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Sample records for biomass combustion units

  1. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  2. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  3. SPECIFIC EMISSIONS FROM BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skopec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the specific emissions from the combustion of two kinds of biomass fuels in a small-scale boiler. The tested fuels were pellets made of wood and pellets made of rape plant straw. In order to evaluate the specific emissions, several combustion experiments were carried out using a commercial 25 kW pellet-fired boiler. The specific emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx were evaluated in relation to a unit of burned fuel, a unit of calorific value and a unit of produced heat. The specific emissions were compared with some data acquired from the reference literature, with relatively different results. The differences depend mainly on the procedure used for determining the values, and references provide no information about this. Although some of our experimental results may fit with one of the reference sources, they do not fit with the other. The reliability of the references is therefore disputable.

  4. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  5. Particle Emissions from Biomass Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpila, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Bioenergy Technology; Pagels, Joakim; Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik; Gharibi, Arash [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Physics

    2003-05-01

    We have shown that high concentrations of fine particles of the order of 2-7x10{sup -7} particles per cm{sup 3} are being formed in all the combustion units studied. There was a higher difference between the units in terms of particle mass concentrations. While the largest differences was found for gas-phase constituents (CO and THC) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In 5 out of 7 studied units, multi-cyclones were the only measure for flue-gas separation. The multicyclones had negligible effect on the particle number concentration and a small effect on the mass of particles smaller than 5 {mu}m. The separation efficiency was much higher for the electrostatic precipitators. The boiler load had a dramatic influence on the coarse mode concentration during combustion of forest residue. PM0.8-6 increased from below 5 mg/m{sup 3} to above 50 mg/m{sup 3} even at a moderate change in boiler load from medium to high. A similar but less pronounced trend was found during combustion of dry wood. PM0.8-PM6 increased from 12 to 23 mg/m{sup 3} when the load was changed from low to high. When increasing the load, the primary airflow taken through the grate is increased; this itself may lead to a higher potential of the air stream to carry coarse particles away from the combustion zone. Measurements with APS-instrument with higher time-resolution showed a corresponding increase in coarse mode number concentration with load. Additional factor influencing observed higher concentration of coarse mode during combustion of forest residues, could be relatively high ash content in this type of fuel (2.2 %) in comparison to dry wood (0.3 %) and pellets (0.5 %). With increasing load we also found a decrease in PM1 during combustion of forest residue. Whether this is caused by scavenging of volatilized material by the high coarse mode concentration or a result of a different amount of volatilized material available for formation of fine particles needs to be shown in future studies. The

  6. Quality Determination of Biomass for Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2013-01-01

    A high content of minerals in biomass feedstock may cause fouling, slagging, and corrosion in the furnace during combustion. Here, a new pressurized microwave digestion method for biomass digestion prior to elemental analysis is presented. This high-throughput method is capable of processing...

  7. Combustion strategy : United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, D. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edingburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2009-07-01

    The United Kingdom's combustion strategy was briefly presented. Government funding sources for universities were listed. The United Kingdom Research Councils that were listed included the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); the Economic and Social Research Council; the Medical Research Council; the Natural Environment Research Council; and the Science and Technology Facilities Council. The EPSRC supported 65 grants worth 30.5 million pounds. The combustion industry was noted to be dominated by three main players of which one was by far the largest. The 3 key players were Rolls-Royce; Jaguar Land Rover; and Doosan Babcock. Industry and government involvement was also discussed for the BIS Technology Strategy Board, strategy technology areas, and strategy application areas.

  8. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  9. Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles...... well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600°C...

  10. deNOx catalysts for biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen Buus

    The present thesis revolves around the challenges involved in removal of nitrogen oxides in biomass fired power plants. Nitrogen oxides are unwanted byproducts formed to some extent during almost any combustion. In coal fired plants these byproducts are removed by selective catalytic reduction......, however the alkali in biomass complicate matters. Alkali in biomass severely deactivates the catalyst used for the selective catalytic reduction in matter of weeks, hence a more alkali resistant catalyst is needed. In the thesis a solution to the problem is presented, the nano particle deNOx catalyst...

  11. Modeling of aerosol formation during biomass combustion in grate furnaces and comparison with measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joeller, M.; Brunner, T.; Obernberger, I.

    2005-01-01

    Results from mathematical modeling of aerosol formation during combustion of woody biomass fuels were compared with results from particle size distribution (PSD) measurements at a pilot-scale biomass combustion unit with moving grate and flame tube boiler. The mathematical model is a plug flow model

  12. Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simões Amaral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission factor is a relative measure and can be used to estimate emissions from multiple sources of air pollution. For this reason, data from literature on particulate matter emission factors from different types of biomass were evaluated in this paper. Initially, the main sources of particles were described, as well as relevant concepts associated with particle measurements. In addition, articles about particle emissions were classified and described in relation to the sampling environment (open or closed and type of burned biomass (agricultural, garden, forest, and dung. Based on this analysis, a set of emission factors was presented and discussed. Important observations were made about the main emission sources of particulate matter. Combustion of compacted biomass resulted in lower particulate emission factors. PM2.5 emissions were predominant in the burning of forest biomass. Emission factors were more elevated in laboratory burning, followed by burns in the field, residences and combustors.

  13. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice....... In this study, a fly ash sample from an operating Danish power plant based on wood biomass was collected, chemically characterized and investigated for its leaching release of nutrients and heavy metals. A column leaching test was employed. The strongly alkaline pH of all the collected eluates suggested...

  17. Biomass combustion technologies for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr. [Appel Consultants, Inc., Stevenson Ranch, CA (United States); McGowin, C.R.; Hughes, E.E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Technology in power production from biomass has been advancing rapidly. Industry has responded to government incentives such as the PURPA legislation in the US and has recognized that there are environmental advantages to using waste biomass as fuel. During the 1980s many new biomass power plants were built. The relatively mature stoker boiler technology was improved by the introduction of water-cooled grates, staged combustion air, larger boiler sizes up to 60 MW, higher steam conditions, and advanced sootblowing systems. Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology achieved full commercial status, and now is the leading process for most utility-scale power applications, with more complete combustion, lower emissions, and better fuel flexibility than stoker technology. Bubbling fluidized-bed (BFB) technology has an important market niche as the best process for difficult fuels such as agricultural wastes, typically in smaller plants. Other biomass power generation technologies are being developed for possible commercial introduction in the 1990s. Key components of Whole Tree Energy{trademark} technology have been tested, conceptual design studies have been completed with favorable results, and plans are being made for the first integrated process demonstration. Fluidized-bed gasification processes have advanced from pilot to demonstration status, and the world`s first integrated wood gasification/combined cycle utility power plant is starting operation in Sweden in early 1993. Several European vendors offer biomass gasification processes commercially. US electric utilities are evaluating the cofiring of biomass with fossil fuels in both existing and new plants. Retrofitting existing coal-fired plants gives better overall cost and performance results than any biomass technologies;but retrofit cofiring is {open_quotes}fuel-switching{close_quotes} that provides no new capacity and is attractive only with economic incentives.

  18. Emission of nanoparticles during combustion of waste biomass in fireplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastichová, Vendula; Krpec, Kamil; Horák, Jiří; Hopan, František; Kubesa, Petr; Martiník, Lubomír; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Holubčík, Michal

    2014-08-01

    Contamination of air by solid particles is serious problem for human health and also environment. Small particles in nano-sizes are more dangerous than same weight of larger size. Negative effect namely of the solid particles depends on (i) number, (ii) specific surface area (iii) respirability and (iv) bonding of others substances (e.g. PAHs, As, Cd, Zn, Cu etc.) which are higher for smaller (nano-sizes) particles compared to larger one. For this reason mentioned above this contribution deals with measuring of amount, and distribution of nanoparticles produced form combustion of waste city biomass in small combustion unit with impactor DLPI.

  19. Signal correlations in biomass combustion. An information theoretic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruusunen, M.

    2013-09-01

    Increasing environmental and economic awareness are driving the development of combustion technologies to efficient biomass use and clean burning. To accomplish these goals, quantitative information about combustion variables is needed. However, for small-scale combustion units the existing monitoring methods are often expensive or complex. This study aimed to quantify correlations between flue gas temperatures and combustion variables, namely typical emission components, heat output, and efficiency. For this, data acquired from four small-scale combustion units and a large circulating fluidised bed boiler was studied. The fuel range varied from wood logs, wood chips, and wood pellets to biomass residue. Original signals and a defined set of their mathematical transformations were applied to data analysis. In order to evaluate the strength of the correlations, a multivariate distance measure based on information theory was derived. The analysis further assessed time-varying signal correlations and relative time delays. Ranking of the analysis results was based on the distance measure. The uniformity of the correlations in the different data sets was studied by comparing the 10-quantiles of the measured signal. The method was validated with two benchmark data sets. The flue gas temperatures and the combustion variables measured carried similar information. The strongest correlations were mainly linear with the transformed signal combinations and explicable by the combustion theory. Remarkably, the results showed uniformity of the correlations across the data sets with several signal transformations. This was also indicated by simulations using a linear model with constant structure to monitor carbon dioxide in flue gas. Acceptable performance was observed according to three validation criteria used to quantify modelling error in each data set. In general, the findings demonstrate that the presented signal transformations enable real-time approximation of the studied

  20. Combining solid biomass combustion and stirling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemers, W.; Senkel, N. [CUTEC-Institut GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], e-mail: werner.siemers@cutec.de

    2012-11-01

    Decentralised electricity production in combination with and based on biomass still finds some difficulties in real applications. One concept favoured in a recent project is the connection of a wood chip furmace with a Stirling engine. Because the direct exposure of the Stirling head causes numerous problems, the solution is sought in designing an indirect heat transfer system. The main challenge is the temperature level, which should be reached for high electrical efficiencies. Temperatures above 1000 deg C at the biomass combustion side are needed for an efficient heat transfer at some 850 deg C at the Stirling engine in theory. Measurements on both installations have been conducted and analyzed. After this, the design phase is started. However, no final choice on the design has been taken.

  1. COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS AND CHARCOAL MADE FROM BABASSU NUTSHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, studies have examined the use of lignocellulosic wastes for energy generation. However, there is a lack of information on the combustibility of the residual biomass, especially the bark and charcoal of babassu nut. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to achieve the following objectives: to evaluate the combustion of the residual biomass from the babassu nut; to evaluate the combustion of charcoal produced from this biomass, considering different final carbonization temperatures; and to determine the effect of the final carbonization temperature on the thermal stability of charcoal and on its performance in combustion. Thermal analyses were performed in synthetic air. In order to evaluate the characteristics of charcoal combustion and fresh biomass, the ignition temperature (Ti, the burnout temperature (Tf, characteristic combustion index (S, ignition index (Di, time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate (tp, and ignition time (tig were considered. The combustion of the babassu nutshell occurred in three phases and it was observed that this lignocellulosic material is suitable for the direct generation of heat. The increase in the final carbonization temperature caused an increase in the ignition temperature, as well as in the burnout temperature, the ignition time and the time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate. The results indicate that the increase in the carbonization temperature causes a decrease in combustion reactivity and, consequently, the charcoals produced at lower temperatures are easier to ignite and exhibit better performance in ignition.

