and energy infrastructure of the region Amstelland, Netherlands. The parts of the study concern a regional inventory of green wastes in Amstelland, an energy demand analysis of conversion sites in the region, a logistic analysis, an evaluation of technical options (cogeneration, combustion, gasification), business economical analysis of the investments, determining the support and willingness to contribute and cooperate, and drafting a final report. Based on the results of the report decisions can be made whether or not the design and installation of a decentralized biomass conversion system should be elaborated in detail. 16 refs

  13. Biomass power plants and health problems among nearby residents: A case study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudchawal Juntarawijit

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electricity generation from biomass has become a boom business. However, currently, concerns over their environmental and health impact have emerged. This study aimed to explore these health problems by studying two small biomass power plants in Thailand. Materials and Methods: Data concerning chronic diseases and health symptoms was collected from 392 people by trained interviewers by the use of a questionnaire. Results: Residents living within 1 km from the power plants had a higher prevalence of allergies (Odds ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5-4.0, asthma (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.4 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.0-8.4. The risks of other symptoms, itching/rash, eye irritation, cough, stuffy nose, allergic symptoms, sore throat, and difficulty breathing among those living within 0.5 km from the power plants (OR = 2.5-8.5 were even more marked. Conclusions: It has been concluded that without a proper control, pollution from the biomass power plants can cause significant health problems to the nearby residents.

  14. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, Edita; Heck, Albert J R; Hildén, Kristiina S; Kabel, Mirjam A; Mäkelä, Miia R; Altelaar, Maarten A F; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-08-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass. Relatively little is known about how A. bisporus grows in the controlled environment in commercial production facilities and utilizes its substrate. Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we showed that changes in plant biomass degradation by A. bisporus occur throughout its life cycle. Ligninolytic genes were only highly expressed during the spawning stage day 16. In contrast, (hemi-)cellulolytic genes were highly expressed at the first flush, whereas low expression was observed at the second flush. The essential role for many highly expressed plant biomass degrading genes was supported by exo-proteome analysis. Our data also support a model of sequential lignocellulose degradation by wood-decaying fungi proposed in previous studies, concluding that lignin is degraded at the initial stage of growth in compost and is not modified after the spawning stage. The observed differences in gene expression involved in (hemi-)cellulose degradation between the first and second flushes could partially explain the reduction in the number of mushrooms during the second flush. PMID:26118398

  15. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  16. An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Suen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini, which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  17. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    A way to reduce the CO2 emissions from the transportation sector is by increasing the use of biofuels in the sector. DME and methanol are two such biofuels, which can be synthesized from biomass, by use of gasification followed by chemical synthesis. This method of producing biofuels is shown to be...... energy efficiency of the synthesis plants, and lowering the plant CO2 emissions - but also try to improve the DME/methanol yield per unit biomass input, and integrate surplus electricity from renewables in the production of DME/methanol. This objective lead to the design of the following plants: 1. Large...... if a credit was given for storing the bio-CO2 captured, the cost became as low as $5.4/GJLHV (RC) and $3.1/GJLHV (OT) (at $100/ton-CO2). The small-scale DME and methanol plants achieved biomass to DME/methanol efficiencies of 45-46% when using once-through (OT) synthesis, and 56-58% when using...

  18. Energetic and environmental performance of three biomass upgrading processes integrated with a CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We simulate CHP-integrated production of wood pellets, torrefied wood pellets and pyrolysis slurry. ► Integration increases operation hours and district heat output by up to 38% and 22%. ► Additionally installed equipment reduces yearly power generation by up to 7%. ► Wood pellet production performs best energetically and environmentally. ► Integrated concepts substantially reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. - Abstract: In order to react on future expected increased competition on restricted biomass resources, communal combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be integrated with biomass upgrading processes that add valuable products to the portfolio. In this paper, outgoing from a base case, the retrofit integration of production of wood pellets (WPs), torrefied wood pellets (TWPs) and wood fast pyrolysis slurry (PS) with an existing wood-fired CHP plant was simulated. Within the integration concept, free boiler capacity during times of low district heat demands is used to provide energy for the upgrading processes. By detailed part-load modelling, critical process parameters are discussed. With help of a multiperiod model of the heat duration curve, the work further shows the influence of the integration on plant operating hours, electricity production and biomass throughput. Environmental and energetic performance is assessed according to European standard EN 15603 and compared to the base case as well as to stand-alone production in two separate units. The work shows that all three integration options are well possible within the operational limits of the CHP plant. Summarising, this work shows that integration of WP, TWP and PS production from biomass with a CHP plant by increasing the yearly boiler workload leads to improved primary energy efficiency, reduced CO2 emissions, and, when compared to stand-alone production, also to substantial fuel savings

  19. Estimating aboveground biomass of broadleaved woody plants in the understory of Florida Keys pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Koptur, S.; Snyder, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Species-specific allometric equations that provide estimates of biomass from measured plant attributes are currently unavailable for shrubs common to South Florida pine rocklands, where fire plays an important part in shaping the structure and function of ecosystems. We developed equations to estimate total aboveground biomass and fine fuel of 10 common hardwood species in the shrub layer of pine forests of the lower Florida Keys. Many equations that related biomass categories to crown area and height were significant (p Estimates based on species-specific equations indicated clearly that total aboveground shrub biomass and shrub fine fuel increased with time since last fire, but the relationships were non-linear. The relative proportion of biomass constituted by the major species also varied with stand age. Estimates based on mixed-species regressions differed slightly from estimates based on species-specific models, but the former could provide useful approximations in similar forests where species-specific regressions are not yet available. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  1. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

    1996-03-21

    There is growing evidence that global warming could become a major global environmental threat during the 21st century. The precautionary principle commands preventive action, at both national and international levels, to minimize this potential threat. Many near-term, relatively inexpensive, mitigation options are available. In addition, long-term research is required to evaluate and develop advanced, possibly more expensive, countermeasures, in the eventuality that they may be required. The utilization of power plant CO{sub 2} and its recycling into fossil fuel substitutes by microalgae cultures could be one such long-term technology. Microalgae production is an expanding industry in the U.S., with three commercial systems (of approximately 10 hectare each) producing nutriceuticals, specifically beta-carotene, extracted from Dunaliella, and Spirulina biomass. Microalgae are also used in wastewater treatment. Currently production costs are high, about $10,000/ton of algal biomass, almost two orders of magnitude higher than acceptable for greenhouse gas mitigation. This report reviews the current state-of-the-art, including algal cultivation and harvesting-processing, and outlines a technique for achieving very high productivities. Costs of CO{sub 2} mitigation with microalgae production of oils ({open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}) are estimated and future R&D needs outlined.

  2. Conversion of Biomass-Derived Small Oxygenates over HZSM-5 and its Deactivation Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Flake, Matthew D.; Zhang, He; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-28

    HZSM-5 catalyst deactivation was studied using aqueous feed mixtures containing ethanol, ethanol+ acetic acid, ethanol+ethyl acetate, or ethanol+acetaldehyde in a fixed bed reactor at 360°C and 300psig. Compared to ethanol alone experiment, addition of other oxygenates reduced catalyst life in the order of: ethyl acetateconversion to the desired products. Therefore, it is necessary to pre-treat the mixture of oxygenates to produce a feed stream containing the same or similar functional group compounds before converting the feed stream to hydrocarbon compounds over HZSM-5 catalyst.

  3. AREVA invests 610 million euro in new uranium conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA today announced the launch of the Comurhex II project which will see the group build new uranium conversion facilities on the Malvesi site in Narbonne and Tricastin. Through this 610 million euro investment, AREVA aims to maintain its position as world no. 1 for conversion within a context of global nuclear energy. COMURHEX II integrates technological innovations from major R and D programs and return of experience from processes in operation for over forty years. Nuclear safety and reducing the impact on the environment were top priorities when designing the project. These future facilities will also lead to major savings of water and energy consumption and reduce effluents. The groundwork of the Comurhex II project has taken 150,000 hours of engineering over the past three years. Four hundred people will work on the site which will be launched in summer 2007. First industrial production is scheduled for 2012, based on 15,000 metric tons of uranium per year. This figure may be increased to 21,000 tons to meet market requirements

  4. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated, and the...... low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis of...

  5. Thermodynamic assessment of plant efficiencies for HTR power conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied thermodynamic aspects influencing the efficiency of 200 MWth-HTR modules, considering steam cycle plants, gas turbine plants with and without intermediate heat exchanger and plants with combined gas turbine/steam cycle. The influence of steam parameters and of reheating is investigated. The investigated parameters with major influence on the efficiencies of gas turbine cycles are the core outlet temperature, polytropic efficiency of the turbomachinery, performance of the recuperator and the cooling temperature. For combined cycles, we have investigated a direct combined cycle with gas turbine and steam generator heated by the exhaust gas of the turbine, and a combined cycle with intermediate heat exchanger. For core outlet temperatures of 900 deg. C, and steam temperatures of 600 deg. C, respectively, cycle efficiencies between 40.7% and 47.5% have been found, with the indirect gas turbine cycle on the lower bound and the direct combined cycle on the upper bound of the spectrum. (author)

  6. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2 from post-combustion capture and autothermal reforming of natural gas or biogas. Underground gas storage of hydrogen and oxygen was used in connection with the electrolysis to enable the electrolyser to follow the variations in the power produced by renewables. Six plant configurations, each with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated, and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (∼90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 Euro /GJexergy. The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis of water, gasification of biomass and autothermal reforming of natural gas for syngas production.

  7. USE OF AGRICULTURAL WASTES FOR BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF THE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER ACTINOBACTERIA, Streptomyces sp. MCR26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ávila-Cortes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of agricultural wastes for plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR biomass production has not been widely explored. This study focuses on the development a culture medium for PGPR Streptomyces sp. MCR26, evaluating the influence of carnation harvest waste, yeast extract and ammonium sulfate on biomass production, as well as, the effect of biomass produced in the designed culture medium on the maintenance of PGPR MCR26 traits. The experiments were conducted by a full factorial design, varying nutritional sources concentrations, with duplicate experiments at the central point. Yeast extract and carnation harvest waste were the most influential factors, showing a positive effect on biomass production. The statistical model predicted optimal conditions for maximal biomass production at 20.0 g/L carnation harvest waste and 4.0 g/L yeast extract. Shake flask validation experiments resulted in 8.087 g/L of MCR26 biomass, 80.6% higher compared to carboxymetil cellulose (CMC broth. MCR26 biomass produced on designed culture medium enhanced hydroxamate production, and maintained phosphatases and indole-3-acetic acid synthesis. In addition, white clover inoculated plants presented higher shoot biomass accumulation compared to control treatment; nevertheless, there were no effects on seed germination. These results demonstrated that the designed culture medium effectively induced Streptomyces sp. MCR26 biomass production and maintained its plant growth promotion traits.

  8. Engineering Plant Biomass Lignin Content and Composition for Biofuels and Bioproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cassie Marie Welker; Vimal Kumar Balasubramanian; Carloalberto Petti; Krishan Mohan Rai; Seth DeBolt; Venugopal Mendu

    2015-01-01

    Lignin is an aromatic biopolymer involved in providing structural support to plant cell walls. Compared to the other cell wall polymers, i.e. , cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin has been considered a hindrance in cellulosic bioethanol production due to the complexity involved in its separation from other polymers of various biomass feedstocks. Nevertheless, lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemical compounds and upgradable building blocks. Though the biosynthetic pathway o...

  9. Effect of plant row spacing and herbicide use on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield

    OpenAIRE

    Acciaresi, Horacio A.; M. S. Zuluaga

    2006-01-01

    The use of narrow plant spacing in corn (Zea mays) has been suggested as a technological alternative to obtain grain yield increases, due to a better use of resources. The regular pattern could diminish intraspecific competition while favoring interspecific competition with weeds. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of corn row spacing on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield. Field experiments were conducted during 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. Three corn...

