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Sample records for biomass constitutive polymers

  1. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  2. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation; Biomasa lignocelulosica, polimeros constitutivos. Procesos biologicos de degradacion de la lignina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Manzanares, P.

    1994-07-01

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. PMID:26971070

  4. Constitutive equations for an electroactive polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Mireille; Pouget, Joël

    2016-07-01

    Ionic electroactive polymers can be used as sensors or actuators. For this purpose, a thin film of polyelectrolyte is saturated with a solvent and sandwiched between two platinum electrodes. The solvent causes a complete dissociation of the polymer and the release of small cations. The application of an electric field across the thickness results in the bending of the strip and vice versa. The material is modeled by a two-phase continuous medium. The solid phase, constituted by the polymer backbone inlaid with anions, is depicted as a deformable porous media. The liquid phase is composed of the free cations and the solvent (usually water). We used a coarse grain model. The conservation laws of this system have been established in a previous work. The entropy balance law and the thermodynamic relations are first written for each phase and then for the complete material using a statistical average technique and the material derivative concept. One deduces the entropy production. Identifying generalized forces and fluxes provides the constitutive equations of the whole system: the stress-strain relations which satisfy a Kelvin-Voigt model, generalized Fourier's and Darcy's laws and the Nernst-Planck equation.

  5. A macro-mechanical constitutive model for shape memory polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is of theoretical and engineering interest to establish a macro-mechanical constitutive model of the shape memory polymer (SMP), which includes the mechanical constitutive equation and the material parameter function, from the viewpoint of practical application. In this paper, a new three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive equation, which describes the mechanical behaviors associated with the shape memory effect of SMP, is developed based on solid mechanics and the viscoelasticity theorem. According to the results of the DMA test, a new material parameter function is established to express the relationship of the material parameters and temperature during the glass transition of SMP. The new macro-mechanical constitutive equation and material parameter function are used to numerically simulate the process producing the shape memory effect of SMP, which includes deforming at high temperature, stress freezing, unloading at low temperature and shape recovery. They are also used to investigate and analyze the influences of loading rate and temperature change rate on the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP. The numerical results and the comparisons with Zhou’s material parameter function and Tobushi’s mechanical constitutive equation illustrate that the proposed three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive model can effectively predict the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP under the state of complex stress.

  6. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  7. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order ` m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order ` n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders ` m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders ` m' and ` n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second

  8. Polymerization of nonfood biomass-derived monomers to sustainable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuetao; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2014-01-01

    The development of sustainable routes to fine chemicals, liquid fuels, and polymeric materials from natural resources has attracted significant attention from academia, industry, the general public, and governments owing to dwindling fossil resources, surging energy demand, global warming concerns, and other environmental problems. Cellulosic material, such as grasses, trees, corn stover, or wheat straw, is the most abundant nonfood renewable biomass resources on earth. Such annually renewable material can potentially meet our future needs with a low carbon footprint if it can be efficiently converted into fuels, value added chemicals, or polymeric materials. This chapter focuses on various renewable monomers derived directly from cellulose or cellulose platforms and corresponding sustainable polymers or copolymers produced therefrom. Recent advances related to the polymerization processes and the properties of novel biomass-derived polymers are also reviewed and discussed. PMID:24699900

  9. Constitutive modeling for rubber-toughened polymers with evolutional anisotropy and volume expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A constitutive model for rubber-toughened polymer blends is developed. In most cases, rubber particles contained in a blend can be idealized as voids, because the microscopic cavitation and debonding of rubber particles occurs at a rather early stage of deformation. Under this approximation, a rubber-toughened polymer (polycarbonate—20 vol%SEBS rubber blend) is considered as a porous material. In the present constitutive model, a geometric anisotropy due to changes in void shape during deformation is taken into account. Furthermore, plastic potential and yield condition are modeled as distinct functions in order to accurately reproduce the macroscopic volume change behavior. The values of material parameters are determined through a series of precise experimental studies. It is shown that the proposed constitutive model exhibits a sufficient predictability for the mechanical response of rubber-toughened polymers for engineering applications

  10. Systematic coarse graining flowing polymer melts: thermodynamically guided simulations and resulting constitutive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iig, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Complex fluids, such as polymers, colloids, liquid-crystals etc., show intriguing viscoelastic properties, due to the complicated interplay between flow-induced structure formation and dynamical behavior. Starting from microscopic models of complex fluids, a systematic coarse-graining method is presented that allows us to derive closed-form and thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations for such fluids. Essential ingredients of the proposed approach are thermodynamically guided simulations within a consistent coarse-graining scheme. In addition to this new type of multiscale simulations, we reconstruct the building blocks that constitute the thermodynamically consistent coarse-grained model. We illustrate the method for low-molecular polymer melts, which are subject to different imposed flow fields like planar shear and different elongational flows. The constitutive equation for general flow conditions we obtain shows rheological behavior including shear thinning, normal stress differences, and elongational viscosities in good agreement with reference results. PMID:21678766

  11. A Micromechanical Constitutive Model of Progressive Crushing in Random Carbon Fiber Polymer Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.K.; Simunovic, S.

    1999-09-01

    A micromechanical damage constitutive model is presented to predict the overall elastoplastic behavior and damage evolution in random carbon fiber polymer matrix composites (RFPCs).To estimate the overall elastoplastic damage responses,an effective yield criterion is derived based on the ensemble-volume averaging process and first-order effects of eigenstrains due to the existence of spheroidal (prolate) fibers.The proposed effective yield criterion,to ether with the assumed overall associative plastic flow rule and hardening law, constitutes the analytical foundation for the estimation of effective elastoplastic behavior of ductile matrix composites.First,an effective elastoplastic constitutive dama e model for aligned fiber-reinforced composites is proposed.A micromechanical damage constitutive model for RFPCs is then developed.The average process over all orientations upon overning constitutive field equations and overall yield function for aligned fiber-reinforced composites i s performed to obtain the constitutive relations and effective yield function of RFPCs.The discrete numerical integration algorithms and the continuum tan ent operator are also presented to implement the proposed dama e constitutive model.The dama e constitutive model forms the basis for the pro ressive crushing in composite structures under impact loading.

  12. Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.

    2010-05-11

    Time-dependent shear stress versus shear rate, constitutive curve, and velocity profile measurements are reported in entangled polymer solutions during start-up of steady shear flow. By combining confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we determine the time-dependent velocity profile in polybutadiene and polystyrene solutions seeded with fluorescent 150 nm silica and 7.5 μm melamine particles. By comparing these profiles with time-dependent constitutive curves obtained from experiment and theory, we explore the connection between transient nonmonotonic regions in the constitutive curve for an entangled polymer and its susceptibility to unstable flow by shear banding [Adams et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 102, 067801-4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow. We also report that interfacial slip plays an important role in the steady shear flow behavior of entangled polymers at shear rates above the reciprocal terminal relaxation time but has little, if any, effect on the shape of the velocity profile. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Constitutive model for a stress- and thermal-induced phase transition in a shape memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, increasing applications of shape memory polymers have pushed forward the development of appropriate constitutive models for smart materials such as the shape memory polymer. During the heating process, the phase transition, which is a continuous time-dependent process, happens in the shape memory polymer, and various individual phases will form at different configuration temperatures. In addition, these phases can generally be divided into two parts: the frozen and active phase (Liu Y et al 2006 Int. J. Plast. 22 279–313). During the heating or cooling process, the strain will be stored or released with the occurring phase transition between these two parts. Therefore, a shape memory effect emerges. In this paper, a new type of model was developed to characterize the variation of the volume fraction in a shape memory polymer during the phase transition. In addition to the temperature variation, the applied stress was also taken as a significant influence factor on the phase transition. Based on the experimental results, an exponential equation was proposed to describe the relationship between the stress and phase transition temperature. For the sake of describing the mechanical behaviors of the shape memory polymer, a three-dimensional constitutive model was established. Also, the storage strain, which was the key factor of the shape memory effect, was also discussed in detail. Similar to previous works, we first explored the effect of applied stress on storage strain. Through comparisons with the DMA and the creep experimental results, the rationality and accuracy of the new phase transition and constitutive model were finally verified. (paper)

  14. A phenomenological constitutive model for the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of biodegradable polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-11-09

    We formulate a constitutive framework for biodegradable polymers that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior under regimes with large deformation. The generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the degraded viscoelastic response of a polymer. The large-deformation, time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic solids is described using an Ogden-type hyperviscoelastic model. A deformation-induced degradation mechanism is assumed in which a scalar field depicts the local state of the degradation, which is responsible for the changes in the material\\'s properties. The degradation process introduces another timescale (the intrinsic material clock) and an entropy production mechanism. Examples of the degradation of a polymer under various loading conditions, including creep, relaxation and cyclic loading, are presented. Results from parametric studies to determine the effects of various parameters on the process of degradation are reported. Finally, degradation of an annular cylinder subjected to pressure is also presented to mimic the effects of viscoelastic arterial walls (the outer cylinder) on the degradation response of a biodegradable stent (the inner cylinder). A general contact analysis is performed. As the stiffness of the biodegradable stent decreases, stress reduction in the stented viscoelastic arterial wall is observed. The integration of the proposed constitutive model with finite element software could help a designer to predict the time-dependent response of a biodegradable stent exhibiting finite deformation and under complex mechanical loading conditions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  15. Constitutional Isomers of Dendrimer-like Star Polymers: Design, Synthesis and Conformational and Structural Properties; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, synthesis and solution properties of six constitutional isomers of dendrimer-like star polymers is described. Each of the polymers have comparable molecular weights ((approx) 80,000 g/mol), narrow polydispersities ( and lt; 1.19) and an identical number of branching junctures (45) and surface hydroxyl functionalities (48). The only difference in the six isomers is the placement of the branching junctures. The polymers are constructed from high molecular weight poly(e-caprolactone) with branching junctures derived from 2,2'-bis(hydroxylmethyl) propionic acid (bis-MPA) emanating from a central core. The use of various generations of dendritic initiators and dendrons coupled with the ring opening polymerization of e-caprolactones allowed a modular approach to the dendrimer-like star polymer isomers. The most pronounced effects on the physical properties/morphology and hydrodynamic volume was for those polymers in which the branching was distributed throughout the sample in a dendrimer-like fashion. The versatility of this approach has provided the possibility of understanding the relationship between architecture and physical properties. Dynamic light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to determine the hydrodynamic radius Rh and radius of gyration Rg respectively. The relationship between Rg and molecular weight was indicative of a compact star-like structure, and did not show advanced bias towards either the dense core or dense shell models. The radial density distribution of the isomers was therefore modeled according to a many arm star polymer, and good agreement was found with experimental measures of Rh/Rg

  16. High strain-rate compressive behavior and constitutive modeling of selected polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with constitutive modeling of the compressive stress-strain behavior of selected polymers at strain rates from 10−3 to 103/s using a modified Ramberg-Osgood equation. High strain-rate compressive stress-strain curves for four different commercially available extruded polymers are determined on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar. The low and intermediate strain-rates compressive stress-strain relations are measured in an Instron testing machine. The five parameters for the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation are determined by fitting to the experimental compressive stress-strain data using a least-squares fit. The compressive stress-strain curves at three different strain rates derived from the modified Ramberg-Osgood models are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the compressive stress-strain behavior during loading process can be successfully predicted by the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation.

  17. Numerical modeling of nonlinear deformation of polymer composites based on hyperelastic constitutive law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingsheng YANG; Fang XU

    2009-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites exhibit nonlinear and hyperelastic characteristics under finite deformation. This paper investigates the macroscopic hyperelastic behavior of fiber reinforced polymer compo-sites using a micromechanical model and finite deforma-tion theory based on the hyperelastic constitutive law. The local stress and deformation of a representative volume element are calculated by the nonlinear finite element method. Then, an averaging procedure is used to find the homogenized stress and strain, and the macroscopic stress-strain curves are obtained. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate hyperelastic behavior and deformation of the composites, and the effects of the distribution pattern of fibers are also investigated to model the mechanical behavior of FRP composites.

  18. A simplified constitutive model for predicting shape memory polymers deformation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunxin; Guo, Siu-Siu; He, Yuhao; Liu, Zishun

    2015-12-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) can keep a temporary shape after pre-deformation at a higher temperature and subsequent cooling. When they are reheated, their original shapes can be recovered. Such special characteristics of SMPs make them widely used in aerospace structures, biomedical devices, functional textiles and other devices. Increasing usefulness of SMPs motivates us to further understand their thermomechanical properties and deformation behavior, of which the development of appropriate constitutive models for SMPs is imperative. There is much work in literatures that address constitutive models of the thermo-mechanical coupling in SMPs. However, due to their complex forms, it is difficult to apply these constitutive models in the real world. In this paper, a three-element model with simple form is proposed to investigate the thermo-mechanical small strain (within 10%) behavior of polyurethane under uniaxial tension. Two different cases of heated recovery are considered: (1) unconstrained free strain recovery and (2) stress recovery under full constraint at a strain level fixed during low temperature unloading. To validate the model, simulated and predicted results are compared with Tobushi's experimental results and good agreement can be observed.

  19. Copyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures. Part 2. Characterisation of the liquid phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, N.; Collura, S.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue Victor Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France); Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Kutnetzov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, Academgorodok, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russia); Cebolla, V. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    The copyrolysis of wood biomass-polyolefins was carried out in a rotating autoclave. At 400C, more than 50% (in mass) of final products are found in the liquid phase for a 1:1 (in mass) mixture. The obtained liquids are separated in a distillable liquids fraction and in an extracted liquids fraction. The first fraction can be fully characterised by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Only olefins, paraffins and some aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylene), issued from the polymers, are found in this fraction. The origin of the polymer plays the most important role in the chemical composition of this fraction. Some interactions with the solid issued from thermal degradation of the biomass are evidenced, for example by the presence of 2-alkenes with 3n carbon atoms. In the heavy liquids fraction, more than 80% (in mass) of the products are heavy olefins or paraffins. Schematically, we can explain the results of the copyrolysis experiments by: the biomass, whatever its origin, leads to solid, water and gas; polymer leads to liquid and gaseous olefins and paraffins; at a temperature lower than 400C, the biomass reacts and during the pyrolysis at 400C the formed solid evolves to act as a radical donor; assisted by radicals from biomass, polymer chain scission leads to the production of the light liquids; if the presence of biomass has an influence on the chemical composition of final products (particularly the light liquids fraction) their origin has, in general, only a limited effect.

  20. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N.; Baryshnikov, S.V. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx Str., Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Weber, J.V.; Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France)

    2006-06-01

    The pyrolysis in a hydrogen atmosphere of pine wood and synthetic polymers (polyethylene and polypropylene) mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. The effects of reaction temperature, wood/polymers mixture composition and catalysts, on the mixtures conversion into liquids and gases were established and discussed. The used catalysts were pyrrhotite and haematite materials activated by mechanochemical treatment. In the co-liquefaction processes the interaction between fragments of wood and polymers thermal decomposition took place. This results in non-additive increase of the wood/polymers conversion degree by 10-15wt.% and of the yield of distillate fractions by 14-19wt.%. Iron ore materials were found catalytically active in the process of hydropyrolysis of wood/polymers mixtures. By using these catalysts a significant increase of the distillable liquids amounts (by 14-21wt.%) and a sharp decrease of olefins and cycloparaffins content (by approximately two to three times) were observed. (author)

  1. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures. Part 3. Characterisation of heavy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx str., 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Membrado, L.; Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Marin, N.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2003-05-01

    The chemical composition of heavy liquids (b.p.>180C) obtained by co-pyrolysis of polyolefins/wood biomass mixtures in autoclave conditions under inert atmosphere was investigated by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, GC-MS, high performance TLC combined with densitometry techniques. The preliminary separation of heavy liquids into different fractions by open LC and TLC methods had been used. Some perspectives of polymer and biomass thermal conversion during co-pyrolysis process were discussed.

  2. Green Polymer Precursors from Biomass-Based Levulinic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalid, M.; Heeres, H.J.; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) has been identified as a suitable chemical feedstock that can be isolated from biomass. Its conversion into γ-valerolactone (GVL) via hydrogenation and ringclosure to the lactone has been studied as a versatile route to the manufacture of biodegradable polyesters. For hydrogenati

  3. Recyclable Thermoresponsive Polymer-Cellulase Bioconjugates for Biomass Depolymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, Katherine J.; Francis, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the construction and characterization of a recoverable, thermoresponsive polymer-endoglucanase bioconjugate that matches the activity of unmodified enzymes on insoluble cellulose substrates. Two copolymers exhibiting a thermoresponsive lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were created through the copolymerization of an aminooxy-bearing methacrylamide with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) or N-isopropylmethacrylamide (NIPMa). The aminooxy group provided a handle through which...

  4. Green Polymer Precursors from Biomass-Based Levulinic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Chalid, M.; Heeres, H. J.; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) has been identified as a suitable chemical feedstock that can be isolated from biomass. Its conversion into γ-valerolactone (GVL) via hydrogenation and ringclosure to the lactone has been studied as a versatile route to the manufacture of biodegradable polyesters. For hydrogenation of LA using Ru/C catalyst (the first method), conversion of LA at 100% was observed after 50 min at 90°C in water, with a GVL selectivity of 73%. The product selectivity may be steered by the te...

  5. Time-resolved transient optical absorption study of constitutional-dynamic conjugated polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pfleger, Jiří; Rais, David; Vitvarová, T.; Vohlídal, J.; Svoboda, J.

    Pisa : European Polymer Federation, 2013. O7-3. [European Polymer Congress - EPF 2013. 16.06.2013-21.06.2013, Pisa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1143; GA TA ČR TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : time-resolved optical spectroscopy * conjugated polymers Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. Recyclable thermoresponsive polymer-cellulase bioconjugates for biomass depolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Katherine J; Francis, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the construction and characterization of a recoverable, thermoresponsive polymer-endoglucanase bioconjugate that matches the activity of unmodified enzymes on insoluble cellulose substrates. Two copolymers exhibiting a thermoresponsive lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were created through the copolymerization of an aminooxy-bearing methacrylamide with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) or N-isopropylmethacrylamide (NIPMa). The aminooxy group provided a handle through which the LCST was adjusted through small-molecule quenching. This allowed materials with LCSTs ranging from 20.9 to 60.5 °C to be readily obtained after polymerization. The thermostable endoglucanase EGPh from the hypothermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii was transaminated with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate to produce a ketone-bearing protein, which was then site-selectively modified through oxime linkage with benzylalkoxyamine or 5 kDa-poly(ethylene glycol)-alkoxyamine. These modified proteins showed activity comparable to the controls when assayed on an insoluble cellulosic substrate. Two polymer bioconjugates were then constructed using transaminated EGPh and the aminooxy-bearing copolymers. After 12 h, both bioconjugates produced an equivalent amount of free reducing sugars as the unmodified control using insoluble cellulose as a substrate. The recycling ability of the NIPAm copolymer-EGPh conjugate was determined through three rounds of activity, maintaining over 60% activity after two cycles of reuse and affording significantly more soluble carbohydrates than unmodified enzyme alone. When assayed on acid-pretreated Miscanthus, this bioconjugate increased the amount of reducing sugars by 2.8-fold over three rounds of activity. The synthetic strategy of this bioconjugate allows the LCST of the material to be changed readily from a common stock of copolymer and the method of attachment is applicable to a variety of proteins, enabling the same approach to be amenable to thermophile

  7. Assessment of the technical and economic potentials of biomass use for the production of steam, chemicals and polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Gielen, D. J.; Draeck, M.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuel substitution with biomass is one of the measures to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This paper estimates the cost-effectiveness of raising industrial steam and producing materials (i.e. chemicals, polymers) from biomass. We quantify their long-term global potentials in terms of en

  8. The effect of heat developed during high strain rate deformation on the constitutive modeling of amorphous polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Keivan H.; Zamani, Jamal; Guedes, Rui M.; Ferreira, Fernando J.

    2016-02-01

    An adiabatic constitutive model is proposed for large strain deformation of polycarbonate (PC) at high strain rates. When the strain rate is sufficiently high such that the heat generated does not have time to transfer to the surroundings, temperature of material rises. The high strain rate deformation behavior of polymers is significantly affected by temperature-dependent constants and thermal softening. Based on the isothermal model which first was introduced by Mulliken and Boyce et al. (Int. J. Solids Struct. 43:1331-1356, 2006), an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the yield and post-yield behavior of glassy polymers at high strain rates. When calculating the heat generated and the temperature changes during the step by step simulation of the deformation, temperature-dependent elastic constants are incorporated to the constitutive equations. Moreover, better prediction of softening phenomena is achieved by the new definition for softening parameters of the proposed model. The constitutive model has been implemented numerically into a commercial finite element code through a user material subroutine (VUMAT). The experimental results, obtained using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, are supported by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and Decompose/Shift/Reconstruct (DSR) method. Comparison of adiabatic model predictions with experimental data demonstrates the ability of the model to capture the characteristic features of stress-strain curve of the material at very high strain rates.

  9. Constitutive modeling of large inelastic deformation of amorphous polymers: Free volume and shear transformation zone dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyiadjis, George Z.; Samadi-Dooki, Aref

    2016-06-01

    Due to the lack of the long-range order in their molecular structure, amorphous polymers possess a considerable free volume content in their inter-molecular space. During finite deformation, these free volume holes serve as the potential sites for localized permanent plastic deformation inclusions which are called shear transformation zones (STZs). While the free volume content has been experimentally shown to increase during the course of plastic straining in glassy polymers, thermal analysis of stored energy due to the deformation shows that the STZ nucleation energy decreases at large plastic strains. The evolution of the free volume, and the STZs number density and nucleation energy during the finite straining are formulated in this paper in order to investigate the uniaxial post-yield softening-hardening behavior of the glassy polymers. This study shows that the reduction of the STZ nucleation energy, which is correlated with the free volume increase, brings about the post-yield primary softening of the amorphous polymers up to the steady-state strain value; and the secondary hardening is a result of the increased number density of the STZs, which is required for large plastic strains, while their nucleation energy is stabilized beyond the steady-state strain. The evolutions of the free volume content and STZ nucleation energy are also used to demonstrate the effect of the strain rate, temperature, and thermal history of the sample on its post-yield behavior. The obtained results from the model are compared with the experimental observations on poly(methyl methacrylate) which show a satisfactory consonance.

  10. Possibility of growing ecologically sound biomass in Cs-contaminated soils by polymer compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems. The research team has developed new means for growing ecologically sound biomass for food in RN-contaminated soils through regulation of biological migration of anthropogenic RN (particularly 137Cs) by adding polymer compositions to the ecosystems 'water- soil- plant' and 'water- nutrient solution-plant'. The composition on the base of inorganic filler, in this case bentonite, has high level of absorption of radioactive cesium (Water purification coefficient = 2.71 for 137Cs and 2.62 - for 134Cs) and was selected for testing in soil and hydroponic conditions. It has been found out that application of this polymer in the root-inhabited media, in comparison to the control variant (without applying polymer), promoted the decrease of 137Cs content in Japanese basil (Shi-so, Perilla frutescens v. crispa) leaves 5.7 and 2.1 times under hydroponic conditions and field experiments, consequently. The field tests have proved that polymer composition can regulate cesium transfer in 'water-soil-plant' and 'water- nutrient solution-plant' systems. The research results can be successfully used for overcoming and eliminating of the catastrophic consequences of Fukushima-1 NPP nuclear accident. The research has been funded under A-2072 ISTC. (authors)

  11. Possibility of growing ecologically sound biomass in Cs-contaminated soils by polymer compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovsepyan, Albert H.; Tadevosyan, Anna H.; Mairapetyan, Khachatur S.; Alexanyan, Julietta S.; Ghalachyan, Laura M. [G.S.Davtyan Institute of Hydroponics Problems, National Academy of Sciences, 0082 Yerevan (Armenia); Tavakalyan, Nina B. [Yerevan Institute ' Plastpolymer' , 0007 Yerevan (Armenia); Pyuskyulyan, Konstantin I. [Armenian Nuclear Power Plant, 0910 Metsamor (Armenia)

    2014-07-01

    involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems. The research team has developed new means for growing ecologically sound biomass for food in RN-contaminated soils through regulation of biological migration of anthropogenic RN (particularly {sup 137}Cs) by adding polymer compositions to the ecosystems 'water- soil- plant' and 'water- nutrient solution-plant'. The composition on the base of inorganic filler, in this case bentonite, has high level of absorption of radioactive cesium (Water purification coefficient = 2.71 for {sup 137}Cs and 2.62 - for {sup 134}Cs) and was selected for testing in soil and hydroponic conditions. It has been found out that application of this polymer in the root-inhabited media, in comparison to the control variant (without applying polymer), promoted the decrease of {sup 137}Cs content in Japanese basil (Shi-so, Perilla frutescens v. crispa) leaves 5.7 and 2.1 times under hydroponic conditions and field experiments, consequently. The field tests have proved that polymer composition can regulate cesium transfer in 'water-soil-plant' and 'water- nutrient solution-plant' systems. The research results can be successfully used for overcoming and eliminating of the catastrophic consequences of Fukushima-1 NPP nuclear accident. The research has been funded under A-2072 ISTC. (authors)

  12. Polymer/biomass-derived biochar for use as a sorbent and electron transfer mediator in environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Young; Seo, Yong-Deuk

    2016-10-01

    Co-pyrolysis of polymer and biomass wastes was investigated as a novel method for waste treatment and synthesis of enhanced biochar. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw (RS) with polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) or polystyrene (PS) increased the carbon content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area and pH of the biochar. As a result, the sorption of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and Pb to polymer/RS-derived biochar was markedly enhanced. The increased aromaticity and hydrophobicity may be responsible for enhancing the DNT sorption to the polymer/RS-derived biochar. In contrast, increasing CEC, higher pH, and the newly developed surface area may account for the enhancement in Pb sorption. The addition of polymer to RS did not significantly change the catalytic role of biochar during the reduction of DNT by dithiothreitol. Our results suggest that co-pyrolysis of RS and polymer can improve the biochar properties to enhance the sorption of DNT and Pb. PMID:27347801

  13. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymer mixtures. Part 1. Influence of experimental conditions on the evolution of solids, liquids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, 42 Karl Marx Street, Academgorodok, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Marin, N.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, Rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of wood biomass and synthetic polymer mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. Beech wood, pine wood, cellulose, hydrolytic lignin, medium density polyethylene, isotactic and atactic polypropylene were selected as starting materials. The effects of reaction conditions, biomass and polymers' origins on the degree of mixture conversion as well as on the yields of liquid and gaseous products were established and discussed. A preliminary thermogravimetric investigation has shown that biomass is thermally degraded at a lower temperature than the studied polyolefins. As described in the literature, independent thermal behaviors were, in all cases, observed for each component of biomass/plastic mixtures (1:1 weight ratio). Co-pyrolysis of the different types of natural and synthetic polymer mixtures in an inert atmosphere has led to high yield of light distillate fraction and benzene soluble products. The optimum temperature for biomass/plastic mixture conversion which corresponds to the maximum yield of light liquids was 400C. The origins of both biomass and plastic had significant influences on the co-pyrolysis products' distribution. In some cases non-additive effects were observed. This effect, generally, took place at biomass/plastic ratio lower then 1 (weight ratio) and resulted in high yields of distillate liquid fraction.

  14. Advantages of a 3-parameter reduced constitutive model for the measurement of polymers elastic modulus using tensile tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, A.; André, S.; Delobelle, P.; Meshaka, Y.; Cunat, C.

    2016-04-01

    Exact measurements of the rheological parameters of time-dependent materials are crucial to improve our understanding of their intimate relation to the internal bulk microstructure. Concerning solid polymers and the apparently simple determination of Young's modulus in tensile tests, international standards rely on basic protocols that are known to lead to erroneous values. This paper describes an approach allowing a correct measurement of the instantaneous elastic modulus of polymers by a tensile test. It is based on the use of an appropriate reduced model to describe the behavior of the material up to great strains, together with well-established principles of parameter estimation in engineering science. These principles are objective tools that are used to determine which parameters of a model can be correctly identified according to the informational content of a given data set. The assessment of the methodology and of the measurements is accomplished by comparing the results with those obtained from two other physical experiments, probing the material response at small temporal and length scales, namely, ultrasound measurements with excitation at 5 MHz and modulated nanoindentation tests over a few nanometers of amplitude.

  15. Constitutional Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Richard Henry

    2009-01-01

    The main ambition of "Constitutional Constraints" is to open up the subject of constitutional constraints on government officials, including Presidents and Supreme Court Justices, as a topic for discussion within the field of Constitutional Theory. The subject has so far received little comprehensive discussion in the law reviews, in part because of a division between scholarly approaches that treat constitutional law as a system of norms and political scientific theories that portray judges ...

  16. Constitutional Hardball

    OpenAIRE

    Tushnet, Mark V.

    2004-01-01

    This Essay develops the idea that there is a practice called constitutional hardball. The practice has three characteristics: it involves arguments and behavior by political actors (including judges, although their role is less interesting than that of other political actors) that are defensible - though sometimes only barely so - by standard constitutional doctrine; it is inconsistent with settled pre-constitutional understandings; and it involves extremely high stakes (control over the nati...