  2. Fundamental study of single biomass particle combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles with regular shapes (spheres and cylinders) and particles with irregular shapes (almost flake-like). A CAMSIZER analyser (Retsch Technology GMBH) was used to determine the size and shape of the particles via Dynamical Digital Image Processing. The experiments were performed in a single particle reactor under well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600 deg. C) and varying oxygen concentrations in the 5 to 20% range. A one-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilisation, char gasification/oxidation and heat/mass/momentum transfer) within single particles of different shapes and size under various conditions. The model also predicts the flame layer domain of a single particle. The model was validated by experimental results under different conditions; good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data was observed. Both the experimental and modelling results showed that cylindrical particles lose mass faster than spherical particles of a similar volume (mass) and that the burnout time is reduced by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area to volume ratio). Very similar conversion times were observed for cylindrical particles with nearly identical surface area to volume ratios. Similar conversion times were also observed for two size classes of pulverised particles (with irregular shapes) made from the same type of

  3. Biomass combustion for greenhouse carbon dioxide enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Yves; Lefsrud, Mark; Orsat, Valerie; Filion, Francis; Bouchard, Julien; Nguyen, Quoc; Dion, Louis-Martin; Glover, Antony; Madadian, Edris; Lee, Camilo Perez

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouses in northern climates have a significant heat requirement that is mainly supplied by non-renewable fuels such as heating oil and natural gas. This project's goal was the development of an improved biomass furnace able to recover the heat and the CO 2 available in the flue gas and use them in the greenhouse. A flue gas purification system was designed, constructed and installed on the chimney of a wood pellet furnace (SBI Caddy Alterna). The purification system consists of a rigid box air filter (MERV rating 14, 0.3 μm pores) followed by two sets of heating elements and a catalytic converter. The air filter removes the particulates present in the flue gas while the heating elements and catalysers transform the noxious gases into less harmful gases. Gas analysis was sampled at different locations in the system using a TESTO 335 flue gas analyzer. The purification system reduces CO concentrations from 1100 cm 3  m −3 to less than 1 cm 3  m −3 NO x from 70 to 5.5 cm 3  m −3 SO 2 from 19 cm 3  m −3 to less than 1 cm 3  m −3 and trapped particulates down to 0.3 μm with an efficiency greater than 95%. These results are satisfactory since they ensure human and plant safety after dilution into the ambient air of the greenhouse. The recuperation of the flue gas has several obvious benefits since it increases the heat usability per unit biomass and it greatly improves the CO 2 recovery of biomass heating systems for the benefit of greenhouse grown plants. - Highlights: • Biomass furnace shows high potential for greenhouse carbon dioxide enrichment. • Flue gas recuperation significantly increases the thermal efficiency of a furnace. • Catalytic converter can reduce CO and NOx below humans and plants exposure limit. • Particulates control is essential to maintain the efficiency of the catalytic conversion. • CO 2 recovery from biomass heating systems reduces farmer's reliance on fossil fuel

  4. Biomass Combustion Control and Stabilization Using Low-Cost Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Piteľ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes methods for biomass combustion process control and burning stabilization based on low-cost sensing of carbon monoxide emissions and oxygen concentration in the flue gas. The designed control system was tested on medium-scale biomass-fired boilers and some results are evaluated and presented in the paper.

  5. Decentralized biomass combustion: State of the art and future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obernberger, I.

    1998-01-01

    The present amount of biomass used for heat, and to a smaller extent electricity production, is already considerable in several European countries but the potential unused in Europe is even higher. Combustion is the most mature conversion technology utilized for biomass. The systems addressed in

  6. Pollutants generated by the combustion of solid biomass fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jenny M; Ma, Lin; Williams, Alan; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book considers the pollutants formed by the combustion of solid biomass fuels. The availability and potential use of solid biofuels is first discussed because this is the key to the development of biomass as a source of energy.This is followed by details of the methods used for characterisation of biomass and their classification.The various steps in the combustion mechanisms are given together with a compilation of the kinetic data. The chemical mechanisms for the formation of the pollutants: NOx, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons, SOx, Cl compounds, and particulate metal aerosols

  7. Gas Phase Sulfur, Chlorine and Potassium Chemistry in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løj, Lusi Hindiyarti

    2007-01-01

    Gas Phase Sulfur, Chlorine and Alkali Metal Chemistry in Biomass Combustion Concern about aerosols formation, deposits, corrosion, and gaseous emissions during biomass combustion, especially straw, continues to be a driving force for investigation on S, Cl, K-containing species under combustions...... conditions. These trace species contained in the biomass structure will be released to the gas phase during combustion and contribute to the problems generated during the process. The investigation during this PhD project is done to stepwise improve the understanding in the chemistry and reduce...... the uncertainties. In the present work, the detailed kinetic model for gas phase sulfur, chlorine, alkali metal, and their interaction has been updated. The K/O/H/Cl chemistry, S chemistry, and their interaction can reasonably predict a range of experimental data. In general, understanding of the interaction...

  8. Co-combustion and gasification of various biomasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutanen, K [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Varkaus (Finland). Ahlstrom Pyropower

    1997-12-31

    During the last twenty years the development of fluidized bed combustion and gasification technology has made it possible to increase significantly utilisation of various biomasses in power and heat generation. The forerunner was the pulp and paper industry that has an adequate biomass fuel supply and energy demand on site. Later on municipalities and even utilities have seen biomass as a potential fuel. The range of available biomasses includes wood-based fuels and wastes like bark, wood chips, and saw dust, agricultural wastes like straw, olive waste and rice husk, sludges from paper mills and de-inking plants, other wastes like municipal sludges, waste paper and RDF. Recently new environmental regulations and taxation of fossil fuels have further increased interest in the use of biomasses in energy generation. However, in many cases available quantities and/or qualities of biomasses are not adequate for only biomass-based energy generation in an economic sense. On the other hand plant owners want to maintain a high level of fuel flexibility and fuel supply security. In some cases disposing by burning is the only feasible way to handle certain wastes. In many cases the only way to fulfil these targets and utilize the energy is to apply co-combustion or gasification of different fuels and wastes. Due to the fact that fluidized bed combustion technology offers a very high fuel flexibility and high combustion efficiency with low emissions it has become the dominating technology in co-combustion applications. This presentation will present Alhstrom`s experiences in co-combustion of biomasses in bubbling beds and Ahlstrom Pyroflow circulating fluidized beds based on about 200 operating references worldwide. CFB gasification will also be discussed 9 refs.

  9. Co-combustion and gasification of various biomasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutanen, K. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Varkaus (Finland). Ahlstrom Pyropower

    1996-12-31

    During the last twenty years the development of fluidized bed combustion and gasification technology has made it possible to increase significantly utilisation of various biomasses in power and heat generation. The forerunner was the pulp and paper industry that has an adequate biomass fuel supply and energy demand on site. Later on municipalities and even utilities have seen biomass as a potential fuel. The range of available biomasses includes wood-based fuels and wastes like bark, wood chips, and saw dust, agricultural wastes like straw, olive waste and rice husk, sludges from paper mills and de-inking plants, other wastes like municipal sludges, waste paper and RDF. Recently new environmental regulations and taxation of fossil fuels have further increased interest in the use of biomasses in energy generation. However, in many cases available quantities and/or qualities of biomasses are not adequate for only biomass-based energy generation in an economic sense. On the other hand plant owners want to maintain a high level of fuel flexibility and fuel supply security. In some cases disposing by burning is the only feasible way to handle certain wastes. In many cases the only way to fulfil these targets and utilize the energy is to apply co-combustion or gasification of different fuels and wastes. Due to the fact that fluidized bed combustion technology offers a very high fuel flexibility and high combustion efficiency with low emissions it has become the dominating technology in co-combustion applications. This presentation will present Alhstrom`s experiences in co-combustion of biomasses in bubbling beds and Ahlstrom Pyroflow circulating fluidized beds based on about 200 operating references worldwide. CFB gasification will also be discussed 9 refs.

  10. Bioenergy originating from biomass combustion in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crujeira, T.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Lopes, H.; Abelha, P.; Cabrita, I. [INETI/DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    Bioenergy could significantly contribute to reducing and controlling greenhouse emissions (GHG) and to replace fossil fuels in large power plants. Although the use of biomass, originating from forests, could be beneficial, particularly in preventing fires, there are obstacles to achieve a sustainable supply chain of biomass in most European countries. In addition, there are also technical barriers as requirements of biomass combustion may differ from those of coal, which could mean significant retrofitting of existing installations. The combustion behaviour of different biomass materials were studied on a pilot fluidised bed combustor, equipped with two cyclones for particulate matter removal. The gaseous pollutants leaving the stack were sampled under isokinetic conditions for particulate matter, chlorine compounds, heavy metals and dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). The results obtained indicated that the combustion of these materials did not present any operational problem, although for temperatures above 800{sup o}C, bed agglomeration could be observed for all biomass materials studied. Most of the combustion of biomass, contrary to what is observed for coal, takes place in the riser where the temperature was as much as 150{sup o}C above that of the bed. Stable combustion conditions were achieved as well as high combustion efficiency. When compared with the emissions of bituminous coal, the most used fossil fuel, the emissions of CO and SO2 were found to be lower and NOx emissions were similar to those of coal. HCl and PCDD/F could be considerable with biomasses containing high chlorine levels, as in the case of straw. It was observed that the nature of ash could give rise serious operating problems.

  11. Combustion and co-combustion of biomass in a bubbling fluidized bed boiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    This PhD dissertation concerns the study of different aspects of biomass (co)-combustion in small-scale fluidized bed boilers for heat generation. The most renowned gaseous emissions from fluidized bed combustion, namely, CO and NO, are investigated with the help of experimental and theoretical

  12. Emission of toxic air pollutants from biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Barnett, S.G.; Roholt, R.B.; Rock, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Combustion of biomass for power generation, home heating, process steam generation, and waste disposal constitutes a major source of air pollutants nationwide. Emissions from hog-fueled boilers, demolition wood-fired power plants, municipal waste incinerators, woodstoves, fireplaces, pellet stoves, agricultural burning, and forestry burning have been characterized for a variety of purposes. These have included risk assessment, permitting, emission inventory development, source profiling for receptor modeling, and control technology evaluations. From the results of the source characterization studies a compilation of emission factors for criteria and non-criteria pollutants are presented here. Key among these pollutants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, priority pollutant metals, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and PM 10 particles. The emission factors from the biomass combustion processes are compared and contrasted with other pollutant sources. In addition, sampling and analysis procedures most appropriate for characterizing emissions from the biomass combustion sources are also discussed

  13. Particulate and gaseous emissions from residential biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Christoffer

    2005-04-01

    Biomass is considered to be a sustainable energy source with significant potentials for replacing electricity and fossil fuels, not at least in the residential sector. However, present wood combustion is a major source of ambient concentrations of hydrocarbons (e.g. VOC and PAH) and particulate matter (PM) and exposure to these pollutants have been associated with adverse health effects. Increased focus on combustion related particulate emissions has been seen concerning the formation, characteristics and implications to human health. Upgraded biomass fuels (e.g. pellets) provide possibilities of more controlled and optimized combustion with less emission of products of incomplete combustion (PICs). For air quality and health impact assessments, regulatory standards and evaluations concerning residential biomass combustion, there is still a need for detailed emission characterization and quantification when using different fuels and combustion techniques. This thesis summarizes the results from seven different papers. The overall objective was to carefully and systematically study the emissions from residential biomass combustion with respect to: i) experimental characterization and quantification, ii) influences of fuel, appliance and operational variables and iii) aspects of ash and trace element transformations and aerosol formation. Special concern in the work was on sampling, quantification and characterization of particulate emissions using different appliances, fuels and operating procedures. An initial review of health effects showed epidemiological evidence of potential adverse effect from wood smoke exposure. A robust whole flow dilution sampling set-up for residential biomass appliances was then designed, constructed and evaluated, and subsequently used in the following emission studies. Extensive quantifications and characterizations of particulate and gases emissions were performed for residential wood and pellet appliances. Emission factor ranges for

  14. Researches concerning the use of mixed Hydrogen in the combustion of dense biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negreanu, Gabriel-Paul; Mihaescu, Lucian; Pisa, Ionel; Berbece, Viorel; Lazaroiu, Gheorghe

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with theoretical basis and experimental tests of mixed hydrogen diffusion in the dense system of biomass. Research regarding hydrogen diffusion in the porous system of biomass is part of wider research focusing on using hydrogen as an active medium for solid biomass combustion. In parallel with hydrogen diffusion in solid biomass, tests regarding biomass combustion previously subjected to a hydrogen flux will be carried out. Keywords: biomass, hydrogen diffusion, combustion, experimental tests

  15. Energy balance of a wood biomass combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggio, P.; Cemin, A.; Grigiante, M.; Ragazzi, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the results of a project developed at the University of Trent dealing with some wood biomass combustion processes. The project has been particularly dedicated to the study of the energetic analysis of the combustion processes that occur on a gasified wood stove of advanced combustion technologies. A considerable number of experimental tests has been carried out making use of different type of wood widely in use in Trentino region. The wood stove is a part of a pilot plant providing an hydraulic circuit equipped with a specific apparatus to measure all the necessary data to determine the energy balance required and specifically the thermal efficiency of the plant [it

  16. Emissions from small scale biomass combustion - Research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Karlsson, M.L.; Larfeldt, J.; Leckner, B.