  10. Sequential extraction partitioning of trace and nutrient elements in ashes from biomass firing district heating plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šyc M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Four different ashes from three district heating plants firing biomass were studied with the respect to their potential application as soil fertilizers. Major and trace elements content and some important characteristics of the studied ashes are also presented. Five stage sequential extraction procedure was used for the determination of distribution and speciation of As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn in studied ash samples.

  11. Sequential Extraction Partitioning of Trace and Nutrient Elements in Ashes from Biomass Firing District Heating Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Šyc M.; Tošnarová M.; Hrma J.; Pohořelý M.; Svoboda K.; Punčochář M.

    2012-01-01

    Four different ashes from three district heating plants firing biomass were studied with the respect to their potential application as soil fertilizers. Major and trace elements content and some important characteristics of the studied ashes are also presented. Five stage sequential extraction procedure was used for the determination of distribution and speciation of As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn in studied ash samples.

  12. Preconceptual design studies and cost data of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the more important legacies left with the Department of Energy (DOE) after the privatization of the United States Enrichment Corporation is the large inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) is responsible for the long-term management of some 700,000 metric tons of DUF6 stored at the sites of the two gaseous diffusion plants located at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The DUF6 management program resides in NE's Office of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management. The current DUF6 program has largely focused on the ongoing maintenance of the cylinders containing DUF6. However, the long-term management and eventual disposition of DUF6 is the subject of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and Public Law 105-204. The first step for future use or disposition is to convert the material, which requires construction and long-term operation of one or more conversion plants. To help inform the DUF6 program's planning activities, it was necessary to perform design and cost studies of likely DUF6 conversion plants at the preconceptual level, beyond the PEIS considerations but not as detailed as required for conceptual designs of actual plants. This report contains the final results from such a preconceptual design study project. In this fast track, three month effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel National Incorporated developed and evaluated seven different preconceptual design cases for a single plant. The preconceptual design, schedules, costs, and issues associated with specific DUF6 conversion approaches, operating periods, and ownership options were evaluated based on criteria established by DOE. The single-plant conversion options studied were similar to the dry-conversion process alternatives from the PEIS. For each of the seven cases considered, this report contains information on

  13. Risks and benefits of marginal biomass-derived biochars for plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Graham, Margaret C; Shepherd, Jessica G; Mašek, Ondřej

    2016-11-01

    In this study, 19 biochars from marginal biomass, representing all major biomass groups (woody materials, grass, an aquatic plant, anthropogenic wastes) were investigated regarding their content of available potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and nutrients (determined by NH4NO3-extractions) and their effects on cress (Lepidium sativum) seedling growth. The objective was to assess the potential and actual effects of biochar with increased PTE content on plant growth in the context of use in soil amendments and growing media. It showed that the percentage of available PTEs was highest for biochars produced at the highest treatment temperature (HTT) of 750°C. On average, however, for all 19 biochars, the percentage availability of Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn (biomass-derived biochar were applied at high concentrations, e.g. 5% (>100tha(-1)), when applied at agriculturally realistic application rates (1-10tha(-1)), the resulting smaller increases in pH and available K concentration may actually be beneficial for plant growth. PMID:27362631

  14. Temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass decreases as spatial variability increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Hovick, Torre J; Elmore, R Dwayne; Engle, David M; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Winter, Stephen L; Miller, James R; Debinski, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    Ecological theory predicts that diversity decreases variability in ecosystem function. We predict that, at the landscape scale, spatial variability created by a mosaic of contrasting patches that differ in time since disturbance will decrease temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. Using data from a multi-year study of seven grazed tallgrass prairie landscapes, each experimentally managed for one to eight patches, we show that increased spatial variability driven by spatially patchy fire and herbivory reduces temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. This pattern is associated with statistical evidence for the portfolio effect and a positive relationship between temporal variability and functional group synchrony as predicted by metacommunity variability theory. As disturbance from fire and grazing interact to create a shifting mosaic of spatially heterogeneous patches within a landscape, temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass can be dampened. These results suggest that spatially heterogeneous disturbance regimes contribute to a portfolio of ecosystem functions provided by biodiversity, including wildlife habitat, fuel, and forage. We discuss how spatial patterns of disturbance drive variability within and among patches. PMID:27197382

  15. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (rp) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio and GT-TIT.

  16. Removal and Conversion of Tar in Syngas from Woody Biomass Gasification for Power Utilization Using Catalytic Hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification has yet to obtain industrial acceptance. The high residual tar concentrations in syngas prevent any ambitious utilization. In this paper a novel gas purification technology based on catalytic hydrocracking is introduced, whereby most of the tarry components can be converted and removed. Pilot scale experiments were carried out with an updraft gasifier. The hydrocracking catalyst was palladium (Pd. The results show the dominant role of temperature and flow rate. At a constant flow rate of 20 Nm3/h and temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C the tar conversion rates reached 44.9%, 78.1% and 92.3%, respectively. These results could be increased up to 98.6% and 99.3% by using an operating temperature of 700 °C and lower flow rates of 15 Nm3/h and 10 Nm3/h. The syngas quality after the purification process at 700 °C/10 Nm3/h is acceptable for inner combustion (IC gas engine utilization.

  17. Dioxin emissions from biomass fired energy plants and other sources in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleicher, O.; Jensen, A.A.; Blinksbjerg, P.; Thomsen, E.; Schilling, B.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents results from a new Danish investigation of emissions of dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) from various sources carried out for the Danish EPA. The purpose was to investigate smaller sources (in size or emission), for which the knowledge of the PCDD/F emissions was low or missing. The sources were: Five biomass plants (> 1 MW) using straw, wood and chip board residue, a farm size boiler (> 1 MW) using straw, a wood stove during wood pellets, and three district heating plants (> 1 MW) using waste oil. In addition, measurements were made of emissions from barbecuing, and cremation of corpses in two crematories. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Modelling biomass-fuelled small-scale CHP plants for process synthesis optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Savola, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    In this work possible process improvements for biomass-fuelled small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants are evaluated and a new mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for process synthesis optimisation of these processes is presented. Small-scale (1-20 MWe) CHP plants are of interest, as in Finland the potential to increase the CHP production is in converting small heating units to CHP production. However, the profitability of these small-scale CHP investments should be hig...

  19. Nondestructive analysis at B and W's uranium conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Containers and processing lines bearing high and low enriched uranium are routinely analyzed by nondestructive assay. Measurement systems used at Babcock and Wilcox's nuclear fuels plant in Apollo, Pennsylvania include the segmented gamma scanner (SGS) and the stabilized assay meter (SAM-II). These systems have been calibrated and used for a variety of tasks including uranium holdup measurements prior to decommissioning, in situ filter analysis and assay of calcined waste. 2 refs

  20. Potential environmental consequences of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants. A workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J. (ed.)

    1981-05-01

    The concept of generating electrical power from the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean waters was advanced over a century ago. A pilot plant was constructed in the Caribbean during the 1920's but commercialization did not follow. The US Department of Energy (DOE) earlier planned to construct a single operational 10MWe Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant by 1986. However, Public Law P.L.-96-310, the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Research, Development and Demonstration Act, and P.L.-96-320, the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, now call for acceleration of the development of OTEC plants, with capacities of 100 MWe in 1986, 500 MWe in 1989, and 10,000 MWe by 1999 and provide for licensing and permitting and loan guarantees after the technology has been demonstrated.

  1. Three biomass power plants in New England first five years of challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generating electricity from biomass fuels, through stand-alone power plants, represents a renewal of a half-century old plus, renewable technology. New England has generated its electricity sequentially, and still in parallel, from hydro, coal, oil, and nuclear sources during this period, and most recently during the 1980's, from a mixture of various alternate technologies including wood waste fuels and domestic waste fuels. Three plants located in New Hampshire and Maine, of identical power-island design, were constructed in eighteen months, and began operation in the period December, 1987 through March, 1988. These plants almost from the start have experienced an outstanding record of operation, dependability, and reliability. This paper will describe how each plant has fit into its respective location and environment, the personnel, technical and administrative support required, the biomass wood waste production and supply infra-structure which has developed around these facilities; and the technical problems and challenges which arose and were resolved in the process of handling a cantankerous, bulk fuel and turning it into a reliable supply of electricity. These plants are designed around a zero discharge concept. The author will discuss the design features built in, and operating practices which have evolved, to effectively use waste water internally, minimize air emissions, and recycle 100% of its solid waste as an effective fertilizer and soil conditioner

  2. A simple method for comparing fungal biomass in infected plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, Michael; Periyannan, Sambasivam K; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian; Schumann, Ulrike; Wang, Ming-Bo; Pryor, Anthony; Lagudah, Evans

    2013-06-01

    Plant phenotypes resistant and susceptible to fungal pathogens are usually scored using qualitative, subjective methods that are based upon disease symptoms or by an estimation of the amount of visible fungal growth. Given that plant resistance genes often confer partial resistance to fungal pathogens, a simple, sensitive, nonsubjective quantitative method for measuring pathogen growth would be highly advantageous. This report describes an in planta quantitative assay for fungal biomass based upon detection of chitin using wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to a fluorophore. Using this assay, the growth of wheat rust pathogens on wheat was assayed and the additivity of several adult plant and seedling resistance genes to Puccinia striiformis, P. graminis, and P. triticina was assayed on both glasshouse- and field-grown material. The assay can discriminate between individual rust pustules on a leaf segment or, alternatively, compare fungal growth on field plots. The quantification of Erysiphe necator (powdery mildew) growth on Vitis vinifera (grapevine) is also demonstrated, with resistant and susceptible cultivars readily distinguished. Given that chitin is a major cell wall component of many plant fungal pathogens, this robust assay will enable simple and accurate measurement of biomass accumulation in many plant-fungus interactions. PMID:23405866

  3. Proliferation of diversified clostridial species during biological soil disinfestation incorporated with plant biomass under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlick, Subrata; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2013-09-01

    Biological soil disinfestation (BSD) involves the anaerobic decomposition of plant biomass by microbial communities leading to control of plant pathogens. We analyzed bacterial communities in soil of a model experiment of BSD, as affected by biomass incorporation under various conditions, to find out the major anaerobic bacterial groups which emerged after BSD treatments. The soil was treated with Brassica juncea plants, wheat bran, or Avena strigosa plants, irrigated at 20 or 30 % moisture content and incubated at 25-30 °C for 17 days. The population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae incorporated at the start of the experiment declined markedly for some BSD conditions and rather high concentrations of acetate and butyrate were detected from these BSD-treated soils. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis based on the V3 region of 16S rRNA gene sequences from the soil DNA revealed that bacterial profiles greatly changed according to the treatment conditions. Based on the clone library analysis, phylogenetically diverse clostridial species appeared exceedingly dominant in the bacterial community of BSD soil incorporated with Brassica plants or wheat bran, in which the pathogen was suppressed completely. Species in the class Clostridia such as Clostridium saccharobutylicum, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium xylanovorans, Oxobacter pfennigii, Clostridium pasteurianum, Clostridium sufflavum, Clostridium cylindrosporum, etc. were commonly recognized as closely related species of the dominant clone groups from these soil samples. PMID:23132344

  4. Process simulation of co-firing torrefied biomass in a 220 MWe coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The performances of torrefaction based co-firing power plant are simulated by using Aspen Plus. • Mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied during biomass torrefaction processes. • Mole fractions of CO2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in total torrefied gases. • The electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. - Abstract: Torrefaction based co-firing in a pulverized coal boiler has been proposed for large percentage of biomass co-firing. A 220 MWe pulverized coal-power plant is simulated using Aspen Plus for full understanding the impacts of an additional torrefaction unit on the efficiency of the whole power plant, the studied process includes biomass drying, biomass torrefaction, mill systems, biomass/coal devolatilization and combustion, heat exchanges and power generation. Palm kernel shells (PKS) were torrefied at same residence time but 4 different temperatures, to prepare 4 torrefied biomasses with different degrees of torrefaction. During biomass torrefaction processes, the mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied. In addition, process simulations at varying torrefaction degrees and biomass co-firing ratios have been carried out to understand the properties of CO2 emission and electricity efficiency in the studied torrefaction based co-firing power plant. According to the experimental results, the mole fractions of CO2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in torrefied gases. The predicted results also showed that the electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. A deep torrefaction may not be recommended, because the power saved from biomass grinding is less than the heat consumed by the extra torrefaction process, depending on the heat sources