  17. 秸秆类生物质成型热黏塑性本构模型构建%Establishment of thermo viscoplastic constitutive model for straw biomass briquetting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启新; 陈书法; 董玉平

    2015-01-01

    针对生物质颗粒生产能耗高、效率低的现状,该文从生物质组成角度,特别是木质素特性出发探讨其成型机理。秸秆成型过程由于内摩擦力的作用产生大量热量,温度的上升会造成木质素的软化,木质素的这一变化为纤维颗粒的团聚提供了黏结力。温度和木质素特性对生物质塑性成型性能产生巨大影响,是热黏塑变形过程。为研究生物质内部特性对塑性成型过程的影响,运用内时理论,以玉米秸秆、小麦秸秆和水稻秸秆为研究对象,构建了秸秆类生物质压缩成型内时本构方程。借助黏土流动理论,推导定义生物质黏塑性强化函数和核函数,运用数值分析和试验得出本构方程的系数。与试验数据相比较,基于内时理论的热黏塑性本构模型较好的模拟了生物质塑性流变过程。结果显示,向秸秆中添加20%的木质素,可有效提高其塑性流动性能,降低其在相同应变下的应力以及生产能耗;当成型温度在100~115℃之间,应变率在1×102~1×103 s-1之间,对于木质素质量分数分别为29%的玉米秸秆、33.5%的小麦秸秆和34.3%的水稻秸秆的固化成型性能最好。%Biomass briquetting is one of the key technologies to solve the problem of its collection, transportation and storage. Meanwhile biomass pellet, as a renewable energy, can be used instead of coal for heating, electricity, etc. Study on the mechanism of biomass briquetting is the basic way to develop new forming methods and equipments, and to improve productivity greatly. The research in this paper is about a thermo viscoplastic constitutive model for the biomass briquetting mechanism based on endochronic theory. Straw mainly consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is a typical example of dissipative material. Biomass briquetting process is a mixed process of extrusion flow and interstitial flow. During the process, a large

  18. Constitutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig Van den Hauwe

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the main points discussed at the seminar ?Constitutional Economics: Cinderella in the Czech Economic Community? held by the Czech Economic Association in February 2000. The main speaker at the seminar was Prof. Karel Kouba (Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague), who characterized constitutional economics as a still relatively new and promising research program. The ensuing discussion concerned several topics, including the relationship between public ...

  19. Constitutional Conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  20. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina;

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also...... covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses...

  1. Application of a rotary kiln for the treatment of carbonaceous materials of the selective waste polymer and biomass type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Vlastimil; Bičáková, Olga; Náhunková, Jana

    Ostrava: VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 2011 - (Fečko, P.; Čablík, V.), 7-11 ISBN 978-80-248-2387-4. [International Conference on Environment and Mineral Processing /15./. Ostrava (CZ), 08.06.2011-10.06.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rotary kiln * pyrolysis * biomass Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling

  2. Predictive/fitting capabilities of differential constitutive models for polymer melts - reduction of non-linear parameters in the eXtended Pom-Pom model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 11 (2014), s. 2753-2763. ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : constitutive mode * XPP model * LDPE materials * strain hardening * elongational flow * shear flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00396-014-3308-7

  3. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  4. What Is a Constitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    OAH Magazine of History, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan designed to help students better understand the concept of a constitution, distinguish constitutional law from statutory law, and recognize examples of constitutional government. (BSR)

  5. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniuk, J. R.; Wang, J.; Root, T. W.; Scott, C. T.; Klingenberg, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained using torque rheometry agree with those obtained using other rheometric methods, but torque rheometry can be used at much larger solids concentration (weight fractions of insoluble solids greater than 0.2). Yield stresses decrease with severity of hydrolysis, decrease when water-soluble polymers are added (for nonhydrolyzed biomass), and increase with particle length. Experimental results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained from particle-level simulations.

  6. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction. In......This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During the...... hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed by...

  7. Detailed modelling of biomass pyrolysis: biomass structure and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research routes followed in the field of numerical modelling development for biomass devolatilization are here summarised. In this first paper a wide introduction concerning the description of the chemical nature of the main classes of compounds which constitute biomasses is reported, it is the starting point for the subsequent description of the developed models, described in the companion paper

  8. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings. PMID:27299693

  9. Chemicals and polymers from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, James; Hall, Katy [CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    While fossil energy prices remain relatively low and agricultural prices are maintained at a relatively high level as a result of production costs, the use of purpose grown crops as a source of fuels requires subsidies, tax support or other financial incentives to be viable. In the short term, the use of agricultural and forest raw materials as industrial raw materials for production of higher value products appears more attractive. However, simple substitution of a petroleum-based product by one derived from plants is seldom possible. Options are reviewed, covering both established commercial activities (such as starch, vegetable oil, paper-pulp and natural fibres), as well as the extensive research and development activities that should lead to new crops, new products and new markets. (Author)

  10. Chemicals and polymers from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, James; Hall, Katy [CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    While fossil energy prices remain relatively low and agricultural prices are maintained at a relatively high level as a result of production costs, the use of purpose grown crops as a source of fuels requires subsidies, tax support or other financial incentives to be viable. In the short term, the use of agricultural and forest raw materials as industrial raw materials for production of higher value products appears more attractive. However, simple substitution of a petroleum-based product by one derived from plants is seldom possible. Options are reviewed, covering both established commercial activities (such as starch, vegetable oil, paper-pulp and natural fibres), as well as the extensive research and development activities that should lead to new crops, new products and new markets. (Author)

  11. Biomass boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Nahodil, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor’s thesis deals with the use of biomass for heating houses and apartment houses. The first part is dedicated to biomass. Here are mentioned the possibility of energy recovery, treatment and transformation of biomass into a form suitable for burning, its properties and combustion process itself. The second part is devoted to biomass boilers, their separation and description. The last section compares the specific biomass boiler with a boiler to natural gas, particularly from an economi...

  12. Economic Analysis of Constitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roger B. Myerson

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary draft of an article to appear in Chicago Law Review (2000), as part of a symposium reviewing two new books on economic analysis of constitutions: Dennis Mueller's Constitutional Democracy and Robert Cooter's Strategic Constitution. Some of the basic questions of constitutional analysis are introduced, and the importance of work in this area is shown as one of the major new developments in social theory. The methods of economic theory are then shown to be particular...

  13. Conventional Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Judges share conventional understandings about what the Constitution requires, both of themselves and of other constitutional actors. These informal conventions lead to formal decisions, which are then centrally enforced by the state in the same manner as all other judicial decisions. This recognition of conventional constitutional law has three critical implications for our understanding, critique and reform of constitutional law. First, it is unlikely that judges will refer e...

  14. Trends in polymer-grade L-lactic acid fermentation by non-food biomass%聚合级L-乳酸的非粮生物质发酵研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于波; 曾艳; 姜旭; 王丽敏; 马延和

    2013-01-01

    乳酸在化工、医药和食品加工等领域有着广泛的用途.随着聚乳酸产业的兴起,对聚合级L-乳酸的需求量也不断增加.开发低成本的非粮生物质乳酸发酵工艺、实现发酵-分离耦合是降低聚合级L-乳酸成本、摆脱原料价格不断上涨压力的技术趋势.文中简要综述了近2~3年使用非粮生物质发酵生产聚合级L-乳酸的技术进展,并对未来乳酸发酵工艺作了展望.%Lactic acid has a wide range of uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical and food industry. With rapid development of poly (lactic acid) industry, the demand for polymer-grade L-lactic acid is continuously increasing. Developing low-cost, non-food-biomass-lactic-acid fermentation process and the fermentation-separation coupled technology are trends to reduce polymer-grade L-lactic acid production cost. This review summarized the most recent advances in low-cost L-lactic acid fermentation based on the use of non-food biomass, followed by addressing the key issue that might be strategically important for future development of polymer-grade L-lactic acid production in industry.

  15. Biomass process handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  16. Utilizing constitutional values in constitutional comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Venter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an era in which constitutional law has become a comparative science. A cogent, generally accepted methodology for constitutional comparison, however does not exist. There can, it is therefore submitted, be no such thing as a universal, monolithic science or discipline of comparative law, be it in the field of private or of public law. On the other hand, juridical comparison done unscientifically will not yield the fruits of useful knowledge.The law in general is replete with unspecific notions such as justice, reasonableness, public interest, boni mores, and many others. It should therefore not be disturbing to find that values are often foundational to the operation and application of constitutional law. The values underpinning different constitutional systems may be useful as a tertium comparationis in a comparative exercise. This however requires a penetrating consideration of the foundations of the systems being compared.In this contribution "a small comparative exercise" is undertaken by way of demonstration of the method. The South African constitutional provisions relating to equality and affirmative action are set against the background of the relevant norms and practices in the United States of America and Canada. This produces some useful insights:• in the USA equality increasingly underpins a strict proscription of discrimination, thus shrinking the scope for justifiable affirmative action programmes;• the South African law relating to discrimination and upliftment of the disadvantaged was clearly influenced by, and is therefore better understood against the background of, the equivalent arrangements in Canada, which was in its turn possibly conceived against the backdrop of early developments in this regard in the USA;• the Canadian doctrine and law of the constitution deals with affirmative action as an exception to the prohibition of discrimination and does not favour private affirmative action programmes

  17. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  18. Kenya's New Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Kramon, Eric; Posner, Daniel N

    2011-01-01

    On 4 August 2010, Kenyans voted to adopt a new constitution, culminating a process that began as part of a resolution to the violent conflict that followed the December 2007 elections. By reducing executive power, devolving authority, and guaranteeing rights to women, minorities, and marginalized communities, the constitution has the potential to transform Kenyan politics. Political and logistical obstacles will, however, pose a challenge to implementation. Yet that the constitution has been ...

  19. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes......, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. "Biomass Recalcitrance" is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology....

  20. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  1. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  2. Investigation of advanced constitutive equations under different flow conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zatloukal, M.; Pivokonský, Radek; Gough, T.; Coates, P.

    Charlotte : Society of Plastics Engineers, 2006, s. 2356-2360. ISBN 9781601190987. [ANTEC 2006. Charlotte (US), 07.05.2006-11.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/05/2311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : constitutive equations * FEM modelling * polymer melts * constitutive models Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  3. Torrefied biomass-polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrefied almond shells and wood chips were incorporated into polypropylene as fillers to produce torrefied biomass-polymer composites. Response surface methodology was used to examine the effects of filler concentration, filler size, and lignin factor (relative lignin to cellulose concentration) on...

  4. ACCESS METHODS CONCERNING THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONTROL OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela NEMTOI

    2009-01-01

    The study concerning the laws’ constitutionality represents the reason of constitutional warranty on judicial standards, which governs a democratic state. The supremacy of constitution is only a principle, which has to be doubled by establishing a mechanism creating consistency to it. In order to assure the supremacy of constitution, the doctrine and constitutional practice have created efficient judicial institutions, the control of laws’ constitutionality by the competency of Constitutional...

  5. The constitutive sofa cushion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Sara

    2009-01-01

      Full Paper presented by Sara Hanghøj 24.9.2008 at the International Conference "Crafticulation &Education"  University of Helsinki 23.-26.  September 2008 Session: Gendered Textiles     THE CONSTITUTIVE SOFA CUSHION - MATERIALIZATION ANALYSED FROM A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE   Abstract How can...... personal values materialize through a hand-made everyday artefact, and how can the artefact constitute action and self-perception? The empirical research and analysis concerns how a former textile crafts teacher's subjective values and professional identity materialize through a hand-woven sofa cushion...... female handcraft-teachers, was generated and constituted with the sofa cushion as one of many actors.      ...

  6. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    challenging the type of governance which constitutional states were supposed to represent and ensure. They also provoke old questions: Who bears the responsibility for governance without a government? Can accountability be ensured? The term 'constitutionalism' is still widely identified with statal form of......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are...... democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international...

  7. CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF JURISDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Jamal Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of our State of Law there is no way to separate the study of the civil procedural law from the Federal Constitution, especially the jurisdiction, because it is in the Constitution that there are the legitimizing foundations of the jurisdiction institute. In this article, we carry on about the constitutional foundations of jurisdiction, such as: the principle of natural justice, principle of access to justice, principle of impartiality, principle of publicity, principle of motivation and principle of submission to res judicata. The conclusion is, after all, that jurisdiction, as one of the bulwarks of the citizen, finds in the “Citizen Constitution” of 1988 its foundations and decisive bases.

  8. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  9. The Constitution of Partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    The constitution of partnering. Afhandlingen behandler konstitueringen af ledelseskonceptet partnering og dets anvendelse i dansk byggeri. Partnering er et udbredt koncept i byggeriet som betoner samarbejde, tillid og gensidighed mellem de deltagende parter, og konceptet har de senere år har været...

  10. Disputing the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Christopher H.

    1987-01-01

    Constitutional law is a good way to introduce students to fundamental debates over means and ends, over what means work and at what costs, and over what ends are not merely desirable, but may be legitimately achieved even through the application of collective force. It also offers an exciting way to teach logic. (MLW)

  11. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  12. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children. PMID:26016017

  13. The Constitution Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Schneider

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with certain questions and problems of the constitutionalization of the European Union which did not receive very much attention from the ‘Convention on the Future of Europe’ and from the observers of that Convention’s work, but which, nevertheless, may be relevant whenever the results of the Convention’s work are assessed and evaluated. The paper mainly deals with ‘background’ problems associated with traditions of political thought in general and with basic understandings of European integration in particular. The paper also expounds on how the more recent constitution discussion, initiated due to the founding of the European Union, manifests continuities with the debates that have taken place over the past decades (since the start of the integration policy based on the ‘Community method’. However, it shows that the discussion context has become more complex. In the last section of the paper, the relationship of ‘statics’ and ‘dynamics’ in relation to European constitutional conceptions is treated as a subject. The question arises as to whether and to what extent the constitution concept itself is in doubt and whether or not, in connection with this, important functions, whose very performance is expected of a constitution of the European Union, remain unfulfilled.

  14. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  15. Judiciary on Russian Constitutional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Arkhipov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about new constitutional order in Russia emphasizing fundamental areas as the role of judiciary in the Russian Constitutional System from 1993 Constitution, the one which replaced the 1978 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Constitution based on communist ideology. Therefore, it is intended to examine the principle of separation of powers, constitutionally recognized human rights and liberties, relationship between international bodies’ case law of human rights and the Russian Constitutional Court, among others issues.

  16. Interplay between viscoelastic and chemical tunings in fatty-acid-based polyester adhesives: engineering biomass toward functionalized step-growth polymers and soft networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendamme, Richard; Olaerts, Katrien; Gomes, Monica; Degens, Marc; Shigematsu, Takayuki; Eevers, Walter

    2012-06-11

    This Article describes the synthesis and characterization of renewable self-adhesive coatings with tunable viscoelastic properties and equipped with well-defined amounts of carboxylic acid "sticker" groups with adhesion promoting characteristics. Hydroxyl-ended polyesters with various architectures (linear, branched) were synthesized by melt polycondensation of dimerized fatty acids and fatty diols and then cured with maleic anhydride-modified triglycerides (such as maleinized soybean oil) in the presence of the amidine catalyst 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene. The curing reaction of alcoholysis has the dual effect of chain extending/cross-linking the base polymers via creation of polymeric half-esters linkages while introducing carboxylic acid functions within the gel structure. We demonstrated how the adhesion properties can be finely tuned from molecular design and formulation of the network precursors and how the rheology and functionality of the coatings influence the adhesive bond formation and development. These renewable polyester adhesives proved to be suitable materials for pressure-sensitive adhesives applications with respect to adhesion strength, viscoelasticity, and functionality. In addition, the environmental benefits of such materials are briefly discussed. PMID:22612310

  17. Constitutional appeals refused

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Already in the three-judge-appointed preliminary commission, the Fed. Constitutional Court, in several cases unanimously, refused a constitutional appeal against decisions in court cases regarding nuclear power plants with the substantiation that they have no sufficient prospects for success, or that they are inadmissable. These decisions are incontestable. The following orders were issued: 1) Churches must also pay for electricity produced by nuclear power plants. 2) Construction of the Grohnde nuclear power plant will not be interrupted. 3) Limited right of action against nuclear power plant licences (here: Stade) 4) Confirmation of the preliminary site approval for Kruemmel nuclear power plant. The essential reasons for the decisions are given. (orig./HP)

  18. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  19. Biomass power; Biomasse-Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woergetter, M.

    2003-07-01

    The author reports about use of biomass in Austria and Bavaria: power generation, production of biodiesel, bioethanol, energy efficiency of small biomass furnaces. (uke) [German] Bioenergie wird von breiten Kreisen als wichtiger Ansatz in Richtung einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung in Europa gesehen. Die Herausforderung liegt dabei im neuen Herangehen an Entscheidungen; Dimensionen der Wirtschaft, der Umwelt und der Gesellschaft sind dabei zu beruecksichtigen. Bioenergie ist somit keine reine Frage der Umwelt, sondern zielt auf den Umbau unseres Systems in Richtung Nachhaltigkeit. (orig.)

  20. The denied constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Borja, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the luck of the proposals presented by indigenous and afro-Colombian communities, during the National Constituent Assembly of 1991. These proposals were aimed to define a new territorial organization of the State, but they were discarded from the Constitution and the subsequent legislative development. We are, therefore, front of the lack of knowledge of one of the most important realities of the country: the construction of space by the indigenous and afro-Colomb...

  1. [Constitutional requirements of rationing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Winfried

    2008-01-01

    Rationing is an emotive issue in the field of public health. This complicates the rational discourse, which is indispensable for analyzing the rationing conditions as set out by constitutional law and which requires manifold differentiation and consideration that shall briefly be outlined in the following short contribution. Of central significance is the distinction between indirect and direct rationing as well as the reference to the essential responsibility of legislators for rationing decisions. PMID:19004184

  2. What constitutes information integrity?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms

    2008-01-01

    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  3. What constitutes information integrity?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms

    2007-01-01

    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  4. Smart film actuators using biomass plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel smart film actuator based on the use of a biomass plastic as a piezoelectric film. Conventional polymeric smart sensors and actuators have been based upon synthetic piezoelectric polymer films such as PVDF. Almost all synthetic polymers are made from nearly depleted oil resources. In addition combustion of their materials releases carbon dioxide, thereby contributing to global warming. Thus at least two important sustainability principles are violated when employing synthetic polymers: avoiding depletable resources and avoiding ecosystem destruction. To overcome such problems, industrial plastic products made from synthetic polymers were developed to replace oil-based plastics with biomass plastics. This paper applies a biomass plastic with piezoelectricity such as poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). As a result, PLLA film becomes a distributed parameter actuator per se, hence an environmentally conscious smart film actuator is developed. Firstly, this paper overviews the fundamental properties of piezoelectric synthetic polymers and biopolymers. The concept of carbon neutrality using biopolymers is mentioned. Then a two-dimensional modal actuator for exciting a specific structural mode is proposed. Furthermore, a biomass plastic-based cantilever beam with the capability of modal actuation is developed, the validity of the proposed smart film actuator based upon a biomass plastic being analytically as well as experimentally verified

  5. Investigation of accessory hemicellulases and pectinases for polysaccharide hydrolysis of ionic liquid pretreated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The polysaccharides, cellulose, hemicellulose, and other additional carbohydrate polymers of terrestrial biomass, comprise renewable feedstocks for carbon-based chemicals and fuels. Biomass pretreatment is required to overcome its recalcitrance to biochemical deconstruction to monomeric sugars for ...

  6. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  7. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  8. Ethics and constitutional government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  9. HFRP管约束超高性能混凝土的本构模型%Constitutive Model for Ultrahigh-performance Concrete Confined by Hybrid Fiber-reinforced Polymer Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宗才; 白玉磊; 曲玖龄

    2016-01-01

    为了研究混杂纤维增强聚合物(hybrid fiber reinforced polymer,HFRP)约束超高性能混凝土(ultra-high performance concrete,UHPC)圆柱体的轴压特性,通过36个圆柱体轴压试验,测定了应力-应变全曲线.试验结果表明:已有的几个有代表性的强度和极限应变预测模型并不适用于HFRP管约束UHPC,因此,考虑了纤维混杂种类对约束效率的影响,提出了新的强度与极限应变的公式,其预测精度较高;已有几个代表性的应力-应变本构模型预测曲线比实测曲线偏低,提出了双线性的本构模型,理论曲线和试验曲线吻合良好,模型表达式简单,便于设计人员使用.

  10. Environment, constitution, administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue contains papers delivered at the 13th congress of the Institute for Energy Law at Cologne University. The titles of the essays are as follows: The Implementation of governmental decisions as a constitutional problem; Protection of the environment within the system of judicial order; The compromise in harmonizing goals as part of the judicial order; The burden of proof as lever of the politics of law and order especially within the limits of the Emission Control Law; The protection of the law and the setting of standards by governmental and private channels; The legal Emission control provisions as prerequisite for licensing; Protection of established power installations. All essays are concerned with environmental problems. (HSCH)

  11. Biotechnology of biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers: An introduction to biomass crops; The microbiology of fermentation processes; The production of ethanol from biomass crops, such as sugar cane and rubbers; The energy of biomass conversion; and The economics of biomass conversion

  12. Degradation effects in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extremely long molecular chains of polymers can be broken easily by the absorption of a quantum of energy above the energy of the covalent bond of the main carbon chain, which typically is in the range of 5-10 eV. The energy of beta and gamma photons of 1 to 10 MeV surpasses by many orders of magnitude this minimum value, representing a high risk of degradation to all kind of polymers, naturals and synthetics alike. The protection of polymers against high doses (20 - 1000 kGy) requires efficient additives preventing and/or stopping chain reaction type oxidative degradation. Primary and secondary antioxidants work well here in synergy. Commercial raw materials are available for radiation-sterilizable medical devices made out of polyolefins and other thermoplastics. Similarly, polymer compounds of suitable formulae are offered commercially for high-dose applications of polymers in nuclear installations. The controlled degradation of polymers of large molecular mass - or even of cross-linked molecular structures - is a promising field of radiation application. One area here is related to recycling non-accessible polymers such as fluorinated plastics of cross-linked rubber products. Another large possible area is the controlled radiation degradation of natural polymer systems. Radiation may facilitate the access to cross-linked natural polymer systems, such as wood, plant cellulose and biomass in general, decreasing to use of aggressive chemicals. The result is energetically favorable, environmentally friendly new procedures and raw materials of natural origin. A limited dose applied to polymers - although may cause some degradation - however may initiate new bonds on the 'wounded' chain. The popular graft-copolymerization technique can be applied in new, up-coming polymer processing technologies such as alloying, composite processing and reconstitutive recycling. By this way, even those polymers described earlier as radiation-degrading types, can be cross

  13. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  14. Constitutive models in LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  15. Electrifying biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's (BC) energy plan was outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. BC Hydro is the third largest electric utility in Canada with a generating capacity of 11,000 MW, 90 per cent of which is hydro generation. Various independent power project (IPP) biomass technologies were outlined, including details of biogas, wood residue and municipal solid waste facilities. An outline of BC Hydro's overall supply mix was presented, along with details of the IPP supply mix. It was suggested that the cancellation of the Duke Point power project has driven growth in the renewable energy sector. A chart of potential energy contribution by resource type was presented, as well as unit energy cost ranges. Resources included small and large hydro; demand side management; resource smart natural gas; natural gas; coal; wind; geothermal; biomass; wave; and tidal. The acquisition process was reviewed. Details of calls for tenders were presented, and issues concerning bidder responsibility and self-selection were examined. It was observed that wood residue presents a firm source of electricity that is generally local, and has support from the public. In addition, permits for wood residue energy conversion are readily available. However, size limitations, fuel risks, and issues concerning site control may prove to be significant challenges. It was concluded that the success of biomass energy development will depend on adequate access and competitive pricing. tabs., figs

  16. The Constitution and American Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Nathan

    1987-01-01

    Diversity in American constitutional law refers to differences among the laws of the states. However, key phrases in the Constitution have been used to ensure individual rights. The expansion of those rights has led to conflict between community needs and those of the individual, with each side referring to the Constitution for support. (PS)

  17. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  18. Biomass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels productions and uses should allow valorization of raw materials belonging to biomass: plants used in food utilization, ligno-cellulose plants, or by-products even wastes from animal or vegetable origin. These bioenergies are renewable energies, and their developments pass through an economical competitivity, a clean and spare production, and atmospheric emissions control of vehicles. The principal advantage of bioenergies is the reduction of fossil carbon consumption and its replacement by a renewable carbon consumption. (A.B.). 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  20. Understanding catalytic biomass conversion through data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Ras; B. McKay; G. Rothenberg

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of biomass is a key challenge that we chemists face in the twenty-first century. Worldwide, research is conducted into obtaining bulk chemicals, polymers and fuels. Our project centres on glucose valorisation via furfural derivatives using catalytic hydrogenation. We present her

  1. Religion and the Japanese Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Hardacre, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines provisions regarding religion in the 1947 Constitution of Japan, showing how they differ from the Meiji constitution of 1889. It examines policies on religion established by the Allied Occupation of Japan (1945‐1952), especially relating to Shinto, their implementation, and their relation to the 1947 constitution. The paper documents the process through which Occupation officials drafted entirely new articles on religion, displacing a Japanese government commission that ...

  2. Ionic liquids as a tool for lignocellulosic biomass fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, André; João, Karen; Morais, Ana Rita; Bogel-Lukasik, Ewa; Bogel-Lukasik, R.

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass composes a diversity of feedstock raw materials representing an abundant and renewable carbon source. In majority lignocellulose is constituted by carbohydrate macromolecules, namely cellulose and hemicellulose, and by lignin, a polyphenilpropanoid macromolecule. Between these biomacromolecules, there are several covalent and non-covalent interactions defining an intricate, complex and rigid structure of lignocellulose. The deconstruction of the lignocellulosic biomass...

  3. Molecular and supramolecular orientation in conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrinsic anisotropy in electrical and optical properties of conducting polymers constitutes a unique aspect that derives π-electron delocalization along the polymer backbone and from the weak inter-chain interaction. To acquire such an intrinsic property, conducting polymers have to be oriented macroscopically and microscopically (at the chain level). A review of the various techniques, including stretch-alignment of the polymer and of precursor polymers, polymerization in ordered media, i.e., in a liquid crystal solvent, and synthesis of liquid crystalline conducting polymers will be given. 29 refs

  4. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  5. How Capitalistic Is the Constitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Second in a three-part series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of capitalism and the Constitution. "American Democracy and the Acquisitive Spirit" (Marc F. Plattner) supports the argument that the framers of the Constitution…

  6. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The...... conceptual dimensions of constitutive effects are carved out, empirical illustrations of their applicability are offered and implications discussed....

  7. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  8. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  9. The Constitution and Its Critics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  10. Neutron studies of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility to contrast given fractions of a polymer system at a cost of a low enthalpy difference is responsible for the success of the neutron method. This approach is especially useful for polymers as compared to colloids or simple liquids, because of the significative intra- and inter-molecular correlations. In this respect, the pseudo diblock copolymer constitutes one of the best test molecule of homogeneous polymer system. A review is given of main results: polymer size in melts, true backbone conformation and universal constants related to polymer structures. Effects of mechanical stress, of mesogenic order have been revealed. Neutron spin-echo experiments have given characteristic dispersion relations of intra- and inter-polymer diffusive motions. The labelling method is however more powerful than first realized. The amplitude associated with a polymer structure at an interface has been obtained directly (as in ellipsometry) with the use of contrast variation. Such structures are currently investigated by neutron reflectivity. Latest developments are found in the use of spin polarized targets, from which important cross correlations are derived

  11. Linear PE materials – predictive/fitting capabilities of the molecular-based constitutive equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Zatloukal, M.; Filip, Petr

    Akron : The Polymer Processing Society, 2007, P19. [PPS-23: The Polymer Society Annual Meeting /23./. Salvator (BR), 27.05.2007-31.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600703; GA ČR GA103/05/2311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : constitutive equations * polymer melts * shear flow * elongational flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  12. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Vroman; Lan Tighzert

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  13. Constitutional multicenter bank linked to Sasang constitutional phenotypic data

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hee-Jeong; Baek, Younghwa; Kim, Ho-Seok; Ryu, Jonghyang; Lee, Siwoo

    2015-01-01

    Background Biobanks are more important in medical area because they can give researchers data for demonstrating and validating their research. In this study, we developed a biobank called the Korea Constitutional Multicenter Bank (KCMB) based on Sasang Constitutional Medicine (SCM). The aim of the KCMB was a foundation to providing the scientific basis of SCM. Methods The KCMB has been constructed since 2006 in 24 Korean medical clinics with collection of questionnaire data, physical measurem...

  14. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH)

  15. Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.

  16. Spatial-temporal management zones for biomass moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, Spyros; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn;

    Biomass handling operations (harvesting, raking, collection, and transportation) are critical operations within the agricultural production system since they constitute the first link in the biomass supply chain, a fact of substantial importance considering the increasingly involvement of biomass...... executed in an open and un-controlled environment.  The main objectives of the project were to investigate the potential of selective biomass harvesting based on biomass moisture content. A field experiment was conducted in the University farm of Aarhus University in Denmark in 2009. About 450...... georeferenced biomass samples were collected when the forage was cut and left in the ground.  The samples were weighed and dried and then weighed again, thereby determining the water content in the specific sample. For the prediction of the time-evolution of biomass moisture content as a function of the local...