    1994-01-01

    Earlier investigations have shown that small scale biomass combustion leads to unacceptable emissions in the air. The most important problem is high levels of unburnt hydrocarbons. This report analyzes which are the most important reasons to these emissions and which research efforts that are necessary to increase the knowledge about the combustion processes, thereby promoting the development of environmentally feasible equipment. The following factors are defined as most crucial to emission levels: size of combustion chamber, air excess ratio, means of combustion air supply, mixing between air and fuel, transient events, and fuel quality. It is concluded that both basic and research within the area is needed. More specific, research in the form of systematic analysis of best available technology, reactor experiments, compilation of knowledge about relevant basic combustion processes, mathematical modelling as well as development of measurement techniques are called for. 15 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  17. Biomass-based gasifiers for internal combustion (IC) engines—A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biomass is converted into a combustible producer gas. ..... with gasification efficiency, increased with the increase in gas flow rate. .... Livingston W R 2007 Report on Biomass ash characteristics and behaviour in combustion, gasification.

  18. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement

  19. Characterisation and prediction of deposits in biomass co-combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tortosa Masiá, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis deals with the theoretical, experimental and modeling work which was performed to study deposition during biomass and waste co-combustion in pulverised coal facilities. Fossil fuels dominate the current energy scenario. Increasing concerns about fossil fuels availability and about

  20. 'Biomass lung': primitive biomass combustion and lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baris, Y. I.; Seyfikli, Z.; Demir, A.; Hoskins, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic burning of biomass fuel is one of the most important risk factors for the development of respiratory diseases and infant mortality. The fuel which causes the highest level of disease is dung. In the rural areas of developing countries some 80% of households rely on biomass fuels for cooking and often heating as well and so suffer high indoor air pollution. Even when the fire or stove is outside the home those near it are still exposed to the smoke. In areas where the winters are long and cold the problem is aggravated since the fire or stove is indoors for many months of the year. The consequence of biomass burning is a level of morbidity in those exposed to the smoke as well as mortality. The rural areas of Turkey are among many in the world where biomass is the major fuel source. In this case report 8 patients from rural areas, particularly Anatolia, who used biomass are presented. Many of these are non-smoking, female patients who have respiratory complaints and a clinical picture of the chronic lung diseases which would have been expected if they had been heavy smokers. Typically patients cook on the traditional 'tandir' stove using dung and crop residues as the fuel. Ventilation systems are poor and they are exposed to a high level of smoke pollution leading to cough and dyspnoea. Anthracosis is a common outcome of this level of exposure and several of the patients developed lung tumours. The findings from clinical examination of 8 of these patients (2 M, 6 F) are presented together with their outcome where known. (author)

  1. Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, J; Eriksson, A C; Nielsen, I Elbæk; Malmborg, V Berg; Ahlberg, E; Andersen, C; Lindgren, R; Nyström, R; Nordin, E Z; Brune, W H; Svenningsson, B; Swietlicki, E; Boman, C; Pagels, J H

    2015-12-15

    The aim was to identify relationships between combustion conditions, particle characteristics, and optical properties of fresh and photochemically processed emissions from biomass combustion. The combustion conditions included nominal and high burn rate operation and individual combustion phases from a conventional wood stove. Low temperature pyrolysis upon fuel addition resulted in "tar-ball" type particles dominated by organic aerosol with an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 2.5-2.7 and estimated Brown Carbon contributions of 50-70% to absorption at the climate relevant aethalometer-wavelength (520 nm). High temperature combustion during the intermediate (flaming) phase was dominated by soot agglomerates with AAE 1.0-1.2 and 85-100% of absorption at 520 nm attributed to Black Carbon. Intense photochemical processing of high burn rate flaming combustion emissions in an oxidation flow reactor led to strong formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol, with no or weak absorption. PM1 mass emission factors (mg/kg) of fresh emissions were about an order of magnitude higher for low temperature pyrolysis compared to high temperature combustion. However, emission factors describing the absorption cross section emitted per kg of fuel consumed (m(2)/kg) were of similar magnitude at 520 nm for the diverse combustion conditions investigated in this study. These results provide a link between biomass combustion conditions, emitted particle types, and their optical properties in fresh and processed plumes which can be of value for source apportionment and balanced mitigation of biomass combustion emissions from a climate and health perspective.

  2. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i

  3. CFD simulation of gas and particles combustion in biomass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griselin, Nicolas

    2000-11-01

    In this thesis, gas and particle combustion in biomass furnaces is investigated numerically. The aim of this thesis is to use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology as an effective computer based simulation tool to study and develop the combustion processes in biomass furnaces. A detailed model for the numerical simulation of biomass combustion in a furnace, including fixed-bed modeling, gas-phase calculation (species distribution, temperature field, flow field) and gas-solid two-phase interaction for flying burning particles is presented. This model is used to understand the mechanisms of combustion and pollutant emissions under different conditions in small scale and large scale furnaces. The code used in the computations was developed at the Division of Fluid Mechanics, LTH. The flow field in the combustion enclosure is calculated by solving the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, with standard {kappa} - {epsilon} turbulence closure, together with the energy conservation equation and species transport equations. Discrete transfer method is used for calculating the radiation source term in the energy conservation equation. Finite difference is used to solve the general form of the equation yielding solutions for gas-phase temperatures, velocities, turbulence intensities and species concentrations. The code has been extended through this work in order to include two-phase flow simulation of particles and gas combustion. The Favre-averaged gas equations are solved in a Eulerian framework while the submodels for particle motion and combustion are used in the framework of a Lagrangian approach. Numerical simulations and measurement data of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), CO, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and temperature on the top of the fixed bed are used to model the amount of tar and char formed during pyrolysis and combustion of biomass fuel in the bed. Different operating conditions are examined. Numerical calculations are compared with the measured data. It is

  4. Biomass burning: Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R III; Rhinehart, R.P.; Cahoon, D.R. J.; Winstead, E.L.; Sebacher, S.; Sebacher, D.I.; Stocks, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter deals with two different, but related, aspects of biomass burning. The first part of the chapter deals with a technique to estimate the instantaneous emissions of trace gases produced by biomass burning using satellite imagery. The second part of the chapter concerns the recent discovery that burning results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of N 2 O, NO, and CH 4 . Hence, biomass burning has both an immediate and long-term impact on the production of trace gases to the atmosphere. The objective of this research is to better assess and quantify the role of this research is to better assess and quantify the role and impact of biomass as a driver for global change. It will be demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions and may in the future be used to estimate the long-term postburn biogenic emissions of trace gases to the atmosphere

  5. A review of standards related to biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, J.; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Air quality is evaluated by the concentration of particulate matter (PM) per unit of air volume. PM10 refers to all particles smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter. The European Commission has established acceptable levels of PM10, but the rules are less precise for evaluating the amount of PM that can be emitted from a furnace's chimney. The province of Quebec allows up to 340 mg/m{sup 3} of PM for large furnaces and 600 mg/m{sup 3} for smaller furnaces. Although wood products can be burned in the province, the burning of all other biomass such as straw, stover and grass is forbidden. The City of Vancouver has stricter emissions standards for PM, notably 50 mg/m{sup 3} for large furnaces and 35 mg/m{sup 3} for smaller furnaces. The reason for this difference is that most furnaces in Quebec are used in rural areas whereas the densely populated City of Vancouver must control emissions at the source. It was concluded that although a universal standard on combustion emissions is not feasible because of different socio-economic conditions and population density, furnaces should emit levels of PM which decrease as the surrounding area population concentration increases. Stringent regulations may be met through advances in technology such as chimney height, bag filters, multicyclones, and precipitators.

  6. Biomass burning - Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Winstead, Edward L.; Rhinehart, Robert P.; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Sebacher, Shirley; Stocks, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    After detailing a technique for the estimation of the instantaneous emission of trace gases produced by biomass burning, using satellite imagery, attention is given to the recent discovery that burning results in significant enhancement of biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Biomass burning accordingly has an immediate and long-term impact on the production of atmospheric trace gases. It is presently demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions, and could be used to estimate long-term postburn biogenic emission of trace gases to the atmosphere.

  7. Grindability and combustion behavior of coal and torrefied biomass blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M V; García, R; Pevida, C; Rubiera, F

    2015-09-01

    Biomass samples (pine, black poplar and chestnut woodchips) were torrefied to improve their grindability before being combusted in blends with coal. Torrefaction temperatures between 240 and 300 °C and residence times between 11 and 43 min were studied. The grindability of the torrefied biomass, evaluated from the particle size distribution of the ground sample, significantly improved compared to raw biomass. Higher temperatures increased the proportion of smaller-sized particles after grinding. Torrefied chestnut woodchips (280 °C, 22 min) showed the best grinding properties. This sample was blended with coal (5-55 wt.% biomass). The addition of torrefied biomass to coal up to 15 wt.% did not significantly increase the proportion of large-sized particles after grinding. No relevant differences in the burnout value were detected between the coal and coal/torrefied biomass blends due to the high reactivity of the coal. NO and SO2 emissions decreased as the percentage of torrefied biomass in the blend with coal increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of Cd, biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. In this work the potential of using the method Electrodialytic Remediation to reduce the concentration of Cd in different biomass combustion....... The initial Cd concentration in the ashes varied between 8.8 mg Cd/kg DM (co-firing ash) and 64 mg Cd/kg DM (pre-washed straw ash), and pH varied from 3.7 to 13.3. In spite of large differences in ash characteristics, the electrodialytic remediation experiments indicated a good remediation potential for all...... four ashes. Final Cd concentrations below 2.0 mg Cd/kg were reached in all ashes within 14 days of remediation and legislative requirements were met. After further optimization of the remediation process on the pre-washed straw ash, limiting concentrations were reached after only 48 hours...

  9. Biomass Power Generation through Direct Integration of Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Houng Leu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is the largest renewable energy source in the world. Its importance grows gradually in the future energy market. Since most biomass sources are low in energy density and are widespread in space, small-scale biomass conversion system is therefore more competitive than a large stand-alone conversion plant. The current study proposes a small-scale solid biomass power system to explore the viability of direct coupling of an updraft fixed bed gasifier with a Stirling engine. The modified updraft fixed bed gasifier employs an embedded combustor inside the gasifier to fully combust the synthetic gas generated by the gasifier. The flue gas produced by the synthetic gas combustion inside the combustion tube is piped directly to the heater head of the Stirling engine. The engine will then extract and convert the heat contained in the flue gas into electricity automatically. Output depends on heat input. And, the heat input is proportional to the flow rate and temperature of the flue gas. The preliminary study of the proposed direct coupling of an updraft gasifier with a 25 kW Stirling engine demonstrates that full power output could be produced by the current system. It could be found from the current investigation that no auxiliary fuel is required to operate the current system smoothly. The proposed technology and units could be considered as a viable solid biomass power system.