  5. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  6. Effects of habitat management treatments on plant community composition and biomass in a Montane wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Keough, J.R.; Pyle, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing and burning are commonly applied practices that can impact the diversity and biomass of wetland plant communities. We evaluated the vegetative response of wetlands and adjacent upland grasslands to four treatment regimes (continuous idle, fall prescribed burning followed by idle, annual fall cattle grazing, and rotation of summer grazing and idle) commonly used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study area was Grays Lake, a large, montane wetland in southeastern Idaho that is bordered by extensive wet meadows. We identified seven plant cover types, representing the transition from dry meadow to deep wetland habitats: mixed deep marsh, spikerush slough, Baltic rush (Juncus balticus), moist meadow, alkali, mesic meadow, and dry meadow. We compared changes in community composition and total aboveground biomass of each plant cover type between 1998, when all units had been idled for three years, and 1999 (1 yr post-treatment) and 2000 (2 yr post-treatment). Analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that compositional changes varied among cover types, treatments, and years following treatment. Treatment-related changes in community composition were greatest in mixed deep marsh, Baltic rush, and mesic meadow. In mixed deep marsh and Baltic rush, grazing and associated trampling contributed to changes in the plant community toward more open water and aquatic species and lower dominance of Baltic rush; grazing and trampling also seemed to contribute to increased cover in mesic meadow. Changing hydrological conditions, from multiple years of high water to increasing drought, was an important factor influencing community composition and may have interacted with management treatments. Biomass differed among treatments and between years within cover types. In the wettest cover types, fall burning and grazing rotation treatments had greater negative impact on biomass than the idle treatment, but in drier cover types, summer grazing stimulated

  7. Exploiting plant-microbe partnerships to improve biomass production and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-10-01

    Although many plant-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on their host, their importance during plant growth and development is still underestimated. A better understanding of their plant growth-promoting mechanisms could be exploited for sustainable growth of food and feed crops, biomass for biofuel production and feedstocks for industrial processes. Such plant growth-promoting mechanisms might facilitate higher production of energy crops in a more sustainable manner, even on marginal land, and thus contribute to avoiding conflicts between food and energy production. Furthermore, because many bacteria show a natural capacity to cope with contaminants, they could be exploited to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation or to protect the food chain by reducing levels of agrochemicals in food crops.

  8. Treatment of Lagoon sludge waste generated from Uranium Conversion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the dissolution property of nitrate salts in the desalination process by water and the drying property of residual solid after separating nitrates in a series of processes for the sludge treatment. Desalination was carried out with the adding ratio of water and drying property was analyzed by TG/DTA, FTIR, and XRD. Nitrate salts involved in the sludge were separated over 97 % at the water adding ratio of 2.5. But a small quantity of calcium and sodium nitrate remained in the residue. These were decomposed over 600 deg. C while calcium carbonate, which was a main compound of residual solid, was decomposed into calcium oxide over 750 deg. C. The residual solid has to be decomposed over 800 deg. C to converse uranyl nitrate of six values into the stable U3O8 of four values. As a result of removing the nitrates at the adding ratio of 2.5 and drying the residue over 900 deg. C, volume of the sludge waste decreased over 80 %. (authors)

  9. Co-production of pyrolysis oil and district cooling in biomass-based CHP plants: Utilizing sequential vapour condensation heat as driving force in an absorption cooling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ever-increasing demand for cooling requires new and sustainable ways of producing it. Absorption cooling is one such well-known technique that can be employed, the driving force in which is heat. When a flash pyrolysis process, with sequential vapour condensation, is integrated into a biomass-based combined heat and power plant (CHP plant), excess heat may arise in the condensers. This study demonstrates the utilization of this excess heat in an absorption cooling machine for producing district cooling. The maximum boiler load in the used CHP plant was 80 MW: the excess condenser heat created during the period June–August was 6.4 MW, which resulted in the production of 5 MW district cooling. The production of electrical power increased by 8.6% on a yearly basis, with a base load production during June–August of 2.8 MW. Using an absorption cooling machine increases the energy conversion efficiency of the CHP plant with an integrated pyrolysis process by 1.3% on a yearly basis; the energy efficiency of the pyrolysis process alone increases by 6%. An increased utilization of the condenser heat for district cooling is possible at an almost constant overall energy conversion efficiency and is demonstrated with two additional cases. - Highlights: • Energy enhancement of a biomass-based CHP plant with integrated pyrolysis process. • Simulation of a single-stage absorption cooling cycle in CHEMCAD. • Utilizing waste condenser heat for district cooling production in three cases. • Simulation of a plant with productions of heat, power, cooling and bio-oil

  10. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte H; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-07-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300-500kgPha(-1) application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25Mgha(-1) straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. PMID:27082447

  11. Increasing the efficiency of parabolic trough plants using thermal oil through external superheating with biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Comparison of 14 different external superheater scenarios using different biomass materials. • Concept raises the solar to electricity efficiency above >30% and reduce investment up to 23.5%. • Immediate cost reduction possible compared to 17–40% cost reduction by 2020. • Scenarios based on a 50 MWe plant with 7.5 h thermal storage in Mildura, Australia. • High-level identification of potential sites worldwide suitable for CSP-biomass hybrid plants. - Abstract: It is well understood that the cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) will need to decrease quickly to ensure competitiveness with photovoltaic (PV) systems and other forms of power generation. Research and development on CSP plant components is crucial in order to reduce costs but is typically time consuming. New CSP plant concepts combining proven technologies with CSP represent another option that can be implemented quickly. This paper investigates the use of several biomass materials to externally superheat steam in conventional parabolic trough plants. Currently, parabolic trough plants are easiest to finance and external steam superheating can overcome the lower efficiencies compared to other CSP technologies. Seven scenarios, each air and water cooled, with steam parameters ranging from 380 °C at 100 bar to 540 °C at 130 bar have been modeled, and the results presented here are based on a 50 MWe plant with 7.5 h molten salt thermal storage. Our results show that the peak solar to electricity net efficiency increases up to 10.5% while the specific investment can decrease immediately from AU$8.2m/MWe to AU$6.3m/MWe, a 23.5% reduction. That is significant considering the expected 17–40% CSP cost reduction targets by the end of this decade. The modeling shows that even major fuel and water price changes are significantly less relevant than small changes in the agreed electricity purchase price. The technical, economic and environmental analysis reveals that external

  12. Input of biomass in power plants for power generation. Calculation of the financial gap. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of Economic Affairs has requested ECN and KEMA to answer two questions. (1) Are the costs and benefits of projects in which wood-pellets are co-fired in a coal fired power plant representative for those of bio-oil fueled co-firing projects in a gas fired plant?; and (2) Are new projects representative for existing projects? To answer these questions, ECN and KEMA have calculated the financial gaps in six different situations: co-firing bio-oil in a gas fired power plant; co-firing bio-oil in a coal fired power plant; gasification of solid biomass; co-firing wood pellets in a coal fired power plant; co-firing agricultural residues in a coal fired power plant; and co-firing waste wood (A- and B-grade) in a coal fired power plant. The ranges and reference cases show that co-firing bio-oil on average has a smaller financial gap than the solid biomass reference case. On average it can also be concluded that when using waste wood or agro-residues, the financial gaps are smaller. Based on these findings it is concluded that: (1) The reference case of co-firing wood pellets in a coal fired power plant are not representative for bio-fuel options. A new category for bio-oil options seems appropriate; and (2) The financial gap of new projects as calculated in November 2004, is often higher then the ranges for existing projects indicate

  13. Predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) for emission control in biomass fired plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative method for estimation of NOx-emissions from biomass fired plants has been investigated. The method, 'Predictive emission monitoring' (PEMS), implicates the creation of a mathematical formula. The formula expresses the relations between NOx-emissions and various operating and external parameters, such as flue gas temperature, excess combustion air and heat load. In this study the applicability of PEMS has been tested for two plants both of type travelling stokers. The most important results of the study are: PEMS is suitable for emission monitoring for some types of biomass fired plants (for example travelling stokers) even if the plant is fired with fuel with varying water content. In most cases it should be sufficient if the relation is based on oxygen level in the flue gas and plant load, with the possible addition of flue gas temperature and/or furnace temperature rate. These parameters are usually measured in any case, which means that no additional investment in instrumentation is necessary. In this study many measured parameters (for example the throttle levels) did not affect the NOx-emissions. A PEMS relation is only applicable for a specific plant and for a fixed validity range. Thus the function should be performed in such a way that it covers the limits of the operating parameters of the plant. Usage of different fuels or drift optimization can only be done within the validity range. Good combustion conditions could be necessary to receive a usable PEMS-function. Before creating the PEMS-function the combustion and the emission levels must be optimized. In plants with very fluctuating combustion, for example fixed stokers, it is possible that PEMS leads to not satisfying results. The total cost for a PEM-function can be calculated to be about 50-70% compared to a CEM during a period of a decade. 8 refs, 13 figs, 15 tabs, 8 appendices

  14. The Simulation Analysis of Optimal Policy Including Introduction of Biomass Plant Technology for Decreasing Water Pollutions in Jiaxing City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Higano, Yoshiro; Xu, Feng; Yan, Jingjing; Mizunoya, Takeshi; Du, Huanzheng

    2010-01-01

    In the study, we proposed the environmental policies to decrease water pollutants that generate from household, non-point and production in Jiaxing city of China. We especially introduced biomass plant technology for pig farming industry in order to improve the water environment. We constructed environmental model and social economic model by computer simulation that evaluated the efficiency of biomass plant technology from both water environmental preservation and social economic development...

  15. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

    2014-01-01

    We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

  16. The major parameters on biomass pyrolysis for hyperaccumulative plants--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilks, R T; Monette, F; Glaus, M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the main phytoremediation techniques and it has often been described as a potentially feasible in situ soil decontamination method of large amounts of heavy metals, organic pollutants and explosive compounds. As this remediation technique is approaching extensive on-field experimentation and commercialization, research focus is on investigating new ways to achieve the valorisation of its by-products. Biomass pyrolysis represents a key step to numerous valorisation options and it is characterized by differential output products that are determined by the operating conditions of the process and the characteristics of the input. However, when used to valorise plants that have undergone significant metal uptake, this strategy involves some new aspects related to harvest, procedure and final product reutilization. This paper reviews the studies made on biomass pyrolysis of plants with emphasis on the differential quality and distribution of pyrolysis products in relation with the variables of the process and the metal-rich phytoextraction feedstock properties. By investigating these parameters, this survey provides indications on ways to optimize the valorisation of phytoremediation by-products through biomass pyrolysis. PMID:26741543

  17. Control and regulation of biomass conversion plants. Sub-project 4: Online determination of fatty acids with reference to adaptive regulation of the biogas process. Final report. Delprojekt 4: On-line bestemmelse af fede syrer med henblik paa adaptiv regulering af biogasprocessen. Slutrapport; Styring og regulering af biogasanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, C.; Eriksen, S.; Bennetsen, J.; Norddahl, B.