  17. Cleanup liability and the Constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was observed in the July 1992 issue of this Journal that a plain reading of the Constitution's prohibition on open-quotes ex post factoclose quotes suggests that some environmental statutes such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) conflict with Constitutional principles. Like many Constitutional principles, however, the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Constitution's bar on ex post facto laws has a long history. The Court has consistently interpreted this clause as limited to criminal or penal statutes. This article discusses the history of the ex post facto clause, the retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA, the decision that retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA does not violate the ex post facto clause, and laws, regulations, and guidance. 27 refs

  18. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  19. A survey on constitutional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirollah Parvin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  20. Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Puzrin, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the traditional Geomechanics and Numerical Geotechnical Modelling with applications in science and practice. Geomechanics is rarely taught within the rigorous context of Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, while when it comes to Numerical Modelling, commercially available finite elements or finite differences software utilize constitutive relationships within the rigorous framework. As a result, young scientists and engineers have to learn the challenging subject of constitutive modelling from a program manual and often end up with using unrealistic models which violate the Laws of Thermodynamics.  The book is introductory, by no means does it claim any completeness and state of the art in such a dynamically developing field as numerical and constitutive modelling of soils. The author gives basic understanding of conventional continuum mechanics approaches to constitutive modelling, which can serve as a foundation for exploring more advanced theories....

  1. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition†

    OpenAIRE

    Ganmore, Ithamar; Smooha, Gil; Izraeli, Shai

    2009-01-01

    Constitutional aneuploidies are rare syndromes associated with multiple developmental abnormalities and the alterations in the risk for specific cancers. Acquired somatic chromosomal aneuploidies are the most common genetic aberrations in sporadic cancers. Thus studies of these rare constitutional aneuploidy syndromes are important not only for patient counseling and clinical management, but also for deciphering the mechanisms by which chromosomal aneuploidy affect cancer initiation and progr...

  3. Constitutional Design and Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Xefteris, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    This paper models the constitutional design process, and points out the importance of political communication (defined as the level of information about the social distribution of policy preferences that individuals hold, at the time of this process) on the "extent" of "democratic restraints" of the socially preferred constitution and on the welfare derived by the society from its implementation. The results demonstrate that the level of political communication has a positive effect on the le...

  4. Valuation in the constitutional era

    OpenAIRE

    Elmien (WJ) du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This...

  5. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  6. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  7. Right Product, Wrong Packaging: Not 'Constitution', but 'Constitutional Charter'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Law

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to locate the principal cause of Europe’s prevailing ratification crisis in the inappropriate title arrived at in the European Convention, Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe. This over-ambitious styling led the media to characterise the text as simply an ‘EU Constitution’. Yet, the text was not a Constitution as we traditionally understand the term, i.e. the founding document of a State: scholars are agreed that the EU is not, and will not become upon ratification, a State.In terms of substance, whilst the text certainly strengthened some emerging constitutional aspects, it was not a major departure from the status quo like the Single European Act and Treaty on European Union had been; and it remained technically a treaty like all its predecessors. Arguably, therefore, it did not require referenda to ratify. However, confusion over the scale and importance of what was proposed, stemming from ambiguity in the title, pushed politicians down this unfortunate path.The article identifies a high level of consensus among commentators as to the true nature of the text: most are happy designating it a treaty (noun with constitutional (adjective aspects. The early proposed title Constitutional Treaty for Europe was arguably, therefore, the correct one; but it is now too late to choose this option, as the terms Constitution and Constitutional Treaty have already been muddled in debate. A more distinctive change is required. One idea could be to follow the principle employed elsewhere in the text of codifying the generally accepted but presently unwritten legal concepts of the European Court of Justice, as was done for example for ‘primacy’ and ‘direct effect’. The Court has characterised the EU treaties as a ‘constitutional charter’ for over twenty years now, and on this basis a modified title could read Treaty Establishing a Constitutional Charter for Europe. Importantly, the term ‘charter’ is recognised

  8. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH)

  9. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs

  10. The Spanish Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Catalan Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    politeia that Aristotle defined now clashes between two powerful symbolic and romantic phenomena. In the Spanish-Catalan binomial scenario, there are some elements that need to be analysed to obtain a complete picture of the constitutional possibilities to of accommodating a Catalan self...

  11. The Constitutive Power of Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael Andreas

    constituents. Such focus leaves little knowledge concerning the tensions new ICTs bring to organizational life. For a more nuanced understanding of the constitutive role of new ICTs in organizing, this paper unfolds a communication centered perspective and examines the strategic Twitter use in two...... organizations. The analysis illustrates how specific Twitter interactions, i.e., hashtags, become hypertexts—a type of authoritative texts—which simultaneously constitute an organizational actor or act as a pastiche of it. The study contributes to extant research by illustrating how hypertextuality is the...... process through which an organization is constituted in the interactions of both organizational and non-organizational members in both physical and virtual sites....

  12. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    2016-01-01

    specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically...... by offering suggestions on how to study online critical conversations through the lens of a communicative constitution perspective that could inform how critical issues eventually transform and become crises and how crisis perceptions evolve and are discursively shaped by communicative practices...... mediated, then online crises and their meanings are communicatively constructed. The chapter outlines how online conversations constitute discursive practices that make publics aware of critical situations of which they may or may not know and can even construct reputational crises. The chapter concludes...

  13. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Direct Photopatterning of Electrochromic Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Dyer, Aubrey L.; Shen, D. Eric;

    2013-01-01

    Propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) polymers are synthesized using an oxidative polymerization route that results in methacrylate substituted poly(ProDOTs) having a Mn of 10–20 kDa wherein the methacrylate functionality constitutes from 6 to 60% of the total monomer units. Solutions of these polymers...... show excellent film forming abilities, with thin films prepared using both spray‐casting and spin‐coating. These polymers are demonstrated to crosslink upon UV irradiation at 350 nm, in the presence of an appropriate photoinitiator, to render the films insoluble to common organic solvents....... Electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical, and colorimetric analyses of the crosslinked polymer films are performed to establish that they retain the same electrochromic qualities as the parent polymers with no detriment to the observed properties. To demonstrate applicability for multi‐film processing...

  15. Modeling of global biomass policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the BEAP model and its use for the analysis of biomass policies for CO2 emission reduction. The model considers competing land use, trade and leakage effects, and competing emission reduction strategies. Two policy scenarios are presented. In case of a 2040 time horizon the results suggest that a combination of afforestation and limited use of biomass for energy and materials constitutes the most attractive set of strategies. In case of a 'continued Kyoto' scenario including afforestation permit trade, the results suggest 5.1 Gt emission reduction based on land use change in 2020, two thirds of the total emission reduction by then. In case of global emission reduction, land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) accounts for one quarter of the emission reduction. However these results depend on the modeling time horizon. In case of a broader time horizon, maximized biomass production is more attractive than LULUCF. This result can be interpreted as a warning against a market based trading scheme for LULUCF credits. The model results suggest that the bioenergy market is dominated by transportation fuels and heating, and to a lesser extent feedstocks. Bioelectricity does not gain a significant market share in case competing CO2-free electricity options such as CO2 capture and sequestration and nuclear are considered. To some extent trade in agricultural food products such as beef and cereals will be affected by CO2 policies. (Author)

  16. Constitutional Change Marks Ideological Breakthrough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The amendments to the Constitution of the People'sRepublic of China, the fourth since the constitutionwas promulgated in 1982 and proposed by theCentral Committee of the Communist Party of China(CPC), are expected to enshrine the respect andprotection of human rights, the protection of private

  17. A Venture in Constitutional Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, W. Graham; Dillon, Dorothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Senior high girls and boys from two single-sex schools undertook a study of a Supreme Court case that provided insight not only into constitutional law and history but also into how men and women can work together and relate in other ways than dating. (DS)

  18. Constitutional Verbosity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Voigt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A common argument in the trust literature is that high-trust cultures allow efficient commercial contracts to be shorter, covering fewer contingencies. We take this idea to the topic of social contracts. Specifically, we ask whether social trust affects the length and detail of constitutions. Cro...

  19. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  20. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  1. Energy use of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    HOLEČKOVÁ, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is the research of different types of biomass, description of the various types of methods and technologies for energy usage of biomass and the mapping of large power plant units in the Czech Republic. The first part of this thesis deals with the definition of biomass, its distribution and the description of basic essential attributes describing its composition. The downstream part of this work is focused on the technologies of gaining energy out of biomass or ...

  2. Proteins in biomass streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study is to give an overview of traditional and new biomasses and biomass streams that contain proteins. When information was available, the differences in molecular structure and physical and chemical properties for the different proteins is given. For optimal biomass use, isolati

  3. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R. [SWAN Biomass Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Biomass carbon-14 ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement methods of a biomass carbon ratio in biomass products based on 14C-radiocarbon concentration have been reviewed. Determination of the biomass carbon ratio in biomass products is important to secure the reliance in the commercial market, because the 'biomass products' could contain products from petroleum. The biomass carbon ratio can be determined from percent Modern Carbon (pMC) using ASTM D6866 methods. The pMC value is calculated from the comparison between the 14C in sample and 14C in reference material. The 14C concentration in chemical products can be measured by liquid scintillation counter (LSC) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). LSC can be applicable to determine the biomass carbon ratio for liquid samples such as gasoline with bioethanol (E5 or E10). On the other hand, AMS can be used to determine the biomass carbon ratio for almost all kinds of organic and inorganic compounds such as starch, cellulose, ethanol, gasoline, or polymer composite with inorganic fillers. AMS can accept the gaseous and solid samples. The graphite derived from samples included in solid phase is measured by AMS. The biomass carbon of samples derived from wood were higher than 100% due to the effect of atomic bomb test in the atmosphere around 1950 which caused the artificial 14C injection. Exact calculation methods of the biomass carbon ratio from pMC will be required for the international standard (ISO standard). (author)

  5. Relationships between biomass composition and liquid products formed via pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eLin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conversion of biomass is a rapid, low-cost way to produce a dense liquid product, known as bio-oil, that can be refined to transportation fuels. However, utilization of bio-oil is challenging due to its chemical complexity, acidity, and instability—all results of the intricate nature of biomass. A clear understanding of how biomass properties impact yield and composition of thermal products will provide guidance to optimize both biomass and conditions for thermal conversion. To aid elucidation of these associations, we first describe biomass polymers, including phenolics, polysaccharides, acetyl groups, and inorganic ions, and the chemical interactions among them. We then discuss evidence for three roles (i.e., models for biomass components in formation of liquid pyrolysis products: (1 as direct sources, (2 as catalysts, and (3 as indirect factors whereby chemical interactions among components and/or cell wall structural features impact thermal conversion products. We highlight associations that might be utilized to optimize biomass content prior to pyrolysis, though a more detailed characterization is required to understand indirect effects. In combination with high-throughput biomass characterization techniques this knowledge will enable identification of biomass particularly suited for biofuel production and can also guide genetic engineering of bioenergy crops to improve biomass features.

  6. Extraction and characterization of lignin from different biomass resources

    OpenAIRE

    Dereca Watkins; Md. Nuruddin; Mahesh Hosur; Alfred Tcherbi-Narteh; Shaik Jeelani

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been acknowledged for potential use to produce chemicals and biomaterials. Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer with cellulose being number one, making up to 10–25% of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignin is a three-dimensional, highly cross-linked macromolecule composed of three types of substituted phenols, which include: coniferyl, sinapyl, and p-coumaryl alcohols by enzymatic polymerization, yielding a vast number of functional groups and linkages. The...

  7. Technical risks and constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was particularly by the peaceful use of nuclear energy that the topic has raised the interest of the Constitutional Court. The concepts of averting risks, risk precaution and remaining risks have to be differentiated terminologically. The governmental obligation of protecting the citizens and granting the constitutional rights as far as the limit of acceptable risks, which is difficult to determine, is dominating. When applying unavoidable and vague legal concepts these concepts must be specified not only by technical rules or guidelines, expert committees and the like but also by a newr legal basis so that 'the mechanism of the division of power can be set to rights again in the field of technical risk control'. (orig./HP)

  8. Valuation In The Constitutional Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien du Plessis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This article argues that the methods used to calculate the market value, once thought to be objective, are not as objective as was believed. While it is impossible to give judges specific tools for the assessment of market value, this article provides guidelines on how the calculation of compensation should be approached.

  9. European constitution and EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Council held in Laeken in December 2001 had decided to call a convention preparing the next conference of the heads of state and government which, among other topics, was to deliberate the question of a fully formulated European constitution. Under the presidency of Giscard d'Estaing, all delegates to the European Convention on July 10, 2003 signed the draft treaty for a European constitution. This final document is the basis of the conference of the heads of state and government to begin in October 2003. On this occasion, the draft of a separate chapter on energy could well come up again for examination. This chapter had been introduced only at the end of the deliberations of the convention and adds to the competences of the EU institutions. Also the Euratom Treaty was a topic of the convention preparing the constitution. As the presidency felt that no specific issues had been raised in the Laeken declaration, it is proposed to adapt the Euratom Treaty to the new provisions of the constitution by adding a protocol. This would mean that the European Atomic Energy Community, for the time being, would retain its independent legal status. The contents would have to be examined at some later date. Consequently, the real discussion of the Euratom Treaty is yet to come. Also, the speedy completion of the single market for electricity would make it desirable for the Community to adopt a uniform, positive stance in the use of nuclear power at the best possible safety standards so as to ensure a level playing field. Current events entailing power failures in the United States and the United Kingdom have alerted the public to the problem of the continuity of power supply. This could well be the beginning of a new, unbiased, balanced energy discussion in a bigger Europe. (orig.)

  10. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework. PMID:12287889

  11. CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS OF POLITICAL PLURALISM

    OpenAIRE

    ERHARD NICULESCU

    2013-01-01

    In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1) of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary...

  12. Mesoscale constitutive modeling of magnetic dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandar, Anand S; Wiest, John M

    2003-01-15

    A constitutive model for dispersions of acicular magnetic particles has been developed by modeling the particles as rigid dumbbells dispersed in a solvent. The effects of Brownian motion, anisotropic hydrodynamic drag, a steric force in the form of the Maier-Saupe potential, and, most importantly, a mean-field magnetic potential are included in the model. The development is similar to previous models for liquid-crystalline polymers. The model predicts multiple orientational states for the dispersion, and this phase behavior is described in terms of an orientational order parameter S and an average alignment parameter J; the latter is introduced because the magnetic particles have distinguishable direction due to polarity. A transition from isotropic to nematic phases at equilibrium is predicted. Multiple nematic phases-both prolate and oblate-are predicted in the presence of steady shear flow and external magnetic field parallel to the flow. The effect of increasing magnetic interparticle interactions and particle concentration is also presented. Comparisons with experimental data for the steady shear viscosity show very good agreement. PMID:16256493

  13. Ionic liquids as catalysts of lignocellulosic biomass processing

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Ana Vanessa Antunes

    2014-01-01

    The present work is devoted to study the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass, especially wheat straw, by the application of the acidic ionic liquid (IL) such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate. The ability of this IL to hydrolysis and conversion of biomass was scrutinised. The pre-treatment with hydrogen sulphate-based IL allowed to obtain a liquor rich in hemicellulosic sugars, furans and organic acids, and a solid fraction mainly constituted by cellulose and lignin. Quant...

  14. Legal Conflicts and Subnational Constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    DELLEDONNE, Giacomo; MARTINICO, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Paper presented at the World Conference of the International Association of Constitutional Law, Mexico City, 6-10 December 2010. This paper is the result of joint reflections, however Giuseppe Martinico wrote par. 2, 5, 8 and 9, Giacomo Delledonne wrote par. 3, 4 and 7, while par. 1 and 6 were elaborated jointly. We would like to thank Josep Maria Castellà Andreu, François-Xavier Millet and Robert Williams for their comments and Miguel Poiares Maduro and Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann for their supp...

  15. Technical risks and Constitutional Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author regards technical risk assessment as a legal problem of increasing importance. He discusses the delimitation of hazard, risk and damage; the protective duty of the state, and security of basic rights; the determination of risk elements; the interpretation of undetermined legal concepts. The essential question is as to what extent the undetermined legal concepts are subject to judicial reviews. A transition from 'subject-related' to 'procedural' reviewing requires corresponding insitutional and procedural rules according to which technical safety rules will be created. Under Constitutional Law, it does not seem to be satisfying to bind the courts to technical rules as long as there are none. (HSCH)

  16. Flow of polymer solutions through porous media

    OpenAIRE

    Denys, K.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    These days leading oil and gas producing companies are investing increasing amounts of money into the development of non-fossil energy sources like wind-, solar-, biomass energy and forestry. On the other hand these companies are persisting in developing techniques to make energy recovery more efficient intending to stretch the life span of fossil resources. One of the more mature techniques to improve recovery efficiency is polymer flooding. Herein polymer solutions are injected in injector ...

  17. On the predictive/fitting capabilities of the advanced differential constitutive equations for branched LDPE melts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Zatloukal, M.; Filip, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, č. 135 (2006), s. 58-67. ISSN 0377-0257 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB2810401; GA ČR GA103/05/2311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : constitutive models * polymer melts * constitutive equations * elongational flow * shear flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2006

  18. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.

  19. Zeolite-catalyzed biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Yang, Xiaobo;

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been a central element in the efficient conversion of fossil resources to fuels and chemicals, but their role in biomass utilization is more ambiguous. Zeolites constitute a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts and developments in recent years have demonstrated...... their potential to find broad use in the conversion of biomass. In this perspective we review and discuss the developments that have taken place in the field of biomass conversion using zeolites. Emphasis is put on the conversion of lignocellulosic material to fuels using conventional zeolites as well...

  20. Mesoscale constitutive modeling of non-crystallizing filled elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Ajay B.; Wriggers, Peter; Jungk, Juliane; Hojdis, Nils; Recker, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Elastomers are exceptional materials owing to their ability to undergo large deformations before failure. However, due to their very low stiffness, they are not always suitable for industrial applications. Addition of filler particles provides reinforcing effects and thus enhances the material properties that render them more versatile for applications like tyres etc. However, deformation behavior of filled polymers is accompanied by several nonlinear effects like Mullins and Payne effect. To this day, the physical and chemical changes resulting in such nonlinear effect remain an active area of research. In this work, we develop a heterogeneous (or multiphase) constitutive model at the mesoscale explicitly considering filler particle aggregates, elastomeric matrix and their mechanical interaction through an approximate interface layer. The developed constitutive model is used to demonstrate cluster breakage, also, as one of the possible sources for Mullins effect observed in non-crystallizing filled elastomers.

  1. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica;

    2014-01-01

    can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed by dehy-dration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of the product are mostly de-pendent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass consists of various com-ponents such as......Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided into...... biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass into...

  3. Biomass to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  4. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  5. Process for treating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Timothy J; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-11-04

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  6. Process for treating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-08-11

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  7. Gasification-based biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  8. Commercial Viability of Biomass Derived Lignin in the Resin and Carbon Fiber Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Plant biomass is a sustainable energy source that can be used directly, or converted into other compounds like carbon fiber and resins. The full potential of plant biomass is difficult to exploit as up to 30% of the biomass consists of the complex compound lignin, which is difficult to degrade efficiently. Drs Eltis and Bugg have found that by manipulating the bacterium Rhodococcus jostii they are able to extract useful lignin-based polymers. To operate at an industrial level the technology m...

  9. Constitutive model for overconsolidated clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the relationships between the Hvorslev envelope,the current yield sur-face and the reference yield surface,a new constitutive model for overconsolidated clays is proposed. It adopts the unified hardening parameter,to which the potential failure stress ratio and the characteristic state stress ratio are introduced. The model can describe many characteristics of overconsolidated clays,including stress-strain relationships,strain hardening and softening,stress dilatancy,and stress path dependency. Compared with the Cam-clay model,the model only re-quires one additional soil parameter which is the slope of the Hvorslev envelope. Comparisons with data from triaxial drained compression tests for Fujinomori clay show that the proposed model can rationally describe overconsolidated properties. In addition,the model is also used to predict the stress-strain relationship in the isotropic consolidation condition and the stress paths in the undrained triaxial compression tests.

  10. The Constitutive Values of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Lacey

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive values are the characteristics that are constitutive of good theories, the criteria to which we appeal when choosing among competing theories. I argue that, in order to count as a cognitive value, a characteristic must be needed to explain actually made theory choices, and its cognitive significance must be well defended especially in view of considerations derived from the objective of science. A number of proposed objectives of science are entertained, and it is argued that adopting a par-ticular objective is dialectically intertwined with commitment to certain social values.Then, the ways in which science is, and is not value free is explored briefly, leading to the identification of a level of analysis where values may influence theory choice without causing paradox or threatening the impartiality of soundly-made scientific judgments.

  11. CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS OF POLITICAL PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERHARD NICULESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1 of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary because the individual alone cannot determine a certain attitude of the political power: structuring gives weight to the action; the organization of citizens contributes to rendering their political participation more efficient. But the organization, structuring limits the freedom of people adhering to the structure.

  12. Constitutive modeling of shock response of polytetrafluoroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnyansky, A. D.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.; Brown, E. N.

    2011-08-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a polymer with a simple atomic structure that shows complex behavior under pressure and demonstrates a highly variable metastable phase structure in shock waves with amorphous and crystalline components. In turn, the crystalline component has four known phases with the high-pressure transition of the crystalline domain from crystalline phase IV at ambient through phase II to III. At the same time, as has been recently studied using spectrometry, the crystalline region nucleates from the amorphous one with load. Stress and velocity shock-wave profiles acquired recently with embedded gauges demonstrate features that may be related to the impedance mismatch between the phase domains subjected to such transitions resulting in variations of mechanical and thermophysical characteristics. We consider the inter-phase non-equilibrium and the amorphous-to-crystalline and inter-crystalline transitions that are associated with the high pressure and temperature transformations under shock wave loading as possible candidates for the analysis. The present work utilizes a multi-phase constitutive model that considers strength effects to describe the observed response under shock loading of the PTFE material. Experimental plate impact shock-wave histories are compared with calculated profiles using kinetics describing the transitions. The study demonstrates that the inter-phase pressure non-equilibrium of the state parameters plays the key role in the delay of the shock wave attenuation. At the same time, the forward transition associated with the crystallization might be responsible for the velocity spike in the experimental velocity profiles at high impact velocity and the modulus variation at low impact velocity. On the other hand, an accelerated attenuation of the velocity in the rarefaction wave is associated with another transition resulting in the residual crystallinity change during unloading.

  13. Non-linear constitutive equations for gravitoelectromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Duplij, Steven; Di Grezia, Elisabetta; Esposito, Giampiero; Kotvytskiy, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies non-linear constitutive equations for gravitoelectromagnetism. Eventually, the problem is solved of finding, for a given particular solution of the gravity-Maxwell equations, the exact form of the corresponding non-linear constitutive equations.

  14. The communicative constitution of representation and exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the light of current debate on representation, specifically engaging with literature showing how representation is communicatively constituted, this paper empirically shows how exclusion also can be seen as communicatively constituted. The interpretive approach toward communication employed in th

  15. Written Constitution or None: Which Works Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Zelman

    1987-01-01

    Explores the differences between the U.S. Constitution and British constitutional law. Specifically examines the concept of the U.S. Bill of Rights in relation to the United Kingdom common law doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. (BSR)

  16. Photochemical stability of electrochromic polymers and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    The stability of fully printed flexible organic electrochromics based on 11 different conjugated polymers is explored from the fundamental chemical degradation level to the operational device level. The photochemical stability of the electrochromic polymers (ECPs) is studied enabling an analysis...... of the influence that the chemical constitution of the conjugated polymer backbone has on the photochemical stability. Based on changes in the UV-visible absorption and IR spectra, the polymers were categorized into two distinct groups, each with a separate degradation mechanism. During irradiation (1000 W m -2......, AM 1.5G) under ambient conditions the majority of the polymers degraded within 4-5 hours. Three polymers showed increased stability with degradation rates from 0.44 to 1.58% per hour measured as loss of absorption. Application of oxygen and UV barrier foils was found to drastically slow...

  17. Polymer Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nico

    Polymers are arguably the most important set of materials in common use. The increasing adoption of both combinatorial as well as high-throughput approaches, coupled with an increasing amount of interdisciplinarity, has wrought tremendous change in the field of polymer science. Yet the informatics tools required to support and further enhance these changes are almost completely absent. In the first part of the chapter, a critical analysis of the challenges facing modern polymer informatics is provided. It is argued, that most of the problems facing the field today are rooted in the current scholarly communication process and the way in which chemists and polymer scientists handle and publish data. Furthermore, the chapter reviews existing modes of representing and communicating polymer information and discusses the impact, which the emergence of semantic technologies will have on the way in which scientific and polymer data is published and transmitted. In the second part, a review of the use of informatics tools for the prediction of polymer properties and in silico design of polymers is offered.

  18. Polymers & People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Linda; Robinson, Thomas; Martin, Elizabeth; Miller, Mary; Ashburn, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Each Tuesday during the fall of 2002, teams of high school students from three South Carolina counties conducted a four-hour polymer institute for their peers. In less than two months, over 300 students visited the Charleston County Public Library in Charleston, South Carolina, to explore DNA, nylon, rubber, gluep, and other polymers. Teams of…

  19. Mo- and V-catalyzed transformation of biomass into high-value chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Bo; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society....

  20. Constitution of the White Earth Nation

    OpenAIRE

    Vizenor, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The Constitution of the White Earth Nation was ratified by sworn delegates on April 4, 2009. The Constitution declares a separation from the current federal constitution that consolidated six Anishinaabe or Chippewa reservations in Minnesota. This federal constitutional association has not served the specific interests of the citizens of the White Earth Reservation. The disposition of treaty land, for instance, and the uses of natural resources cannot equitably be decided by any o...

  1. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  2. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  3. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  4. Fermentation of biomass-derived syngas to ethanol and acetate by clostridium ljungdahlii

    OpenAIRE

    Ortigueira, J.; Pinto, Filomena; Gírio, Francisco M.; Moura, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    In the biochemical pathway of lignocellulosics conversion into fuels, a significant portion of biomass cannot be hydrolysed to fermentable sugars and remains as waste substrate that, due to its recalcitrance, is not converted to ethanol by microorganisms. In terms of product yield, this residual biomass represents renewable feedstock that is being wasted, which contradicts the target of 100% feedstock utilisation. The gasification of this biomass constitutes an alternative to circumvent this ...

  5. Constitutions, social rights and sovereign debt states in Europe : a challenging new area of constitutional inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    KILPATRICK, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Constitutions, social rights and sovereign debt states in Europe is a rich new seam of constitutional inquiry that challenges existing constitutional scholarship in various ways. I make five claims about how it expands and challenges existing constitutional and EU scholarship. 1. It is new terrain for constitutional social scholarship. 2. Middle-class and public sector entitlements are a deeply problematic area for constitutional social scholarship. 3. Juristocracy charges cannot be the same ...

  6. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.54 Constitutional... against any infringement of the constitutional rights, privileges, or immunities of those who are...

  7. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Constitutional torts. 536.42 Section 536.42... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim... any subpart. A constitutional claim will be scrutinized in order to determine whether it is totally...

  8. The Constitutional Politics of Charitable Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippenberg, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    Clarifies the constitutional issue raised by government efforts to cooperate with faith-based organizations, noting that while programs can be constitutional without necessarily being good public policy, too frequently political and constitutional controversies mix these two considerations, thus confusing those trying to understand and resolve…

  9. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  10. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  11. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  12. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  13. Termisk forgasning af biomasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    The title of this Ph.D. thesis is: Thermal Gasification of Biomass. Compilation of activities in the ”Biomass Gasification Group” at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This thesis gives a presentation of selected activities in the Biomass Gasification Group at DTU. The activities are related to...... thermal gasification of biomass. Focus is on gasification for decentralised cogeneration of heat and power, and on related research on fundamental processes. In order to insure continuity of the presentation the other activities in the group, have also been described. The group was started in the late...... nineteen eighties. Originally, the main aim was to collect and transfer knowledge about gasification of straw. Very quickly it became clear, that knowledge was insufficient and the available technology, in most cases, unsuitable for converting the Danish biomass. The need for such technology was...