  10. Examination of the combustion conditions of herbaceous biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szemmelveisz, K.; Szucs, I.; Palotas, A.B.; Winkler, L. [Department of Combustion Technology and Thermal Energy, University of Miskolc (Hungary); Eddings, E.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Power generation from biomass is a fairly new area, and boilers that utilize various types of biomass have in many cases experienced serious problems with slagging, fouling and corrosion of boiler tubes. Mineral matter in these fuels can deposit on the heat-exchanger surfaces in the boiler and generate an insulating layer, which will significantly reduce the degree of heat-transfer from flue gas to water and steam. Our investigations were focused on the slag characteristics of different kinds of herbaceous biomass fuels. Since there is usually a reducing atmosphere present in the direct combustion zone of modern low-NO{sub x} firing systems, it is important to study mineral matter transformation of burned fuel residues in a reducing atmosphere. An excellent device for this type of study is the electric-resistance heated Bunte-Baum softening temperature testing instrument, which was used in this work. Ash chemical composition was analyzed via flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the microstructure of ash was determined using a scanning electron microscope. Crystalline compounds of the ashes were identified by using X-ray powder diffraction. This paper provides an overview of results on the combustion and slag characteristics of herbaceous biomass fuels. The results include chemical compositions, morphology and softening properties of these fuels, with special attention to switch grass and sunflower seed shell. (author)

  11. NOx emissions from the underfeed combustion of coal and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, M.R.I.; Tadulan, E.L.; Tariq, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Underfeed stokers have an inherent ability to minimise smoke emissions, thus providing environmental benefits in the combustion of solid fuels, such as biomass materials, which have a high volatile matter content. An evaluation of this attribute requires comparisons of the performance of combustion equipment using these fuels against reference data for coals. However, the recent literature is virtually devoid of studies of coal combustion in underfeed stokers and, in particular, information on nitrogen oxide emissions. In the UK, this reflects a lack of commercial interest in small-scale coal firing due to the wide availability of inexpensive gas and oil fuels. An experimental investigation has been carried out into the combustion of bituminous coal, anthracite and a 50:50 blend by mass of anthracite and oak wood chips on a modified commercial underfeed stoker. The intention was to obtain operational experiences in burning the fuels and reference data for nitrogen oxide emissions. Problems in the combustion of the fuels are described and related to the determination of nitrogen oxide emission values found under optimised plant conditions. These values, expressed at 6% O 2 , were 265 ppm for bituminous coal, 90 ppm for anthracite and 106 ppm for the anthracite/wood chip blend. (Author)

  12. Analysis of selected problems of biomass combustion process in batch boilers - experimental and numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubel, Mateusz

    2016-03-01

    It is possible to list numerous groups of heating units that are used in households, such as boilers, stoves and units used as supporting heat sources, namely fireplaces. In each case, however, the same operational problems may be evoked [1]. To understand the causes of energy losses in a boiler system, a proper definition of significant elements of the unit's heat balance is necessary. In the group of energy losses, the flue gas loss and the incomplete combustion loss are the most significant factors. The problem with the loss resulting from incomplete combustion, which is related to the presence of combustible substances in the exhaust, is especially significant in case of biomass boilers [2, 3]. The paper presents results of the research and the optimisation of the biomass combustion process in the 180 kW batch boiler. The studies described have been focused on the reduction of the pollutants emission, which was primarily realised by the modifications of the air feeding system. Results of the experiments and the CFD simulations have been compared and discussed. Both in case of the model as well as the experiment, positive influence of the modifications on the emission have been observed.

  13. An overview of particulate emissions from residential biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, E. D.; Alves, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Residential biomass burning has been pointed out as one of the largest sources of fine particles in the global troposphere with serious impacts on air quality, climate and human health. Quantitative estimations of the contribution of this source to the atmospheric particulate matter levels are hard to obtain, because emission factors vary greatly with wood type, combustion equipment and operating conditions. Updated information should improve not only regional and global biomass burning emission inventories, but also the input for atmospheric models. In this work, an extensive tabulation of particulate matter emission factors obtained worldwide is presented and critically evaluated. Existing quantifications and the suitability of specific organic markers to assign the input of residential biomass combustion to the ambient carbonaceous aerosol are also discussed. Based on these organic markers or other tracers, estimates of the contribution of this sector to observed particulate levels by receptor models for different regions around the world are compiled. Key areas requiring future research are highlighted and briefly discussed.

  14. Analysis of selected problems of biomass combustion process in batch boilers - experimental and numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szubel Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to list numerous groups of heating units that are used in households, such as boilers, stoves and units used as supporting heat sources, namely fireplaces. In each case, however, the same operational problems may be evoked [1]. To understand the causes of energy losses in a boiler system, a proper definition of significant elements of the unit’s heat balance is necessary. In the group of energy losses, the flue gas loss and the incomplete combustion loss are the most significant factors. The problem with the loss resulting from incomplete combustion, which is related to the presence of combustible substances in the exhaust, is especially significant in case of biomass boilers [2, 3]. The paper presents results of the research and the optimisation of the biomass combustion process in the 180 kW batch boiler. The studies described have been focused on the reduction of the pollutants emission, which was primarily realised by the modifications of the air feeding system. Results of the experiments and the CFD simulations have been compared and discussed. Both in case of the model as well as the experiment, positive influence of the modifications on the emission have been observed.

  15. Emission of Metals from Pelletized and Uncompressed Biomass Fuels Combustion in Rural Household Stoves in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tong, Yindong; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Long; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Guohua; Zhu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Effort of reducing CO2 emissions in developing countries may require an increasing utilization of biomass fuels. Biomass pellets seem well-suited for residential biomass markets. However, there is limited quantitative information on pollutant emissions from biomass pellets burning, especially those measured in real applications. In this study, biomass pellets and raw biomass fuels were burned in a pellet burner and a conventional stove respectively, in rural households, and metal emissions were determined. Results showed that the emission factors (EFs) ranged 3.20-5.57 (Pb), 5.20-7.58 (Cu), 0.11-0.23 (Cd), 12.67-39.00 (As), 0.59-1.31 mg/kg (Ni) for pellets, and 0.73-1.34 (Pb), 0.92-4.48 (Cu), 0.08-0.14 (Cd), 7.29-13.22 (As), 0.28-0.62 (Ni) mg/kg for raw biomass. For unit energy delivered to cooking vessels, the EFs ranged 0.42-0.77 (Pb), 0.79-1.16 (Cu), 0.01-0.03 (Cd), 1.93-5.09 (As), 0.08-0.19 mg/MJ (Ni) for pellets, and 0.30-0.56 (Pb), 0.41-1.86 (Cu), 0.04-0.06 (Cd), 3.25-5.49 (As), 0.12-0.26 (Ni) mg/MJ for raw biomass. This study found that moisture, volatile matter and modified combustion efficiency were the important factors affecting metal emissions. Comparisons of the mass-based and task-based EFs found that biomass pellets produced higher metal emissions than the same amount of raw biomass. However, metal emissions from pellets were not higher in terms of unit energy delivered.

  16. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmann, B.; Creutzenberg, O.; Ernst, H.; Muhle, H.

    2009-02-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m3. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 μm. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

  17. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellmann, B; Creutzenberg, O; Ernst, H; Muhle, H

    2009-01-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m 3 . The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 μm. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

  18. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  19. The effect of biomass on pollutant emission and burnout in co-combustion with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruczek, H.; Raczka, P.; Tatarek, A. [Wroclaw Technical University, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2006-08-15

    This paper presents experimental and numerical results on the co-combustion of different types of biomass with hard and brown coal. The main aim of this work was to assess the impact of the cocombustion of biomass in brown and hard coal-fired systems on the combustion process itself and on the level of pollutant formation and its dependence on combustion temperature stoichiometry. The experimental results obtained have shown that in general biomass addition leads to decreased NO and SO{sub 2} emissions, except with the hard coal Bogdanka. In addition, the biomass has a beneficial effect on the burnout of the coal/biomass mixture. To help to account for this effect, the behaviour of coal and biomass, the coal/biomass mixture and of fuel-N was studied by thermal analysis, in nitrogen and in air. The results obtained have shown that gas phase interactions are dominant in the combustion of biomass/coal mixtures.

  20. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Siddique; Suhail Ahmed Soomro; Aziza Aftab; Zahid Naeem Qaisrani; Abdul Sattar Jatoi; Asadullah; Ghulamullah Khan; Ehsanullah Kakar

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their ...

  1. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Analysis of Raw and Torrefied Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopczyński Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of torrefied biomass as a substitute for untreated biomass may decrease some technological barriers that exist in biomass co-firing technologies e.g. low grindability, high moisture content, low energy density and hydrophilic nature of raw biomass. In this study the TG-MS-FTIR analysis and kinetic analysis of willow (Salix viminalis L. and samples torrefied at 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 °C (TSWE 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300, were performed. The TG-DTG curves show that in the case of willow and torrefied samples TSWE 200, 220, 240 and 260 there are pyrolysis and combustion stages, while in the case of TSWE 280 and 300 samples the peak associated with the pyrolysis process is negligible, in contrast to the peak associated with the combustion process. Analysis of the TG-MS results shows m/z signals of 18, 28, 29 and 44, which probably represent H2O, CO and CO2. The gaseous products were generated in two distinct ranges of temperature. H2O, CO and CO2 were produced in the 500 K to 650 K range with maximum yields at approximately 600 K. In the second range of temperature, 650 K to 800 K, only CO2 was produced with maximum yields at approximately 710 K as a main product of combustion process. Analysis of the FTIR shows that the main gaseous products of the combustion process were H2O, CO2, CO and some organics including bonds: C=O (acids, aldehydes and ketones, C=C (alkenes, aromatics, C-O-C (ethers and C-OH. Lignin mainly contributes hydrocarbons (3000-2800 cm−1, while cellulose is the dominant origin of aldehydes (2860-2770 cm−1 and carboxylic acids (1790-1650 cm−1. Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones and various acids were also generated from hemicellulose (1790-1650 cm−1. In the kinetic analysis, the two-steps first order model (F1F1 was assumed. Activation energy (Ea values for the first stage (pyrolysis increased with increasing torrefaction temperature from 93 to 133 kJ/mol, while for the second stage (combustion it

  2. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling. It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Results Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Conclusions Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.

  3. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryea-Goldsmith, René; Oakey, John; Simms, Nigel J

    2011-02-01

    Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal) upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics) and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling). It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.

  4. Optimal Combustion Conditions for a Small-scale Biomass Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Plaček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an attempt to achieve maximum efficiency and lowest possible emissions for a small-scale biomass boiler. This aim can be attained only by changing the control algorithm of the boiler, and in this way not raising the acquisition costs for the boiler. This paper describes the experimental facility, the problems that arose while establishing the facility, and how we have dealt with them. The focus is on discontinuities arising after periodic grate sweeping, and on finding the parameters of the PID control loops. Alongside these methods, which need a lambda probe signal for proper functionality, we inroduce another method, which is able to intercept the optimal combustion working point without the need to use a lambda sensor.

  5. Domestic biomass combustion and associated atmospheric emissions in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocard, Delphine; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre; Eva, Hugh

    1998-03-01

    Biofuel is the main source of energy for cooking and heating in Africa. In order to estimate the consumption of this resource at a regional level, a database with a spatial resolution of 1° latitude by 1° longitude of the distribution of the amounts of fuel wood and charcoal annually burned in West Africa has been derived. Chemical emission factors for fuel wood, for charcoal burning, and for charcoal fabrication measured during two field experiments are then used in conjunction with this database to produce a second 1° latitude by 1° longitude database of the emissions due to domestic fires for the region. A comparison of these emissions from domestic fires with those of savanna fires, the dominant form of biomass burning in tropical Africa, shows that the relative contribution of the wood fuel (i.e. fuel wood and charcoal) combustion is important for CH4 (46%), CO (42%), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) (44%), less so for CO2 (32%). This source of biomass burning has a different spatial and temporal distribution than that of savanna fires and represents an atmospheric background noise throughout the year, whereas the savanna fires occur during a limited season.