    1993-10-01

    Equipment for on-line sample-taking from biogas reactors controlled by automatic titration was tested. The titration automatic control device was mounted and programmed so that it could determine the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the reactor fluid. The results of the analysis were compared with the results gained from manual titration control methods. External control of the sample- taking equipment was developed. This was controlled via the titration automatism as a stand-alone system. A control algorithm was set up on the basis of adaptive regulation so that it was adapted to the substrate. The algorithm was tested in a simulation where the input to the regulation is generated by a simulation model for the biogas process and the output influences the biogas process simulation so that the control and regulation convergence can be tested. Based on this a spread sheet program was set up to calculate the regulation parameters in the adaptive regulation so that it could be used for manual regulation. Input parameters for regulation are estimates of the convertible biomass expressed in VHA equivalents, the actual VHA concentration in the biogas reactor and the resulting production of methane. A simulation model was developed to calculate the concentration of hydrolyzed polymeric substances, VHA concentration at a given time and the resulting methane production. It was found that the adaptive regulation is very robust in the face of variations and can be used to maintain a stable production of methane at a high level with a heavy loading of the system. At the same time the VFA level is kept low, so reducing risks of instability of production. (AB)

  18. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.; Meyer, P.; Snowden-Swan, L.; Padmaperuma, A.; Tan, E.; Dutta, A.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  19. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Tan, Eric; Dutta, Abhijit; Jacobson, Jacob; Cafferty, Kara

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  20. Conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone by using water-soluble and reusable iridium complexes in acidic aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jin; Wang, Yan; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-07-01

    Mild-mannered manipulation: A catalytic method for the conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone in acidic aqueous media has been developed. The water-soluble iridium complexes were observed to be extremely catalytically active for providing γ-valerolactone in high yields with high TONs. The homogeneous catalysts can also be recycled and reused by applying a simple phase separation process. PMID:23757330

  1. Effects of planting density on the distribution of biomass in a douglas-fir plantation in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziliano PA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of initial planting densities on the distribution of above-ground biomass of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii were investigated in a plantation in southern Italy. Allometric equations designed for the plantation under study were used to estimate above-ground biomass and in particular partitioning to stem and crown compartments. A comparison between biomass estimated with allometric equations and biomass estimated with a constant biomass expansion factor (BEF from the Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC 2005 was carried out. Moreover, a BEF calculated as the ratio of total above-ground or compartment biomass to stem volume was used to define the sensitivity of BEF to age and to tree density. Variation of above-ground standing biomass estimated with allometric equations was evaluated according to 6 differing planting densities (833, 1000, 1250, 1667, 2000 and 2500 trees per hectare. In the first 20 years after planting higher biomass stock was detected in high density plots, but after the age of 32 years differences between plots disappeared. When the plantation was 40 years old, a higher amount of total biomass was observed in plots of 2000 trees per hectare (about 405 Mg ha-1, a lower amount in plots of 2500 trees per hectare (about 381 Mg ha-1. The Douglas-fir plantation has a total above-ground carbon stock of 197 Mg C ha-1 at the age of 40 and a mean annual CO2 sequestration of 18 Mg ha-1 y-1. Constant BEF from INFC underestimated biomass on average by 11% for ages 15 and 25 and overestimated biomass on average by 16% for older ages. BEFs expressed as a ratio of biomass to stem volume significantly depended upon age and planting density, with decreasing trends for total, stem and crown compartments. Our results indicated that total above-ground biomass production is not influenced by different tree density if considered over a long period. If cutting cycles are short, planting density on average

  2. Thermodynamic analyses of an externally fired gas turbine combined cycle integrated with a biomass gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A gas turbine combined cycle with gasified biomass external firing is analyzed. • Thermodynamic analysis considers first and second law analyses. • Thermal efficiency peaks at an optimum cycle pressure ratio (about 9). • Three sets of operating parameters are considered in a detailed case study. • One of three cases is more efficient from first or second law viewpoints. - Abstract: Thermodynamic analyses of an externally fired gas turbine combined cycle integrated with a biomass gasification plant, using energy and exergy approaches, are reported for a proposed configuration. Paper is taken to be the fuel and the thermodynamic performance and sizing of the plant is examined for various values of cycle pressure ratio (7–12), gas turbine inlet temperature (1200–1400 K) and heat exchanger cold-end temperature difference (245–275 K). Depending on the gas turbine inlet temperature and heat exchanger cold-end temperature difference, the system overall energy efficiency is observed to attain a maximum at a particular pressure ratio. For a given pressure ratio, the energy efficiency increases with gas turbine inlet temperature and decreases with heat exchanger cold-end temperature difference. An increase in pressure ratio results in a decrease of air flow rate and an increase of steam flow rates. These flow rates are attributable to the size of combined cycle plant. Raising the gas turbine inlet temperature reduces the air flow rate. The performance of a 1 MW plant is investigated with various operating parameters to obtain component ratings and biomass feed rates. Exergy efficiencies of cycle components are examined along with the major thermodynamic irreversibilities

  3. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  4. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  5. Effects of Produced Water on Soil Characteristics, Plant Biomass, and Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Andy; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Baxter, Holly L; Joyce, Blake L; Stewart, C Neal; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D

    2015-11-01

    The Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana contains the United States' largest coal reserve. The area produces large amounts of natural gas through extraction from water-saturated coalbeds. Determining the impacts of coalbed natural gas-produced efflux water on crops is important when considering its potential use as supplemental irrigation water. We hypothesized that coalbed natural gas water, because of its high salinity and sodicity, would affect plant secondary metabolism (essential oils) and biomass accumulation. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Wyoming to investigate the effects of produced water on two traditional bioenergy feedstocks-corn ( L.) and switchgrass ( L.)-and four novel biofuel feedstock species-spearmint ( L.), Japanese cornmint ( L.), lemongrass [ (Nees ex Steud.) J.F. Watson]), and common wormwood ( L.). The four nontraditional feedstock species were chosen because they contain high-value plant chemicals that can offset production costs. Essential oil content was significantly affected by coalbed natural gas water in lemongrass and spearmint. Oil content differences between two spearmint harvests in the same year indicated that there were significant changes between the growth stage of the plant and essential oil content; the first harvest averaged 0.42 g of oil per 100 g biomass while the second harvest (harvested before flowering) yielded only 0.19 g oil per 100 g dry biomass. Results indicated that produced water can be used for short-period (2 yr) irrigation of crops. However, prolonged use of untreated produced water for irrigation would likely have deleterious long-term effects on the soil and plants unless the water was treated or diluted (mixed) with good-quality water. PMID:26641346

  6. Development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia: niche development and the formation of innovative capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    because it was against their economic interests. When the government decided to improve incentive structures through a reduction in fossil fuel subsidies and by introducing a feed-in tariff system, the niche development momentum had already been lost because investors had limited confidence in project...... resource prices, which meant that it became difficult to negotiate long-term biomass fuel contracts. These factors turned out to be detrimental for niche development. The transfer of technology is understood in this thesis as the exchange of knowledge through international inter-firm linkages, which...... trial and error also made advances in technological capability although to a comparably lesser extent. The thesis also finds that CDM projects implemented in Malaysia played a limited role in stimulating the introduction of new technology and knowledge to Malaysian biomass boiler and power plant...

  7. Effects of plant diversity on plant biomass production and soil macrofauna in Amazonian pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Laossi, Kam-Rigne; Barot, Sébastien; Carvalho, D; Desjardins, Thierry; Lavelle, Patrick; Martins, M.; Mitja, Danielle; Rendeiro, A. C.; Rousseau, G.; Sarrazin, Max; Velasquez, Elena; Grimaldi, Michel

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of plant diversity on plant production and soil macrofauna density and diversity. Four plants species (Arachis pintoi, an herbaceous legume; Brachiaria brizantha, a perennial grass; Leucaena leucocephala, a legume shrub; Solanum rugosum, a non-legume shrub) were used in a field experiment and communities of all combinations of one, two, three or four species were established. Plant diversity neither significantly affected density and diversity of soil macrofauna nor tot...

  8. Growth and conversion of solar energy of grafted tomato plants under protected cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Pedó; Tiago Zanatta Aumonde; Nei Fernandes Lopes; Carlos Rogério Mauch

    2015-01-01

    The grafting technique favors cultivation tomato under conditions environment adverse, being the effects on the physiology of scarce plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the growth and solar energy conversion efficiency in grafted tomato and not grafted in greenhouse. The grafting was performed by grafting of cleft and the treatments consisted of tomato plants grafted on hybrid Kaguemusha® and not grafted. The samples for growth analysis were performed at intervals of fourteen days afte...

  9. Changes in plant biomass and species composition of alpine Kobresia meadows along altitudinal gradient on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Alpine Kobresia meadows are major vegetation types on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. There is growing concern over their relationships among biodiversity, productivity and environments. Despite the im-portance of species composition, species richness, the type of different growth forms, and plant bio-mass structure for Kobresia meadow ecosystems, few studies have been focused on the relationship between biomass and environmental gradient in the Kobresia meadow plant communities, particularly in relation to soil moisture and edaphic gradients. We measured the plant species composition, her-baceous litter, aboveground and belowground biomass in three Kobresia meadow plant communities in Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station from 2001 to 2004. Community differences in plant species composition were reflected in biomass distribution. The total biomass showed a de-crease from 13196.96±719.69 g/m2 in the sedge-dominated K. tibetica swamp to 2869.58±147.52 g/m2 in the forb and sedge dominated K. pygmaea meadow, and to 2153.08±141.95 g/m2 in the forbs and grasses dominated K. humilis along with the increase of altitude. The vertical distribution of below-ground biomass is distinct in the three meadow communities, and the belowground biomass at the depth of 0-10 cm in K. tibetica swamp meadow was significantly higher than that in K. humilis and K. pygmaea meadows (P<0.01). The herbaceous litter in K. tibetica swamp was significantly higher than those in K. pygnaeca and K. humilis meadows. The effects of plant litter are enhanced when ground water and soil moisture levels are raised. The relative importance of litter and vegetation may vary with soil water availability. In the K. tibetica swamp, total biomass was negatively correlated to species richness (P<0.05); aboveground biomass was positively correlated to soil organic matter, soil moisture, and plant cover (P<0.05); belowground biomass was positively correlated with soil moisture (P<0.05). However, in the K

  10. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  11. Corrosion and Materials Performance in biomass fired and co-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH; Biede, O

    2003-01-01

    not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10...... and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants. With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. This paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants....... Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with coal will be reported. The corrosion mechanisms observed are summarized and the corrosion rates for 18-8 type stainless steels are compared....

  12. CRITICALITY CONTROL DURING THE DISMANTLING OF A URANIUM CONVERSION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, in the Cadarache Research Center in southern France, the production at the Enriched Uranium Treatment Workshops started in 1965 and ended in 1995. The dismantling is in progress and will last until 2006. The decommissioning is planned in 2007. Since the authorized enrichment in 235U was 10% in some parts of the plant, and unlimited in others, the equipment and procedures were designed for criticality control during the operating period. Despite the best previous removing of the uranium in the inner parts of the equipment, evaluation of the mass of remaining fissile material by in site gamma spectrometry measurement shows that the safety of the ''clean up'' operations requires specific criticality control procedures, this mass being higher than the safe mass. The chosen method is therefore based on the mapping of fissile material in the contaminated parts of the equipment and on the respect of particular rules set for meeting the criticality control standards through mass control. The process equipment is partitioned in separated campaign, and for each campaign the equipment dismantling is conducted with a precise traceability of the pieces, from the equipment to the drum of waste, and the best final evaluation of the mass of fissile material in the drum. The first results show that the mass of uranium found in the dismantled equipment is less than the previous evaluation, and they enable us to confirm that the criticality was safely controlled during the operations. The mass of fissile material remaining in the equipment can be then carefully calculated, when it is lower than the minimal critical mass, and on the basis of a safety analysis, we will be free of any constraints regarding criticality control, this allowing to make procedures easier, and to speed up the operations

  13. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model. Volume I. Biomass allocation model. Technical progress report for the period ending September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A biomass allocation model has been developed to show the most profitable combination of biomass feedstocks thermochemical conversion processes, and fuel products to serve the seasonal conditions in a regional market. This optimization model provides a tool for quickly calculating the most profitable biomass missions from a large number of potential biomass missions. Other components of the system serve as a convenient storage and retrieval mechanism for biomass marketing and thermochemical conversion processing data. The system can be accessed through the use of a computer terminal, or it could be adapted to a portable micro-processor. A User's Manual for the system has been included in Appendix A of the report. The validity of any biomass allocation solution provided by the allocation model is dependent on the accuracy of the data base. The initial data base was constructed from values obtained from the literature, and, consequently, as more current thermochemical conversion processing and manufacturing costs and efficiencies become available, the data base should be revised. Biomass derived fuels included in the data base are the following: medium Btu gas low Btu gas, substitute natural gas, ammonia, methanol, electricity, gasoline, and fuel oil. The market sectors served by the fuels include: residential, electric utility, chemical (industrial), and transportation. Regional/seasonal costs and availabilities and heating values for 61 woody and non-woody biomass species are included. The study has included four regions in the United States which were selected because there was both an availability of biomass and a commercial demand for the derived fuels: Region I: NY, WV, PA; Region II: GA, AL, MS; Region III: IN, IL, IA; and Region IV: OR, WA.