  14. Remarks on energetic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a study of energy biomass by considering its three main sources (forest, agriculture and wastes) and three energy needs (heat, fuel for transports, electricity) in the French national context. After having recalled the various uses of biomass (animal feeding, energy production, materials, chemical products), the authors discuss the characteristics of biomass with respect to other energy sources. Then, they analyse and discuss the various energy needs which biomass could satisfy: heat production (in industry, in the residential and office building sector), fuel for transports, electricity production. They assess and discuss the possible biomass production of its three main sources: forest, agriculture, and wastes (household, agricultural and industrial wastes). They also discuss the opportunities for biogas production and for second generation bio-fuel production

  15. Remote Characterization of Biomass Measurements: Case Study of Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately quantifying forest biomass is of crucial importance for climate change studies. By quantifying the amount of above and below ground biomass and consequently carbon stored in forest ecosystems, we are able to derive estimates of carbon sequestration, emission and storage and help close the carbon budget. Mangrove forests, in addition to providing habitat and nursery grounds for over 1300 animal species, are also an important sink of biomass. Although they only constitute about 3% of the total forested area globally, their carbon storage capacity -- in forested biomass and soil carbon -- is greater than that of tropical forests (Lucas et al, 2007). In addition, the amount of mangrove carbon -- in the form of litter and leaves exported into offshore areas is immense, resulting in over 10% of the ocean's dissolved organic carbon originating from mangroves (Dittmar et al, 2006) The measurement of forest above ground biomass is carried out on two major scales: on the plot scale, biomass can be measured using field measurements through allometric equation derivation and measurements of forest plots. On the larger scale, the field data are used to calibrate remotely sensed data to obtain stand-wide or even regional estimates of biomass. Currently, biomass can be calculated using average stand biomass values and optical data, such as aerial photography or satellite images (Landsat, Modis, Ikonos, SPOT, etc.). More recent studies have concentrated on deriving forest biomass values using radar (JERS, SIR-C, SRTM, Airsar) and/or lidar (ICEsat/GLAS, LVIS) active remote sensing to retrieve more accurate and detailed measurements of forest biomass. The implementation of a generation of new active sensors (UAVSar, DesdynI, Alos/Palsar, TerraX) has prompted the development of new tecm'liques of biomass estimation that use the combination of multiple sensors and datasets, to quantify past, current and future biomass stocks. Focusing on mangrove forest biomass estimation

  16. Constitutive Behavior and Finite Element Analysis of FRP Composite and Concrete Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Ann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns compressive and flexural constitutive models incorporated into an isoparametric beam finite element scheme for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP and concrete composites, using their multi-axial constitutive behavior. The constitutive behavior of concrete was treated in triaxial stress states as an orthotropic hypoelasticity-based formulation to determine the confinement effect of concrete from a three-dimensional failure surface in triaxial stress states. The constitutive behavior of the FRP composite was formulated from the two-dimensional classical lamination theory. To predict the flexural behavior of circular cross-section with FRP sheet and concrete composite, a layered discretization of cross-sections was incorporated into nonlinear isoparametric beam finite elements. The predicted constitutive behavior was validated by a comparison to available experimental results in the compressive and flexural beam loading test.

  17. Achieving the energy potential of biomass in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass (or the biologically renewable organic matter produced by the photosynthesis of plants) constitutes a world-wide energy potential of about 1.7 x 1011 dry tonnes/yr and can be converted to useful energy by two methods: (1) biogas production and (2) alcohol production by means of fermentation. Each is discussed separately. 4 refs, 7 tabs

  18. Tight-binding treatment of conjugated polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Thomas Bastholm

    This PhD thesis concerns conjugated polymers which constitute a constantly growing research area. Today, among other things, conjugated polymers play a role in plastic based solar cells, photodetectors and light emitting diodes, and even today such plastic-based components constitute an alternative...... of tomorrow. This thesis specifically treats the three conjugated polymers trans-polyacetylene (tPA), poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) and poly(para-phe\\-nylene vinylene) (PPV). The present results, which are derived within the tight-binding model, are divided into two parts. In one part, analytic results...... are derived for the optical properties of the polymers expressed in terms of the optical susceptibility both in the presence and in the absence of a static electric field. In the other part, the cumputationally efficient Density Functional-based Tight-Binding (DFTB) model is applied to the description...

  19. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATION OF CO-ROTATIONAL DERIVATIVE TYPE FOR ANISOTROPIC-VISCOELASTIC FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Shifang

    2004-01-01

    A constitutive equation theory of Oldroyd fluid B type, i.e. the co-rotational derivative type, is developed for the anisotropic-viscoelastic fluid of liquid crystalline (LC) polymer. Analyzing the influence of the orientational motion on the material behavior and neglecting the influence, the constitutive equation is applied to a simple case for the hydrodynamic motion when the orientational contribution is neglected in it and the anisotropic relaxation, retardation times and anisotropic viscosities are introduced to describe the macroscopic behavior of the anisotropic LC polymer fluid. Using the equation for the shear flow of LC polymer fluid, the analytical expressions of the apparent viscosity and the normal stress differences are given which are in a good agreement with the experimental results of Baek et al. For the fiber spinning flow of the fluid, the analytical expression of the extensional viscosity is given.

  20. The biomass file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As biomass represents the main source of renewable energy to reach the 23 per cent objective in terms of energy consumption by 2020, a first article gives a synthetic overview of its definition, its origins, its possible uses, its share in the French energy mix, its role by 2020, strengths and weaknesses for its development, the growth potential of its market, and its implications in terms of employment. A second article outlines the assets of biomass, indicates the share of some crops in biomass energy production, and discusses the development of new resources and the possible energy valorisation of various by-products. Interviews about biomass market and development perspectives are proposed with representatives of institutions, energy industries and professional bodies concerned with biomass development and production. Other articles comments the slow development of biomass-based cogeneration, the coming into operation of a demonstration biomass roasting installation in Pau (France), the development potential of biogas in France, the project of bio natural gas vehicles in Lille, and the large development of biogas in Germany

  1. An internal-variable theory of thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relations at finite strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory,a new thermo-viscoelastic relation at finite strain is proposed.Under the assumption that the specific heat at a fixed strain and fixed internal variables can be regarded as a constant,a new expression for the free energy which decouples the mechanical and the thermal effects is derived.Through an analysis of the mesoscopic deformation mechanism of solid polymers,a set of internal variables is introduced,and an internal-variable constitutive theory in thermo-viscoelasticity at finite strain is formulated.An explicit expression of a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relation is obtained for solid polymers in the case where their molecular network has a randomly oriented distribution function at reference configuration.Moreover,the relationship between the relaxation time and the temperature is also discussed.The viscoelastic constitutive theory proposed in reference is only a linear approximation of the present theory.

  2. An internal-variable theory of thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relations at finite strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄筑平; 陈建康; 王文标

    2000-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory, a new thermo-viscoelastic relation at finite strain is proposed. Under the assumption that the specific heat at a fixed strain and fixed internal variables can be regarded as a constant, a new expression for the free energy which decouples the mechanical and the thermal effects is derived. Through an analysis of the mesoscopic deformation mechanism of solid polymers, a set of internal variables is introduced, and an internal-variable consti-tutive theory in thermo-viscoelasticity at finite strain is formulated. An explicit expression of a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relation is obtained for solid polymers in the case where their molecular network has a randomly oriented distribution function at reference configuration. Moreover, the relationship be-tween the relaxation time and the temperature is also discussed. The viscoelastic constitutive theory proposed in reference is only a linear approximation of the present theory.

  3. The importance of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2004-03-15

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, wheat straw and hazelnut shell are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. The total forest potential of Turkey is around 935 million m3 with an annual growth of about 28 million m{sup 3}. Turkey's annual biomass potential in 2001 was million tons of oil equivalent. (author)

  4. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  5. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  6. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... through September 23, 2009, as Constitution Week. I encourage Federal, State, and local officials, as well.... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2009 8418 Proclamation 8418 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009 Proc. 8418 Constitution Day and Citizenship...

  7. Organometallic Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reactions utilized to incorporate a metal-containing moiety into a polymer chain (addition, condensation, and coordination) are considered, emphasizing that these reactions also apply to smaller molecules. (JN)

  8. Coloured Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Pesando, I.

    1993-01-01

    We show that non-oriented coloured polymers (self--avoiding walks with different types of links) are in the same universality class of the ordinary self--avoiding walks, while the oriented coloured are not.

  9. Polymer electrolytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abbrent, Sabina; Greenbaum, S.; Peled, E.; Golodnitsky, D.

    Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2015 - (Dudney, N.; West, W.; Nanda, J.), s. 523-589 ISBN 978-981-4651-89-9 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer electrolytes * applications * mesuring techniques Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  10. Biomass_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biomass data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  11. Biomass Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass carbon includes carbon stored in above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root) as well as in standing and down dead...

  12. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experime...

  13. Steam boiler for biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Knichal, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    At present, people already fully aware of how expensive it is energy dependence on fossil fuels. Trying to reduce this dependence goes hand in hand with environmental limits, which restrict the production of dangerous compounds. Biomass is a fuel that does not create large amounts of sulfur and carbon dioxide generated during combustion is in a closed cycle. Different types of biomass have different calorific value, and therefore different demands on the quantity needed to produce MWh. It is ...

  14. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  15. Mechanistic Constitutive Models for Rubber Elasticity and Viscoelasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puso, M

    2003-01-21

    Physically based models which describe the finite strain behavior of vulcanized rubber are developed. Constitutive laws for elasticity and viscoelasticity are derived by integrating over orientation space the forces due to each individual polymer chain. A novel scheme is presented which effectively approximates these integrals in terms of strain and strain invariants. In addition, the details involving the implementation of such models into a quasi-static large strain finite element formulation are provided. In order to account for the finite extensibility of a molecular chain, Langevin statistics is used to model the chain response. The classical statistical model of rubber assumes that polymer chains interact only at the chemical crosslinks. It is shown that such model when fitted for uniaxial tension data cannot fit compression or equibiaxial data. A model which incorporates the entanglement interactions of surrounding chains, in addition to the finite extensibility of the chains, is shown to give better predictions than the classical model. The technique used for approximating the orientation space integral was applied to both the classical and entanglement models. A viscoelasticity model based on the force equilibration process as described by Doi and Edwards is developed. An assumed form for the transient force in the chain is postulated. The resulting stress tensor is composed of an elastic and a viscoelastic portion with the elastic stress given by the proposed entanglement model. In order to improve the simulation of experimental data, it was found necessary to include the effect of unattached or dangling polymer chains in the viscoelasticity model. The viscoelastic effect of such chains is the manifestation of a disengagement process. This disengagement model for unattached polymer chains motivated an empirical model which was very successful in simulating the experimental results considered.

  16. Is There a Constitutional Right to Clone?

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2002-01-01

    Recent scientific innovations, and proposed legislation, have raised questions about the nature of the constitutional right to reproductive freedom, and in particular about whether there is a constitutional “right to clone.” This essay urges that as a matter of substantive due process, rationality review is probably appropriate, and that restrictions on both reproductive and therapeutic cloning would and should survive constitutional scrutiny. At the same time, many of the arguments for banni...

  17. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been ...

  18. POWER OF TAXATION CONCEPT FROM CONSTITUTION PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    KARTALCI, Kadir; DOĞAN, Mübeyna

    2013-01-01

    Today, for advanced democracies internalizing social law state, it seems impossible to tax without depending on the constitution. The terms of taxing and the power of taxing were put into the constitutions during republican period of our country. Hence, in 1982 constitution, article 73, subclause 3, the sentence`all taxes and fees are enacted, changed and repealed by law` emphasizes the legality of taxing.However, in a country experiencing martial laws and state emergencies heavily, by inter...

  19. The constitutive modeling of shape memory alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chen

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation presents a one-dimensional thermomechanical constitutive model for shape memory alloys based on basic concepts of thermodynamics and phase transformation kinetics. Compared with other developed constitutive relations, this thermomechanical constitutive relation not only reflects the physical essence of shape memory alloys, i.e., the martensitic phase transformation involved, but also provides an easy-to-use design tool for engineers. It can predict and describ...

  20. Enslaved Constitution: Obstructing the Freedom to Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell F. Crusto

    2008-01-01

    Does the Constitution protect a citizen’s intra-state travel (within a state) from unjustified state prohibition? To date, the Supreme Court has not ruled directly on the issue, and many federal courts believe that the right to intrastate travel is not constitutionally protected. This Article explores the constitutional right of intra-state travel that is free from wrongful state infringement along public roadways by law-abiding citizens. Using critical legal history, this Article poses...

  1. Emulsification-Induced Homohelicity in Racemic Helical Polymer for Preparing Optically Active Helical Polymer Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Biao; Deng, Jinrui; Deng, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Optically active nano- and microparticles have constituted a significant category of advanced functional materials. However, constructing optically active particles derived from synthetic helical polymers still remains as a big challenge. In the present study, it is attempted to induce a racemic helical polymer (containing right- and left-handed helices in equal amount) to prefer one predominant helicity in aqueous media by using emulsifier in the presence of chiral additive (emulsification process). Excitingly, the emulsification process promotes the racemic helical polymer to unify the helicity and directly provides optically active nanoparticles constructed by chirally helical polymer. A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the emulsification-induced homohelicity effect. The present study establishes a novel strategy for preparing chirally helical polymer-derived optically active nanoparticles based on racemic helical polymers. PMID:26829250

  2. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  3. Statistical Constitutive Equation of Aramid Fiber Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊杰; 顾伯洪; 王善元

    2003-01-01

    Tensile impact tests of aramid (Twaron) fiber bundles were carried om under high strain rates with a wide range of 0. 01/s~1000/s by using MTS and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus. Based on the statistical constitutive model of fiber bundles, statistical constitutive equations of aramid fiber bundles are derived from statistical analysis of test data at different strain rates. Comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental data indicates statistical constitutive equations fit well with the experimental data, and statistical constitutive equations of fiber bundles at different strain rates are valid.

  4. THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT – AN INNOVATION IN THE ROMANIAN CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Cristina VALEA

    2010-01-01

    The control of constitutionality has an extremely important role in the functioning of the state of law. The premise for the birth of the control of constitutionality and the outlining of a control of constitutionality system is the necessity to guarantee ‘the supremacy of the law’, or ‘the supremacy of the Constitution’. In the constitutional systems in which the judge’s role of ‘constitutional judge’ was not recognized or assumed, the control of constitutionality was entrusted to a speciali...

  5. Culture (and religion in constitutional adjudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the constitutional court’s interpretation and application of the Bill of Rights. The second aim is to develop practical guidelines (based on the findings during the analysing process for South African courts confronted with issues of a political, socio-economic and cultural nature. This article is concerned with initiating discussions of the decisions of the constitutional court with regard to cultural and religious rights.Before we can explore the role of political, socio-economic and cultural (and religious rights in the decisions of the constitutional court it is important to discuss a few preliminary issues. In this article the meaning of culture and religion within the South African context receives some attention. Secondly, some preliminary comments regarding constitutional protection of culturally and religiously based rights will be made.We are well aware that this is a daunting task, not only in view of the seemingly abysmal gap between the applicable constitutional rights and values enshrined in the 1996 Constitution that, in some instances over centuries, brought about customs and practices within “traditional” communities which, seemingly, infringe on certain constitutional values and rights.

  6. Constitutional Provisions for Community Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Marshall W.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of the federal and state constitutions in community college law. Discusses the lack of state constitutional law pertaining explicitly to these institutions and suggests a probable reason for this void. Gives examples of extant state laws and discusses implications for the community college field. (AYC)

  7. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO2, to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case with

  8. Engineering Polymer Informatics

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Nico; Ryder, Jennifer; Jessop, David M; Corbett, Peter; Murray-Rust, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The poster describes a strategy of for the development of polymer informatics. In particular, the development of polymer markup language, a polymer ontology and natural language processing tools for polymer literature.

  9. Antimocrobial Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi-Heng (Walnut Creek, CA); Wright, Stacy C. (Columbus, GA)

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  10. Burning of biomass waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amounts of waste wood from the Danish wood processing industry available for the energy market has been made. Furthermore a statement of residues based on biomass, including waste wood, used in 84 plants has been made. The 84 plants represent a large part of the group of purchasers of biomass. A list of biomass fuel types being used or being potential fuels in the future has been made. Conditions in design of plants of importance for the environmental impact and possibility of changing between different biomass fuels are illustrated through interview of the 84 plants. Emissions from firing with different types of residues based on biomass are illustrated by means of different investigations described in the literature of the composition of fuels, of measured emissions from small scale plants and full scale plants, and of mass balance investigations where all incoming and outgoing streams are analysed. An estimate of emissions from chosen fuels from the list of types of fuels is given. Of these fuels can be mentioned residues from particle board production with respectively 9% and 1% glue, wood pellets containing binding material with sulphur and residues from olive production. (LN)

  11. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  12. Polymer Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles C. Han; DONG Jinyong; NIU Hui; CHENG He; HUANG Ye; ZHENG Jianfen; XU Shanshan

    2011-01-01

    @@ Since the second half of the 20th century, polymer materials have already become an essential part of our daily life.The use of polymeric materials has already exceeded that of metals and ceramics in terms of volume and is intimately connected to our clothing, food, household use, transportation, and medical needs.Meanwhile it also brought some recycle and environmental problems.In the 21 st century, human beings are facing ever increasing challenges on environmental protection, energy shortage, and health-medical problems, which have made even higher demand on polymer materials due to its light weight, flexibility and high functionality.

  13. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  14. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  15. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  16. CONSTITUTIONAL TRADITIONALISM IN THE ROBERTS COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J Virelli III

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The debate over the role of traditionalism in constitutional interpretation has itself become a tradition. It remains a popular and controversial topic among constitutional scholars and presents normative questions that are as divisive, difficult, and important today as at the Founding. Missing from the discussion, however, is a comprehensive account of how the Supreme Court has employed traditionalism-an approach that looks for meaning in present manifestations of longstanding practices or beliefs-in its constitutional jurisprudence. This project is the first to fill this gap by providing an exhaustive and systematic analysis of the Court's use of constitutional traditionalism. This article focuses on the Roberts Court's first five terms to provide an empirical foundation that will not only offer previously unavailable insights into the Court's current traditionalist practices, but will also set forth a useful framework for the ongoing normative debate over traditionalism. This project uses content analysis of key terms to identify every instance in which the Roberts Court employed traditionalism to interpret the Constitution. More specifically, this project set out to answer the following three questions: First, how frequently does the Roberts Court employ traditionalism in its constitutional jurisprudence? Second, how robust is the Court's use of traditionalism (i.e., is it used to interpret a broad or narrow range of constitutional provisions? And finally, how often and in what contexts do individual Justices on the Roberts Court rely on traditionalism in their own constitutional opinions? The research provided here suggests answers to all three of these questions. First, the data indicate that traditionalism has been relied upon regularly by the Roberts Court, appearing in nearly half of the Court's constitutional cases. Second, traditionalism is frequently applied to a wide variety of constitutional provisions: Two-thirds of the

  17. Constitutional Interpretation as Constitutional Creation: The 1999-2000 Harry Eckstein Lecture

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Walter

    2000-01-01

    This paper starts from what I take as two plain facts of political life: First, the maintenance of any constitutional order whatsoever requires some constitutional interpretation; and, second, the complex normative bases of constitutional democracy cause this necessity to operate especially often. Next comes the gist of the paper, the argument that, in a constitutional democracy, interpreters must exercise a wide range of discretion that inevitably allows, in fact frequently requires, a degre...

  18. Biomass stoves in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    and analyzed in this session. Experimental results regarding the performance of biomass combustion stoves and the effects of real-life practices in terms of thermal efficiency, particulate and gaseous emissions will be addressed. This research is based on the development of a new testing approach that...... combines laboratory and field measurements established in the context of the implications of the upcoming eco-design directive. The communication will cover technical aspects concerning the operating performance of different types of biomass stoves and building envelopes, in order to map the ongoing...

  19. Biomass living energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  20. Clean fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  1. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized...

  2. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  3. Polymer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gedde, Ulf W

    1999-01-01

    This book is the result of my teaching efforts during the last ten years at the Royal Institute of Technology. The purpose is to present the subject of polymer physics for undergraduate and graduate students, to focus the fundamental aspects of the subject and to show the link between experiments and theory. The intention is not to present a compilation of the currently available literature on the subject. Very few reference citations have thus been made. Each chapter has essentially the same structure: starling with an introduction, continuing with the actual subject, summarizing the chapter in 30D-500 words, and finally presenting problems and a list of relevant references for the reader. The solutions to the problems presented in Chapters 1-12 are given in Chapter 13. The theme of the book is essentially polymer science, with the exclusion of that part dealing directly with chemical reactions. The fundamentals in polymer science, including some basic polymer chemistry, are presented as an introduction in t...

  4. Polymer Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Curtis W.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a series of four graduate level courses in polymer science, offered or currently in preparation, at Stanford University. Course descriptions and a list of required and recommended texts are included. Detailed course outlines for two of the courses are presented. (BT)

  5. MINISTERIAL LIABILITY IN THE ROMANIAN CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE PAVEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available What seems relevant to us for highlighting in this study is the approach of the ministerial liability within the Romanian constitutional and legal system starting with the first document of constitutional value, namely the Developing Statute of the Paris Convention of 1858 until today, that is the Constitution of Romania, revised in 2003 and republished. Having in view that this is a generous study topic covering over 150 years of constitutional and legal evolution of ministerial liability in Romania, it is necessary to specify from the very beginning the need of a diachronic approach of this topic by identifying all Romanian Constitutions that have regulated the constitutional system during this period of time. Moreover, we have to specify that, during this period of time, Romania has experienced several forms of governance, namely monarchy, people’s republic, socialist republic and semi-presidential republic. With this approach, the proposed study opens a complex and complete yet not exhaustive vision in the current scope of the ministerial liability. It is also the reason why the study begins with preliminary considerations in which the terminology used in the content of the study is justified. Following a key-scheme, there are successively examined the two major parts of the study, namely the general theory regarding the concepts of ministerial responsibility and liability and the Romanian constitutional, legal and doctrinaire milestones of the ministerial liability.

  6. Study of generalized Prandtl rheological model for constitutive description of elastoplastic properties of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Grzesikiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to demonstrate the process of constitutive modelling of elastoplastic properties of materials using generalized Prandtl rheological model. A special attention is put on description of composites.Design/methodology/approach: Based on the proposed rheological model, the set of constitutive relationships is formulated. Identification of parameters of rheological model is carried out based on experimental hysteretic loops. The constitutive equations are used in the paper for computer simulation of experimental tests.Findings: It is proved in the paper that the obtained constitutive relationships can describe the phenomenon of plastic anisotropy. An illustrating example is demonstrated for fiber glass-reinforced polymer-matrix composite. The comparison between experimental results and computer simulations shows the validity of the model.Research limitations/implications: The computer simulations concentrate on one-dimensional problem. It is suggested for future investigations to implement three-dimensional constitutive model. Such an implementation may be conducted within FEM codes ABAQUS or ANSYS.Practical implications: Using the method of constitutive modelling of elastoplastic properties of materials it is possible to carry out computer simulations solving non-linear differential equations for any type of loadings both static and dynamic.Originality/value: The original value of the paper is the proposed procedure of identification of material model exhibiting plastic anisotropy based on generalized Prandtl rheological scheme. As the result, the system of constitutive relationships has explicit differential form, easy for numerical implementations.

  7. Elastic-plastic constitutive modeling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to understand concrete behavior under high temperatures in the nuclear industry has become rather accute. For this purpose, a constitutive model of concrete especially developed for this severe environment is indispensable. This report reviews the presently available constitutive models of concrete at standard-temperature conditions and considers their advantages and drawbacks. A rather simple but effective approach is selected to treat concrete behavior at high temperatures. Special emphasis is devoted to the modeling of concrete up to and including failure. The derived constitutive model is checked with biaxial and triaxial benchmark experimental results. Very good agreement is obtained

  8. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been and are institutions of our capital social and democratic state of law.

  9. Constitutional notes on the atomic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both in jurisdiction and in literature increasingly more individuals are doubling the constitutionality of the atomic law, especially its terms concerning permissions, because as they say, the legislator has not made the necessary guiding decisions. The following essay proves that, within the frame of the atomic law, the legislation has made the decisions which are necessary according to the Federal Constitutional Law. This shows that a legal alteration of the terms concerning permissions is not necessary, at least as far as constitutional reasons are concerned. (orig.)

  10. Constitutional and Anatomical Characteristics of Mature Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir NNikolenko; DmitryBNikityuk; SvetlanaVKlochkova; AnastasiaABahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the constitutional and anatomical peculiarities of constitution of women of mature age.Methods There was completed comprehensive anthropometric and bio-electrical survey of 651 mature women ( relative norm) living in the Moscow region .Results The quantitative distribution of women by somatotypological affiliation was revealed;anthropometric and body component composition in representatives of different somatotypes were defined .Conclusion Thus, the performed study revealed and quantiely character-ised the distribution of women according to their constitutional types in the studied population of mature age women living in Moscow region under the relative norm conditions .

  11. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position, the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competition behaviors. Always the Antitrust Authority will analyze these behaviors in terms of welfare of both: the consumer and the market.

  12. Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen

    2014-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity

  13. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinc...

  14. Comparative study of different waste biomass for energy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motghare, Kalyani A; Rathod, Ajit P; Wasewar, Kailas L; Labhsetwar, Nitin K

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is available in many varieties, consisting of crops as well as its residues from agriculture, forestry, and the agro-industry. These different biomass find their way as freely available fuel in rural areas but are also responsible for air pollution. Emissions from such solid fuel combustion to indoor, regional and global air pollution largely depend on fuel types, combustion device, fuel properties, fuel moisture, amount of air supply for combustion and also on climatic conditions. In both economic and environment point of view, gasification constitutes an attractive alternative for the use of biomass as a fuel, than the combustion process. A large number of studies have been reported on a variety of biomass and agriculture residues for their possible use as renewable fuels. Considering the area specific agriculture residues and biomass availability and related transportation cost, it is important to explore various local biomass for their suitability as a fuel. Maharashtra (India) is the mainstay for the agriculture and therefore, produces a significant amount of waste biomass. The aim of the present research work is to analyze different local biomass wastes for their proximate analysis and calorific value to assess their potential as fuel. The biomass explored include cotton waste, leaf, soybean waste, wheat straw, rice straw, coconut coir, forest residues, etc. mainly due to their abundance. The calorific value and the proximate analysis of the different components of the biomass helped in assessing its potential for utilization in different industries. It is observed that ash content of these biomass species is quite low, while the volatile matter content is high as compared to Indian Coal. This may be appropriate for briquetting and thus can be used as a domestic fuel in biomass based gasifier cook stoves. Utilizing these biomass species as fuel in improved cook-stove and domestic gasifier cook-stoves would be a perspective step in the rural energy and

  15. Biomass Conversion Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-05

    To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today’s vehicles and infrastructure.

  16. Pyrolysis of chitin biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Yan; Chen, Shuai; Liu, Ying;

    2015-01-01

    The thermal degradation of chitin biomass with various molecular structures was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and the gaseous products were analyzed by connected mass spectroscopy (MS). The chemical structure and morphology of char residues collected at 750°C using the model...

  17. Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.

  18. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite...

  19. Constitutive equation of concrete: Mesomechanical isotropic model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kafka, Vratislav; Vokoun, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2005), s. 183-193. ISSN 1573-6105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : plasticity * constitutive modeling * concrete * mesomechanics Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  20. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon that was not...

  1. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  2. The moral reading of the British constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Lakin, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the philosophical assumptions which underpin established theories of the British constitution, paying particular attention to the influence of traditional (and sometimes outdated) theories of legal positivism. I attempt to identify, analyze and challenge these assumptions, exploring how recent developments in legal theory can inform and enrich our approach to British constitutional theory. Drawing, in particular, on the anti-positivist theory of Ronald Dworkin, I cont...

  3. Conflicts-Law Constitutionalism: Ambitions and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Joerges, Christian

    2012-01-01

    "Conflicts-law constitutionalism" seeks to defend the rule of law and the idea of law-mediated legitimacy in the postnational constellation. The idea of its "three dimensional" differentiation responds to general developments of legal systems, namely the emergence of legal frameworks for regulatory politics and for governance arrangements. These developments have been observed within constitutional democracies and intensively discussed in the 1970s by legal theorists and sociologists, thereaf...

  4. Spanish Constitution and Education. Parliamentary debates

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Hernández Beltrán

    2008-01-01

    Alter thirty years of being passed the spanish Constitution in 1978, the aim of this paper try to remind the on-going debates celebrated at the House of Representatives about one of the most controversy issues: the education. Through the parliamentary debates we can take into account the political figh- ting between the differents parties on how education should be set up in Spanish democracy. Finally, the Constitution shows a balance between the recognition of right of education and the free...

  5. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constitution's explicit reinstatement of ethnicity in law coincides with a politico-economic situation which has made ethnoregional groups more interdependent than ever before, and where the central State ha...

  6. Democracy, Citizen Sovereignty and Constitutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an exercise in conceptual clarification. Its purpose is to explore the contribution that constitutional economics can make to the theory of democracy. Constitutional economics as the economics of rules is concerned with the study of how the choice of rules in the social, economic and political realm affects the nature of the processes of human interaction that evolve within these rules. The theory of democracy is concerned with institutionalorganizational problems of self-govern...

  7. Constitutional exceptionalism and the common law

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of exceptionalism, currently pervasive within constitutional discourse. The term ‘exceptionalist’ is used in this context to indicate a measure which deviates from normal constitutional standards and is, by virtue of that deviation, seen as inappropriate or regrettable. The paper avoids a direct focus on the debate about terrorism, concentrating instead on more conceptual matters – and particularly the ‘fit’ between this discourse and the ‘common law constitutio...

  8. Constitutional Design and Conflict Management in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuperman Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The CDCM project explores whether and how constitutional reform could reduce political instability and violence in Africa, by addressing the question in three steps. First, case studies of seven African countries identify how at key turning points the domestic political institutions either mitigated – or exacerbated – violent outcomes. Second, an unprecedented database of constitutional design in all of Africa reveals that most countries on the continent have highly centralized political inst...