  6. Characterization of biomass combustion at high temperatures based on an upgraded single particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Paul, Manosh C.; Younger, Paul L.; Watson, Ian; Hossain, Mamdud; Welch, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High temperature rapid biomass combustion is studied based on single particle model. • Particle size changes in devolatilization and char oxidation models are addressed. • Time scales of various thermal sub-processes are compared and discussed. • Potential solutions are suggested to achieve better biomass co-firing performances. - Abstract: Biomass co-firing is becoming a promising solution to reduce CO 2 emissions, due to its renewability and carbon neutrality. Biomass normally has high moisture and volatile contents, complicating its combustion behavior, which is significantly different from that of coal. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combustion model of a single biomass particle is employed to study high-temperature rapid biomass combustion. The two-competing-rate model and kinetics/diffusion model are used to model biomass devolatilization reaction and char burnout process, respectively, in which the apparent kinetics used for those two models were from high temperatures and high heating rates tests. The particle size changes during the devolatilization and char burnout are also considered. The mass loss properties and temperature profile during the biomass devolatilization and combustion processes are predicted; and the timescales of particle heating up, drying, devolatilization, and char burnout are compared and discussed. Finally, the results shed light on the effects of particle size on the combustion behavior of biomass particle

  7. Laboratory Investigation of Aerosol Formation in Combustion of Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeuthen, Jacob; Livbjerg, Hans

    2005-01-01

    nucleation is highly dependent on the rate of cooling. Experiments with sulfation of potassium chloride have been performed. By high-temperature filtering it has been found that potassium sulfate is the nucleating agent in aerosol formation during biomass combustion. In the future, the more advanced alkali-sulfur-chloride chemistry will be studied and the mechanisms leading to aerosol formation under biomass combustion conditions in power plants will be studied. The results will be analyzed by model studies including Computational Fluid Dynamics

  8. The combustion of biomass - the impact of its types and combustion technologies on the emission of nitrogen oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Milica R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmonization of environmental protection and the growing energy needs of modern society promote the biomass application as a replacement for fossil fuels and a viable option to mitigate the green house gas emissions. For domestic conditions this is particularly important as more than 60% of renewables belongs to biomass. Beside numerous benefits of using biomass for energy purposes, there are certain drawbacks, one of which is a possible high emission of NOx during the combustion of these fuels. The paper presents the results of the experiments with multiple biomass types (soybean straw, cornstalk, grain biomass, sunflower oil, glycerin and paper sludge, using different combustion technologies (fluidized bed and cigarette combustion, with emphasis on the emission of NOx in the exhaust gas. A presentation of the experimental installations is given, as well as an evaluation of the effects of the fuel composition, combustion regimes and technology on the NOx emissions. As the biomass combustion took place at temperatures low enough that thermal and prompt NOx can be neglected, the conclusion is the emissions of nitrogen oxides primarily depend on the biomass composition- it is increasing with the increase of the nitrogen content, and decreases with the increase of the char content which provides catalytic surface for NOx reduction by CO. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33042: Improvement of the industrial fluidized bed facility, in scope of technology for energy efficient and environmentally feasible combustion of various waste materials in fluidized bed i br. III42011: Development and improvement of technologies for efficient use of energy of several forms of agricultural and forest biomass in an environmentally friendly manner, with the possibility of cogeneration

  9. Combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass and their blends with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toptas, Asli; Yildirim, Yeliz; Duman, Gozde; Yanik, Jale

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass (lignocellulosic and animal wastes) and their blends with lignite was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric method under air atmosphere. For comparison, combustion characteristics of raw biomasses were also determined. Torrefaction process improved the reactivity of char combustion step of biomasses. Characteristic combustion parameters for blends showed non-additivity behavior. It was found that the mixture of torrefied biomasses and lignite at a ratio of 1:1 had a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Although no interactions were observed between the lignite and torrefied biomass at initial step of combustion, a certain degree of interaction between the components occurred at char combustion step. Kinetic parameters of combustion were calculated by using the Coats Redfern model. Overall, this study showed that poultry litters can be used as a substitute fuel in coal/biomass co-firing systems by blending with lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating...... in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  11. Foliage and Grass as Fuel Pellets–Small Scale Combustion of Washed and Mechanically Leached Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hari Arti Khalsa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The high contents of disadvantageous elements contained in non-woody biomass are known to cause problems during small and large scale combustion, typically resulting in a higher risk of slagging, corrosion, and increased emissions. Mechanically leaching the respective elements from the biomass through a sequence of process steps has proven to be a promising solution.The florafuel process used here is comprised of size reduction followed by washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering of the biomass. Densification of the upgraded biomass into standardized pellets (Ø 6mm enables an application in existing small-scale boilers. The presented combustion trials investigated the performance of pellets made from leached grass, foliage and a mixture of both in two small-scale boilers (<100 kWth with slightly different technology (moving grate versus water-cooled burner tube during a 4-h measurement period. Emissions were in accordance with German emissions standards except for NOx (threshold is 0.50 g/m3 in the case of pure grass pellets (0.51 g/m3 and particulate matter (PM in all but one case (foliage, 13–16 mg/m3. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP unit installed with one of the boilers successfully reduced PM emission of both the grass and mixture fuel below the threshold of 20 mg/m3 (all emission values refer to 13 vol.% O2, at standard temperature and pressure (STP. Bottom ash composition and grate temperature profiles were analyzed and discussed for one of the boilers.

  12. The pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of five typical biomass from Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C.Q.; Shan, L.; Yang, Y.P.; Zhang, J.J. [Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment; North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Security and Clean Energy Technology

    2008-07-01

    Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal gravimetric (DTG) methods were used to conduct pyrolysis and combustion tests of winter wheat, highland barley, sawdust, cattle manure, and sheep manure from Tibet. The aim of the study was to determine the combustion characteristics of biomass grown in regions with lower levels of atmospheric oxygen. A reaction kinetic model was used to determine kinetic parameters of the biomass samples. The study showed that oxygen concentrations did not influence activation energy. Combustion efficiency was influenced by the nitrogen dilute effect located in Tibet. The sawdust combustion analysis demonstrated that heat losses from flue gases were approximately 5 per cent higher when oxygen levels were 11 per cent, than when oxygen levels were 21 per cent. It was concluded that chemical looping processes can be used to improve efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts associated with biomass combustion in Tibet. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Thermogravimetric investigation on characteristic of biomass combustion under the effect of organic calcium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Duan, Feng; Huang, Yaji

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer to investigate thermal behavior of different organic calcium compounds (OCCs) and its blended fuels with three kinds of biomass. The effectiveness of synthesized method for OCC was assessed by the pyrolysis test. Effect of the mole ratio of calcium to sulfur on co-combustion characteristics was studied. Results indicated that preparation method of modified calcium acetate (MCA) had high precision and accuracy. Co-combustion characteristic of OCCs blended with biomass was controlled by OCCs' additive amount and the content of volatile matter which is mainly composed of small hydrocarbon molecules. Combustion performance indexes for peanut shell and wheat straw impregnated by OCCs were improved, however, an inverse trend was found for rice husk because of lower additive amount of OCCs. The blended fuel show higher combustion performance indexes compared with combustion of individual biomass, and these indexes decrease with increases of Ca/S ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental study on combustion of biomass micron fuel (BMF) in cyclone furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Siyi; Xiao Bo; Hu Zhiquan; Liu Shiming; He Maoyun

    2010-01-01

    Based on biomass micron fuel (BMF) with particle size less than 250 μm, a cyclone combustion concept was presented and a lab-scale cyclone furnace was designed to evaluate the feasibility. The influences of equivalence ration (ER) and particle size of BMF on combustion performance were studied, as well as temperature distribution in the combustion chamber. The results show that BMF combustion in the cyclone furnace is reliable, with rational temperature distribution inside furnace hearth, lower CO emission, soot concentration and C content in ashes. As ER being 1.2, the temperature in the chamber is maximized up to 1200 deg. C. Smaller particles results in better combustion performances.

  15. Fundamental mechanisms for conversion of volatiles in biomass and waste combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Hindiyarti, L.; Marshall, P.; Livbjerg, H.; Dagaut, P.; Jensen, Anker; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the volatile oxidation chemistry in biomass and waste fired systems, emphasizing reactions important for pollutants emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, HCl, aerosols). The project aims to extend existing models and databases with a number of chemical subsystems that are presently not well understood, but are particularly important in connection with combustion of biomass and waste. The project is divided into 3 tasks. Task 1: Conversion of chlorine, sulfur and alkali gas phase components in combustion of biomass. Task 2: Formation mechanisms for NO{sub x} in the freeboard of grate combustion of biomass. Task 3: Oxidation mechanisms for oxygenated hydrocarbons in the volatiles from pyrolysis of biomass. (au)

  16. Torrefaction of empty fruit bunches under biomass combustion gas atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Sellappah, Varsheta; Trinh, Thanh Hoai; Hassan, Suhaimi; Tanoue, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-11-01

    Torrefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) under combustion gas atmosphere was conducted in a batch reactor at 473, 523 and 573K in order to investigate the effect of real combustion gas on torrefaction behavior. The solid mass yield of torrefaction in combustion gas was smaller than that of torrefaction in nitrogen. This may be attributed to the decomposition enhancement effect by oxygen and carbon dioxide in combustion gas. Under combustion gas atmosphere, the solid yield for torrefaction of EFB became smaller as the temperature increased. The representative products of combustion gas torrefaction were carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (gas phase) and water, phenol and acetic acid (liquid phase). By comparing torrefaction in combustion gas with torrefaction in nitrogen gas, it was found that combustion gas can be utilized as torrefaction gas to save energy and inert gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The formation of aerosol particles during combustion of biomass and waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerrild Zeuthen, J

    2007-05-15

    This thesis describes the formation of aerosol particles during combustion of biomass and waste. The formation of aerosol particles is investigated by studying condensation of alkali salts from synthetic flue gasses in a laboratory tubular furnace. In this so-called laminar flow aerosol condenser-furnace gaseous alkali chlorides are mixed with sulphur dioxide, water vapour and oxygen. At high temperatures the alkali chloride reacts with sulphur dioxide to form alkali sulphate. During subsequent cooling of the synthetic flue gas the chlorides and sulphates condense either as deposits on walls or on other particles or directly from the gas phase by homogenous nucleation. A previously developed computer code for simulation of one-component nucleation of particles in a cylindrical laminar flow is extended to include a homogeneous gas phase reaction to produce gaseous alkali sulphate. The formation of aerosol particles during full-scale combustion of wheat straw is investigated in a 100 MW grate-fired boiler. Finally, aerosols from incineration of waste are investigated during full-scale combustion of municipal waste in a 22 MW grate-fired unit. (BA)

  18. Agglomeration mechanism in biomass fluidized bed combustion – Reaction between potassium carbonate and silica sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anicic, Bozidar; Lin, Weigang; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Agglomeration is one of the operational problems in fluidized bed combustion of biomass, which is caused by interaction between bed materials (e.g. silica sand) and the biomass ash with a high content of potassium species. However, the contribution of different potassium species to agglomeration ...