  14. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1979-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.C.; Nelson, E.T.; Stringer, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    Market analyses information now stored in the biomass feedstock data base includes for each species: feedstock amount by region and season in tons/year; heating values in Btu/lb for those feedstock for which published data are available, and; feedstock cost in $/mm Btu. Information now stored in the product data base includes for each product: product amount by region in mm Btu/year and product cost in $/mm Btu. Biomass characterization procedures have now been developed and these will be used to characterize approximately 100 biomass species. TGA analyses will be supplemented with a pyrogram and a pyrochromatogram to further characterize each biomass. Tests were run on the PDU in the fluidized bed mode to determine the effects of particle size on reaction time. Thirteen tests were run during this quarter to verify the results from previous testing. The PDU is being modified to accommodate future sustained runs. Allocation modeling program is now functional and being tested as data is provided to the feedstock and product data banks. A mathematical model has been developed by modifying the Texaco Entrained Bed Pilot Plant Gasifier Model to simulate biomass gasification in an Entrained Bed. Results are being evaluated. Models for other reaction modes are being evaluated. A biomass economic program has been developed to provide average product fuel costs using 15 thermochemical processes.

  15. Effects of supplementary biomass firing on the performance of combined cycle power generation: A comparison between NGCC and IGCC plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, effects of biomass supplementary firing on the performance of fossil fuel fired combined cycles have been analyzed. Both natural gas fired combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) have been considered in the study. The efficiency of the NGCC plant monotonically reduces with the increase in supplementary firing, while for the IGCC plant the maximum plant efficiency occurs at an optimum degree of supplementary firing. This difference in the nature of variation of the efficiency of two plants under the influence of supplementary firing has been critically analyzed in the paper. The ratings of different plant equipments, fuel flow rates and the emission indices of CO2 from the plants at varying degree of supplementary firing have been evaluated for a net power output of 200 MW. The fraction of total power generated by the bottoming cycle increases with the increase in supplementary firing. However, the decrease in the ratings of gas turbines is much more than the increase in that of the steam turbines due to the low work ratio of the topping cycle. The NGCC plants require less biomass compared to the IGCC under identical condition. A critical degree of supplementary firing has been identified for the slag free operation of the biomass combustor. The performance parameters, equipment ratings and fuel flow rates for no supplementary firing and for the critical degree of supplementary biomass firing have been compared for the NGCC and IGCC plants. -- Highlights: •Effect of biomass supplementary firing on the performance of NGCC and IGCC plants has been critically analyzed. •The variations in power ratings of the major plant equipment have been compared at different degree of supplementary firing. •Reduction in greenhouse gas emission due to biomass supplementary firing has been evaluated

  16. Technical, economic and exergoeconomic assessment of small scale biomass CHP plant in an existing Brazilian's industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.L.M.; Arrieta, F.R.P. [Papal Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: mlmroduol.com.br, feliperp_arrieta@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    A technical, economic and exergoeconomic assessment was developed in order to verify the economic feasibility of the implementation of a CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plant in an existing Brazilian industry as a technological solution to assure the energy demands of its productive process. The assessment began with the attainment of the values of heat and electricity demands of the process. In a second stage, considering the current biomass availability and the existing boiler upgrade for the superheat steam generation, a small scale Rankine cycle was defined for the CHP plant. A thermodynamic model of the thermal cycle of CHP plant was crated in the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) and was used to simulating the interaction and integration with the production process and external interfaces. The simulation for the steady state operation considered the process values of heat and electricity demands considering two hypotheses: selling or not selling of electricity to the grid and burning wood chips or vegetal carbon residue as fuel. For the feasibility assessment, a cash flow was elaborated in a Microsoft Excel sheet and it was used for computing the conventional financial indicators of the CHP plant implementation: Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Pay Back. For the exergoeconomic assessment was applied the Thermo economic Structural Theory. The results show the mass, energy and entropy balances, as well as the characteristic parameters for the different equipment and the CCHP plant. The main conclusions are: there are not feasibility of the CHP plant implementation at the current electricity tariff and fuel price, but in a most favorable scenario the hypothesis of selling electricity to the grid was the most interesting among the assessed ones; the vegetal carbon residue is the fuel option with greater economic viability; the values of electricity cost calculated in the exergoeconomic analysis are coherent with the economic analysis ones and are

  17. Organic amendments for improving biomass production and metal yield of Ni-hyperaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-López, V; Prieto-Fernández, Á; Cabello-Conejo, M I; Kidd, P S

    2016-04-01

    Ni phytomining is a promising technology for Ni recovery from low-grade ores such as ultramafic soils. Metal-hyperaccumulators are good candidates for phytomining due to their extraordinary capacity for Ni accumulation. However, many of these plants produce a low biomass, which makes the use of agronomic techniques for improving their growth necessary. In this study, the Ni hyperaccumulators Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum, A. serpyllifolium ssp. malacitanum, Alyssum bertolonii and Noccaea goesingense were evaluated for their Ni phytoextraction efficiency from a Ni-rich serpentine soil. Effects of soil inorganic fertilisation (100:100:125kgNPKha(-1)) and soil organic amendment addition (2.5, 5 or 10% compost) on plant growth and Ni accumulation were determined. All soil treatments greatly improved plant growth, but the highest biomass production was generally found after addition of 2.5 or 5% compost (w/w). The most pronounced beneficial effects were observed for N. goesingense. Total Ni phytoextracted from soils was significantly improved using both soil treatments (inorganic and organic), despite the decrease observed in soil Ni availability and shoot Ni concentrations in compost-amended soils. The most promising results were found using intermediate amount of compost, indicating that these types of organic wastes can be incorporated into phytomining systems. PMID:26803735

  18. Investigation of the Biomass and Nutrient Content of Green Manuring Plants as Second Crops in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter MIKO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth, and the development and trends of the nutrient content parameters of three different plant species (Phacelia tanacecifolia,Sinapis alba, Raphanus sativus grown as secondary crops for green manure, as a function of two different fertiliser doses (0 kg/ha N; 50kg/ha N, was studied under unfavourable site conditions at the Crop Production and Biomass Utilisation Demonstration Centre of theSzent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary. The application of the small, 50 kg/ha dose of nitrogen increased the biomass yield in eachcase, to 2.78-3.11 times that of the control field. The dry matter content of the produce increased only by 2.11-2.66 times, as the watercontent of the green manure plants also increased as a result of the nitrogen supplement. The increased amount of nitrogen boosted theavailability of all of the other macro elements for the plants. In view of the present findings it can be recommend the application of somenitrogen fertiliser in the given site before growing some crop for use as green manure in all cases but where the straw after cereals is left onthe soil surface nitrogen should be applied to alleviate the pentosan effect and to increase the uptake of macro elements.

  19. Soil Microbial Biomass Nitrogen and Its Relationship to Uptake of Nitrogen by Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The contents of the soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) in the soils sampled from the Loess Plateau of China were determined using chloroform fumigation aerobic incubation method (CFAIM), chloroform fumigation anaerobic incubation method (CFANIM) and chloroform fumigation-extraction method (CFEM).The N taken up by ryegrass on the soils was determined after a glasshouse pot experiment. The flushes of nitrogen (FN) of the soils obtained by the CFAIM and CFANIM were higher than that by the CFEM, and there were significantly positive correlations between the FN obtained by the 3 methods. The N extracted from the fumigated soils by the CFAIM, CFANIM and CFEM were significantly positively correlated with the N uptake by ryegrass. The FN obtained by the 3 methods was also closely positively correlated with the plant N uptake. The contributions of the SMBN and mineral N and mineralized N during the incubation period to plant N uptake were evaluated with the multiple regression method. The results showed that the N contained in the soil microbial biomass might play a noticeable role in the N supply of the soils to the plant.

  20. Verticillium dahliae Infects, Alters Plant Biomass, and Produces Inoculum on Rotation Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D L; Johnson, D A

    2016-06-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, reduces yields of potato and mint. Crop rotation is a potential management tactic for Verticillium wilt; however, the wide host range of V. dahliae may limit the effectiveness of this tactic. The hypothesis that rotation crops are infected by V. dahliae inoculum originating from potato and mint was tested by inoculation of mustards, grasses, and Austrian winter pea with eight isolates of V. dahliae. Inoculum density was estimated from plants and soil. Typical wilt symptoms were not observed in any rotation crop but plant biomass of some crops was reduced, not affected, or increased by infection of specific isolates. Each isolate was host-specific and infected a subset of the rotation crops tested but microsclerotia from at least one isolate were observed on each rotation crop. Some isolates were host-adapted and differentially altered plant biomass or produced differential amounts of inoculum on rotation crops like arugula and Austrian winter pea, which supported more inoculum of specific isolates than potato. Evidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic infection and differential inoculum formation of V. dahliae on rotation crops presented here will be useful in designing rotations for management of Verticillium wilt. PMID:26828231

  1. Flux balance analysis of plant metabolism: the effect of biomass composition and model structure on model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili eYuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The biomass composition represented in constraint-based metabolic models is a key component for predicting cellular metabolism using flux balance analysis (FBA. Despite major advances in analytical technologies, it is often challenging to obtain a detailed composition of all major biomass components experimentally. Studies examining the influence of the biomass composition on the predictions of metabolic models have so far mostly been done on models of microorganisms. Little is known about the impact of varying biomass composition on flux prediction in FBA models of plants, whose metabolism is very versatile and complex because of the presence of multiple subcellular compartments. Also, the published metabolic models of plants differ in size and complexity. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the predicted fluxes of plant metabolic models to biomass composition and model structure. These questions were addressed by evaluating the sensitivity of predictions of growth rates and central carbon metabolic fluxes to varying biomass compositions in three different genome-/large-scale metabolic models of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results showed that fluxes through the central carbon metabolism were robust to changes in biomass composition. Nevertheless, comparisons between the predictions from three models using identical modelling constraints and objective function showed that model predictions were sensitive to the structure of the models, highlighting large discrepancies between the published models.

  2. Perspectives of Feedstock Supply for Biomass-Based Energy Plant Development in India: Views from an Expert Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of renewable energy resources is imperative due to energy access, energy security, and energy sustainability coupled with the rising environmental concern. India is one of the largest land mass countries in the world and amply bestowed with biomass resources. Investigations on biomass supply potential, socio-economic challenges, local people attitudes, current bioenergy markets, and technologies are prerequisite while seeking to develop sustainable energy plants. The study aimed to assess expert attitudes on wood-based energy development in India. This assessment was based on the opinions of Indian Forest Service (IFS officers who are involved in managing wood-based biomass resources in different parts of the country. The study gave emphasis to the advantages, problems, and directions of the biomass based energy development in the country. The results showed that the development of biomass-based energy plants involves a number of challenges both locally and nationally. In addition, the study also highlighted the possible benefits of developing biomass based energy plants at local and national levels. The outcomes of this study provide useful information to the policy decision makers, energy entrepreneurs, and other stakeholders in the development of biomass based energy in India.