  9. Towards a Constitutional Theory of Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Benz; Frey, Bruno S.

    2006-01-01

    The idea that there is a uniformly �optimal� governance structure for corporations features prominently in current debates and policy proposals. In this paper, we propose a different, constitutional theory of corporate governance: the criterion for a good corporate governance structure is whether it is freely chosen by the shareholders. We illustrate our approach by comparing the constitutional rights of shareholders under US corporate law and Swiss corporate law. Moreover, we discuss the...

  10. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  11. Urgency of Attorney Governed by the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommy Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attorney existence in the Indonesian constitutional structure has a dilemma for this position. On one side is the Prosecutor’s law enforcement agencies to exercise power independently prosecution while on the other hand is part of a government institution under Law No. 16 of 2004 regarding the Attorney. The position of Attorney as an institution of government has been led to the independence of the Prosecutor is not optimal so that it appears stigma that the Prosecutor merely as a tool of the ruling power. In addition the terms of the arrangement just under the Act, the Attorney General has no legal standing as a constitutional organ that has the constitutional authority so that the current position does not reflect the urgency of its duties and functions. In an effort to organize the next Attorney institutions should be regulated directly by the Constitution. It is intended to make the Attorney as part of the main state organs have the same legal standing as other law enforcement agencies, the police and the courts (Supreme Court and Constitutional Court. As well as to strengthen and clarify the position as a state institution, prosecution authorities are focusing on the Attorney as central of authority, to fix the institutional relations between the members of law enforcement and related agencies and strengthen the independence of the Prosecutor in performing the function of prosecution in the constitutional structure of Indonesia.

  12. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2013-09-01

    The paper considers developments of constitutive theories in Eulerian description for compressible as well as incompressible ordered homogeneous and isotropic thermofluids in which the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, and the convected time derivatives of the strain tensors of up to a desired order. The fluids described by these constitutive theories are called ordered thermofluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor and heat vector are dependent on the convected time derivatives of the strain tensor up to a desired order, the highest order of the convected time derivative of the strain tensor in the argument tensors defines the `order of the fluid'. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, that is, Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second law of thermodynamics provides no mechanism for deriving the constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. In the development of the constitutive theories in Eulerian description, the covariant and contravariant convected coordinate systems, and Jaumann measures are natural choices. Furthermore, the mathematical models for fluids require Eulerian description in which material point displacements are not measurable. This precludes the use of displacement

  13. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  14. On the predictive/fitting capabilities of the advanced differential constitutive equations for linear polyethylene melts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Zatloukal, M.; Filip, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 1 (2008), s. 56-64. ISSN 0377-0257 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/05/2311; GA AV ČR IAA200600703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : constitutive equations * polymer melts * shear flow * elongational flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.967, year: 2008

  15. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  16. Research advances of un-symmetric constitutive theory of anisotropic viscoelastic liquids and its hydrodynamic behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩式方

    2008-01-01

    Research advances of un-symmetric constitutive equation of anisotropic fluid,influence of un-symmetric stress tensor on material functions,vibrational shear flow of the fluid with small amplitudes and rheology of anisotropic suspension were reported.A new concept of simple anisotropic fluid was introduced.On the basis of anisotropic principle,the simple fluid stress behaviour was described by velocity gradient tensor F and spin tensor W instead of velocity gradient tensor D in the classic Leslie-Ericksen continuum theory.Two relaxation times analyzing rheological nature of the fluid and using tensor analysis a general form of the constitutive equation of co-rotational type was introduced.More general model LCP-H for the fluid was developed.The unsymmetry of the shear stress was predicted by the present continuum theory for anisotropic viscoelastic fluid-LC polymer liquids.The influence of the relaxation times on material functions was specially studied.It is important to study the unsteady vibrational rotating flow with small amplitudes,as it is a best way to obtain knowledge of elasticity of the LC polymer,i.e.dynamic viscoelasticity.For the shear-unsymmetric stresses,two shear stresses were obtained thus two complex viscosities and two complex shear modulus(i.e.first and second one) were introduced by the constitutive equation which was defined by rotating shear rate introduced by author.For the two stability problems of fluid,such as stability of hydrodynamic flow and orientational motion,were discussed.The results show that the polymer suspension systems exhibit anisotropic character.The PNC systems can exhibit significant shear-thinning effects.For more concentrated polymer nano-suspensions,the first normal stress difference change from positive to negative,which is similar to LC polymer behavior.

  17. Enslaved Constitution: Obstructing the Freedom to Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell F. Crusto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Does the Constitution protect a citizen’s intra-state travel (within a state from unjustified state prohibition? To date, the Supreme Court has not ruled directly on the issue, and many federal courts believe that the right to intrastate travel is not constitutionally protected. This Article explores the constitutional right of intra-state travel that is free from wrongful state infringement along public roadways by law-abiding citizens. Using critical legal history, this Article poses that federal courts’ denial of the right to intrastate travel consciously or unconsciously reflects the antebellum, Southern legal doctrine of people as property, which regulated the travel of enslaved African descendants.The constitutionality of intra-state travel arose most recently during the Hurricane Katrina Crisis when the City of Greta, Louisiana police barricaded a federal highway, denying would-be evacuees the ability to flee from the flooding City of New Orleans. In an ensuing action for infringement of the would-be evacuees’ constitutional right to intra-state travel, Federal District Judge Mary Ann Vial Lemmon dismissed the matter in Dickerson v. City of Gretna, holding that “[w]hile there is no doubt that a fundamental right of interstate travel exists, the Supreme Court has not ruled on whether a right of intra[-]state travel exists. This Court declines to find that there is a fundamental right to intra[-]state travel.” The Fifth Circuit affirmed the ruling.This Article recommends that when federal courts assess whether there is a constitutional right to intra-state travel, they should embrace the American paradigm of liberty and abandon the antebellum, Southern paradigm of enslavement. Consistent with Professor Derrick Bell’s “interestconvergence” principle, all Americans benefit when the Constitution protects the human rights of the least powerful American.

  18. Emission of toxic air pollutants from biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion of biomass for power generation, home heating, process steam generation, and waste disposal constitutes a major source of air pollutants nationwide. Emissions from hog-fueled boilers, demolition wood-fired power plants, municipal waste incinerators, woodstoves, fireplaces, pellet stoves, agricultural burning, and forestry burning have been characterized for a variety of purposes. These have included risk assessment, permitting, emission inventory development, source profiling for receptor modeling, and control technology evaluations. From the results of the source characterization studies a compilation of emission factors for criteria and non-criteria pollutants are presented here. Key among these pollutants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, priority pollutant metals, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and PM10 particles. The emission factors from the biomass combustion processes are compared and contrasted with other pollutant sources. In addition, sampling and analysis procedures most appropriate for characterizing emissions from the biomass combustion sources are also discussed

  19. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  20. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  1. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  2. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  3. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  4. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

  5. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  6. Linguistic Diversity within the Integrated Constitutional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Palermo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The language issue within the European constitutional space is one of the most fascinating challenges to supranational integration. On the one hand, the principle of equal standing of all official and working languages is constantly reaffirmed; on the other hand the necessity to simplify the European Babel on the basis of a more functional consideration of the language issue seems unavoidable. Several solutions have been proposed both by scholars and by European institutions. The paper argues that there is an intimate contradiction in today’s linguistic policy in the EU, oscillating between the need to simplification and the constitutional duty to respect linguistic pluralism as imposed by the member states. In fact, the language issue is just the mirror of the constitutional law of integration as a whole. Looking closer at the constitutional dimension of supranational integration cal help better address the language issue too. The analysis is divided in four parts, dealing respectively with the role and the limits of law in matters of language, the present allocation of competences in language-issues, the development of the concept of “integrated constitutional space”, and its legal nature under the viewpoint of the language dimension, elaborating some tentative proposals.

  7. Nuclear energy and the constitutional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article puts the main emphasis on the problems of the constitutional principles of democracy, federalism, peaceful living together of peoples and constitutional state, i.e. problems caused by the development of nuclear energy. The fact that these problems are explained by way of the example of Switzerland, does not reduce the validity of the findings also for the German constitutional system, since the problems are identical and comparable. A long-term goal is a state theory which helps to define the aims and tasks of the state under technical, social, economic and cultural conditions of the end of the 20th and perhaps of the 21st century. Nuclear technology challenges the modern Western state and puts to the test the firmness of its legitimacy basis and the efficiency of its principles. It was conceived in a time which is separated from the present by technological revolutions. Safeguarding of humanity is aim and obligation of the modern constitutional state; the constitutional state stipulates the rules of conduct and, if the state remains true to its claim, it sets the procedures and the organization which give due priority order to the development of modern technology. (orig./HSCH)

  8. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  9. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 2200C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw

  10. The constitutional momentum of European contract law (II): The DCFR and the European constitutional order

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential impact of the recently published Draft Common Frame of Reference for European contract law (DCFR) on the European constitutional process. Looking at the combination of characteristics of codification and aspects of constitutionalism reflected in the DCFR, it is submitted that the further harmonisation of European contract law may contribute to the definition of the European constitutional order both on the institutional level (regarding the forms in which Eur...

  11. Constitutional Fundamentals of Conscription and Some Aspects of the Ordinary Legal Regulation of Constitutionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenstavičienė Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 139 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania is one of the constitutional fundamentals of state defense and stipulates the defense of the state as the right of citizens on the one hand and the duty on the other. This article of the Constitution gives the legislative power the right of discretion to detail by law the order of the implementation of citizens’ duty to perform military or alternative country defense service. Due to the reorganization of the armed forces into a professional and volunteer army, the issue of some ordinary regulation rules concerning the constitutionality of nationwide conscription, though at present suspended but not abolished, is becoming urgent. Though the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania presented their ruling on the constitutionality of the suspension of military conscription, it does not mean that all problems related to conscription have been settled. The aim of this article is to analyze the constitutional basis of nationwide conscription as well as the constitutionality of some ordinary regulation provisions related to nationwide conscription. Therefore, the issue to be analyzed is whether nationwide conscription, if it were to be implemented, complies with the constitutional principles of human equality and military justice1. Consequently, the question is posed how the constitutional objective of ensuring the defense of the state determines conscription. Because of the growing employment of the army abroad, yet the dwindling demand for conscripts, it should be explored whether the suspension of the nationwide conscription as a part of the defense reform is further feasible in order to guarantee the defense of the state. In answering the raised questions, the author will analyze the abundant and long-lasting constitutional doctrine of Germany which provides clarifications of the Basic Law, as the legal act of the establishing power, which can doubtless be of assistance in

  12. Cultural, social and economic rights in the Constitution corpus and Constitutional Court’s Case Law

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Rubio

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with Cultural, Social and Economic Rights established in the Constitution and in Constitutional Case Law. So, after explaining its nature, state’s role according preservation and enforceability,relationship with other fundamental rights, among other key points, it isi ntended to answer, dealing with those rights, which of two scenarios have prevailed: internationalization of constitutional law or constitutionalization of international law.

  13. Engineering Plant Biomass Lignin Content and Composition for Biofuels and Bioproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cassie Marie Welker; Vimal Kumar Balasubramanian; Carloalberto Petti; Krishan Mohan Rai; Seth DeBolt; Venugopal Mendu

    2015-01-01

    Lignin is an aromatic biopolymer involved in providing structural support to plant cell walls. Compared to the other cell wall polymers, i.e. , cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin has been considered a hindrance in cellulosic bioethanol production due to the complexity involved in its separation from other polymers of various biomass feedstocks. Nevertheless, lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemical compounds and upgradable building blocks. Though the biosynthetic pathway o...

  14. Recommendations for the use of tree models to estimate national forest biomass and assess their uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Matieu; Cifuentes Jara, Miguel; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Piotto, Daniel; Michel Fuentes, José María; Wayson, Craig; Alice Guier, Federico; Castañeda Lombis, Héctor; Castellanos López, Edwin; Cuenca Lara, Ruby; Cueva Rojas, Kelvin; Del Águila Pasquel, Jhon; Duque Montoya, Álvaro; Fernández Vega, Javier; Jiménez Galo, Abner

    2015-01-01

    Key message[br/] Three options are proposed to improve the accuracy of national forest biomass estimates and decrease the uncertainty related to tree model selection depending on available data and national contexts.[br/] [br/] Introduction[br/] Different tree volume and biomass equations result in different estimates. At national scale, differences of estimates can be important while they constitute the basis to guide policies and measures, particularly in the context of cli...

  15. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.

  16. Constitutionality of the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma locuta, causa finita. The Federal Constitutional Court declared in its decree of 8 August 1978 the peaceful uses of nuclear energy (Paragraph 7 sub-section 1 and 2 Atomic Energy Act) in NPPs of the so-called fast breeder type as constitutional for the time being. The excellent simplicity of the explanations, namely about the anavoidability and social adequancy of the so-called residual risk in a highly technical society and about the determining influence of practical ratio as a measure for the estimation of the residual risk which must be born by all citizens, creates a good clarification on the level of constitutional law. However, it remains, to be seen whether the decree can give the administrative courts any orientation help in the future and whether it will lead to an improved legal protection of all participants and a more effective handling of administrative processes. (orig.)

  17. Acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation from surrounding medium into a soft material can generate acoustic radiation stress due to acoustic momentum transfer inside the medium and material, as well as at the interface between the two. To analyze acoustic-induced deformation of soft materials, we establish an acoustomechanical constitutive theory by combining the acoustic radiation stress theory and the nonlinear elasticity theory for soft materials. The acoustic radiation stress tensor is formulated by time averaging the momentum equation of particle motion, which is then introduced into the nonlinear elasticity constitutive relation to construct the acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials. Considering a specified case of soft material sheet subjected to two counter-propagating acoustic waves, we demonstrate the nonlinear large deformation of the soft material and analyze the interaction between acoustic waves and material deformation under the conditions of total reflection, acoustic transparency, and acoustic mismatch.

  18. Polymer engineering science and viscoelasticity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brinson, Hal F

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a unified mechanics and materials perspective on polymers: both the mathematics of viscoelasticity theory as well as the physical mechanisms behind polymer deformation processes. Introductory material on fundamental mechanics is included to provide a continuous baseline for readers from all disciplines. Introductory material on the chemical and molecular basis of polymers is also included, which is essential to the understanding of the thermomechanical response. This self-contained text covers the viscoelastic characterization of polymers including constitutive modeling, experimental methods, thermal response, and stress and failure analysis. Example problems are provided within the text as well as at the end of each chapter.   New to this edition:   ·         One new chapter on the use of nano-material inclusions for structural polymer applications and applications such as fiber-reinforced polymers and adhesively bonded structures ·         Brings up-to-date polymer pro...

  19. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  20. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point...... that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...

  1. Programmed Switching of Single Polymer Conformation on DNA Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Madsen, Mikael; Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Gudnason, Daniel; Surareungchai, Werasak; Birkedal, Victoria; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2016-02-23

    DNA nanotechnology offers precise geometrical control of the positioning of materials, and it is increasingly also being used in the development of nanomechanical devices. Here we describe the development of a nanomechanical device that allows switching of the position of a single-molecule conjugated polymer. The polymer is functionalized with short single-stranded (ss) DNA strands that extend from the backbone of the polymer and serve as handles. The DNA polymer conjugate can be aligned on DNA origami in three well-defined geometries (straight line, left-turned, and right-turned pattern) by DNA hybridization directed by single-stranded guiding strands and ssDNA tracks extending from the origami surface and polymer handle. We demonstrate switching of a conjugated organic polymer conformation between left- and right-turned conformations of the polymer on DNA origami based on toehold-mediated strand displacement. The switching is observed by atomic force microscopy and by Förster resonance energy transfer between the polymer and two different organic dyes positioned in close proximity to the respective patterns. Using this method, the polymer conformation can be switched six times successively. This controlled nanomechanical switching of conjugated organic polymer conformation demonstrates unique control of the shape of a single polymer molecule, and it may constitute a new component for the development of reconfigurable nanophotonic and nanoelectronic devices. PMID:26766635

  2. Modeling of Polymer Erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Göpferich, Achim; Langer, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    The erosion of bioerodible polymers depends on many factors including the polymer chain length, bond cleavage velocity, swellability, crystallinity, and water diffusivity in the polymer matrix. This multitude of parameters makes modeling of erosion difficult. Only a few models exist that describe morphological changes of polymers during erosion qualitatively. In the present approach the polymer matrix was represented as the sum of small individual polymer matrix parts. The factors that determ...

  3. Radiation-assisted compatibilization of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multiple functions required today in our machine parts and other applications demand this complex structure, consisting of different components, all contributing with their best features. This multicomponent approach is dominant in the polymer engineering field in systems such as - copolymers; - compounds, blends and alloys; - composites, and; - recycling of multicomponent materials. Radiation processing may help to overcome theoretical and technological difficulties, in the way of creating new multicomponent polymeric systems. In the present work, we focused on solving the major obstacle, the inherent thermodynamical incompatibility of partners in polymer blends, alloys, composites and recycled products. Radiation-assisted compatibilization may promote the common use of synthetic and natural polymers in multicomponent engineering polymers. This type of compatibilized material multicomponent may easily be processed by the plastics machinery of today. It certainly will gain importance when renewable natural products of the biomass should participate at an accelerated rate in saving the fossil (petroleum) resources. Radiation treatment applying reactive additives may broaden the field of radiation cross-linking of polymers, which are non-cross-linkable without reactive additives. Radiation-assisted compatibilization of multicomponent, recycled polymer systems may turn the recycling procedures of our day - which are rather directed toward down-cycling, - into an upgrading procedure: upcycling. Radiation-initiated bonds of the interface between reinforcement and matrix offer a superior quality in high-tech composite systems. (author)

  4. G-lignin and hemicellulosic monosaccharides distinctively affect biomass digestibility in rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yanjie; Li, Yuyang; Zhang, Youbing; Yu, Changbing; Fu, Tingdong; Zou, Jun; Tu, Yuanyuan; Peng, Liangcai; Chen, Peng

    2016-03-01

    In this study, total 19 straw samples from four Brassica species were determined with a diverse cell wall composition and varied biomass enzymatic digestibility under sulfuric acid or lime pretreatment. Correlation analysis was then performed to detect effects of cell wall compositions and wall polymer features (cellulose crystallinity, hemicellulosic monosaccharides and lignin monomers) on rapeseeds biomass digestibility. As a result, coniferyl alcohol (G-lignin) showed a strongly negative effect on biomass saccharification, whereas hemicellulosic monosaccharides (fucose, galactose, arabinose and rhamnose) were positive factors on lignocellulose digestions. Notably, chemical analyses of four typical pairs of samples indicated that hemicellulosic monosaccharides and G-lignin may coordinately influence biomass digestibility in rapeseeds. In addition, Brassica napus with lower lignin content exhibited more efficiency on both biomass enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production, compared with Brassica junjea. Hence, this study has at first time provided a genetic strategy on cell wall modification towards bioenergy rapeseed breeding. PMID:26748046

  5. Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

    Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during

  6. Biomass to energy; La valorisation energetique de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  7. The negotiation of The Constitution of Romania of 1923 and The Constitution of Romania of 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Ivona-Arina Raef

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the author is trying to find if there was a negotiation between main parties regarding The Constitution of Romania of 1923 and The Constitution Of Romania of 1991 or if there was a project imposed by one party to the others.

  8. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ..., Constitution Week, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 181... Citizenship Day, and September 17 through September 23, 2012, as Constitution Week. I encourage Federal, State... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR...

  9. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Çeço

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of constitutional revision in the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as a complex process accompanied by limitations on constitutional revision. The historical evolution of constitutional drafting, modern constitutions, relevant issues, political and social circumstances as well as drafting and adoption procedures, dynamism of constitutions to cope with the course of time achieved by revisions for the purpose of their stability as well as consolidation of the role of constitutions as a factor that facilitates and precedes social development, comprise the pillar of this study addressed in a comparative point of view.

  10. Constitutive model with time-dependent deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette

    1998-01-01

    common in time as well as size. This problem is adressed by means of a new constitutive model for soils. It is able to describe the behavior of soils at different deformation rates. The model defines time-dependent and stress-related deformations separately. They are related to each other and they occur...

  11. Constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Siersma, Volkert;

    2004-01-01

    divergent models for TCR down-regulation and degradation have been suggested. The aims of this study were to determine the rate constants for constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation and to determine whether the TCR subunits segregate or are processed as an intact unit during TCR down-regulation and...

  12. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  13. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  14. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  15. The Constitutionality of DNA Sampling of Arrestees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anip Patel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses whether the DNA Act (which requires DNA samples from arrestees passes constitutional muster. I argue that the act is constitutional and that if society believes the collection of DNA from arrestees violates an individual’s privacy, it should seek legislative resolution and not seek the protection of the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution. Throughout my analysis, I demonstrate why DNA collection is constitutional and how it is necessary. Part I of this article examines the history of DNA sampling, case law establishing an arrestee’s expectation of privacy, and the applicable Fourth Amendment tests. Part II examines the arguments for and against DNA sampling by considering case law at the state and federal level, and explores the significance of junk DNA and the treatment of abandoned DNA. Part III is the personal analysis section, which argues that the totality of circumstances test is the proper test. I apply the test to determine that there is minimal intrusion of an arrestee’s expectation of privacy through DNA sampling, a legitimate governmental interest, and that warrants are unnecessary. Further, the section demonstrates why DNA sampling is a natural progression from fingerprint collection, and the section analyzes abandoned DNA and DNA sampling. Part IV concludes the article by stating that the Fourth Amendment is not violated and that society must turn to Congress to seek greater protection.

  16. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  17. A New Perspective on Teaching Constitutional Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author suggests that a major failure of most law schools and traditional undergraduate constitutional law courses is that they omit an adequate analysis of the political nature of the judicial process. Political influences on a variety of court cases are discussed. (LBH)

  18. Children's Constitutional Rights: Interpretations and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sametz, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a brief historical overview of constitutional law as it applies to children, delineated in the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Emphasizes the need for school psychologists and educators to have an understanding of children's developing legal rights. Specific court cases are cited. (Author/JAC)

  19. Does the Constitution Protect the Despised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Richard L; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presented is the history of the Scottsboro case, in which eight Black men were found guilty and sentenced to death for raping two White women in Alabama. At the heart of the Scottsboro trials was the issue of whether the U.S. Constitution established standards of justice in state criminal trials. (RM)

  20. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  1. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constituti

  2. Modeling of biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Optimal conversion of chemical energy of the biomass or other solid fuel into the desired gas depends on proper configuration, sizing, and choice of gasifier operating conditions. Optimum operating conditions are often derived through trials on the unit or by experiments on pilot plants. Simulation, or mathematical modeling, allows the designer or plant engineer to reasonably optimize the operation or the design of the plant. The good mathematical model can: find optimum operating conditions or a design for the gasifier, provide information on extreme operating conditions (high temperature, high pressure) where experiments are difficult to perform, provide information over a much wider range of conditions than one can obtain experimentally, better interpret experimental results and analyze abnormal behavior of a gasifier, if that occurs, assist scale-up of the gasifier from one successfully operating size to another, and from one feedstock to another. The equilibrium model is independent of the gasifier design which can make them more suitable for a system study of the most important process parameters. The use of an equilibrium model assumes that the residence time of the reactants in the gasifier is high enough to reach chemical equilibrium. For established biomass ultimate analysis, temperature of gasification air and temperature of produced gas, combining the mass balance equations with the equations for the equilibrium constants and equation of energy balance, the equivalence ratio (ER) and composition of produced gas can be obtained. A mathematical model for investigation of the influence of temperature of the produced gas and temperature of gasification air on the process parameters was developed. It can be used for estimation and design of gasification equipment. key words: biomass gasification, mathematical modeling, equilibrium model

  3. From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Xiang; Ling-Ren Wang; Lang Ma; Zhi-Yuan Han; Rui Wang; Chong Cheng; Yi Xia; Hui Qin; Chang-Sheng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Functional polymers bear specified chemical groups, and have specified physical, chemical, biological, pharmacological, or other uses. To adjust the properties while keeping material usage low, a method for direct synthesis of functional polymers is indispensable. Here we show that various functional polymers can be synthesized by in situ cross-linked polymerization/copolymerization. We demonstrate that the polymers synthesized by the facile method using different functional monomers own outs...

  4. Non-destructive estimation of lichen biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Moen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground lichens constitute a vital part of reindeer winter diet, and non-destructive estimation of lichen biomass is therefore crucial for providing objective data for the management of lichen resources. The aim of this study is to compare precisions of different methods of estimating lichen biomass from ground cover and thallus heights of the four most important lichen species: Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, C. stellaris, and Cetraria islandica. The methods were validated against actual lichen biomass within 50 cm x 50 cm plots. Different methods gave remarkably similar results, except when cover estimation was based on presence/absence data with a strict criterion of 100% lichen cover. Average thallus heights within the plot explained the variation in lichen biomass as well as lichen volume (estimated from cover and average heights. Relationships between biomass and volume or height were also very similar for all four lichen species, and separation into species thus do not seem necessary for practical purposes.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Icke-destruktiv skattning av lavbiomassa Marklavar utgör en kritisk del av renars vinterföda, och det blir därmed väsentligt att kunna skatta lavbiomassa på ett icke-destruktivt sätt för att kunna förvalta lavresursen. Syftet med denna studie är att jämföra precisionen hos olika metoder för att skatta lavbiomassa baserat på volym- och bålhöjdsmätningar för de fyra viktigaste arterna: Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, C. stellaris, and Cetraria islandica. Metoderna validerades mot lavbiomassa mätt i 50 cm x 50 cm provytor. Olika metoder gav anmärkningsvärt lika resultat, förutom när täckning skattades med förekomstdata med ett strikt kriterium av 100% lavförekomst. Medelhöjd på lavbålarna i provytan förklarade lika mycket av variationen i lavbiomassa som lavvolym (baserat på täckning och medelhöjd. Förhållandet mellan biomassa och volym eller bålhöjd var ocks

  5. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  6. Ecosystems and biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass, particularly fuelwood and charcoal, is one of the main sources of fuel to meet the energy needs of traditional, commercial and industrial activities in developing countries. While it satisfies only about 14% of the world's primary energy needs, in some countries it satisfies up to 80% of those needs. As a result of population growth, urbanization, economic reforms, restructuring and new development targets in most of these countries, new forms of energy and a more intensive use of energy are expected for the years ahead. This additional demand for energy will be met mainly by hydroelectricity, coal and fossil fuels. However, where biomass is available or can be planted, bio fuels can be converted into new forms of energy (electricity and power) and energy carriers (liquid and gaseous fuels) to meet not only the energy needs of the modem sectors but also to maintain a sustainable supply to traditional users. In fact, FAO estimates that biomass could provide nearly three times more energy than it does without affecting the current supply of other commodities and goods such as food, fodder, fuel, timber and non-wood fuel products. The benefits derived from the utilization of biomass as a source of energy are twofold: (a) the task of supplying bio fuels can help to attract new investment, create new employment and income opportunities in rural areas, raise the value of natural resources and preserve the environment and (b) new forms of energy and energy carriers could foster increased production and productivity at the rural and community level, particularly in remote areas where conventional fuels are not easily available at affordable prices. Bioenergy can be easily developed in modular and decentralized schemes and offers many advantages. It could be an inexpensive source of energy, even at present energy prices, and it requires less capital investment for its implementation than alternative solutions. However, there are many disadvantages, too. For

  7. Biomass District Energy Trigeneration Systems: Emissions Reduction and Financial Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentizelas, A., E-mail: arent@central.ntua.gr; Tolis, A.; Tatsiopoulos, I. [National Technical University of Athens, Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering (Greece)

    2009-04-15

    Biomass cogeneration is widely used for district heating applications in central and northern Europe. Biomass trigeneration on the other hand, constitutes an innovative renewable energy application. In this work, an approved United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change baseline methodology has been extended to allow the examination of biomass trigeneration applications. The methodology is applied to a case study in Greece to investigate various environmental and financial aspects of this type of applications. The results suggest that trigeneration may lead to significant emissions reduction compared to using fossil fuels or even biomass cogeneration and electricity generation. The emissions reduction achieved may be materialized into a considerable revenue stream for the project, if traded through a trading mechanism such as the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to compensate for the high volatility of the emission allowances' value and the immaturity of the EU Trading Scheme, which prevent a reliable estimation of the related revenue. The work concludes that emission allowances trading may develop into one of the major revenue streams of biomass trigeneration projects, significantly increasing their financial yield and attractiveness. The impact on the yield is significant even for low future values of emission allowances and could become the main income revenue source of such projects, if emission allowances increase their value substantially. The application of trigeneration for district energy proves to lead to increased environmental and financial benefits compared to the cogeneration or electricity generation cases.