  19. Combustion, cofiring and emissions characteristics of torrefied biomass in a drop tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndibe, Collins; Maier, Jörg; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates cofiring characteristics of torrefied biomass fuels at 50% thermal shares with coals and 100% combustion cases. Experiments were carried out in a 20 kW, electrically heated, drop-tube reactor. Fuels used include a range of torrefied biomass fuels, non-thermally treated white wood pellets, a high volatile bituminous coal and a lignite coal. The reactor was maintained at 1200 °C while the overall stoichiometric ratio was kept constant at 1.15 for all combustion cases. Measurements were performed to evaluate combustion reactivity, emissions and burn-out. Torrefied biomass fuels in comparison to non-thermally treated wood contain a lower amount of volatiles. For the tests performed at a similar particle size distribution, the reduced volatile content did not impact combustion reactivity significantly. Delay in combustion was only observed for test fuel with a lower amount of fine particles. The particle size distribution of the pulverised grinds therefore impacts combustion reactivity more. Sulphur and nitrogen contents of woody biomass fuels are low. Blending woody biomass with coal lowers the emissions of SO 2 mainly as a result of dilution. NO X emissions have a more complex dependency on the nitrogen content. Factors such as volatile content of the fuels, fuel type, furnace and burner configurations also impact the final NO X emissions. In comparison to unstaged combustion, the nitrogen conversion to NO X declined from 34% to 9% for air-staged co-combustion of torrefied biomass and hard coal. For the air-staged mono-combustion cases, nitrogen conversion to NO X declined from between 42% and 48% to about 10%–14%. - Highlights: • Impact of torrefaction on cofiring was studied at high heating rates in a drop tube. • Cofiring of torrefied biomasses at high thermal shares (50% and higher) is feasible. • Particle size impacts biomass combustion reactivity more than torrefaction. • In a drop tube reactor, torrefaction has no negative

  20. A CFD model for biomass combustion in a packed bed furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia); Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur 1704 (Bangladesh); Ovi, Ifat Rabbil Qudrat [Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur 1704 (Bangladesh); Naser, Jamal, E-mail: jnaser@swin.edu.au [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2016-07-12

    Climate change has now become an important issue which is affecting environment and people around the world. Global warming is the main reason of climate change which is increasing day by day due to the growing demand of energy in developed countries. Use of renewable energy is now an established technique to decrease the adverse effect of global warming. Biomass is a widely accessible renewable energy source which reduces CO{sub 2} emissions for producing thermal energy or electricity. But the combustion of biomass is complex due its large variations and physical structures. Packed bed or fixed bed combustion is the most common method for the energy conversion of biomass. Experimental investigation of packed bed biomass combustion is difficult as the data collection inside the bed is challenging. CFD simulation of these combustion systems can be helpful to investigate different operational conditions and to evaluate the local values inside the investigation area. Available CFD codes can model the gas phase combustion but it can’t model the solid phase of biomass conversion. In this work, a complete three-dimensional CFD model is presented for numerical investigation of packed bed biomass combustion. The model describes the solid phase along with the interface between solid and gas phase. It also includes the bed shrinkage due to the continuous movement of the bed during solid fuel combustion. Several variables are employed to represent different parameters of solid mass. Packed bed is considered as a porous bed and User Defined Functions (UDFs) platform is used to introduce solid phase user defined variables in the CFD. Modified standard discrete transfer radiation method (DTRM) is applied to model the radiation heat transfer. Preliminary results of gas phase velocity and pressure drop over packed bed have been shown. The model can be useful for investigation of movement of the packed bed during solid fuel combustion.

  1. Particulate matter emissions, and metals and toxic elements in airborne particulates emitted from biomass combustion: The importance of biomass type and combustion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosima, Angela T; Tsakanika, Lamprini-Areti V; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, Maria Th

    2017-05-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of biomass combustion with respect to burning conditions and fuel types on particulate matter emissions (PM 10 ) and their metals as well as toxic elements content. For this purpose, different lab scale burning conditions were tested (20 and 13% O 2 in the exhaust gas which simulate an incomplete and complete combustion respectively). Furthermore, two pellet stoves (8.5 and 10 kW) and one open fireplace were also tested. In all cases, 8 fuel types of biomass produced in Greece were used. Average PM 10 emissions ranged at laboratory-scale combustions from about 65 to 170 mg/m 3 with flow oxygen at 13% in the exhaust gas and from 85 to 220 mg/m 3 at 20% O 2 . At pellet stoves the emissions were found lower (35 -85 mg/m 3 ) than the open fireplace (105-195 mg/m 3 ). The maximum permitted particle emission limit is 150 mg/m 3 . Metals on the PM 10 filters were determined by several spectrometric techniques after appropriate digestion or acid leaching of the filters, and the results obtained by these two methods were compared. The concentration of PM 10 as well as the total concentration of the metals on the filters after the digestion procedure appeared higher at laboratory-scale combustions with flow oxygen at 20% in the exhaust gas and even higher at fireplace in comparison to laboratory-scale combustions with 13% O 2 and pellet stoves. Modern combustion appliances and appropriate types of biomass emit lower PM 10 emissions and lower concentration of metals than the traditional devices where incomplete combustion conditions are observed. Finally, a comparison with other studies was conducted resulting in similar results.

  2. Thermal behavior of the major constituents of some agricultural biomass residues during pyrolysis and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Haykiri-Acma, H. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    2006-07-01

    The importance of woody agricultural waste as a renewable energy source was discussed with reference to its low cost, abundance, and carbon dioxide neutrality. Direct combustion of biomass waste fuels is not recommended due to its low density, high moisture content and low calorific energy. Rather, thermal conversion processes such as pyrolysis, gasification or carbonization are preferred for biomass. The performance and the energy recovery potentials of these processes depend on the process conditions as well as the physical and chemical properties of the biomass species. Therefore, the structure and components of biomass must be known. In this study, agricultural biomass samples of almond shell, walnut shell, hazelnut shell, rapeseed, olive residue, and tobacco waste were first analytically treated to remove extractive matter to obtain extractive-free samples. Specific analytic procedures were then applied to biomass samples in order to isolate their individual biomass constituents such as lignin and holocellulose. Untreated biomass samples and their isolated constituents were exposed to non-isothermal pyrolysis and combustion processes in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted under dynamic nitrogen atmospheres of 40 mL-min, while dynamic dry air atmosphere with the same flow rate was applied in the combustion experiments. The study showed that the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of the biomass samples differed depending on their properties. Aliphatic and oxygen rich holocellulose and cellulose were found to be the reactive components in biomass. Lignin was more stable during thermal processes. When extractive matter from the biomass samples was removed, pyrolysis at lower temperatures was terminated. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Ashes of biomass combustion. Report of a workshop at 15 May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevalkink, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    In a previous study the results of a study on the options to recycle or re-use ashes from biomass combustion were presented. Those results were discussed in detail in the title workshop, attended by researchers, market representatives that have to find practical solutions, and representatives of the Dutch government. It is concluded that only ashes from clean biomass can be used as a fertilizer (e.g. recycling of the ashes to forest soils), preferably in the form of granulated materials to realize a slow uptake of nutrients. Bottom ash can be applied in road construction materials or in concretes. In the appendices of this report sheets of 4 contributions are presented: ' Re-use of ashes form biomass combustion'; The Vattenfall project. Closing of the cycle in Sweden'; 'The vision of a biomass producer'; and ' The market problems for the initiator of biomass projects'. 3 appendices

  4. Controlling the excess heat from oxy-combustion of coal by blending with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Turan, A.Z.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Two different biomass species such as sunflower seed shell and hazelnut shell were blended with Soma-Denis lignite to determine the effects of co-combustion on the thermal reactivity and the burnout of the lignite sample. For this purpose, Thermogravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry techniques were applied from ambient to 900 C with a heating rate of 40 C/min under dry air and pure oxygen conditions. It was found that the thermal reactivities of the biomass materials and the lignite are highly different from each other under each oxidizing medium. On the other hand, the presence of biomass in the burning medium led to important influences not only on the burnout levels but also on the heat flows. The heat flow from the burning of lignite increased fivefold when the oxidizing medium was altered from dry air to pure oxygen. But, in case of co-combustion under oxygen, the excess heat arising from combustion of lignite could be reduced and this may be helpful to control the temperature of the combustion chamber. Based on this, co-combustion of coal/biomass blends under oxygen may be suggested as an alternative method to the ''Carbon Dioxide Recycle Method'' encountered in the oxyfuel combustion systems. (author)

  5. A Thermogravimetric Study of the Behaviour of Biomass Blends During Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Jiříček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ignition and combustion behavior of biomass and biomass blends under typical heating conditions were investigated. Thermogravimetric analyses were performed on stalk and woody biomass, alone and blended with various additive weight ratios. The combustion process was enhanced by adding oxygen to the primary air. This led to shorter devolatilization/pyrolysis and char burnout stages, which both took place at lower temperatures than in air alone. The results of the ignition study of stalk biomass show a decrease in ignition temperature as the particle size decreases. This indicates homogeneous ignition, where the volatiles burn in the gas phase, preventing oxygen from reaching the particle surface.The behavior of biomass fuels in the burning process was analyzed, and the effects of heat production and additive type were investigated. Mixing with additives is a method for modifying biofuel and obtaining a more continuous heat release process. Differential scanning calorimetric-thermogravimetric (DSC-TGA analysis revealed that when the additive is added to biomass, the volatilization rate is modified, the heat release is affected, and the combustion residue is reduced at the same final combustion temperature.

  6. Experimental investigation on flue gas emissions of a domestic biomass boiler under normal and idle combustion conditions-super-†

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Liu; Guoquan Qiu; Yingjuan Shao; Saffa B. Riffat

    2010-01-01

    Biomass plays an important role in the world primary energy supplies, currently providing ∼14% of the world's primary energy needs and being the fourth largest contributor following coal, oil and natural gas. Over the past decade, domestic biomass heating has received more governmental and public supports than ever before in many developed countries, such as the UK. Although biomass combustion releases some combustion pollutants, biomass is renewable and produces little net CO 2 emissions to ...

  7. LCA of domestic and centralized biomass combustion: The case of Lombardy (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caserini, S.; Livio, S.; Giugliano, M.; Grosso, M.; Rigamonti, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares the environmental impacts of biomass combustion in small appliances such as domestic open fireplaces and stoves, and in two types of centralized combined heat and power plants, feeding district heating networks. The analysis is carried out following a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The expected savings of GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions due to the substitution of fossil fuels with biomass are quantified, as well as emissions of toxic pollutants and substances responsible for acidification and ozone formation. The LCA results show net savings of GHG emissions when using biomass instead of conventional fuels, varying from 0.08 to 1.08 t of CO 2 eq. per t of dry biomass in the different scenarios. Avoided GHG emissions thanks to biomass combustion in Lombardy are 1.32 Mt year -1 (1.5% of total regional GHG emissions). For the other impact categories, the use of biomass in district heating systems can again cause a consistent reduction of impacts, whereas biomass combustion in residential devices shows higher impacts than fossil fuels with a particular concern for PAH, VOC and particulate matter emissions. For example, in Lombardy, PM10 emissions from domestic devices are about 8100 t year -1 , corresponding to almost one third of the total particulate emissions in 2005. (author)

  8. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K.; Nagy, R. Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Moritz, Max A.; Williamson, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997–2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216509

  9. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K; Nagy, R Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Bowman, David M J S; Moritz, Max A; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Williamson, Grant J

    2016-06-05

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997-2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN SMALL HEATING APPLIANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dell'Antonia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of emission control has increased sharply due to the increased need of energy from combustion. However, biomass utilization in energy production is not free from problems because of physical and chemical characteristics which are substantially different from conventional energy sources. In this situation, the quantity and quality of emissions as well as used renewable sources as wood or corn grain are often unknown. To assess this problem the paper addresses the objectives to quantify the amount of greenhouse gases during the combustion of corn as compared to the emissions in fossil combustion (natural gas, LPG and diesel boiler. The test was carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia in 2006-2008 to determine the air pollution (CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2 and CO2 from fuel combustion in family boilers with a power between 20-30 kWt. The flue gas emission was measured with a professional semi-continuous multi-gas analyzer, (Vario plus industrial, MRU air Neckarsulm-Obereisesheim. Data showed a lower emission of fossil fuel compared to corn in family boilers in reference to pollutants in the flue gas (NOx, SO2 and CO. In a particular way the biomass combustion makes a higher concentration of carbon monoxide (for an incomplete combustion because there is not a good mixing between fuel and air and nitrogen oxides (in relation at a higher content of nitrogen in herbaceous biomass in comparison to another fuel.