  3. National renewable energy policy and local opposition in the UK: the failed development of a biomass electricity plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy developments in the UK are supported by central government but face considerable opposition from the public. The purpose of this study is to explore the causes and consequences of public opposition to biomass energy development in North Wiltshire where Ambient Energy Ltd. proposed the development of a 5 MWe wood gasification plant near the town of Cricklade. The case study was conducted through in-depth interviews, content analysis, person to person questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and participatory appraisal methods. Though biomass energy plants in general have fewer environmental impacts than plants which use fossil fuel, there could still be local impacts which give rise to concerns and local opposition to the development. The opposition could be partially explained by the fact that the general public is relatively unfamiliar with biomass energy. Public acceptance or rejection was mainly based on the public trust or mistrust. The case study demonstrates two distinctly rigid characteristics among the key stakeholders of biomass energy development. These are the 'not-in-my-back-yard' attitude from the public and the 'there-is-no-alternative' attitude of the developers. These rigid stances were widely contributing to the failure of the project to gain planning permission. The environmental justification of biomass energy at the national level is not always sufficient to convince the local residents. Winning public support to promote biomass energy requires an alternative approach of planning and action through interactive communication, public participation and collective learning among all the stakeholders

  4. From waste water treatment to land management: Conversion of aquatic biomass to biochar for soil amelioration and the fortification of crops with essential trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Cole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-07-01

    Macroalgae can be grown in industrial waste water to sequester metals and the resulting biomass used for biotechnological applications. We have previously cultivated the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium at a coal-fired power station to treat a metal-contaminated effluent from that facility. We then produced biochar from this biomass and determined the suitability of both the biomass and the biochar for soil amelioration. The dried biomass of Oedogonium cultivated in the waste water contained several elements for which there are terrestrial biosolids criteria (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se and Zn) and leached significant amounts of these elements into solution. Here, we demonstrate that these biomass leachates impair the germination and growth of radishes as a model crop. However, the biochar produced from this same biomass leaches negligible amounts of metal into solution and the leachates support high germination and growth of radishes. Biochar produced at 750 °C leaches the least metal and has the highest recalcitrant C content. When this biochar is added to a low-quality soil it improves the retention of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Mo) from fertilizer in the soil and the growth of radishes by 35-40%. Radishes grown in the soils amended with the biochar have equal or lower metal contents than radishes grown in soil without biochar, but much higher concentrations of essential trace elements (Mo) and macro nutrients (P, K, Ca and Mg). The cultivation of macroalgae is an effective waste water bioremediation technology that also produces biomass that can be used as a feedstock for conversion to biochar for soil amelioration. PMID:25881153

  5. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading......This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...

  6. Changes in individual plant traits and biomass allocation in alpine meadow with elevation variation on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Plant traits and individual plant biomass allocation of 57 perennial herbaceous species,belonging to three common functional groups (forbs,grasses and sedges) at subalpine (3700 m ASL),alpine (4300 m ASL) and subnival (≥5000 m ASL) sites were examined to test the hypothesis that at high altitudes,plants reduce the proportion of aboveground parts and allocate more biomass to belowground parts,especially storage organs,as altitude increases,so as to geminate and resist environmental stress.However,results indicate that some divergence in biomass allocation exists among organs.With increasing altitude,the mean fractions of total biomass allocated to aboveground parts decreased.The mean fractions of total biomass allocation to storage organs at the subalpine site (7%±2% S.E.) were distinct from those at the alpine (23%±6%) and subnival (21%±6%) sites,while the proportions of green leaves at all altitudes remained almost constant.At 4300 m and 5000 m,the mean fractions of flower stems decreased by 45% and 41%,respectively,while fine roots increased by 86% and 102%,respectively.Specific leaf areas and leaf areas of forbs and grasses deceased with rising elevation,while sedges showed opposite trends.For all three functional groups,leaf area ratio and leaf area root mass ratio decreased,while fine root biomass increased at higher altitudes.Biomass allocation patterns of alpine plants were characterized by a reduction in aboveground reproductive organs and enlargement of fine roots,while the proportion of leaves remained stable.It was beneficial for high altitude plants to compensate carbon gain and nutrient uptake under low temperature and limited nutrients by stabilizing biomass investment to photosynthetic structures and increasing the absorption surface area of fine roots.In contrast to forbs and grasses that had high mycorrhizal infection,sedges had higher single leaf area and more root fraction,especially fine roots.

  7. Plant-soil feedback induces shifts in biomass allocation in the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Beest, Mariska; Stevens, Nicola; Olff, Han; van der Putten, Wim H.; Wal, Rene van der

    2009-01-01

    P> Soil communities and their interactions with plants may play a major role in determining the success of invasive species. However, rigorous investigations of this idea using cross-continental comparisons, including native and invasive plant populations, are still scarce. We investigated if intera

  8. Development of hemicellulolytic enzyme mixtures for plant biomass deconstruction on target biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Rosana; Damásio, André R L; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Machado, Carla B; Paixão, Douglas A A; Wolf, Lúcia D; Mandelli, Fernanda; Rocha, George J M; Ruller, Roberto; Squina, Fabio M

    2014-10-01

    An essential step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other biorefinery products is conversion of cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to understand the mode of action of hemicellulolytic enzyme mixtures for pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PSB) deconstruction and wheat arabinoxylan (WA) hydrolysis on target biotechnological applications. In this study, five hemicellulolytic enzymes-two endo-1,4-xylanases (GH10 and GH11), two α-L-arabinofuranosidases (GH51 and GH54), and one β-xylosidase (GH43)-were submitted to combinatorial assays using the experimental design strategy, in order to analyze synergistic and antagonistic effects of enzyme interactions on biomass degradation. The xylooligosaccharides (XOSs) released from hydrolysis were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis and quantified by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Based on this analysis, it was possible to define which enzymatic combinations favor xylose (X1) or XOS production and thus enable the development of target biotechnological applications. Our results demonstrate that if the objective is X1 production from WA, the best enzymatic combination is GH11 + GH54 + GH43, and for xylobiose (X2) production from WA, it is best to combine GH11 + GH51. However, if the goal is to produce XOS, the five enzymes used in WA hydrolysis are important, but for PSB hydrolysis, only GH11 is sufficient. If the final objective is bioethanol production, GH11 is responsible for hydrolyzing 64.3 % of hemicellulose from PSB. This work provides a basis for further studies on enzymatic mechanisms for XOS production, and the development of more efficient and less expensive enzymatic mixtures, targeting commercially viable lignocellulosic ethanol production and other biorefinery products. PMID:25077777

  9. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  10. Topo-edaphic controls over woody plant biomass in South African savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, M. S.; Asner, G. P.; Levick, S. R.; Martin, R. E.; Chadwick, O. A.

    2012-05-01

    The distribution of woody biomass in savannas reflects spatial patterns fundamental to ecosystem processes, such as water flow, competition, and herbivory, and is a key contributor to savanna ecosystem services, such as fuelwood supply. While total precipitation sets an upper bound on savanna woody biomass, the extent to which substrate and terrain constrain trees and shrubs below this maximum remains poorly understood, often occluded by local-scale disturbances such as fire and trampling. Here we investigate the role of hillslope topography and soil properties in controlling woody plant aboveground biomass (AGB) in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Large-area sampling with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) provided a means to average across local-scale disturbances, revealing an unexpectedly linear relationship between AGB and hillslope-position on basalts, where biomass levels were lowest on crests, and linearly increased toward streams (R2 = 0.91). The observed pattern was different on granite substrates, where AGB exhibited a strongly non-linear relationship with hillslope position: AGB was high on crests, decreased midslope, and then increased near stream channels (R2 = 0.87). Overall, we observed 5-to-8-fold lower AGB on clayey, basalt-derived soil than on granites, and we suggest this is due to herbivore-fire interactions rather than lower hydraulic conductivity or clay shrinkage/swelling, as previously hypothesized. By mapping AGB within and outside fire and herbivore exclosures, we found that basalt-derived soils support tenfold higher AGB in the absence of fire and herbivory, suggesting high clay content alone is not a proximal limitation on AGB. Understanding how fire and herbivory contribute to AGB heterogeneity is critical to predicting future savanna carbon storage under a changing climate.

  11. Topo-edaphic controls over woody plant biomass in South African savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Colgan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of woody biomass in savannas reflects spatial patterns fundamental to ecosystem processes, such as water flow, competition, and herbivory, and is a key contributor to savanna ecosystem services, such as fuelwood supply. While total precipitation sets an upper bound on savanna woody biomass, the extent to which substrate and terrain constrain trees and shrubs below this maximum remains poorly understood, often occluded by local-scale disturbances such as fire and trampling. Here we investigate the role of hillslope topography and soil properties in controlling woody plant aboveground biomass (AGB in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Large-area sampling with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provided a means to average across local-scale disturbances, revealing an unexpectedly linear relationship between AGB and hillslope-position on basalts, where biomass levels were lowest on crests, and linearly increased toward streams (R2 = 0.91. The observed pattern was different on granite substrates, where AGB exhibited a strongly non-linear relationship with hillslope position: AGB was high on crests, decreased midslope, and then increased near stream channels (R2 = 0.87. Overall, we observed 5-to-8-fold lower AGB on clayey, basalt-derived soil than on granites, and we suggest this is due to herbivore-fire interactions rather than lower hydraulic conductivity or clay shrinkage/swelling, as previously hypothesized. By mapping AGB within and outside fire and herbivore exclosures, we found that basalt-derived soils support tenfold higher AGB in the absence of fire and herbivory, suggesting high clay content alone is not a~proximal limitation on AGB. Understanding how fire and herbivory contribute to AGB heterogeneity is critical to predicting future savanna carbon storage under a changing climate.

  12. Topo-edaphic controls over woody plant biomass in South African savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Colgan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of woody biomass in savannas reflects spatial patterns fundamental to ecosystem processes, such as water flow, competition, and herbivory, and is a key contributor to savanna ecosystem services, such as fuelwood supply. While total precipitation sets an upper bound on savanna woody biomass, the extent to which substrate and terrain constrain trees and shrubs below this maximum remains poorly understood, often occluded by local-scale disturbances such as fire and trampling. Here we investigate the role of hillslope topography and soil properties in controlling woody plant aboveground biomass (AGB in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Large-area sampling with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provided a means to average across local-scale disturbances, revealing an unexpectedly linear relationship between AGB and hillslope-position on basalts, where biomass levels were lowest on crests, and linearly increased toward streams (R2 = 0.91. The observed pattern was different on granite substrates, where AGB exhibited a strongly non-linear relationship with hillslope position: AGB was high on crests, decreased midslope, and then increased near stream channels (R2 = 0.87. Overall, we observed 5-to-8-fold lower AGB on clayey, basalt-derived soil than on granites, and we suggest this is due to herbivore-fire interactions rather than lower hydraulic conductivity or clay shrinkage/swelling, as previously hypothesized. By mapping AGB within and outside fire and herbivore exclosures, we found that basalt-derived soils support tenfold higher AGB in the absence of fire and herbivory, suggesting high clay content alone is not a proximal limitation on AGB. Understanding how fire and herbivory contribute to AGB heterogeneity is critical to predicting future savanna carbon storage under a changing climate.