  8. Biomass District Energy Trigeneration Systems: Emissions Reduction and Financial Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass cogeneration is widely used for district heating applications in central and northern Europe. Biomass trigeneration on the other hand, constitutes an innovative renewable energy application. In this work, an approved United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change baseline methodology has been extended to allow the examination of biomass trigeneration applications. The methodology is applied to a case study in Greece to investigate various environmental and financial aspects of this type of applications. The results suggest that trigeneration may lead to significant emissions reduction compared to using fossil fuels or even biomass cogeneration and electricity generation. The emissions reduction achieved may be materialized into a considerable revenue stream for the project, if traded through a trading mechanism such as the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to compensate for the high volatility of the emission allowances' value and the immaturity of the EU Trading Scheme, which prevent a reliable estimation of the related revenue. The work concludes that emission allowances trading may develop into one of the major revenue streams of biomass trigeneration projects, significantly increasing their financial yield and attractiveness. The impact on the yield is significant even for low future values of emission allowances and could become the main income revenue source of such projects, if emission allowances increase their value substantially. The application of trigeneration for district energy proves to lead to increased environmental and financial benefits compared to the cogeneration or electricity generation cases

  9. Biomass burning: A significant source of nutrients for Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P. F.; Rollenbeck, R.; University Of Marburg, Germany

    2010-12-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park,on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes,has been carried out since 2002.The samples,accumulated over about 1-week intervals,were analysed for pH,conductivity,and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3-, PO4 3- ).Annual deposition rates of these ions which, due to poor acidic soils with low mineralization rates,constitute the dominant nutrient supply to the mountaineous rainforests, and major ion sources could be determined using back trajectories,along with satellite data. While most of the Na, Cl, and K as well as Ca and Mg input was found to originate from natural oceanic and desert dust sources,respectively (P.Fabian et al.,Adv.Geosci.22,85-94, 2009), NO3, NH4, and about 90% of SO4 (about 10 % is from active volcanoes) are almost entirely due to anthropogenic sources,most likely biomass burning. Industrial and transportation emissions and other pollutants,however,act in a similar way as the precursors produced by biomass burning.For quantifying the impacts of biomass burning vs. those of anthropogenic sources other than biomass burning we used recently established emission inventories,along with simplified model calculations on back trajectories.First results yielding significant contributions of biomass burning will be discussed.

  10. Can Biomass Use in Pinyon Juniper Woodlands be Considered Ecological Restoration?

    OpenAIRE

    Weisberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    It is widely generalized that pinyon and juniper trees in the Great Basin have increased due to over-grazing and fire exclusion, with resulting negative impacts to the environment and rural economies. It is logical then to further generalize that removal of trees constitutes ecological restoration, and therefore that biomass utilization of tree materials for renewable energy constitutes a way forward for making labor-intensive restoration activity self-supporting and economically feasi...

  11. Comparison of Constitutional Spirit Between United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琅琅

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the differences in constitutional spirit between United States and China, and then brings out the influence of the constitutional spirit in United States to the constitutional spirit in China.

  12. 78 FR 39721 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC (Constitution), having its principal place...

  13. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentsen Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  14. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor. PMID:22546368

  15. Biomass in Latin America -- overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the interest of the Organization of American States as a participant in this hemispheric conference on biomass, provides an introduction to the Latin American experience in biomass energy through open-quotes snapshotsclose quotes of various country activities, and concludes with a discussion of four conditions that form strong incentives for new north/south and south/north ventures in the biomass energy and chemical arena in this hemisphere

  16. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  17. Biomass for energy. Danish solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Information is given on a number of typical and recently established plants of all types and sizes, for converting the main Danish biomass resources (manures, straw and wood derived from agricultural activities and forestry)into energy. Danish biomass resources and energy and environmental policies are described. In Denmark there is a very wide range of technologies for converting biomass into energy, and these are clarified. In addition, performance data from a number of plants fuelled with biomass fuels are presented. The course of further developments within this field is suggested. The text is illustrated with a considerable number of coloured photographs and also with graphs and diagrams. (ARW)

  18. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  19. Liquid fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various options for Danish production of liquid motor fuels from biomass have been studied in the context of the impact of EEC new common agricultural policy on prices and production quantities of crops, processes and production economy, restraints concerning present and future markets in Denmark, environmental aspects, in particular substitution of fossil fuels in the overall production and end-use, revenue loss required to assure competition with fossil fuels and national competence in business, industry and research. The options studied are rapeseed oil and derivates, ethanol, methanol and other thermo-chemical conversion products. The study shows that the combination of fuel production and co-generation of heat and electricity carried out with energy efficiency and utilization of surplus electricity is important for the economics under Danish conditions. Considering all aspects, ethanol production seems most favorable but in the long term, pyrolyses with catalytic cracking could be an interesting option. The cheapest source of biomass in Denmark is straw, where a considerable amount of the surplus could be used. Whole crop harvested wheat on land otherwise set aside to be fallow could also be an important source for ethanol production. Most of the options contribute favorably to reductions of fossil fuel consumption, but variations are large and the substitution factor is to a great extent dependent on the individual case. (AB) (32 refs.)

  20. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  1. Vegetal and animal biomass; Les biomasses vegetales et animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combarnous, M. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. Energetique et Phenomenes de Transfert, UMR CNRS ENSAM, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation concerns all types of biomass of the earth and the seas and the relative implicit consumptions. After an evaluation of the food needs of the human being, the author discusses the solar energy conversion, the energetic flux devoted to the agriculture production, the food chain and the biomass. (A.L.B.)

  2. Scaffolds Containing Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Biomass: Development, Characterization and Evaluation of In Vitro Biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmatz, Daiane Angelica; Uebel, Livia Da Silva; Kuntzler, Suelen Goettems; Dora, Cristiana Lima; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanofibers are nanomaterials that can be used as scaffolds in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to develop, characterize and evaluate the in vitro degradation of a biomaterial consisting of nanofibers produced from biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with potential applications as a scaffold for tissue regeneration and containing Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass as the bioactive compound. The polymers used were poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) and polycaprolactone. The polymeric solutions exhibited sufficiently high viscosity to produce uniform nanofibers with diameters between 335 and 617 nm. The applied conditions were as follows: a voltage of 25 kV, a distance from the capillary to the collector of 120 mm, a capillary diameter of 0.80 mm, and 12% polycaprolactone and a blend of 5% polycaprolactone and 10% poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate). The biomass was incorporated into the nanofibers at a concentration of 3%, and the incorporation was confirmed using confocal microscopy. The nanofibers were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which showed that the addition of biomass did not alter the thermal properties of the biomaterial. The addition of biomass improved the tensile strength and elongation of the scaffolds compared with those produced with polymers alone. A biodegradation assay showed enzymatic action toward the biomaterial, simulating the behavior of natural tissue. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that the scaffolds that were produced have the potential to be applied in the field of tissue regeneration as biomaterials with pharmacological properties. PMID:27398568

  3. Polymer bank notes

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Lang

    2002-01-01

    In May 1999 the Reserve Bank issued its first polymer bank notes into circulation. By March 2000 all denominations had been converted from paper to polymer. By the end of 2001 approximately 110 million polymer notes had been issued into circulation. This article assesses the performance of polymer notes compared with our expectations at the time they were introduced.

  4. Electrochromic window with lithium conductive polymer electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Baudry, Paul; Aegerter, Michel A.; Deroo, Daniel; Valla, Bruno

    1991-01-01

    An electrochromic window was built using WO3 as the electrochromic material and V2O5 as the counter-electrode. Both were deposited onto ITO coated glass panes by vacuum evaporation and were amorphous to X-ray diffraction. The electrolyte was a lithium conducting polymer constituted by a Poly (ethylene oxide) - lithium salt complex. The electrochemical characterization of electrodes was realized by cyclic voltammetry, coulometric titration, and impedance spectroscopy, which allowd the determin...

  5. Constitutional change, legislative performance and institutional consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Argelina Cheibub

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the effects of changes in constitutional and internal legislative regulations on the performance of the House of Representatives in law making. It presents an analysis of the flow of bills in the Lower House and the legal output in the post 1988 Constitution period, showing, on the one hand, the importance of the executive in the definition of the legislative agenda and its preponderance in legislative outcomes and, on the other hand, the role of the college of leaders, to the detriment of the standing committees, in the organization of the legislative work. The authors argue, against the conventional wisdom on Brazilian politics, that the legislature cannot be viewed as an obstacle to executive action.

  6. Thermodynamic watershed hydrological model: Constitutive relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The representative elementary watershed (REW) approach proposed by Reggiani et al. was the first attempt to develop scale adaptable equations applicable directly at the macro scale. Tian et al. extended the initial definition of REW for simulating the energy related processes, and re-organized the deriving procedure of balance equations so that additional sub-regions and substances could be easily incorpo-rated. The resultant ordinary differential equation set can simulate various hydro-logical processes in a physically reasonable way. However, constitutive and geo-metric relationships have not been developed for Tian et al.’s equation set, which are necessary for the thermodynamic watershed hydrological model to apply in hydrological modeling practice. In this work, the constitutive equations for mass exchange terms and momentum exchange terms were developed as well as geo-metric relationships. The closed ordinary differential equation set with nine equa-tions was finally obtained.

  7. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning.

  8. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  9. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  10. The Dynamic Efficiency of Regulatory Constitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Richard J; Newbery, David M.

    1994-01-01

    In this article, we model regulation as a repeated game between a utility facing a random sequence of demands and a regulator tempted to underreward past investment. Rate-of-return regulation designed with a constitutional commitment to an adequate rate of return on capital prudently invested is able to support an efficient investment program as a subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium for a larger set of parameter values than rate-of-return regulation without such a commitment. Furthermore, rate-o...

  11. Tunnel modelling: stress release and constitutive aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Gerheim Souza Dias, Tiago; Bezuijen, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Tunnel construction in soft ground has evolved significantly over the last 20 years, especially on the matter of settlement control. This was achieved by guiding theTBM operation to control the main factors that induced soil displacements, like the face pressure and the soil-lining void closure. However, the design methods and numerical modeling procedures where not adapted to these new conditions, sometimes applying boundary conditions, constitutive parameters or state variables with no phys...

  12. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sting

    2015-01-01

    “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU) in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty) have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal s...

  13. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sting

    2015-01-01

    “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU) in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty) have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the E...

  14. The constitution of the corpus of research

    OpenAIRE

    Reinoldo Marquezan

    2009-01-01

    This study will reflect on the construction of an object of research: the discursive corpus of analysis from the file constituted by the Special Education law. It is anchored in the theoretical device of the french discourse analysis inaugurated by Michel Pêcheux. The construction of a research object requires the consideration of some factors: object, question and research problem. It requires a broad preliminary exploration of the subject to insert the research in a theoretical chart settin...

  15. Unified viscoplastic constitutive equations and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, U. S.

    1987-01-01

    Unified constitutive equations for time- and temperature-dependent metallic plastic deformation have been applied in FEM simulations of forming processes; increasingly powerful computational tools and physical models are being used to numerically model complex engineering problems. Once confidence has been gained through adequate verification, these numerical models will increasingly replace experimental models. Attention is presently given to the contributions made by physical metallurgy, continuum mechanics, and computational mechanics.

  16. Linguistic Diversity within the Integrated Constitutional Space

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Palermo

    2006-01-01

    The language issue within the European constitutional space is one of the most fascinating challenges to supranational integration. On the one hand, the principle of equal standing of all official and working languages is constantly reaffirmed; on the other hand the necessity to simplify the European Babel on the basis of a more functional consideration of the language issue seems unavoidable. Several solutions have been proposed both by scholars and by European institutions. The paper argues...

  17. Black Holes Constitute All Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The dimensionless entropy, ${\\cal S} \\equiv S/k$, of the visible universe, taken as a sphere of radius 50 billion light years with the Earth at its "center", is discussed. An upper limit ($10^{112}$), and a lower limit ($10^{102}$), for ${\\cal S}$ are introduced. It is suggested that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) constitute all dark matter, and that they dominate ${\\cal S}$.

  18. Study of Plant Cell Wall Polymers Affected by Metal Accumulation Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shi-You [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-02

    This project aims to employ newly-developed chemical imaging techniques to measure, in real-time, the concentration, dynamics and spatial distribution of plant cell wall polymers during biomass growth with inoculation of transgenic symbiotic fungi, and to explore a new pathway of delivering detoxified metal to plant apoplast using transgenic symbiotic fungi, which will enhance metal accumulation from soil, and potentially these metals may in turn be used as catalysts to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels. The proposed new pathway of biomass production will: 1) benefit metal and radionuclide contaminant mobility in subsurface environments, and 2) potentially improve biomass production and process for bioenergy

  19. Association of Sasang Constitutional Type with Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Choi, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique Korean traditional medicine that classifies human beings as four distinct types named Sasang constitutional types (SCTs), based on physiologic, physical, and psychological traits. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that specific constitutional types are associated with chronic diseases, but no study has investigated the relationship between SCTs and sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association in a large population-based study. Data from 1,204 participants who completed questionnaires for life style, anthropometric evaluation, and biochemical analysis were analyzed. Classification of the SCTs was done using an integrated diagnostic method. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height(2) less than one standard deviation below the gender-specific normal mean of a younger group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess whole body composition. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 8.6% in the Tae-eum (TE) type, 44.7% in the So-eum (SE) type, and 20.7% in the So-yang (SY) type. Multivariate analysis revealed that the SE and SY types had 9.22 (5.06-16.81; P sarcopenia compared to the TE type, respectively. Our results show that the SE and SY types are significantly associated with increased prevalence of sarcopenia. PMID:26649062

  20. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  1. Optically responsive supramolecular polymer glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenende, Diederik W R; Monnier, Christophe A; Fiore, Gina L; Weder, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The reversible and dynamic nature of non-covalent interactions between the constituting building blocks renders many supramolecular polymers stimuli-responsive. This was previously exploited to create thermally and optically healable polymers, but it proved challenging to achieve high stiffness and good healability. Here we present a glass-forming supramolecular material that is based on a trifunctional low-molecular-weight monomer ((UPyU)3TMP). Carrying three ureido-4-pyrimidinone (UPy) groups, (UPyU)3TMP forms a dynamic supramolecular polymer network, whose properties are governed by its cross-linked architecture and the large content of the binding motif. This design promotes the formation of a disordered glass, which, in spite of the low molecular weight of the building block, displays typical polymeric behaviour. The material exhibits a high stiffness and offers excellent coating and adhesive properties. On account of reversible dissociation and the formation of a low-viscosity liquid upon irradiation with ultraviolet light, rapid optical healing as well as (de)bonding on demand is possible. PMID:26983805

  2. Optically responsive supramolecular polymer glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenende, Diederik W. R.; Monnier, Christophe A.; Fiore, Gina L.; Weder, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The reversible and dynamic nature of non-covalent interactions between the constituting building blocks renders many supramolecular polymers stimuli-responsive. This was previously exploited to create thermally and optically healable polymers, but it proved challenging to achieve high stiffness and good healability. Here we present a glass-forming supramolecular material that is based on a trifunctional low-molecular-weight monomer ((UPyU)3TMP). Carrying three ureido-4-pyrimidinone (UPy) groups, (UPyU)3TMP forms a dynamic supramolecular polymer network, whose properties are governed by its cross-linked architecture and the large content of the binding motif. This design promotes the formation of a disordered glass, which, in spite of the low molecular weight of the building block, displays typical polymeric behaviour. The material exhibits a high stiffness and offers excellent coating and adhesive properties. On account of reversible dissociation and the formation of a low-viscosity liquid upon irradiation with ultraviolet light, rapid optical healing as well as (de)bonding on demand is possible. PMID:26983805

  3. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to ...

  4. Friction between Polymer Brushes

    OpenAIRE

    Sokoloff, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    By solving the equilibrium equations for a polymer in a neutral polymer brush, the degree of interpenetration of two polymer brushes in contact and near contact is calculated. These results are used to calculate values of the force of static friction in agreement with recent friction measurements for polymer brush lubricated surfaces. It is shown that at sufficiently light loads polymer brush coated surfaces can slide, with the load supported entirely by osmotic pressure, at a sufficiently la...

  5. Biomass, energy for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains a brief presentation of a book in which the authors examine whether biomass will be able to participate to energy transition and respond to the increasing energy needs. They define the biomass, describe its use, recall its history, and discuss its role in energy transition. They question the use of biomass and wander whether it's a good idea to burn wood, if biofuels will be able to replace oil, whether biofuels are good for the environment, if biomass will be able to respond to the needs of building and chemical industries, whether it is worth to produce electricity from biomass, and whether methane has a future as energy vector. They examine the role of forest as a source of biomass-energy (how France could get the best out of its forests, whether it is better to plant trees or to exploit the forests). They discuss the role of agriculture, the role of wastes as a source of biomass-energy (whether it is better to burn or methanize wastes, what to choose between manure and corn for local energies). They examine the perspectives for biomass-energy, and notably whether there is enough land to feed humans and produce energy, how to decide between food, energy, materials and chemistry

  6. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, V.P.; Seshan, K.; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid biom

  7. Biomass resource assessment for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jingjing; Zhou Aiming [Energy Research Institute of State Planning and Development Commission (China)

    1999-07-01

    This paper calculated and assessed the biomass resource availability in China, especially straw and stalk, domestic animal excreta and municipal solid waste. The assessment showed that biomass energy will be a rich and sustainable resource in China, important for developing the social economy and improving the environment in the future. (author)

  8. Interchain tube pressure effect in the flow dynamics of bi-disperse polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2015-01-01

    that the Rouse time of a particular polymer chain is dependent on the total number of Kuhn steps of the polymers in direct contact with the considered polymer chain. This number of Kuhn steps is proportional to the weight average molecular weight, M w , replacing the involved molecular weight in the......The constitutive equation as reported by Rasmussen and Huang (Rheologica Acta 53:199–208, 2014b), explaining the flow dynamics of oligomer (containing a least two Kuhn step)-diluted narrow molecular weight-distributed polymers were extended to general bi-disperse polymer melt system. It was assumed...

  9. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  10. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  11. Biomass Deconstruction and Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng

    This thesis is about the use of an agricultural residue as a feedstock for fermentable sugars to be used for second generation (2G) bioethanol. The main focus of this thesis work is upon the recalcitrance of different anatomical fractions of wheat straw. Biomass recalcitrance is a collective...... reflections of plant species, tissue or organ types, genetic traits and environment. Effects of cultivar type, anatomical distribution, chemical composition, fertilizer level and growth year have been observed during in vitro and in vivo trials. A similar approach is here taken to further investigate: 1). How...... recalcitrance or degradability varies between leaf and stem as found in different wheat cultivars. 2). Chemical, physical and structural differences between wheat straw leaf and stem which may be responsible for observed differences in their bio-degradability. As a tool to assess the variation of...

  12. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang;

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  13. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  14. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has been hypothesized that these unusual properties result from fast diffusion of the nanostructures in the host polymer, which facilitates polymer chain relaxation by constraint release and other processes. In this study, the effects of addition of sterically stabilized inorganic nanoparticles to entangled cis-1,4-polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane on the overall rheology of nanocomposites are discussed. In addition, insights about the relaxation of the host polymer chains and transport properties of nanoparticles in entangled polymer nanocomposites are presented. The nanoparticles are found to act as effective plasticizers for their entangled linear hosts, and below a critical, chemistry and molecular-weight dependent particle volume fraction, lead to reduced viscosity, glass transition temperature, number of entanglements, and polymer relaxation time. We also find that the particle motions in the polymer host are hyperdiffusive and at the nanoparticle length scale, the polymer host acts like a simple, ideal fluid and the composites\\' viscosity rises with increasing particle concentration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels. PMID:22779440

  16. The constitutional implications of the rise of the SNP

    OpenAIRE

    McHarg, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    The UK Constitutional Law Association blog has asked constitutional lawyers to review the main party manifestos ahead of the May elections, drawing out key constitutional proposals. Below Aileen McHarg discussed the constitutional implications of the rise of the SNP.

  17. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when...

  18. The Law of the Constitution: A Bicentennial Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, Edwin, III

    This paper discusses the distinction between the Constitution and constitutional law. The Constitution is the fundamental law of the United States. It creates the institutions of government, enumerates the powers of these institutions, and delineates areas government may not enter. The Constitution is the instrument by which the consent of the…

  19. Power: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The fourth in a special series of handbooks dealing with constitutional themes, this document looks at power in the context of the U.S. Constitution. "The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom" (L. Peach) examines the separation of powers provided for in the Constitution. "The Concept of Power" (C. Roach) is a series of strategies, some using…

  20. Analysis of proteins involved in biodegradation of crop biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Kamau; Trotman, Audrey

    1998-01-01

    The biodegradation of crop biomass for re-use in crop production is part of the bioregenerative life support concept proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for long duration, manned space exploration. The current research was conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the use of electrophoretic analysis as a means of rapidly assaying for constitutive and induced proteins associated with the bacterial degradation of crop residue. The proteins involved in crop biomass biodegradation are either constitutive or induced. As a result, effluent and cultures were examined to investigate the potential of using electrophoretic techniques as a means of monitoring the biodegradation process. Protein concentration for optimum banding patterns was determined using the Bio-Rad Protein Assay kit. Four bacterial soil isolates were obtained from the G.W. Carver research Farm at Tuskegee University and used in the decomposition of components of plant biomass. The culture, WDSt3A was inoculated into 500 mL of either Tryptic Soy Broth or Nutrient Broth. Incubation, with shaking of each flask was for 96 hours at 30 C. The cultures consistently gave unique banding patterns under denaturing protein electrophoresis conditions, The associated extracellular enzymes also yielded characteristic banding patterns over a 14-day period, when native electrophoresis techniques were used to examine effluent from batch culture bioreactors. The current study evaluated sample preparation and staining protocols to determine the ease of use, reproducibility and reliability, as well as the potential for automation.

  1. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  2. A review of biomass energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews some recent development in biomass utilisation systems in Malaysia. The technology reviewed are direct combustion of biomass , wood briquetting technology, pyrolysis of biomass and gasification of wood in Malaysia

  3. Fuel pellets from biomass - Processing, bonding, raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelte, W.

    2011-12-15

    The present study investigates several important aspects of biomass pelletization. Seven individual studies have been conducted and linked together, in order to push forward the research frontier of biomass pelletization processes. The first study was to investigate influence of the different processing parameters on the pressure built up in the press channel of a pellet mill. It showed that the major factor was the press channel length as well as temperature, moisture content, particle size and extractive content. Furthermore, extractive migration to the pellet surface at an elevated temperature played an important role. The second study presented a method of how key processing parameters can be estimated, based on a pellet model and a small number of fast and simple laboratory trials using a single pellet press. The third study investigated the bonding mechanisms within a biomass pellet, which indicate that different mechanisms are involved depending on biomass type and pelletizing conditions. Interpenetration of polymer chains and close intermolecular distance resulting in better secondary bonding were assumed to be the key factors for high mechanical properties of the formed pellets. The outcome of this study resulted in study four and five investigating the role of lignin glass transition for biomass pelletization. It was demonstrated that the softening temperature of lignin was dependent on species and moisture content. In typical processing conditions and at 8% (wt) moisture content, transitions were identified to be at approximately 53-63 deg. C for wheat straw and about 91 deg. C for spruce lignin. Furthermore, the effects of wheat straw extractives on the pelletizing properties and pellet stability were investigated. The sixth and seventh study applied the developed methodology to test the pelletizing properties of thermally pre-treated (torrefied) biomass from spruce and wheat straw. The results indicated that high torrefaction temperatures above 275 deg

  4. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  5. SOME ASPECTS OF THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF LAWS CONF CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita DRAGNE

    2010-01-01

    The Constitution is the fundamental law of a State, its supremacy is ensured by a special and complex mechanism called the control of the constitutionality of laws. For this purpose it was created an effective mechanism resulted in a legal institution called review the constitutionality of laws and that includes all procedures that ensure the supremacy of the Constitution. The notion of control of constitutionality of laws means all methods through which the verification of compliance with co...

  6. The new Swaziland constitution and its impact on media freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Rooney

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines media freedom in Swaziland since the kingdom's new constitution came into effect in 2006. Despite the constitution, Swaziland remains a non-democracy and there continues to be a restrictive media environment. The paper tackles three research questions: (i) How repressive were media laws in Swaziland before the constitution came into effect? (ii) What does the 2006 constitution say about media freedom? (iii) To what extent has the constitution improved media freedom? The pa...

  7. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  8. The Constitutional Deficiencies of the German 'Rechtsgutslehre'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the theoretical merits and constitutional validity of the “Rechtsgutslehre” (doctrine of the protection of legal goods, a widely held doctrine about the limits of legitimate criminalization in Germany and some other jurisdictions. The immediate cause for this reassessment is a recent decision of the German constitutional court which upheld the German incest prohibition and simultaneously rejected the traditional “Rechtsgutslehre” as constitutionally irrelevant, thereby stirring up considerable controversy among academic criminal lawyers. The paper tries to show why the court’s view is correct by pointing out the main deficiencies of the doctrine and what criteria a better theory must fulfil. Este artículo cuestiona los méritos teóricos y la validez constitucional de la "Rechtsgutslehre" (doctrina de la protección de los bienes jurídicos, una doctrina muy extendida acerca de los límites de la criminalización legítima en Alemania y algunas otras jurisdicciones. La causa inmediata de esta nueva valoración es una decisión reciente del Tribunal Constitucional alemán que ratificó la prohibición del incesto en Alemania y al mismo tiempo rechazó el tradicional "Rechtsgutslehre" por ser constitucionalmente irrelevante, lo que provocó una considerable controversia entre la comunidad académica de abogados criminalistas. El artículo trata de mostrar por qué la decisión de la corte es correcta, señalando las deficiencias principales de la doctrina y los criterios que una teoría más adecuada debe cumplir. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200870

  9. Loop polymer brushes from polymer single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Li, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Loop polymer brushes represent a category of polymer brushes with both chain ends being tethered to a surface or interface with sufficiently high density. Due to this morphological difference, loop brushes exhibit distinct properties compared with traditional polymer brushes with single chain end being tethered. In our study, α, ω-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) single crystals were prepared as templates for polymer brush synthesis. By carefully controlling crystallization condition and immobilization, looped polymer brushes were successfully prepared. Comprehensive studies on the morphology and physical properties of these polymer brushes were carried out using Atomic Force Microscopy and FTIR. Advantages of using this method include exclusive loop morphology, high grafting density, controlled tethering sites and tunable loop size.

  10. Constitutional aspects of a nuclear power phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current political debate in Germany about the Federal Government's plans to opt out of nuclear power, the time horizon for implementation of the policy and the nuclear power phaseout is a focal point of interest. This aspect is discussed from the angle of German constitutional law. The author analyses in this context the protective scope of Art. 14 GG (German Basic Law), relating to the protection of ownership rights and the principle of legal protection for bona fide acts, which is a vital aspect for the nuclear industry and the power industry. (orig./CB)

  11. Identification of constitutive parameters for fractional viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhao; Haitian, Yang; Yiqian, He

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a numerical model to identify constitutive parameters in the fractional viscoelastic field. An explicit semi-analytical numerical model and a finite difference (FD) method based numerical model are derived for solving the direct homogenous and regionally inhomogeneous fractional viscoelastic problems, respectively. A continuous ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm is employed to solve the inverse problem of identification. The feasibility of the proposed approach is illustrated via the numerical verification of a two-dimensional identification problem formulated by the fractional Kelvin-Voigt model, and the noisy data and regional inhomogeneity etc. are taken into account.

  12. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Lindholm, Ulric S.; Bodner, S. R.; Hill, Jeff T.; Weber, R. M.; Meyer, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the third year of work on a program which is part of the NASA Hot Section Technology program (HOST) are presented. The goals of this program are: (1) the development of unified constitutive models for rate dependent isotropic materials; and (2) the demonstration of the use of unified models in structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. A test procedure was developed for assisting the generation of a data base for the Bodner-Partom model using a relatively small number of specimens. This test procedure involved performing a tensile test at a temperature of interest that involves a succession of strain-rate changes. The results for B1900+Hf indicate that material constants related to hardening and thermal recovery can be obtained on the basis of such a procedure. Strain aging, thermal recovery, and unexpected material variations, however, preluded an accurate determination of the strain-rate sensitivity parameter is this exercise. The effects of casting grain size on the constitutive behavior of B1900+Hf were studied and no particular grain size effect was observed. A systematic procedure was also developed for determining the material constants in the Bodner-Partom model. Both the new test procedure and the method for determining material constants were applied to the alternate material, Mar-M247 . Test data including tensile, creep, cyclic and nonproportional biaxial (tension/torsion) loading were collected. Good correlations were obtained between the Bodner-Partom model and experiments. A literature survey was conducted to assess the effects of thermal history on the constitutive behavior of metals. Thermal history effects are expected to be present at temperature regimes where strain aging and change of microstructure are important. Possible modifications to the Bodner-Partom model to account for these effects are outlined

  13. The Right to Water: A Constitutional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Jayna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This paper examines the justiciability of social rights, looking particularly at the Right to Water as part of the all encompassing Right to Life. The Right to water in India has been protected as a fundamental human right by the Indian Supreme Court emanating from the Right to Life guaranteed under Article 21 of the constitution. The right to life has been expanded to include the right to health and the right to a clean environment. In India, there have also been significant dev...

  14. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Labour’s 'Juridification' of the Constitution.

    OpenAIRE

    Masterman, R.M.W.

    2009-01-01

    This article responds to a number of points made by Mark Bevir in his article ‘The Westminster Model, Governance and Judicial Reform’ [Parliamentary Affairs 61 (2008), 559–77], in which Bevir highlights the ‘increasing role of the courts in the processes of collective decision-making’ which has been the result of, inter alia (but of particular importance to Bevir's argument), the passage and implementation of the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. This article puts ...