  11. Effects of biomass on dynamics of combustion in circulating fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourunen Antti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluidized bed technology is very suitable for the combustion of biomass Nevertheless substitution of coal with biomass affects boiler operation and especially dynamics and controllability. Non-homogeneity of biomass and fuel feeding disturbances cause process instability, such as variations in temperatures and pressures, which reduce lifetime of equipment and structures. Because of process instability higher air coefficient must be used in order to avoid CO emissions, which is not economical. Combustion profiles for coal, wood and peat, measured at the VTT Processes Pilot circulating fluidized bed reactor, have been compared. Process stability and char inventories have been studied by the measurements and the model. Biofuel are usually very reactive and their combustion profiles are quite different compared to coals. Because of high reactivity and low char content combustion process with biofuel is very sensitive for fuel feeding. Also low char inventory effect on load changes combined with combustion profile that differs from coals. Because of different combustion profile heat transfer can be a limiting factor in load changes despite the high reactivity and fast oxygen response.

  12. OxyFuel combustion of Coal and Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg

    The power and heat producing sector is facing a continuously increasing demand to reduce its emissions of CO2. Oxyfuel combustion combined with CO2 storage is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies which will enable the continuous use of the existing fleet of suspension-fired po......The power and heat producing sector is facing a continuously increasing demand to reduce its emissions of CO2. Oxyfuel combustion combined with CO2 storage is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies which will enable the continuous use of the existing fleet of suspension......-fired power plants burning coal or other fuels during the period of transition to renewable energy sources. The oxyfuel combustion process introduces several changes to the power plant configuration. Most important, the main part of the flue gas is recirculated to the boiler and mixed with pure oxygen....... The oxidant thus contains little or no nitrogen and a near-pure CO2 stream can be produced by cooling the flue gas to remove water. The change to the oxidant composition compared to combustion in air will induce significant changes to the combustion process. This Ph.D. thesis presents experimental...

  13. Co-combustion of low rank coal/waste biomass blends using dry air or oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass species such as the rice husk and the olive milling residue, and a low quality Turkish coal, Soma Denis lignite, were burned in a thermal analyzer under pure oxygen and dry air up to 900 °C, and differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis profiles were obtained. Co-combustion experiments of lignite/biomass blends containing 5–20 wt% of biomass were also performed. The effects of the oxidizer type and the blending ratio of biomass were evaluated considering some thermal reactivity indicators such as the maximum burning rate and its temperature, the maximum heat flow temperature, and the burnout levels. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) were used to characterize the samples, and the variations in the combustion characteristics of the samples were interpreted based on the differences in the intrinsic properties of the samples. - Highlights: ► Co-combustion of lignite/biomass blends. ► The effects of the oxidizer type and the blending ratio. ► Effects of intrinsic properties on combustion characteristics.

  14. Comparative Chemistry and Toxicity of Diesel and Biomass Combustion Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution includes a complex mixture of carbonaceous gases and particles emitted from multiple anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning sources, and also includes secondary organic components that form during atmospheric aging of these emissions. Exposure to these mixture...

  15. Biomass downdraft gasifier with internal cyclonic combustion chamber: design, construction, and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Krushna; Bhoi, Prakash; Huhnke, Raymond; Bellmer, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    An exploratory downdraft gasifier design with unique biomass pyrolysis and tar cracking mechanism is evolved at Oklahoma State University. This design has an internal separate combustion section where turbulent, swirling high-temperature combustion flows are generated. A series of research trials were conducted using wood shavings as the gasifier feedstock. Maximum tar cracking temperatures were above 1100°C. Average volumetric concentration levels of major combustible components in the product gas were 22% CO and 11% H(2). Hot and cold gas efficiencies were 72% and 66%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combustion properties, water absorption and grindability of raw/torrefied biomass pellets and Silantek coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matali, Sharmeela; Rahman, Norazah Abdul; Idris, Siti Shawaliah; Yaacob, Nurhafizah

    2017-12-01

    Torrefaction, also known as mild pyrolysis, is proven to convert raw biomass into a value-added energy commodity particularly for application in combustion and co-firing systems with improved storage and handling properties. This paper aims to compare the characteristics of Malaysian bituminous coal i.e. Silantek coal with raw and torrefied biomass pellet originated from oil palm frond and fast growing tree species, Leucaena Leucocephala. Biomass samples were initially torrefied at 300 °C for 60 minutes. Resulting torrefied biomass pellets were analysed using a number of standard fuel characterisation analyses i.e. elemental analysis, proximate analysis and calorific content (high heating values) experiments. Investigations on combustion characteristics via dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), grindability and moisture uptake tests were also performed on the torrefied biomass pellets. Better quality bio-chars were produced as compared to its raw forms and with optimal process conditions, torrefaction may potentially produces a solid fuel with combustion reactivity and porosity equivalent to raw biomass while having compatible energy density and grindability to coal.

  17. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. K. Chakrabarty; H. Moosmuller; L.-W. A. Chen; K. Lewis; W. P. Arnott; C. Mazzoleni; M. K. Dubey; C. E. Wold; W. M. Hao; S. M. Kreidenweis

    2010-01-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Angstrom coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent...

  18. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    was investigated with the aim of enabling reuse of the ashes. The ashes originated from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. A series of laboratory scale electrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted with each ash. The initial Cd...

  19. Considerations on valorization of biomass origin materials in co-combustion with coal in fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; H. Lopes; A. Crujeira; I. Cabrita [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    Co-combustion of biomass materials with coal is currently gaining increasing importance, in order to meet the targets on greenhouse gas emissions, defined in the Kyoto protocol. Co-firing of coal with biomass materials could be the short-term solution in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations. The work undertaken studied co-firing of meat and bone meal (MBM), olive cake and straw pellets with bituminous coals from Colombia (CC) and Poland (PC), which are commonly used in European power stations. The co-combustion studies were carried out on the pilot fluidized bed installation of INETI. Gaseous pollutants and solid concentration in flue gases and ashes from different locations were monitored. Results obtained indicate that the co-feeding of biomass materials did not present any problem and ensured stable combustion conditions and high efficiency. However, for temperatures above 800{sup o}C, bed agglomeration could be observed for all biomass species studied. Most of the combustion of biomass material, contrary to that of coal, was observed to take place in the riser where the temperature was as high as 150-250{sup o}C above that of the bed. SO{sub 2} and NOx levels were found to be lower. The emissions of dioxins could be considerable with fuels with high Cl as is the case with straw. However, mixing of fuels with high S content could lead to a strong reduction in dioxin emissions. Ashes produced from biomass combustion may be considered for further reutilization or landfilling. Other options depend on their characteristics, chemical composition and leaching behaviour. This was evaluated in this study.

  20. Numerical modelling of biomass combustion: Solid conversion processes in a fixed bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Naser, Jamal

    2017-06-01

    Increasing demand for energy and rising concerns over global warming has urged the use of renewable energy sources to carry a sustainable development of the world. Bio mass is a renewable energy which has become an important fuel to produce thermal energy or electricity. It is an eco-friendly source of energy as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Combustion of solid biomass is a complex phenomenon due to its large varieties and physical structures. Among various systems, fixed bed combustion is the most commonly used technique for thermal conversion of solid biomass. But inadequate knowledge on complex solid conversion processes has limited the development of such combustion system. Numerical modelling of this combustion system has some advantages over experimental analysis. Many important system parameters (e.g. temperature, density, solid fraction) can be estimated inside the entire domain under different working conditions. In this work, a complete numerical model is used for solid conversion processes of biomass combustion in a fixed bed furnace. The combustion system is divided in to solid and gas phase. This model includes several sub models to characterize the solid phase of the combustion with several variables. User defined subroutines are used to introduce solid phase variables in commercial CFD code. Gas phase of combustion is resolved using built-in module of CFD code. Heat transfer model is modified to predict the temperature of solid and gas phases with special radiation heat transfer solution for considering the high absorptivity of the medium. Considering all solid conversion processes the solid phase variables are evaluated. Results obtained are discussed with reference from an experimental burner.

  1. Combining woody biomass for combustion with green waste composting: Effect of removal of woody biomass on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Boogaerts, Christophe; Vandaele, Elke

    2016-12-01

    The question was tackled on how the green waste compost industry can optimally apply the available biomass resources for producing both bioenergy by combustion of the woody fraction, and high quality soil improvers as renewable sources of carbon and nutrients. Compost trials with removal of woody biomass before or after composting were run at 9 compost facilities during 3 seasons to include seasonal variability of feedstock. The project focused on the changes in feedstock and the effect on the end product characteristics (both compost and recovered woody biomass) of this woody biomass removal. The season of collection during the year clearly affected the biochemical and chemical characteristics of feedstock, woody biomass and compost. On one hand the effect of removal of the woody fraction before composting did not significantly affect compost quality when compared to the scenario where the woody biomass was sieved from the compost at the end of the composting process. On the other hand, quality of the woody biomass was not strongly affected by extraction before or after composting. The holocellulose:lignin ratio was used in this study as an indicator for (a) the decomposition potential of the feedstock mixture and (b) to assess the stability of the composts at the end of the process. Higher microbial activity in green waste composts (indicated by higher oxygen consumption) and thus a lower compost stability resulted in higher N immobilization in the compost. Removal of woody biomass from the green waste before composting did not negatively affect the compost quality when more intensive composting was applied. The effect of removal of the woody fraction on the characteristics of the green waste feedstock and the extracted woody biomass is depending on the season of collection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. a novel interconnected fluidised bed for the combined flash pyrolysis of biomass and combustion of char

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.M.C.; Janse, Arthur M.C.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1999-01-01

    A novel system of two adjacent fluidised beds operating in different gas atmospheres and exchanging solids was developed for the combined flash pyrolysis of biomass and combustion of the produced char. Fluidised sand particles (200 μm < dp < 400 μm) are transported from the pyrolysis reactor to the

  3. A novel interconnected fluidised bed for the combined flash pyrolysis of biomass and combustion of char.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Arthur M.C.; Janse, A.M.C.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2000-01-01

    A novel system of two adjacent fluidised beds operating in different gas atmospheres and exchanging solids was developed for the combined flash pyrolysis of biomass and combustion of the produced char. Fluidised sand particles (200 μm < dp < 400 μm) are transported from the pyrolysis reactor to the

  4. Modelling NOx-formation for application in a biomass combustion furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van H.A.J.A.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    To optimize the design for biomass combustion furnaces for NOx-emission reduction, numerical models can be used. In these models, the Eddy Dissipation Concept and the PDF-flamelet approach can be applied to describe the interaction between the chemistry and the turbulence. As a first step in

  5. Advancing grate-firing for greater environmental impacts and efficiency for decentralized biomass/wastes combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Li, Shuangshuang

    2017-01-01

    to well suit decentralized biomass and municipal/industrial wastes combustion. This paper discusses with concrete examples how to advance grate-firing for greater efficiency and environmental impacts, e.g., use of advanced secondary air system, flue gas recycling and optimized grate assembly, which...

  6. Variability of total and mobile element contents in ash derived from biomass combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Száková, J.; Ochecová, P.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Perná, Ivana; Tlustoš, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 11 (2013), s. 1376-1385 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : biomass combustion * fly ash * bottom ash * element contents Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  7. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  8. Emission factors from residential combustion appliances burning Portuguese biomass fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A P; Alves, C A; Gonçalves, C; Tarelho, L; Pio, C; Schimdl, C; Bauer, H

    2011-11-01

    Smoke from residential wood burning has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments were performed to compare the emission levels from two types of wood-stoves to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: wood from seven species of trees grown in the Portuguese forest (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste. Average emission factors were in the ranges 27.5-99.2 g CO kg(-1), 552-1660 g CO(2) kg(-1), 0.66-1.34 g NO kg(-1), and 0.82-4.94 g hydrocarbons kg(-1) of biomass burned (dry basis). Average particle emission factors varied between 1.12 and 20.06 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), with higher burn rates producing significantly less particle mass per kg wood burned than the low burn rates. Particle mass emission factors from wood-stoves were lower than those from the fireplace. The average emission factors for organic and elemental carbon were in the intervals 0.24-10.1 and 0.18-0.68 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. The elemental carbon content of particles emitted from the energy-efficient "chimney type" logwood stove was substantially higher than in the conventional cast iron stove and fireplace, whereas the opposite was observed for the organic carbon fraction. Pinus pinaster, the only softwood species among all, was the biofuel with the lowest emissions of particles, CO, NO and hydrocarbons.