  13. A Geographical Information System (GIS) based methodology for determination of potential biomasses and sites for biogas plants in southern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The biomethane potential in southern Finland is over 3 TWh. • Agricultural biomass accounts >90% of the biomethane potential in study regions. • The GIS method can be used for detailed biogas plant planning. • The GIS provides tools for e.g. land locations, cost and emission calculations. - Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to analyse the spatial distribution and amount of potential biomass feedstock for biomethane production and optimal locations, sizes and number of biogas plants in southern Finland in the area of three regional waste management companies. Methods: A Geographical Information System (GIS) based methodology, which also included biomass transport optimisation considering the existing road network and spatially varied biomass sources, was used. Kernel Density (KD) maps were calculated to pinpoint areas with high biomass concentration. Results: The results show that the total amount of biomass corresponds to 2.8 TWh of energy of which agro materials account for more than 90%. It was found that a total of 49 biogas plants could be built in three case regions with feedstock available within maximum transportation radius of 10 or 40 km. With maximum of 10 km biomass transportation distance, the production capacity of the planned plants ranges from 2.1 to 8.4 MW. If transportation distance was increased to 40 km, the plant capacities could also increase from 2.3 to 16.8 MW. Conclusions: As demonstrated in this study, the studied GIS methodology can be used for identification of the most suitable locations for biogas plants by providing the tools for e.g. transportation routes and distances. Practice implications: The methodology can further be used in environmental impact assessment as well as in cost analysis

  14. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were plant functional types. Development of new species-specific models is only warranted when gains in accuracy of stand-based predictions are relatively high (e.g. high-value monocultures). PMID:26683241

  15. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. 4th Quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.

    1994-12-28

    Microalgae cultivation in large open ponds is the only photosynthetic process likely to directly utilize power plant flue gas CO{sub 2} for production of biomass. The algal biomass can be converted into substitutes for fossil fuels, in particular liquid fuels such as biodiesel (vegetable oil methyl or ethyl esters), thus reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and the potential for global warming. This concept is being investigated, among others, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory at Golden, Colorado, with support from PETC.

  16. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    This thesis presents the development of energy system for simulation, techno-economic optimization and design of a quad-generation energy system based on biomass gasification. An efficient way of reducing CO2 emission from the environment is by increasing the use of biomass in the energy sector...... possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system....... Different biomass resources are used to generate heat and electricity, to produce gas fuel like bio-SNG (synthesis natural gas) and also to produce liquid fuels, such as ethanol, and biodiesel. Due to the fact that the trend of establishing new and modern plants for handling and processing biomass, it...

  17. Design optimization of flexible biomass-processing polygeneration plants using characteristic operation periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano V.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for including expected operating conditions in the design optimization of flexible biomass-processing polygeneration plants through the definition of characteristic operation periods. The method is verified in a superstructure-based, multi-objective design optimization...... scheme applied on a conceptual polygeneration plant that considers the integrated production of power, heat, ethanol, and biomethane. The design is optimized with respect to net present value and total CO2 emission impact. The results suggest that the best solution with respect to net present value is...... the production of heat and power using a gas turbine and a natural gas boiler, while the best solution with respect to CO2 emission savings includes full-scale ethanol and biomethane production, as well as a straw boiler for utility heat production. Solving the same design optimization problem using...

  18. Solid Heteropolyacids (HPAs) in Hydrolytic Conversion of Biomass%固体杂多酸在生物质水解转化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建明; 翟尚儒; 黄德智; 翟滨; 安庆大

    2012-01-01

    With global oil production flattening out, attention is being increasingly paid to a kind of renewable clean energy--biomass. Heteropolyacids are important catalysts in the so-called clean technologies. They possess strong acidity, structural flexibility and fairly high thermal stability. It would be preferable to carry out the heteropolyacids-catalyzed reaction in biomass hydrolytic conversion. The performance of heteropolyacids towards hydrolysis of biomass in pure water, organic solvents and biphasic systems exhibit different advantages and limitations. In this paper, we reviewed the latest progress in the hydrolytic conversion of biomass into valuable chemicals using heteropolyacids in different catalytic systems. Highly effective utilization of biomass has positive effects on solving energy problems and achieving sustainable development of energy and chemical industry. Heteropolyacids used as excellent green catalyst will possess extensive application prospect in biomass conversion.%随着化石资源的日益枯竭,寻求可替代清洁能源已成为全球重大课题。生物质是一种可再生的清洁能源,目前人们尝试通过利用生物质转化缓解日益增长的能源需求。杂多酸是应用在清洁工艺中的重要催化剂,结构和酸度的设计调变性及较高的热稳定性,使其广泛用于生物质的水解转化反应平台。目前固体杂多酸在水溶剂、有机溶剂及两相体系中降解生物质有着各自不同的优缺点。本文综述了杂多酸在不同反应体系中水解转化生物质制备精细化学品的研究进展,并对其在生物质水解转化利用中的应用前景进行了展望。

  19. Ethanol and phenanthrene increase the biomass of fungal assemblages and decrease plant litter decomposition in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Diana; Oliveira, Patrícia; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2016-09-15

    Fungi, particularly aquatic hyphomycetes, have been recognized as playing a dominant role in microbial decomposition of plant litter in streams. In this study, we used a microcosm experiment with different levels of fungal diversity (species number and identity) using monocultures and combinations with up to five aquatic hyphomycete species (Articulospora tetracladia, Tricladium splendens, Heliscus submersus, Tetrachaetum elegans and Flagellospora curta) to assess the effects of ethanol and phenanthrene on three functional measures: plant litter decomposition, fungal biomass accrual and reproduction. Alder leaves were conditioned by fungi for 7days and then were exposed to phenanthrene (1mgL(-1)) dissolved in ethanol (0.1% final concentration) or ethanol (at the concentration used to solubilise phenanthrene) for further 24days. Exposure to ethanol alone or in combination with phenanthrene decreased leaf decomposition and fungal reproduction, but increased fungal biomass produced. All aspects of fungal activity varied with species number. Fungal activity in polycultures was generally higher than that expected from the sum of the weighted performances of participating species in monoculture, suggesting complementarity between species. However, the activity of fungi in polycultures did not exceed the activity of the most productive species either in the absence or presence of ethanol alone or with phenanthrene. PMID:27186876

  20. Emission from heating plants, burning biomass, in the interval 0.5-10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emissions from the heating plants in the interval 0.5-10 MW, burning biomass, have been investigated. The measurements have included carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, a number of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Wood chips, wood briquettes, straw, bark, wood pellets, wood powder and peat are the fuel qualities included in the survey. The measurements were made at existing operating conditions for each plant. No adjustments to the combustion equipment were made. The measurements showed that biomass combustion can give rise to high emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. In six out of thirteen tests, significant VOC emissions with methane, ethylene, propene and acetylene in the interval 5-500 mg/MJ were recorded. In all these cases the CO emission exceeded 1000 mg/MJ. A correlation between increasing CO content and increasing VOC content was indicated in these cases. This is most apparent for methane, which is the most abundant VOC species. In the other cases, where the CO emissions were below 500 mg/MJ, no significant VOC emissions were recorded. NOx emissions varied for all cases between 35 and 256 mg NO2/MJ. No clear correlation between low levels of unburnt hydrocarbons and high levels of NOx, could be established. (2 refs., 29 tabs., 54 figs.)

  1. A Honey Bee Foraging approach for optimal location of a biomass power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, David; Jurado, Francisco [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain); Carabias, Julio; Ruiz-Reyes, Nicolas [Dept. of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Over eight million hectares of olive trees are cultivated worldwide, especially in Mediterranean countries, where more than 97% of the world's olive oil is produced. The three major olive oil producers worldwide are Spain, Italy, and Greece. Olive tree pruning residues are an autochthonous and important renewable source that, in most of cases, farmers burn through an uncontrolled manner. Besides, industrial uses have not yet been developed. The aim of this paper consists of a new calculation tool based on particles swarm (Binary Honey Bee Foraging, BHBF). Effectively, this approach will make possible to determine the optimal location, biomass supply area and power plant size that offer the best profitability for investor. Moreover, it prevents the accurate method (not feasible from computational viewpoint). In this work, Profitability Index (PI) is set as the fitness function for the BHBF approach. Results are compared with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO), and Genetic Algorithms (GA). All the experiments have shown that the optimal plant size is 2 MW, PI = 3.3122, the best location corresponds to coordinate: X = 49, Y = 97 and biomass supply area is 161.33 km{sup 2}. The simulation times have been reduced to the ninth of time than the greedy (accurate) solution. Matlab registered is used to run all simulations. (author)

  2. Techno-Economic Assessment of a Biomass-Based Cogeneration Plant with CO2 Capture and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, N.

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of CO2 emissions from energy systems could be achieved through: CO2 capture and storage, energy savings, fuel switching among fossil fuels, increased use of renewable energy sources, and nuclear power. In addition, atmospheric CO2 reduction could also be achieved through increasing the carbon stock in soils and standing biomass. The CO2 capture and storage option for mitigating CO2 emissions from biomass-based cogeneration plants, considering critical aspects such future development...

  3. A hyperspectral approach to estimating biomass and plant production in a heterogeneous restored temperate peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Schile, L. M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Kelly, M.; Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Restoration of drained peatlands that are managed to reverse subsidence through organic accretion holds significant potential for large-scale carbon storage and sequestration. This potential has been demonstrated in an experimental wetland restoration site established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1997 on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, where soil carbon storage is up to 1 kg C m-2 and root and rhizome production can reach over 7 kg m-2 annually. Remote sensing-based estimation of biomass and productivity over a large spatial extent helps to monitor carbon storage potential of these restored peatlands. Extensive field measurements of plant biophysical characteristics such as biomass, leaf area index, and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) [an important variable in light-use efficiency (LUE) models] have been collected for agricultural systems and forests. However the small size and local spatial variability of U.S. Pacific Coast wetlands pose new challenges for measuring these variables in the field and generating estimates through remote sensing. In particular background effects of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), floating aquatic vegetation, and inundation of wetland vegetation influence the relationship between field measurements and multispectral or hyperspectral indices. Working at the USGS experimental wetland site, characterized by variable water depth and substantial NPV, or thatch, we collected field data on hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattail (Typha spp.) coupled with reflectance data from a field spectrometer (350-2500 nm) every two to three weeks during the summers of 2011 and 2012. We calculated aboveground biomass with existing allometric relationships, and fAPAR was measured with line and point quantum sensors. We analyzed reflectance data to develop hyperspectral and multispectral indices that predict biomass and fAPAR and account for background effects of water

  4. New perspectives to study the biomass allocation and its relationship with the functioning of plants in neotropical ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Rodríguez, Iván Darío; RODRÍGUEZ-LÓPEZ, NELSON

    2011-01-01

    How plants respond to variation in the availability of abiotic resources is a central research topic in physiological ecology. Several optimal partitioning models have suggested a functional balance in the biomass allocated to the shoot and root with the following prediction: "plants shift their allocation towards shoots if the carbon gain of the shoot is impaired by a low level of above-ground resources, such as light and CO2. Similarly, plants shift allocation towards roots at a low level o...