  16. CONSTITUTIONAL VALIDITY OF POLYGRAPH, THE LIEDETECTOR TEST

    OpenAIRE

    M. Madhavi Latha

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of polygraph test is to detect the truth from criminal. polygraph is scientific form of investigating tools. The main object of polygraph test is to go in the root of truth as well as to reduce the criminal behavior in society. But today one of the biggest legal controversies which around this Test are alleged violation of the fundamental rights against self incrimination guaranteed under Article 20(3) of the Indian Constitution. Therefore the researcher has tried to discuss the ...

  17. Local charge trapping in conjugated polymers resolved by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hallam, T.; Lee, M.; N. Zhao; Nandhakumar, I; Kemerink, M Martijn; Heeney, M.; McCulloch, I; Sirringhaus, H.

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of conjugated polymers is heterogeneous on the length scale of individual polymer chains, but little is known about how this affects their electronic properties. Here we use scanning Kelvin probe microscopy with resolution-enhancing carbon nanotube tips to study charge transport on a 100 nm scale in a chain-extended, semicrystalline conjugated polymer. We show that the disordered grain boundaries between crystalline domains constitute preferential charge trapping sites and ...

  18. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (Germany). German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD); McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Biberacher, M. [Research Studios Austria AG (RSA), Salzburg (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  19. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  20. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  1. Compacting biomass waste materials for use as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ou

    conducted in a stoke boiler. A separate burning test was also carried out by burning biomass logs alone in an outdoor hot-water furnace for heating a building. Based on a previous coal compaction study, the process of biomass compaction was studied numerically by use of a non-linear finite element code. A constitutive model with sufficient generality was adapted for biomass material to deal with pore contraction during compaction. A contact node algorithm was applied to implement the effect of mold wall friction into the finite element program. Numerical analyses were made to investigate the pressure distribution in a die normal to the axis of compaction, and to investigate the density distribution in a biomass log after compaction. The results of the analyses gave generally good agreement with theoretical analysis of coal log compaction, although assumptions had to be made about the variation in the elastic modulus of the material and the Poisson's ratio during the compaction cycle.

  2. [Animal protection in constitutional law?--On the necessity of including animal protection in the constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, J

    1998-03-01

    The inclusion of animal protection in the constitution poses a lengthy legal-political demand, which is again being vehemently discussed at the present time. Under consideration of juristic aspects, the following treatise attempts to clarify the legal requirements which presently exist for anchoring animal protection in constitutional law. It is therefore necessary in the first instance to explain the present situation regarding animal protection law. The legal situation in this respect is marked by a fundamental collision between special democratic rights guaranteed by the constitution on the one hand, and the norms of animal protection law on the other hand, which tend to restrict these rights. Based on concrete examples taken from court decisions, it is shown that constitutional vacuum surrounding a major part of animal protection law greatly complicates or even renders impossible the application and enforcement of the latter in practice. A prerequisite for a proper legal framework for animal protection is that the different special basic democratic rights governing animal use must be counterpoised by animal protection laws backed up by the constitution. Only by this means it is possible to prevent the ineffectiveness of animal protection legislative norms in the long term. PMID:9581372

  3. Constitutive model for coupled inelasticity and damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A constitutive model to describe a coupling between deformation and damage due to creep of polycrystalline metallic materials is developed from phenomenological and continuum mechanics points of view. The constitutive modeling is based on the irreversible thermodynamics for internal state variable theories, where the thermodynamic potentials, i.e., free energy and dissipation energy functions, are defined using hardening and damage variables. The material damage is assumed to be isotropic. We first derive a damage coupled kinematic-hardening model in the invariant form on the basis of the Malinin-Khadjinsky model. Then, an isotropic-hardening model which includes a coupling with damage is formulated by assuming a particular representation of the kinematic hardening variable. The evolution equation of the hardening variable is prescribed by the Bailey-Orowan format which includes the effect of damage. The damage rate is governed by the magnitude of the assumed strain hardening variable. These models can describe a transition from primary to tertiary creep stages, and it is applicable to variable loading conditions. In a particular case the expression for the creep rupture time has a similar form to the Kachanov-Rabotnov type, although it depends on the time and damage at the instant of a hardening saturation under the applied stress condition. (author)

  4. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sting

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal scholars to critically analyse the EU’s system of economic governance, as have other events throughout the history of the European Union, from the Empty Chair Crisis to the referenda in the aftermath of the Treaty of Maastricht and the failure of the Constitution for the European Union. What does seem to be different is the way in which scholars approach the issue of the Eurozone crisis. Instead of a purely legal perspective on economic governance, European legal scholars have realised that in order to understand and analyse the euro crisis, interdisciplinarity is the word of the moment.

  5. Nuclear energy as reflected in Constitutional Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyses the Federal Constitutional Court's decision on the Kalkar and Muehlheim-Kaerlich reactors with regard to its content relating to the Atomic Energy Law. He examines the Atomic Energy Law within the system in which power is shared: The legal provisio of the Atomic Energy Law, the application of undetermined legal terms, the involvement of extra-legislative bodies, the statements made on residual risks. He discusses the statutory obligation of the legislator to protect, and the protection of basic rights by means of participation in procedures, the effecting of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures, the translation into action of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures and the interpretation of the elementary (simple) Atomic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court with regard to the interpreation and application of the Atomic Energy Law in conformity with the Basic Law. Finally, he gives his opinion on the practical consequences the decision will have, and on its binding effects for current and future licensing procedures. (HSCH)

  6. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  7. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds

  8. Bearings for the biomass boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-03-15

    Biomass energy is booming –– more than two billion people depend on biomass for their energy and the International Energy Agency predicts that biomass' share of the global energy supply will treble by 2050. But in many developing countries it is still regarded as a traditional and dirty solution that is often criminalised, unsustainable and poorly paid. A more sophisticated approach that legalises and secures sustainable production by and for local people could help improve energy security, cut carbon emissions, protect forests and reduce poverty.

  9. IV. International Slovak Biomass Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the conference dealing with use of biomass for energy production. The main conference topics are focused on the following scopes: Session 1: Strategies, politics, legislation tools, implementation issues; Session 2: Bioenergy market and business; Session 3: Biomass resources and fuel production; Session 4: Combustion and boiler system, technology; Session 5: Utilisation of biomass, practical examples (CHP, WWTP, DH, Central heating, Stakeholders); Session 6: Application of R + D in praxis in the short term horizont. In these proceedings 44 contributions are included

  10. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can...

  11. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  12. Biomass catalysis and solvents; Biomasse catalyse et solvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioch, D. [CIRAD-AMIS, programme Agro-Alimentaire, 34 - Montpellier (France); Pouilloux, Y.; Barrault, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS UMR 6503), ESIP, Lab. de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, 86 - Poitiers (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    How to develop new technics and products and at the same time to respect the environment? The biomass seems to be an interesting domain in this framework and this document allows the selection of performing products obtain by biomass. Among these products the solvents economic and environmental advantages or consequences are discussed. A great part is also devoted to the voc emissions, bound to the solvents.

  13. Multi-functional biomass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.

    2004-12-01

    The central research question of this thesis is: What is the potential of multi-functional biomass systems to improve the costs and the land use efficiency of saving non-renewable energy consumption and reducing GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions in quantitative terms? Therefore, in the following chapters the performance of multi-functional biomass systems is quantified. Biomass system costs are investigated from a societal perspective using e.g. low discount rates. A main focus will be on the review of methodologies for accounting GHG emissions, non-renewable energy consumption, agricultural land use and costs as well as the adaptation of these methodologies to special aspects of multifunctional biomass use. The analysis of the potential benefits of multi-functional biomass systems is carried out by several case studies of biomass systems including various waste treatment technologies for the short term that appeared promising after a first review. Because at present the shift of biomass production to more favourable areas seems to be an alternative for more efficient biomass systems, these case studies are situated in Europe and concentrate on Poland in order to investigate the potential of biomass production in the new EU-member states of Central Eastern Europe. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, the concept of multi-product use and its potential impacts on fuel costs of bioenergy and GHG emission reduction per area of agricultural land use are investigated. Especially, the relation between the economic value and the specific GHG emission reduction of a possible material application and the potential benefits of multiproduct use is analysed. Material uses regarded for multi-product use are the use of wheat grains for food, wheat straw for animal litter, hemp bark fibres for reinforced composites, hemp core fibres for animal litter, hemp seeds for food and cosmetics and poplar wood chips for pulp. For energy uses parts of the crops are used as solid fuel for electricity

  14. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume 1 Micro- and Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2012-01-01

    Advances in technology are demanding ever-increasing mastery over the materials being used: the challenge is to gain a better understanding of their behaviour, and more particularly of the relations between their microstructure and their macroscopic properties.   This work, of which this is the first volume, aims to provide the means by which this challenge may be met. Starting from the mechanics of deformation, it develops the laws governing macroscopic behaviour – expressed as the constitutive equations – always taking account of the physical phenomena which underlie rheological behaviour. The most recent developments are presented, in particular those concerning heterogeneous materials such as metallic alloys, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of material behaviour.   As the subtitles indicate, Volume 1 deals with micro- and macroscopic constitutive behaviour and Volume 2 with damage and fracture mechanics. A third volume will be devoted to exercises and the...

  15. Modeling and mesoscopic damage constitutive relation of brittle short-fiber-reinforced composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪秋; 梁乃刚; 夏蒙棼

    1999-01-01

    Aimed at brittle composites reinforced by randomly distributed short-fibers with a relatively large aspect ratio, stiffness modulus and strength, a mesoscopic material model was proposed. Based on the statistical description,damage mechanisms, damage-induced anisotropy, damage rate effect and stress redistribution, the constitutive relation were derived. By taking glass fiber reinforced polypropylene polymers as an example, the effect of initial orientation distribution of fibers, damage-induced anisotropy, and damage-rate effect on macro-behaviors of composites were quantitatively analyzed. The theoretical predictions compared favorably with the experimental results.

  16. Carbonaceous residues from biomass gasification as catalysts for biodiesel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael Luque; Antonio Pineda; Juan C. Colmenares; Juan M. Campelo; Antonio A. Romero; Juan Carlos Serrano-Ruiz; Luisa F. Cabeza; Jaime Cot-Gores

    2012-01-01

    Tars and alkali ashes from biomass gasification processes currently constitute one of the major problems in biomass valorisation,generating clogging of filters and issues related with the purity of syngas production.To date,these waste residues find no useful applications and they are generally disposed upon generation in the gasification process.A detailed analysis of these residues pointed out the presence of high quantities of Ca (>30 wt%).TG experiments indicated that a treatment under air at moderate temperatures (400-800 ℃) decomposed the majority of carbon species,while XRD indicated the presence of a crystalline CaO phase.CaO enriched valorized materials turned out to be good heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils,providing moderate to good activities (50%-70% after 12 h) to fatty acid methyl esters in the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol.

  17. The Constitutional Court and the Imperative of its Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on the upcoming review of the Constitution have determined us to pay close attention to the basic institution in a democratic state, that is the Constitutional Court. Being caught in the crossfire between power and opposition, the Constitutional Court had a hard time lately, facing severe attacks. The aim of our study is to analyze the evolution of the Constitutional Court within the inland constitutional system, particularly bringing up the flaws describing the Court’s activity. We have also analyzed the proposals put forth by several bodies or experts regarding the constitutional contentious court. At the end of our study, following an analysis of different constitutional types of constitutional review, used by a number of states in Europe, we introduced several resolutions that may improve the role, the course and, last but not least, the activity of the Romanian Constitutional Court.

  18. Molecular simulation guided constitutive modeling on finite strain viscoelasticity of elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Tang, Shan; Kröger, Martin; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-03-01

    Viscoelasticity characterizes the most important mechanical behavior of elastomers. Understanding the viscoelasticity, especially finite strain viscoelasticity, of elastomers is the key for continuation of their dedicated use in industrial applications. In this work, we present a mechanistic and physics-based constitutive model to describe and design the finite strain viscoelastic behavior of elastomers. Mathematically, the viscoelasticity of elastomers has been decomposed into hyperelastic and viscous parts, which are attributed to the nonlinear deformation of the cross-linked polymer network and the diffusion of free chains, respectively. The hyperelastic deformation of a cross-linked polymer network is governed by the cross-linking density, the molecular weight of the polymer strands between cross-linkages, and the amount of entanglements between different chains, which we observe through large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, a recently developed non-affine network model (Davidson and Goulbourne, 2013) is confirmed in the current work to be able to capture these key physical mechanisms using MD simulation. The energy dissipation during a loading and unloading process of elastomers is governed by the diffusion of free chains, which can be understood through their reptation dynamics. The viscous stress can be formulated using the classical tube model (Doi and Edwards, 1986); however, it cannot be used to capture the energy dissipation during finite deformation. By considering the tube deformation during this process, as observed from the MD simulations, we propose a modified tube model to account for the finite deformation behavior of free chains. Combing the non-affine network model for hyperelasticity and modified tube model for viscosity, both understood by molecular simulations, we develop a mechanism-based constitutive model for finite strain viscoelasticity of elastomers. All the parameters in the proposed constitutive model have

  19. Washington State biomass data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  20. Washington State biomass data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs

  1. Simulation of Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gruhn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure and material properties of polymer networks can depend sensitively on changes in the environment. There is a great deal of progress in the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels for applications like sensors, self-repairing materials or actuators. Biocompatible, smart hydrogels can be used for applications, such as controlled drug delivery and release, or for artificial muscles. Numerical studies have been performed on different length scales and levels of details. Macroscopic theories that describe the network systems with the help of continuous fields are suited to study effects like the stimuli-induced deformation of hydrogels on large scales. In this article, we discuss various macroscopic approaches and describe, in more detail, our phase field model, which allows the calculation of the hydrogel dynamics with the help of a free energy that considers physical and chemical impacts. On a mesoscopic level, polymer systems can be modeled with the help of the self-consistent field theory, which includes the interactions, connectivity, and the entropy of the polymer chains, and does not depend on constitutive equations. We present our recent extension of the method that allows the study of the formation of nano domains in reversibly crosslinked block copolymer networks. Molecular simulations of polymer networks allow the investigation of the behavior of specific systems on a microscopic scale. As an example for microscopic modeling of stimuli sensitive polymer networks, we present our Monte Carlo simulations of a filament network system with crosslinkers.

  2. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  3. Energy from biomass and waste

    OpenAIRE

    FAAIJ A.p.c.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, a broad term for all organic matter of plants, trees and crops, is currently regarded as a renewable energy source which can contribute substantially to the world's energy supply in the future. Various scenarios for the development of energy supply and demand, such as compiled by the World Energy Council (WEC), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Shell and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI), indicate that biomass has the potential to make a large contributi...

  4. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different composition to and different properties from crude oil. This makes its direct use in those applications and conversion processes originally developed for fossil feeds problematic. Improvement of the ...

  5. Experiences with biomass in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Bolwig, Simon; Solér, Ola;

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences with...... biomass use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  6. Improved biomass Injera stove- Mirte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status report of 1994 - 1995 shows as the need to design an improved biomass stove for Injera was recognized. The marketing began in mid-1994 with a Mirte which showed even higher efficiencies in laboratory, using 50 percent less woody biomass than the open fire. By early 1994 several hundreds Mirte stoves had been sold in Addis Ababa at non-subsidized prices. The Mirte is currently produced on a large-scale by building materials companies. 3 figs. 1 tab

  7. Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Shahid Shaukat, S.), s. 39-62 ISBN 978-953-307-491-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : thermal plasma * plasma gasification * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/thermal-plasma-gasification-of-biomass

  8. Microbial production of building block chemicals and polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Kim, Hyun Uk; Choi, Sol; Yi, Jongho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-12-01

    Owing to our increasing concerns on the environment, climate change, and limited natural resources, there has recently been considerable effort exerted to produce chemicals and materials from renewable biomass. Polymers we use everyday can also be produced either by direct fermentation or by polymerization of monomers that are produced by fermentation. Recent advances in metabolic engineering combined with systems biology and synthetic biology are allowing us to more systematically develop superior strains and bioprocesses for the efficient production of polymers and monomers. Here, we review recent trends in microbial production of building block chemicals that can be subsequently used for the synthesis of polymers. Also, recent successful cases of direct one-step production of polymers are reviewed. General strategies for the production of natural and unnatural platform chemicals are described together with representative examples. PMID:21420291

  9. Constitutional and thermal defects in UAl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the point defect structure of oI20 UAl4 in order to study aluminum diffusion. We performed ab initio calculations within a pseudopotentials method implemented in the Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) to obtain point defect formation energies: vacancies (VU and VAl ) and antisites (AlU and UAl ). Using a statistical-thermodynamic model we calculated defects concentrations as function of temperature and deviation from stoichiometry. For stoichiometric UAl4, the dominant thermal defects are composed of two antisites. In off-stoichiometric UAl4, antisites are the constitutional defects. For U-rich UAl4, the thermal defect is called interbranch, where one antisite U atom is replaced by five Al vacancies. For Al-rich UAl4, the thermal defect is also an interbranch, where four antisite Al atoms are replaced by five U vacancies

  10. What Constitutes 'Failure to Notify' National Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2013-01-01

    “The inclusion of article 260(3) TFEU adopted as part of the Lisbon Treaty changed the landscape of infringement proceedings. The provision grants the Commission the power to propose monetary sanctions already during the initial Court litigation against a Member State that ‘failed to notify......’ national measures transposing a directive. This article analyses the concept of ‘failure to notify’ and points out that the current interpretation adopted by the Commission is only one of several possible interpretations. The author concludes that article 260(3) TFEU as it stands now is vaguely drafted and...... is prone to lead to judicial uncertainty. It further increases the already heavily criticized Commission discretion. Furthermore, the lack of proper guidelines of what constitutes ‘failure to notify’ can lead to the arbitrary launching of non-communication proceedings as well as further complicate...

  11. The constitution of the corpus of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinoldo Marquezan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study will reflect on the construction of an object of research: the discursive corpus of analysis from the file constituted by the Special Education law. It is anchored in the theoretical device of the french discourse analysis inaugurated by Michel Pêcheux. The construction of a research object requires the consideration of some factors: object, question and research problem. It requires a broad preliminary exploration of the subject to insert the research in a theoretical chart setting out the fundamental concepts that the researcher mobilize. It is necessary to do some cuttings that imply in discourses’ reading, description and interpretation. Based on this interpretation, it produces new senses, because it promotes new information about the formulated questions.

  12. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    surprising development in the region. This article analyses how strategic relations between the EU and Egypt are being challenged by constitutional changes in Egypt following the political development since early 2011. Initially the article describes European-Egyptian relations prior to the fall of President...... Hosni Mubarak by briefly going back to early contacts between the EEC and President Gamal Abdel Nasser and how more elaborate agreements developed up to recent times. Taking this historical point of departure the article characterizes the role of the EU in connection with the development since the start......The academic works on transition processes following the Arab revolts in the Middle East since the beginning of 2011 have so far mostly focused on the extraordinary character of the events which took place in Tunis, Cairo, Benghazi, etc. - attempting to explain the reasons for the in many ways...

  13. Mood-congruent cognitions constitute mood experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, Matthias

    2005-09-01

    Three studies tested the assumption of a dispositional theory of moods that mood-related cognitions constitute essential parts of the phenomenal mood experience. In Study 1, after a hot- versus a cold-, sad-, or angry-mood induction, participants reported their momentary moods and their momentary mood-related cognitions. Self-reported moods and mood-related cognitions changed in a strictly parallel fashion in all mood induction groups. A mediation analysis showed that the influences of distraction on moods were completely mediated by changes in mood-related cognitions. Study 2 replicated the central findings of Study 1 with a musical mood induction procedure. Study 3 showed that the findings do not depend on the explicit manipulation of moods. The results support the tested assumption. PMID:16187865

  14. Biomass for iron ore sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, M.; Martinez-Pacheco, M.; Fray, T.A.T. [Corus Research Development & Technology, Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Within an integrated steelworks, iron ore sinter making is an energy intensive process. In recent years, biomass is becoming an attractive alternative source of energy to traditional fossil fuels such as coal. In this study, commercially available biomass materials suited to sinter making have been identified as an alternative source of fuel to coke breeze. Olive residues, sunflower husk pellets, almond shells, hazelnut shells and Bagasse pellets have been characterised and prepared for sintering. A laboratory sinter pot has been employed for studying sintering behaviour of biomass material. On average, the calorific values of selected biomass materials, on a dry basis, are about 65% of dry coke breeze. It was found that less of this energy would be available in sinter making due to the evaporation of some of the volatile matter ahead of the flame front. At a replacement rate of 25%, the crushed sunflower husk pellets showed the closest thermal profile to that of coke breeze alone in the size range of -0.8 to +0.6 mm. A specification of less than 1 mm has been recommended for the studied biomass materials when co-firing biomass with coke breeze for iron ore sintering.

  15. 3D Viscoelastic Finite Element Modelling of Polymer Flow in the Fiber Drawing Process for Microstructured Polymer Optical Fiber Fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasano, Andrea; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Marín, J. M. R.

    2015-01-01

    numerical modelling of mPOF drawing has mainly beenbased on principles, such as generalized Newtonian fluid dynamics, which are not able to cope with the elasticcomponent in polymer flow. In the present work, we employ the K-BKZ constitutive equation, a non-linearsingle-integral model that combines both...

  16. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  17. Biomass energy in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in countries that produce

  18. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  19. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Citizenship Day, and September 17 through September 23, 2010, as Constitution Week. I encourage Federal, State... two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-23898 Filed 9-21-10; 11:15 am] Billing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part II The...

  20. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  1. 78 FR 57777 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-23014 Filed 9-18-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Thursday, No. 182 September 19, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9019--Constitution Day and Citizenship...

  2. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ....) [FR Doc. 2011-24438 Filed 9-20-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 76 Wednesday, No. 183 September 21, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8714--Constitution Day and Citizenship...

  3. Developing Aboveground Biomass Equations Both Compatible with Tree Volume Equations and Additive Systems for Single-Trees in Poplar Plantations in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed aboveground biomass equations for poplar plantations in Jiangsu Province, China, both compatible with tree volume equations and additive systems. Biomass equations were fitted with 80 selected and previously harvested sample trees. Additivity property was assured by applying a “controlling directly under total biomass proportion function” approach. Weighted regression was used to correct heteroscedasticity. Parameters were estimated using a nonlinear error-in-variable model. The results indicated that (1, on average, stems constituted the largest proportion (71.5% of total aboveground biomass; (2 the aboveground biomass equations, both compatible with tree volume equations and additive systems, obtained good model fitting and prediction, of which the coefficient of determination ranged from 0.903 to 0.987, and the total relative error and the mean prediction error were less than 2.0% and 10.0%, respectively; (3 adding H and CW into the additive system of biomass equations did not improve model fitting and performance as expected, especially for branches and foliage biomass; and (4 the additive systems of biomass equations presented here provided more reliable and accurate biomass predictions than the independent biomass equations fitted by ordinary least square regression. This system of additive biomass equations will prove to be applicable for estimating biomass of poplar plantations in Jiangsu Province of China.

  4. Single chain stochastic polymer modeling at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harstad, E. N. (Eric N.); Harlow, Francis Harvey,; Schreyer, H. L.

    2001-01-01

    Our goal is to develop constitutive relations for the behavior of a solid polymer during high-strain-rate deformations. In contrast to the classic thermodynamic techniques for deriving stress-strain response in static (equilibrium) circumstances, we employ a statistical-mechanics approach, in which we evolve a probability distribution function (PDF) for the velocity fluctuations of the repeating units of the chain. We use a Langevin description for the dynamics of a single repeating unit and a Lioville equation to describe the variations of the PDF. Moments of the PDF give the conservation equations for a single polymer chain embedded in other similar chains. To extract single-chain analytical constitutive relations these equations have been solved for representative loading paths. By this process we discover that a measure of nonuniform chain link displacement serves this purpose very well. We then derive an evolution equation for the descriptor function, with the result being a history-dependent constitutive relation.

  5. The Theory of Global Governance, Constitutionalization and Comparative Constitutional Law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 195-207. ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : globalization of political culture * global constitutionalism * comparative constitutional law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  6. An approach to the legal structural problems of the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Colombian Constitution as a source of law can be made after consideration of four legal structural problems: norms, epistemology, logics, and hermeneutics. These problems may be stated as follows: Is the Constitution a source of applicable law? Does the Constitution have a determined or determinable content? Is the Constitution the prevalent norm in the legal system?, and, how is the Constitution interpreted and what is the value of this interpretation as a source? To study them, phenomena such as the crisis in Law, the constitutionality block, the fundamental rights, the human rights, preceding laws and jurisprudential lines must be taken into account. All of these have been duly addressed by the Constitutional Court’s jurisprudence. The goal of this essay is to perform an intellectual, truthful and scientifically verifiable approach to the existence, coexistence, implications and solution hypotheses to the aforementioned problems, from the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court.

  7. Upgrading the Hemicellulosic Fraction of Biomass into Biofuel Valorisation de la fraction hémicellulosique de la biomasse en biocarburants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chaabane F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemicelluloses are polymers composed mainly of C5 sugars (pentosans . They constitute a significant part of lignocellulosic biomass (LCB, as they can be up to 30% of the total mass. The upgrading of the hemicellulosic components is thus a prerequisite for profitable biofuel production from LCB. When LCB undergoes acid pretreatment, the hemicellulose-derived fraction is mainly composed of monomeric pentoses (xylose, arabinose and oligomeric pentoses both resulting from the thermo-chemical hydrolysis. The hemicellulosic fraction is not fermentable into ethanol by wild type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Over the past 20 years, several groups have worked to genetically modify this yeast in order to render it capable offermenting pentose constituents. These efforts were met with varying degrees of success, especially in the case of industrial substrates. In this paper, we describe two other possible ways of using the hemicellulosic fraction, each of which may contribute to the economic viability of biofuel production from LCB. The first one is its use as a carbon substrate for the production of cellulases by Trichoderma reesei, since cellulases are needed for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The second is the AcetoneButanol-Ethanol (ABE fermentation using anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium. The produced ABE mixture has very interesting fuel properties and can be directly blended with gasoline. Les hémicelluloses sont des polymères composés principalement de sucres en C5 (pentosanes. Elles constituent une part importante de la biomasse lignocellulosique (BLC, puisqu’elles représentent jusqu’à 30 % de la masse totale. La valorisation des constituants hémicellulosiques est donc un prérequis pour la profitabilité de la production de biocarburants à partir de BLC. Lorsque l’on applique un prétraitement acide à la BLC, la fraction hémicellulosique résultante est principalement composée de pentoses monom

  8. The legal status of the Constitutional Court of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA CRISTINA VALEA

    2008-01-01

    The jurisdictional control of constitutionality can also be exercised by a specialized body, which is particularly established for this purpose (generally called court, council or constitutional tribunal) and, within a more general context, is called constitutional jurisdiction. Ever since their emergence, the legal status of the special constitutional jurisdictions has given rise to debates, even controversies, which have been promoted until present, for more than 70 years from the establish...

  9. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  10. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....

  11. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian; Nguyen, Vinh

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  12. Positive Constitutional Economics II—A Survey of Recent Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the economic effects of constitutional rules has made substantial progress over the last decade. This survey provides an overview of this rapidly growing research area and also discusses a number of methodological issues and identifies underresearched areas. It argues that the next logical step of Positive Constitutional Economics is to endogenize constitutional rules.

  13. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  14. Frederick Douglass Changed My Mind about the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, James

    2008-01-01

    Frederick Douglass dramatically and publicly changed his own mind about the Constitution. Like Frederick Douglass, the author had originally viewed the Constitution as pro-slavery. Yet a close look at Douglass's writings revealed a Constitution that empowered the federal government to abolish slavery.

  15. Constitutive Relation in Transitional Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hayley H.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Jenkins, James T.