  5. Cost update technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to update the cost estimates developed in a previous report, NUREG/CR-1757 (Elder 1980) for decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant from the original mid-1981 dollars to values representative of January 1993. The cost updates were performed by using escalation factors derived from cost index trends over the past 11.5 years. Contemporary price quotes wee used for costs that have increased drastically or for which is is difficult to find a cost trend. No changes were made in the decommissioning procedures or cost element requirements assumed in NUREG/CR-1757. This report includes only information that was changed from NUREG/CR-1757. Thus, for those interested in detailed descriptions and associated information for the reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant, a copy of NUREG/CR-1757 will be needed

  6. Contributions at the DGMK conference ''conversion of biomass''. Conference report; Beitraege zur DGMK-Fachbereichstagung ''Konversion von Biomassen''. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference from 19th to 21st March 2012 in Rotenburg a.d. Fulda (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Biorefineries in the context of the considerations on a future bio economy (K. Wagemann); (2) Characterisation of ethylene glycol - pyrolysis coke slurries, the model fuel of bioliq {sup registered} gasifier (T. Nicoleit); (3) Additional gas generation from fermentation residues amounting to 25 % of the balanced yield of biogas due to the energy content (T. Lehmann); (4) Production of phenols from lignin by means of flash pyrolysis in a circulating fluidised bed - process development and product analytics (M. Franck); (5) Impact of the conditions of torrefication on the temporal decrease in mass of single particles of biomass (A. Becker); (6) Lignins to Aromatic compounds. The Base catalysed degradation in continuous reactors - a tentative review (D. Schmiedl); (7) Thermogravimetric investigations of the pyrolytic degradation of different residues of biomass (G. Pena Chipatecua); (8) Field test campaign for SOFC units with gasification product gas as a preliminary for the SOFC based cogeneration (S. Martini); (9) One-zone-model for pour reactors of industrial size (U. Hellwig); (10) On the actual state of the thermochemical gasification of biomass in Germany at the beginning of 2012 (D. Braekow); (11) Production of green hydrogen based on syngas from biomass gasification (H. Tautz); (12) The BioSyn process - biomass gasification for the generation of syngas free of tar (L. Rochlitz); (13) Efficiency and framework conditions of AER biomass gasification (J. Breilochs); (14) Processing and cleaning of syngas from biomass (S. Vodegel); (15) Processing of product gas from gasification of biomass by means of heat extraction with hot gas cooler with integrated structure pipes and tar extraction with quenching and wet electro filter (C. Hamel); (16) Comparing tests of catalyst for reforming tar and methane in product gases

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Sahir, A.; Tan, E.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Meyer, P.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  8. Lignin pyrolysis products, lignans, and resin acids as specific tracers of plant classes in emissions from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvaleis, OR (United States)); Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)); Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Standley, L.J. (Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States)); Hildemann, L.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Biomass smoke aerosols contain thermally unaltered and partially altered biomarker compounds from major vegetation taxa. These compounds range from C[sub 8] to C[sub 31] and include phytosterols, lignans, phenolic products from lignin, and diterpenoids from resins. Certain of the higher molecular weight biomarkers are vaporized from the parent plant material and subsequently condense unaltered into the particle phase. Other compounds undergo pyrolytic alteration and possibly dimerization. In both cases it is possible to assign many of these compounds to the plant taxa of the unburned fuel. The diterpenoids are good indicators for smoke from burning of gymnosperm wood. The relative distribution of the OH/OCH[sub 3] substituent patterns on the phenolic products indicates the plant class of the biomass that was burned. Application of these relationships to the interpretation of ambient smoke aerosols may permit further evaluation of the sources that contribute to regional biomass burning. 80 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The influence of gadolinium and yttrium on biomass production and nutrient balance of maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth elements (REE) are expected to become pollutants by enriching in the environment due to their wide applications nowadays. The uptake and distribution of gadolinium and yttrium and its influence on biomass production and nutrient balance was investigated in hydroponic solution experiments with maize plants using increasing application doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg L−1. It could be shown that concentrations of up to 1 mg L−1 of Gd and Y did not reduce or enhance the plant growth or alter the nutrient balance. 10 mg L−1 Gd or Y resulted in REE concentrations of up to 1.2 weight-% in the roots and severe phosphate deficiency symptoms. Transfer rates showed that there was only little transport of Gd and Y from roots to shoots. Significant correlations were found between the concentration of Gd and Y in the nutrient solution and the root tissue concentration of Ca, Mg and P. - Highlights: • Roots accumulate REE in very high concentrations. • Transfer factors from root to shoot tissue are very low, with HREE higher than MREE. • The nutrient balance of the plant is severely influenced by REE addition. • Phosphate deficiency appears at high concentrations of REE addition. - The addition of the rare-earth elements Gd and Y results in less Ca and Mg uptake and phosphate deficiency in maize plants grown in hydroponics

  10. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  11. Using a high biomass plant Pennisetum hydridum to phyto-treat fresh municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Liang; Lee, Charles C C; Wang, Hui; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Wu, Qi-Tang

    2016-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the use of a high biomass plant, Pennisetum hydridum, to treat municipal sewage sludge (MSS). An experiment composed of plots with four treatments, soil, fresh sludge, soil-sludge mixture and phyto-treated sludge, was conducted. It showed that the plant could not survive directly in fresh MSS when cultivated from stem cuttings. The experiment transplanting the incubated cutting with nurse medium of P. hydridum in soil and fresh MSS, showed that the plants grew normally in fresh MSS. The pilot experiment of P. hydridum and Alocasia macrorrhiza showed that the total yield and nutrient amount of P. hydridum were 9.2 times and 3.6 times more than that of A. macrorrhiza. After plant treatment, MSS was dried, stabilized and suitable to be landfilled or incinerated, with a calorific value of about 5.6MJ/kg (compared to the initial value of 1.9MJ/kg fresh sludge). PMID:26897473

  12. Effects of Biomass Ashes on Plant Nutrition in Tropical and Temperate Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Lopez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The drastic rise of prices for commercial fertilizers is one of the main obstacles to increase the productivity in crop production, mainly in poor countries. The search for alternatives therefore becomes very important. The reutilization of residues from bionergy processes for plant nutrition is an important concern to save fertilizers and to implement nutrient cycling in agriculture. For this study ashes derived from bioenergy production were investigated. The effect of sugar cane ash (SCA on lettuce and cucumber was investigated in Cuba and the effects of ashes from wood (WA, poultry litter (PLA, and rape meal (RMA on ryegrass and oil radish were investigated in Germany. Special attention was given to phosphorus (P availability. Positive yield effects and an increased plant P uptake were found when ashes were applied (mainly SCA and RMA. Investigation regarding the effect of PLA on soil P pools showed that the ash application may also result in an increase of readily available P contents in soil. Furthermore, an increased plant uptake of potassium was found. The results indicate that ashes derived from the energetic use of biomass may provide a suitable source for plant nutrition.

  13. Nutrient-enhanced decomposition of plant biomass in a freshwater wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodker, James E.; Turner, Robert Eugene; Tweel, Andrew; Schulz, Christopher; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied soil decomposition in a Panicum hemitomon (Schultes)-dominated freshwater marsh located in southeastern Louisiana that was unambiguously changed by secondarily-treated municipal wastewater effluent. We used four approaches to evaluate how belowground biomass decomposition rates vary under different nutrient regimes in this marsh. The results of laboratory experiments demonstrated how nutrient enrichment enhanced the loss of soil or plant organic matter by 50%, and increased gas production. An experiment demonstrated that nitrogen, not phosphorus, limited decomposition. Cellulose decomposition at the field site was higher in the flowfield of the introduced secondarily treated sewage water, and the quality of the substrate (% N or % P) was directly related to the decomposition rates. We therefore rejected the null hypothesis that nutrient enrichment had no effect on the decomposition rates of these organic soils. In response to nutrient enrichment, plants respond through biomechanical or structural adaptations that alter the labile characteristics of plant tissue. These adaptations eventually change litter type and quality (where the marsh survives) as the % N content of plant tissue rises and is followed by even higher decomposition rates of the litter produced, creating a positive feedback loop. Marsh fragmentation will increase as a result. The assumptions and conditions underlying the use of unconstrained wastewater flow within natural wetlands, rather than controlled treatment within the confines of constructed wetlands, are revealed in the loss of previously sequestered carbon, habitat, public use, and other societal benefits.

  14. Production of biomass and useful compounds from adventitious roots of high-value added medicinal plants using bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque, Md Abdullahil; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2012-01-01

    The increasing global demand for biomass of medicinal plant resources reflects the issues and crisis created by diminishing renewable resources and increasing consumer populations. Moreover, diverse usage of plants and reduced land for cultivation in the world accelerated the deficiency of plant resources. In addition, the preparation of safety of plant based medicine whips up demand for biomass of valuable medicinal plants. As one of alternative approach to upswing the productivity of plant-based pharmaceutical compounds, automation of adventitious root culture system in air-lift bioreactor was adopted to produce cosmic amount of root biomass along with enriched diverse bioactive molecules. In this review, various physiological, engineering parameters, and selection of proper cultivation strategy (fed-batch, two-stage etc.) affecting the biomass production and secondary metabolite accumulation have been discussed. In addition, advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up as well as recent research aimed at maximizing automation of the bioreactor production processes are also highlighted. Examples of the scale-up of cultures of adventitious roots of Morinda citrifolia, Echinacea purpurea and angustifolia, Hypericum perforatum and Panax ginseng by applying 20 L to 10,000 L bioreactors in our lab were demonstrated with a view of commercial application. PMID:22123438

  15. Characteristics of lagoon sludge waste generated from an uranium conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant. The sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant and stored in the lagoon, was characterized for the development of the treatment process. The physical properties were measured and chemical compositions and radiological properties analyzed. The main compounds of the sludge were ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, and calcium carbonate. All heavy radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium and 226Ra were precipitated and deposited at the bottom, and were not dissolved in the concentrated nitrate solution. A possible flow-scheme for processing is presented. (author)

  16. Enzyme conversion of lignocellulosic plant materials for resource recovery in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P.; Velayudhan, A.; Weil, J.; Sarikaya, A.; Brewer, M. A.; Hendrickson, R. L.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A large amount of inedible plant material composed primarily of the carbohydrate materials cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is generated as a result of plant growth in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of glucose, which when properly processed will yield glucose, a valuable sugar because it can be added directly to human diets. Hemicellulose is a heteropolymer of hexoses and pentoses that can be treated to give a sugar mixture that is potentially a valuable fermentable carbon source. Such fermentations yield desirable supplements to the edible products from hydroponically-grown plants such as rapeseed, soybean, cowpea, or rice. Lignin is a three-dimensionally branched aromatic polymer, composed of phenyl propane units, which is susceptible to bioconversion through the growth of the white rot fungus, Pluerotus ostreatus. Processing conditions, that include both a hot water pretreatment and fungal growth and that lead to the facile conversion of plant polysaccharides to glucose, are presented.

  17. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm3 y−1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  18. Growth and conversion of solar energy of grafted tomato plants under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pedó

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The grafting technique favors cultivation tomato under conditions environment adverse, being the effects on the physiology of scarce plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the growth and solar energy conversion efficiency in grafted tomato and not grafted in greenhouse. The grafting was performed by grafting of cleft and the treatments consisted of tomato plants grafted on hybrid Kaguemusha® and not grafted. The samples for growth analysis were performed at intervals of fourteen days after transplanting (DAT by the end of the crop cycle. At each harvest, plants were separated into organs, being determined to total dry matter (Wt, rates of dry matter production (Ct and relative growth (Rw, net assimilation (Ea, leaf area index (L, growth rate, leaf area (Ca, relative growth of leaf area (Ra, leaf area ratio (Fa, leaf weight (Fw, specific leaf area (Sa, conversion efficiency solar energy (? and assimilation rate of fruit (Efr. From the analysis of data growth, the plants grafted on the hybrid Kaguemusha® had higher Wt, Ct, Rw, Ea and ? compared to non-grafted that showed a high Fa and Fw. Therefore, the stress caused by grafting did not affect the growth at the end of the development cycle of tomato plants, being important feature to keep the crop yield

  19. Conversion of sewage treatment plants on sludge digestion. Energetic and economic optimization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations within the framework of the state-commissioned project ''Re-evaluation of wastewater purification plants with anaerobic sludge treatment with due consideration to framework conditions in terms of the energy and the wastewater management situation in Rhineland-Palatinate'', abbreviated ''NAwaS'', have shown that due to the rise in energy prices and availability of innovative techniques and methods it can be economically efficient, from a plant capacity of 10,000 inhabitants upwards, to convert sewage treatment plants to sludge digestion. Findings from the NAwaS project show the state of Rhineland-Palatinate to have a large potential for the conversion of sewage treatment plants to sludge digestion. Depending on the rate of price increase as well as interest rates the use of digester gas could permit an increase in electricity output by up to 50% over today's levels. Moreover, converted plants would be able to almost completely cover their own heat demand and in addition permit energy savings totalling an expected 5 kWh/(inhabitant x a). If one incorporates the possibilities offered by the procurement of sludge or suitable co-substrates from outside sources, by retrofitting sewage plants with combined heat and power stations or micro gas turbines as well as by process optimisation in existing digestion plants, this gives a further significant increase in potential production capacity and hence economic efficiency. In some of the sewage plants the above measures for saving energy and boosting energy production will even lead to energy self-sufficiency.

  20. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.