    2002-01-01

    To study the constitutive behavior of granular materials, the presence of gravity is detrimental. Although empirical relations have been obtained for engineering designs to control granular flows on Earth, it is not known how well these Earthbound relations can be used in another gravity field. Fundamental understanding must be derived to reliably design for granular flows in space exploration. There are two extremes of granular flows of which significant amount of knowledge is available. One deals with a dense and quasi-static situation where the deformation rate nearly vanishes. The other deals with dilute and rapidly fluctuating grain velocities where particle inertia dominates. This project, funded by the NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program, aims to study this transitional regime via physical experiments and computer simulations. A conceptual model has been established as described below. There are two natural time scales in a granular flow. One is the travel time between two consecutive collisions and the other is the duration of a collision contact. At a very low shear-rate, the shear-induced particle velocity is low. Hence the travel time between collisions is longer than the contact time between colliding particles. Binary collisions prevail. As the shear-rate increases, the traveling time between collisions reduces and the probability of multiple collisions goes up. These particle groups disperse shortly after and new groups form. When shear-rate is further increased, clusters grow in size due to an increasing chance for free particles to join before groups have the time to disperse. The maximum cluster size may depend on the global concentration and material properties. As the solid concentration approaches zero, the cluster size goes to one particle diameter. The maximum possible cluster size under any condition is the container size, provided that the shear flow is inside a container. The critical shear-rates that dictate the initiation of the

  16. Constitutive Laws for Geomaterials Lois constitutives pour les géomatériaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamichos E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An abundance of constitutive laws exists to approximate the behavior of geomaterials under various stresses, boundary conditions and loading paths, pore pressures, temperatures and so on. The construction of constitutive laws is driven by two competing trends: the tendency for a unifying law describing the material behavior under the most general conditions, and the need for laws that can be used efficiently in practice. The latter incorporates both the possibility of calibration from available specimens and the user-friendliness of the law. For engineering purposes, the second tendency dominates and the engineer scientist has to evaluate the problem and select the most appropriate model to describe the dominant phenomena on hand. A review of various constitutive laws for geomaterials is presented with an emphasis on their application. Various examples of engineering problems and geomaterials with emphasis on petroleum applications are used to demonstrate that the law must be as simple as possible but not simpler. Il existe un nombre important de lois constitutives permettant d'approcher le comportement des géomatériaux sous diverses contraintes, conditions aux limites et divers chemins de chargement, pressions de pore, températures, etc. L'élaboration de lois constitutives suit deux tendances concurrentes : la tendance à élaborer une loi unifiée décrivant le comportement du matériau sous les conditions les plus générales, et le besoin de lois justifié par une utilisation efficace dans la pratique. La dernière tendance inclut à la fois la possibilité d'une calibration par des essais sur des échantillons disponibles, et la convivialité de la loi. À des fins d'ingénierie, la seconde tendance domine, l'ingénieur doit évaluer le problème et sélectionner le modèle le plus approprié pour décrire le phénomène dominant observé. Dans cet article, un examen des diverses lois constitutives pour les géomatériaux, et en

  17. Financial Accounting Constitution or its Referential Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a simplified approach it may be stated that the financial accounting theoretical framework is structured on three levels. At the first level, reference is made to the accounting objectives. These objectives are fundamental for the theoretical framework. At the second level, we find the accounting information characteristics and explicit mentions about the headings of financial statements. The mentioned characteristics of accounting information represent the basic issues for ensuring its utility. The headings represent the main categories of elements disclosed in the financial statements, like assets and liabilities – these two elements’ definitions brought radical changes both in the accounting thinking and practices. Overall, the second level’s components represent the basis for building the practice directives as a matter of recognition (identification and measurement (evaluation. Inside the third level, the recognition and measurement directives are being detailed, which will be further used by the accounting specialist in order to identify and apply the accounting standards. These two directives enclose postulates, principles and restrictions. Such specifications prove to be useful whenever precise answers must be given to relative financial information issues. Usually, it is accepted that the theoretical framework, also called the accounting framework is the standard-setting, metaphorically speaking is actually the constitution of financial accounting, or in other words, its reference matrix.

  18. High temperature constitutive models for MA957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: MA957 has outstanding low-temperature tensile and high-temperature creep strength and potential for managing radiation damage, including high helium levels in fusion environment. The excellent properties of nano-structured ferritic alloys (NFAs), such as MA957, derive from a high density of nm-sized Y-Ti-O precipitate cluster and/or complex oxides (NF), such as Y2Ti2O7 and Y2TiO5, which form during hot consolidation following mechanical alloying. The low temperature strengthening contributions have been evaluated in previous studies. However, the strengthening contributions of NF at high temperatures are not well understood. In this study we develop high temperature constitutive models for MA957, primarily from interrupted compression tests in the temperature (Tt) range from about 600 to 900 deg. C, over a range of strain rates down to less than 10-6/s. In probing the high stress regime for power law creep, our objective is to characterize the NF dislocation pinning dynamics. This information will then be used to build physical creep models, such as those based on threshold stress concepts, which can be extrapolated to lower stress regimes. Comparing this data to actual lower stress creep data we generate, as well as that taken from the literature, will help to discriminate the contributions of the NF to overall creep strength. The models will be used to construct Ashby type creep maps and to guide future experimental studies. (authors)

  19. Improvements to constitutive material model for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morea, Mihai I.

    2011-12-01

    The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems intended to mitigate fan blade-out events. This research builds on an earlier constitutive model of Kevlar 49 fabric developed at Arizona State University (ASU) with the addition of new and improved modeling details. Latest stress strain experiments provided new and valuable data used to modify the material model post peak behavior. These changes reveal an overall improvement of the Finite Element (FE) model's ability to predict experimental results. First, the steel projectile is modeled using Johnson-Cook material model and provides a more realistic behavior in the FE ballistic models. This is particularly noticeable when comparing FE models with laboratory tests where large deformations in projectiles are observed. Second, follow-up analysis of the results obtained through the new picture frame tests conducted at ASU provides new values for the shear moduli and corresponding strains. The new approach for analysis of data from picture frame tests combines digital image analysis and a two-level factorial optimization formulation. Finally, an additional improvement in the material model for Kevlar involves checking the convergence at variation of mesh density of fabrics. The study performed and described herein shows the converging trend, therefore validating the FE model.

  20. Impacts of Frequent Burning on Live Tree Carbon Biomass and Demography in Post-Harvest Regrowth Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Collins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The management of forest ecosystems to increase carbon storage is a global concern. Fire frequency has the potential to shift considerably in the future. These shifts may alter demographic processes and growth of tree species, and consequently carbon storage in forests. Examination of the sensitivity of forest carbon to the potential upper and lower extremes of fire frequency will provide crucial insight into the magnitude of possible change in carbon stocks associated with shifts in fire frequency. This study examines how tree biomass and demography of a eucalypt forest regenerating after harvest is affected by two experimentally manipulated extremes in fire frequency (i.e., ~3 year fire intervals vs. unburnt sustained over a 23 year period. The rate of post-harvest biomass recovery of overstorey tree species, which constituted ~90% of total living tree biomass, was lower within frequently burnt plots than unburnt plots, resulting in approximately 20% lower biomass in frequently burnt plots by the end of the study. Significant differences in carbon biomass between the two extremes in frequency were only evident after >15–20 years of sustained treatment. Reduced growth rates and survivorship of smaller trees on the frequently burnt plots compared to unburnt plots appeared to be driving these patterns. The biomass of understorey trees, which constituted ~10% of total living tree biomass, was not affected by frequent burning. These findings suggest that future shifts toward more frequent fire will potentially result in considerable reductions in carbon sequestration across temperate forest ecosystems in Australia.

  1. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  2. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  3. Biomass living energy; Biomasse l'energie vivante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  4. Design and development of polyamine polymer for harvesting microalgae for biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A low cost, high molecular weight cationic polymer was designed and developed for microalgal harvesting. • The polyamine polymer showed high flocculation efficiency for Scenedesmus sp. in comparison with chitosan and alum. • Such polymers could be preferred over other flocculants for microalgal harvesting for low value products such as biodiesel. • The polymer has not shown any deteriorating effect on lipid recovery and FAME profile of Scenedesmus sp. • Polyamine flocculant could be a cost effective option for harvesting of microalgal biomass for sustainable energy production. - Abstract: Research findings of the past few decades on the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production from laboratory to pilot scale microalgal cultivation have translated into empirical hope of developing an eco-friendly biofuel from algae. As far as economic sustainability is concerned, harvesting of microalgae is one of the most energy extensive processes and thus a major challenge, being faced by this industry. In our study, we designed and developed a quaternary ammonium salt based cationic polymer and evaluated its effectiveness for freshwater microalgae harvesting. An epichlorohydrin-n,n-diisopropylamine-dimethylamine polymer with high viscosity (1040 cps) was synthesized. The flocculation performance of this polyamine polymer was evaluated in terms of biomass recovery efficiency of microalgae (Scenedesmus sp.), its effect on lipid yield and composition. The results revealed that due to high molecular weight, the biomass recovery efficiency of the polymer was achieved >90% at a very small dose of 8 mg/L whereas similar biomass recovery efficiency of chitosan and alum were achieved at 80 and 250 mg/L respectively. The presence of functional quaternary amine and hydroxyl groups played an important role in electric charge neutralization of microalgal cells, hence the improved microalgal flocculation performance in comparison to the natural flocculants but

  5. Micromechanics and constitutive models for soft active materials with phase evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binglian

    Soft active materials, such as shape memory polymers, liquid crystal elastomers, soft tissues, gels etc., are materials that can deform largely in response to external stimuli. Micromechanics analysis of heterogeneous materials based on finite element method is a typically numerical way to study the thermal-mechanical behaviors of soft active materials with phase evolution. While the constitutive models that can precisely describe the stress and strain fields of materials in the process of phase evolution can not be found in the databases of some commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools such as ANSYS or Abaqus, even the specific constitutive behavior for each individual phase either the new formed one or the original one has already been well-known. So developing a computationally efficient and general three dimensional (3D) thermal-mechanical constitutive model for soft active materials with phase evolution which can be implemented into FEA is eagerly demanded. This paper first solved this problem theoretically by recording the deformation history of each individual phase in the phase evolution process, and adopted the idea of effectiveness by regarding all the new formed phase as an effective phase with an effective deformation to make this theory computationally efficient. A user material subroutine (UMAT) code based on this theoretical constitutive model has been finished in this work which can be added into the material database in Abaqus or ANSYS and can be easily used for most soft active materials with phase evolution. Model validation also has been done through comparison between micromechanical FEA and experiments on a particular composite material, shape memory elastomeric composite (SMEC) which consisted of an elastomeric matrix and the crystallizable fibre. Results show that the micromechanics and the constitutive models developed in this paper for soft active materials with phase evolution are completely relied on.

  6. Kelsen in Paris: France’s constitutional reform and the introduction of a posteriori constitutional review of legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbrini, Federico

    2008-01-01

    The article analyzes the recent French constitutional reform introducing a system of a posteriori constitutional review of legislation. The article places the reform in the context of the tradition French opposition toward judicial review, explains the reform in light of the pressures of EU and ECHR law and assess its revolutionary impact within the French constitutional system.

  7. Post-Revolution Constitutionalism: The Impact of Drafting Processes on the Constitutional Documents in Tunisia and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangemen...

  8. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

    OpenAIRE

    Makbule Çeço

    2014-01-01

    In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of cons...

  9. Energy from biomass. Economic and ecological evaluation; Energie aus Biomasse. Oekonomische und oekologische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The book includes the following presentations: Energy from biomass - introduction into the round table discussion; biomass for heat, fuel and electricity production; technological aspects of biomass based energy production; perspectives and scenarios for sustainable biomass utilisation; economical aspects of biomass based energy production; energy wood utilisation and sustainable forestry - a conflict of objectives?; impact of biomass plantations for the energy production on the ecosystem and land managment; impacts of the plant based energy production from the view of environmental protection.

  10. Constitution-making in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Saunders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Constitutions have been made or changed in major ways in more than half the countries of the world in recent decades. This article deals with contemporary approaches to constitution-making, organising the analysis around three key phases: setting the agenda, in terms of both substance and process; design, drafting and approval; and implementation. It argues that, while all constitution-making processes are different, there are some distinctive features of constitution-making in the 21st century that include popular participation, the need to build trust, internationalisation in its various forms and the importance of process. The article canvasses examples of constitution-making practices that have been or are likely to be influential. It identifies and briefly explores some of the key tensions in constitution-making between, for example, international involvement and domestic ownership of a Constitution and public participation and leadership.

  11. Forestry and biomass energy projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and net carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both...... biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone is...... sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction. The methodology allows consistent comparisons of the costs and quantities of carbon stored in different types of projects and/or national programs, facilitating the inclusion of forestry and biomass...

  12. Energy from biomass and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a review of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Energy Demonstration Programme in the sector of Energy from biomass and waste, and examines the current status of the energy technologies associated with the sector, in relation to projects supported under the Programme, those included under various national programmes and by reference to the published literature. Detailed overviews of five sub-categories represented in the Energy from biomass and waste sector are presented to illustrate their relative significance in terms of estimated energy potential, technological and economic status and the nature of future research, development and demonstration needs. Finally the potential role of the biomass and waste energy technologies in meeting the energy needs of the developing world is discussed. 33 refs; 2 figs; 11 tabs

  13. Forestry and biomass energy projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone is...... sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction. The methodology allows consistent comparisons of the costs and quantities of carbon stored in different types of projects and/or national programs, facilitating the inclusion of forestry and biomass......This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and net carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both...

  14. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  15. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Richter; R Biehl; M Monkenbush; B Hoffmann; R Merkel

    2008-10-01

    Starting from the standard model of polymer motion - the Rouse model - we briefly present some key experimental results on the mesoscopic dynamics of polymer systems. We touch the role of topological confinement as expressed in the reptation model and discuss in some more detail processes limiting the confinement. In the second part we relate to some new developments concerning the measurement of large-scale internal dynamics of proteins by neutron spin echo.

  16. Combined biomass valorization and hydrogen production in a photoelectrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun Gil; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2015-04-01

    In a typical hydrogen-producing photoelectrochemical cell (PEC), water reduction at the cathode (producing hydrogen) is accompanied by water oxidation at the anode (producing oxygen). This anode reaction is, however, not kinetically favourable. Here we investigate the possibility of utilizing solar energy for biomass conversion by performing the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) at the anode of a PEC. HMF is a key intermediate in biomass conversion, and FDCA is an important monomer for the production of numerous polymers. Using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl as a mediator, we obtained a near-quantitative yield and 100% Faradaic efficiency at ambient conditions without the use of precious-metal catalysts. This reaction is also thermodynamically and kinetically more favourable than water oxidation. Our results suggest that solar-driven biomass conversion can be a viable anode reaction that has the potential to increase both the efficiency and the utility of PECs constructed for solar-fuel production.

  17. Thermoset-cross-linked lignocellulose: a moldable plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuri, Sriharsha; Hiziroglu, Salim; Kalkan, A Kaan

    2015-04-01

    The present work demonstrates a high biomass content (i.e., up to 90% by weight) and moldable material by controlled covalent cross-linking of lignocellulosic particles by a thermoset through epoxide-hydroxyl reactions. As an example for lignocellulosic biomass, Eastern redcedar was employed. Using scanning fluorescence microscopy and vibrational spectroscopy, macroscopic to molecular scale interactions of the thermoset with the lignocellulose have been revealed. Impregnation of the polymer resin into the biomass cellular network by capillary action as well as applied pressure results in a self-organizing structure in the form of thermoset microrods in a matrix of lignocellulose. We also infer permeation of the thermoset into the cell walls from the reaction of epoxides with the hydroxyls of the lignin. Compression tests reveal, at 30% thermoset content, thermoset-cross-linked lignocellulose has superior mechanical properties over a commercial wood plastic composite while comparable stiffness and strength to bulk epoxy and wood, respectively. The failure mechanism is understood to be crack propagation along the particle-thermoset interface and/or interparticle thermoset network. PMID:25734539

  18. How Does Astronomy Constitute A Learning Community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yasemin; Sengul, R.; Unat, O.; Aknil, A.; Gurel, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in Turkey within an interdisciplinary project called "From a windowless home to a skyscraper: Let's build a home". It was realized through collaboration between a public university and a private high school. Researchers from Physics Education Department and volunteer teachers from high school, each studying on a different discipline, and volunteer high school students, all from an urban area of the country, conducted the project in a rural small town with resident secondary school students. It was implemented on the basis of history, through the use of different fields such as science, mathematics, geography, art, handcraft, architecture, engineering and astronomy in August 2008. The purpose of this study was to present the effect of the astronomical activities involved in the project. These implementations constructed a scientific and social base for the framework of astronomical activities of IYA2009, including building an amateur observatory. Since today's people are not so much acquainted with the issues of space and astronomy as much as the people of Antiquity, we attached special importance to the efforts in this field. The project, proceeded by a preparatory and informative period, involved night sky observation, initially with naked eye, followed by observation through telescope. Not only the students but also countless people, old or young, participated in our work in the field of astronomy. It provided a chance for all the people participating in or connected to the project to discover the sky. Astronomical activities aroused curiosity among students and the community and made a difference by inducing an awareness of the sky. The participants of the study had completely different social and cultural backgrounds, and this study removed all these differences bringing them together under the overarching astronomical and historical aspect. Moreover the community revealed all the characteristics that constitute a learning community.

  19. Nonlinear constitutive behavior of ferroelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ferroelectric specimen is considered as an aggregation of many randomly oriented domains. According to this mechanism,a multi-domain mechanical model is developed in this paper. Each domain is represented by one element. The applied stress and electric field are taken to be the stress and electric field in the formula of the driving force of domain switching for each element in the specimen. It means that the macroscopic switching criterion is used for calculating the volume fraction of domain switching for each element. By using the hardening relation between the driving force of domain switching and the volume fraction of domain switching calibrated,the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated. Substituting the stress and electric field and the volume fraction of domain switching into the constitutive equation of ferroelectric material,one can easily get the strain and electric displacement for each element. The macroscopic behavior of the ferroelectric specimen is then directly calculated by volume averaging. Mean-while,the nonlinear finite element analysis for the ferroelectric specimen is carried out. In the finite element simulation,the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated by using the same method mentioned above. The in-teraction between different elements is taken into account in the finite element simulation and the local stress and electric field for each element is obtained. The macroscopic behavior of the specimen is then calculated by volume averaging. The computation results involve the electric butterfly shaped curves of axial strain versus the axial electric field and the hysteresis loops of electric displacement versus the electric field for ferroelectric specimens under the uniaxial coupled stress and electric field loading. The present theoretical prediction agrees reasonably with the experimental results.

  20. Nonlinear constitutive behavior of ferroelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaiJun; LIU Feng; WANG TzuChiang

    2008-01-01

    The ferroelectric specimen is considered as an aggregation of many randomly oriented domains. According to this mechanism, a multi-domain mechanical model is developed in this paper. Each domain is represented by one element. The applied stress and electric field are taken to be the stress and electric field in the formula of the driving force of domain switching for each element in the specimen. It means that the macroscopic switching criterion is used for calculating the volume fraction of domain switching for each element. By using the hardening relation between the driving force of domain switching and the volume fraction of domain switching calibrated, the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated. Substituting the stress and electric field and the volume fraction of domain switching into the constitutive equation of ferroelectric material, one can easily get the strain and electric displacement for each element. The macroscopic behavior of the ferroelectric specimen is then directly calculated by volume averaging. Mean-while, the nonlinear finite element analysis for the ferroelectric specimen is carried out. In the finite element simulation, the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated by using the same method mentioned above. The in-teraction between different elements is taken into account in the finite element simulation and the local stress and electric field for each element is obtained. The macroscopic behavior of the specimen is then calculated by volume averaging. The computation results involve the electric butterfly shaped curves of axial strain versus the axial electric field and the hysteresis loops of electric displacement versus the electric field for ferroelectric specimens under the uniaxial coupled stress and electric field loading. The present theoretical prediction agrees reasonably with the experimental results.

  1. Photosynthetic membrane-less microbial fuel cells to enhance microalgal biomass concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Puigagut, Jaume

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the net increase in microalgal biomass concentration induced by photosynthetic microbial fuel cells (PMFC). The experiment was conducted on six lab-scale PMFC constituted by an anodic chamber simulating an anaerobic digester connected to a cathodic chamber consisting of a mixed algae consortia culture. Three PMFC were operated at closed circuit (PMFC(+)) whereas three PMFC were left unconnected as control (PMFC(-)). PMFC(+) produced a higher amount of carbon dioxide as a product of the organic matter oxidation that resulted in 1.5-3 times higher biomass concentration at the cathode compartment when compared to PMFC(-). PMID:27455126

  2. Effect of viscoplastic material parameters on polymer indentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, V; Needleman, A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of material parameters characterizing viscoplastic flow on the indentation response of polymers is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analyses and a one-dimensional expanding spherical cavity model. The polymer is characterized by a finite strain elastic–viscoplastic c......The effect of material parameters characterizing viscoplastic flow on the indentation response of polymers is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analyses and a one-dimensional expanding spherical cavity model. The polymer is characterized by a finite strain elastic......–viscoplastic constitutive relation and two indenter shapes are considered; a conical indenter and a pyramidal indenter. The ability of the simpler expanding spherical cavity model to reproduce the trends obtained from the finite element solutions is assessed for both indenter shapes. Within the range of parameter...

  3. Hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide glass nanofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Kubat, Irnis; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chalcogenide glasses with polymer photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is a difficult and challenging task due to their different thermo-mechanical material properties. Here we report the first experimental realization of a hybrid polymer-chalcogenide PCF with integrated As2S3 glass...... nanofilms at the inner surface of the air-channels of a poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) PCF. The integrated high refractive index glass films introduce distinct antiresonant transmission bands in the 480-900 nm wavelength region. We demonstrate that the ultra-high Kerr nonlinearity of the chalcogenide glass...... makes the polymer PCF nonlinear and provides a possibility to shift the transmission band edges as much as 17 nm by changing the intensity. The proposed fabrication technique constitutes a new highway towards all-fiber nonlinear tunable devices based on polymer PCFs, which at the moment is not possible...

  4. Environmentally friendly utilization of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    The thesis deals with various ways of utilization of biomass. Chapter 1 compares three biomass types: birch wood Betula sp., marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, and terrestrial moss Pleurozium schreberi, as precursors for preparation of biosorbents for removal of copper ions from diluted water solutions. Small sample doses (0.5 g/100ml) of the biosorbents prepared from alga and moss enabled more than 90 % removal of Cu (II) ions from diluted water solutions (5-20 mg/l). The sample from birch...

  5. Biomass: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this address, the author discusses the resource potential of biomass. Biomass is the principal source of energy for three-fourths of the world's population and contributes energy equivalent to 35 million barrels of oil per day globally. Other countries are growing fuel crops and producing fuel at competitive prices. The US and Europe have areas of surplus agricultural land that could be used to produce energy crops; however, since harvesting and storage often represent 65-80% of delivered fuel costs, improvements in this area are needed

  6. International biomass. International markets of biomass-energy - Public synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at analysing the present and future place of wood-energy in the European Union as the main renewable resource used to produce heat and electricity. This study comprised an analysis of European markets of solid biomass and of regulation, case studies on wood-energy producer markets (North America, Eastern Europe, Brazil and Africa), a study of preparation modes (shredding, granulation, roasting) and biomass transport. This study is based on bibliographical searches in national and European sources, and on field data collected by the various bodies involved in this study. This synthesis notably discusses the following issues: solid biomass is the main renewable resource for the EU and has many applications; European objectives for solid biomass by 2020 are very ambitious; markets are becoming international to face the EU's increasing demand; pellet production in North America is strongly increasing; in Europe, eastern European countries are the main exporters; Brazil has an export potential which is still to be confirmed; the African trade with Europe is still in its infancy. Finally, the development perspectives of roasted wood trade are discussed

  7. Biomass estimation by allometric relationships, nutrients, and carbon associated to heart-of-palm plantations in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) agroecosystems constitute a productive and sustainable land use for the humid tropics. Allometric methods allow to predict biomass non-destructively at any time and, subsequently, to determine the span of growth phases, biomass and nutrient pools, and economic yields. The overall goals of this study were to obtain and validate predictive functions of aboveground dry biomass, and to relate standing biomass with heart-of-palm yields as well. Towards this purpose, peach palm shoots were harvested and separated into components: foliage, petiole and stem, in the Atlantic region of Costa Rica. A non-linear seemingly unrelated regression (NSUR) procedure, which simultaneously fits the component equations that predict leaf, petiole and stem in order to assure biomass additivity, was used to generate the allometric equations. Basal diameter (BD) was a more effective predictor of biomass than height to the fork between the spear leaf and the first fully expanded leaf, total height and number of leaves. Regression models explained 70-89% of the variance in biomass components (foliage, petiole and stem) or total shoot biomass. Three growth stages were identified: establishment (0-1 years), fast growth (1-3 or 1-8 years depending on plant density) and maturity (> 8 years). Nutrient contents associated to above- and below-ground biomass were measured. For above-ground biomass nutrient contents were N (up to 150 kg ha-1)>K (up to 119 kg ha-1)>Ca (up to 45 kg ha-1)>Mg=S=P (between 15-17 kg ha-1). The below-ground biomass: above-ground biomass ratio increased with the plantation age

  8. Nanomembranes and Nanofibers from Biodegradable Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Puiggalí

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a current status report of the field concerning preparation of fibrous mats based on biodegradable (e.g., aliphatic polyesters such as polylactide or polycaprolactone and conducting polymers (e.g., polyaniline, polypirrole or polythiophenes. These materials have potential biomedical applications (e.g., tissue engineering or drug delivery systems and can be combined to get free-standing nanomembranes and nanofibers that retain the better properties of their corresponding individual components. Systems based on biodegradable and conducting polymers constitute nowadays one of the most promising solutions to develop advanced materials enable to cover aspects like local stimulation of desired tissue, time controlled drug release and stimulation of either the proliferation or differentiation of various cell types. The first sections of the review are focused on a general overview of conducting and biodegradable polymers most usually employed and the explanation of the most suitable techniques for preparing nanofibers and nanomembranes (i.e., electrospinning and spin coating. Following sections are organized according to the base conducting polymer (e.g., Sections 4–6 describe hybrid systems having aniline, pyrrole and thiophene units, respectively. Each one of these sections includes specific subsections dealing with applications in a nanofiber or nanomembrane form. Finally, miscellaneous systems and concluding remarks are given in the two last sections.

  9. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  10. Biomass Demand-Resources Value Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Introduce DRVT supply chain modelling approach to consider underutilised biomass. • Advantages of the novel DRVT biomass supply chain approach. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the improvement of the system. - Abstract: With the global awareness towards sustainability, biomass industry becomes one of the main focuses in the search of alternative renewable resources for energy and downstream product. However, the efficiency of the biomass management, especially in supply chain is still questionable. Even though many researches and integrations of supply chain network have been conducted, less has considered underutilised biomass. This leads to the ignorance of potential value in particular biomass species. A new Demand-Resources Value Targeting (DRVT) approach is introduced in this study to investigate the value of each biomass available in order to fully utilise the biomass in respective applications. With systematic biomass value classification, integration of supply chain based on biomass value from biomass resources-to-downstream product can be developed. DRVT model allows better understanding of biomass and their potential downstream application. A simple demonstration of DRVT approach is conducted based on biomass resources in Malaysia

  11. Polymer radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews some of the work carried out in the Polymer and Radiation Group at the University of Queensland over the past ten years. The objective of the work has been to investigate the relationships between polymer structure and sensitivity towards high energy radiation, including 60Co gamma radiation, electron beams and UV radiation. A range of synthetic polymers containing carboxyl groups, acrylate groups, sulfone groups, amide linkages and aromatic residues have been investigated. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Nanostructured polymers for photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Paquet; Eugenia Kumacheva

    2008-01-01

    We review recent progress in the development of polymer nanostructured materials with periodic structures and compositions having applications in photonics and optical data storage. This review provides a brief description of the microfabrication and self-assembly methods used for the production of polymer materials with periodic structures, and highlights the properties and applications of photonic materials derived from block copolymers, colloid crystals, and microfabricated polymers. We co...

  13. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  14. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  15. All Polymer Micropump

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Larsen, Niels Bent; Hassager, Ole

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis an all polymer micropump, and the fabrication method required to fabricate this, are examined. Polymer microfluidic. devices are of major scientific interest because they can combine complicated chemical and biological analys~s in cheap and disposable devices. The electrode system in the micropump is based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The majority of the work conducted was therefore aimed at developing methods for patterning and processing...

  16. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are ...

  17. Thermally conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  18. Division G Commission 35: Stellar Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Marco; Lattanzio, John C.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Dominguez, Inma; Isern, Jordi; Karakas, Amanda; Leitherer, Claus; Marconi, Marcella; Shaviv, Giora; van Loon, Jacco

    2016-04-01

    Commission 35 (C35), ``Stellar Constitution'', consists of members of the International Astronomical Union whose research spans many aspects of theoretical and observational stellar physics and it is mainly focused on the comprehension of the properties of stars, stellar populations and galaxies. The number of members of C35 increased progressively over the last ten years and currently C35 comprises about 400 members. C35 was part of Division IV (Stars) until 2014 and then became part of Division G (Stars and Stellar Physics), after the main IAU reorganisation in 2015. Four Working Groups have been created over the years under Division IV, initially, and Division G later: WG on Active B Stars, WG on Massive Stars, WG on Abundances in Red Giant and WG on Chemically Peculiar and Related Stars. In the last decade the Commission had 4 presidents, Wojciech Dziembowski (2003-2006), Francesca D'Antona (2006-2009), Corinne Charbonnel (2009-2012) and Marco Limongi (2012-2015), who were assisted by an Organizing Committee (OC), usually composed of about 10 members, all of them elected by the C35 members and holding their positions for three years. The C35 webpage (http://iau-c35.stsci.edu) has been designed and continuously maintained by Claus Leitherer from the Space Telescope Institute, who deserves our special thanks. In addition to the various general information on the Commission structure and activities, it contains links to various resources, of interest for the members, such as stellar models, evolutionary tracks and isochrones, synthetic stellar populations, stellar yields and input physics (equation of state, nuclear cross sections, opacity tables), provided by various groups. The main activity of the C35 OC is that of evaluating, ranking and eventually supporting the proposals for IAU sponsored meetings. In the last decade the Commission has supported several meetings focused on topics more or less relevant to C35. Since the primary aim of this document is to

  19. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  20. What constitutes our understanding of a patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    1993-01-01

    aspects of prevailing ideologies in constituting and determining what we call truth and understanding, including the "understanding" of a patient in psychotherapy. An example of the postmodern blend of philosophy and psychoanalysis is presented by Arlow's emphasis on unconscious fantasies and his insightful comments on how these unconscious fantasies organize and determine what we experience from the very beginning of life. This I believe is most consistent with Rescher's philosophical notion of "conceptual idealism," also briefly reviewed in this paper.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8349490