  9. Successful experience with limestone and other sorbents for combustion of biomass in fluid bed power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, D.R. [LG& E Power Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the theoretical and practical advantages of utilizing limestone and other sorbents during the combustion of various biomass fuels for the reduction of corrosion and erosion of boiler fireside tubing and refractory. Successful experiences using a small amount of limestone, dolomite, kaolin, or custom blends of aluminum and magnesium compounds in fluid bed boilers fired with biomass fuels will be discussed. Electric power boiler firing experience includes bubbling bed boilers as well as circulating fluid bed boilers in commercial service on biomass fuels. Forest sources of biomass fuels fired include wood chips, brush chips, sawmill waste wood, bark, and hog fuel. Agricultural sources of biomass fuels fired include grape vine prunings, bean straw, almond tree chips, walnut tree chips, and a variety of other agricultural waste fuels. Additionally, some urban sources of wood fuels have been commercially burned with the addition of limestone. Data presented includes qualitative and quantitative analyses of fuel, sorbent, and ash.

  10. Comparative study of coal and biomass co-combustion with coal burning separately through emissions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Asadullah, A.; Khan, G.; Soomro, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methos to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal and coal biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emission of CO, CO/sub 2/, NOx and SO/sub 2/ as compared to 100% coal, Maximum amount of CO emission were 1510.5 ppm for bannana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30) of 684.667 leaves (90:10) and minimum amount of SO/sub 2/ present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20). The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm). The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution. (author)

  11. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 60.1015 - What is a new municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion unit? 60.1015 Section 60.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999... What is a new municipal waste combustion unit? (a) A new municipal waste combustion unit is a municipal...

  13. Deposition of biomass combustion aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndahl, Jakob; Pagels, Joakim; Boman, Christoffer; Swietlicki, Erik; Massling, Andreas; Rissler, Jenny; Blomberg, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Sandström, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Smoke from biomass combustion has been identified as a major environmental risk factor associated with adverse health effects globally. Deposition of the smoke particles in the lungs is a crucial factor for toxicological effects, but has not previously been studied experimentally. We investigated the size-dependent respiratory-tract deposition of aerosol particles from wood combustion in humans. Two combustion conditions were studied in a wood pellet burner: efficient ("complete") combustion and low-temperature (incomplete) combustion simulating "wood smoke." The size-dependent deposition fraction of 15-to 680-nm particles was measured for 10 healthy subjects with a novel setup. Both aerosols were extensively characterized with regard to chemical and physical particle properties. The deposition was additionally estimated with the ICRP model, modified for the determined aerosol properties, in order to validate the experiments and allow a generalization of the results. The measured total deposited fraction of particles from both efficient combustion and low-temperature combustion was 0.21-0.24 by number, surface, and mass. The deposition behavior can be explained by the size distributions of the particles and by their ability to grow by water uptake in the lungs, where the relative humidity is close to saturation. The experiments were in basic agreement with the model calculations. Our findings illustrate: (1) that particles from biomass combustion obtain a size in the respiratory tract at which the deposition probability is close to its minimum, (2) that particle water absorption has substantial impact on deposition, and (3) that deposition is markedly influenced by individual factors.

  14. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental and numerical studies on two-stage combustion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshfar, Eshan

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, two-stage combustion of biomass was experimentally/numerically investigated in a multifuel reactor. The following emissions issues have been the main focus of the work: 1- NOx and N2O 2- Unburnt species (CO and CxHy) 3- Corrosion related emissions.The study had a focus on two-stage combustion in order to reduce pollutant emissions (primarily NOx emissions). It is well known that pollutant emissions are very dependent on the process conditions such as temperature, reactant concentrations and residence times. On the other hand, emissions are also dependent on the fuel properties (moisture content, volatiles, alkali content, etc.). A detailed study of the important parameters with suitable biomass fuels in order to optimize the various process conditions was performed. Different experimental studies were carried out on biomass fuels in order to study the effect of fuel properties and combustion parameters on pollutant emissions. Process conditions typical for biomass combustion processes were studied. Advanced experimental equipment was used in these studies. The experiments showed the effects of staged air combustion, compared to non-staged combustion, on the emission levels clearly. A NOx reduction of up to 85% was reached with staged air combustion using demolition wood as fuel. An optimum primary excess air ratio of 0.8-0.95 was found as a minimizing parameter for the NOx emissions for staged air combustion. Air staging had, however, a negative effect on N2O emissions. Even though the trends showed a very small reduction in the NOx level as temperature increased for non-staged combustion, the effect of temperature was not significant for NOx and CxHy, neither in staged air combustion or non-staged combustion, while it had a great influence on the N2O and CO emissions, with decreasing levels with increasing temperature. Furthermore, flue gas recirculation (FGR) was used in combination with staged combustion to obtain an enhanced NOx reduction. The

  16. Possibility analysis of combustion of torrefied biomass in 140 t/h PC boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagodzińska Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to evaluate the impact of combustion of torrefied willow (Latin: Salix viminalis and palm kernel shell (Latin: Elaeis guineensis on the heat exchange in a 140 t/h PC boiler through an analysis of 6 cases for different boiler loads (60 %, 75 % and 100 % and a comparison with coal combustion. The analysis is premised on a 0-dimensional model based on the method presented in [15, 16, 17] and long-standing experimental measurements. Inter alia, the following results are presented: the temperature distribution of flue gases and the working medium (water/steam in characteristic points of the boiler as well as heat transfer coefficients for each element thereof. The temperature distribution of both fluids and the heat transfer coefficients are similar for all analysed fuels for each boiler load. However, the flue gas temperature at the outlet is higher in the case of torrefied biomass combustion. Due to that, there is an increase in the stack loss, which involves a decrease in the boiler efficiency. The conclusion is that torrefied biomass combustion is possible in a PC boiler without the need to change the boiler construction. However, it would be less effective than coal combustion.

  17. Regulations and standardization relative to the biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autret, E.

    2009-01-01

    It does not exist regulations on pollutants emissions on domestic wood burning furnaces, however, these appliances are submitted to the European and french standardization concerning the safety rules, the use rules and the tests methods. Since 2007, these wood burning appliances on the market must have the European Community label. The green flame label was elaborated by the environment and energy control Agency (A.D.E.M.E.), and manufacturers of domestic appliances to promote the use of competitive wood burning appliances. concerning the collective and industrial heating, the installations of more 2 MW are framed by different categories of the installations classified for environment protection (I.C.P.E.) regulation according their fuel and power. The combustion installations of less than 2 MW are a particular case, they are framed by a sanitary department regulation and are controlled by the department directions of sanitary and social affairs. the limit values of emissions are summarized in tables. (N.C.)

  18. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-05-26

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i.e., biomass to liquid (BTL), and a regular No. 2 diesel in a constant volume combustion chamber using multiband flame measurement and two-color pyrometry. The spray combustion flame structure was visualized by using multiband flame measurement to show features of soot formation, high temperature and low temperature reactions, which can be characterized by the narrow-band emissions of radicals or intermediate species such as OH, HCHO, and CH. The objective of this study was to identify the details of multiple injection combustion, including a pilot and a main injection, and to provide further insights on how the two injections interact. For comparison, three injection strategies were considered for both fuels including a two-injection strategy (Case TI), single injection strategy A (Case SA), and single injection strategy B (Case SB). Multiband flame results show a strong interaction, indicated by OH emissions between the pilot injection and the main injection for Case TI while very weak connection is found for the narrow-band emissions acquired through filters with centerlines of 430 nm and 470 nm. A faster flame development is found for the main injection of Case TI compared to Cases SA and SB, which could be due to the high temperature environment and large air entrainment from the pilot injection. A lower soot level is observed for the BTL flame compared to the diesel flame for all three injection types. Case TI has a lower soot level compared to Cases SA and SB for the BTL fuel, while the diesel fuel maintains a similar soot level among all three injection strategies. Soot temperature of Case TI is lower for both fuels, especially for diesel. Based on these results, it is expected that the two-injection strategy could be

  19. Experimental studies on combustion of composite biomass pellets in fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feihong; Zhong, Zhaoping

    2017-12-01

    This work presents studies on the combustion of Composite Biomass Pellets (CBP S ) in fluidized bed using bauxite particles as the bed material. Prior to the combustion experiment, cold-flow characterization and thermogravimetric analysis are performed to investigate the effect of air velocity and combustion mechanism of CBP S . The cold-state test shows that CBPs and bauxite particles fluidize well in the fluidized bed. However, because of the presence of large CBPs, optimization of the fluidization velocity is rather challenging. CBPs can gather at the bottom of the fluidized bed at lower gas velocities. On the contrary, when the velocity is too high, they accumulate in the upper section of the fluidized bed. The suitable fluidization velocity for the system in this study was found to be between 1.5-2.0m/s. At the same time, it is found that the critical fluidization velocity and the pressure fluctuation of the two-component system increase with the increase of CBPs mass concentration. The thermogravimetric experiment verifies that the combustion of CBPs is a first-order reaction, and it is divided into three stages: (i) dehydration, (ii) release and combustion of the volatile and (iii) the coke combustion. The combustion of CBPs is mainly based on the stage of volatile combustion, and its activation energy is greater than that of char combustion. During the combustion test, CBP S are burned at a 10kg/h feed rate, while the excess air is varied from 25% to 100%. Temperatures of the bed and flue gas concentrations (O 2 , CO, SO 2 and NO) are recorded. CBPs can be burnt stably, and the temperature of dense phase is maintained at 765-780°C. With the increase of the air velocity, the main combustion region has a tendency to move up. While the combustion is stable, O 2 and CO 2 concentrations are maintained at about 7%, and 12%, respectively. The concentration of SO 2 in the flue gas after the initial stage of combustion is nearly zero. Furthermore, NO concentration

  20. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siddique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their emissions. The study revealed that the ratio of 80:20 of coal (lignite-cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and SO2 as compared to 100% coal. Maximum amount of CO emissions were 1510.5 ppm for banana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30 of 684.667 ppm. Maximum percentage of SO2 (345.33 ppm was released from blend of lakhra coal and tree leaves (90:10 and minimum amount of SO2 present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20. The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas maximum amount of NOx was liberated from lakhra coal-tree leaves (60:40 and minimum amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm. The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution.

  1. Modeling and experiments of biomass combustion in a large-scale grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    is inherently more difficult due to the complexity of the solid biomass fuel bed on the grate, the turbulent reacting flow in the combustion chamber and the intensive interaction between them. This paper presents the CFD validation efforts for a modern large-scale biomass-fired grate boiler. Modeling...... and experiments are both done for the grate boiler. The comparison between them shows an overall acceptable agreement in tendency. However at some measuring ports, big discrepancies between the modeling and the experiments are observed, mainly because the modeling-based boundary conditions (BCs) could differ...

  2. Emission performance and combustion efficiency of a conical fluidized-bed combustor firing various biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permchart, W.; Kouprianov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on combustion of three distinct biomass fuels (sawdust, rice husk and pre-dried sugar cane bagasse) in a single fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) with a conical bed using silica sand as the inert bed material. Temperature, CO, NO and O 2 concentrations along the combustor height as well as in flue (stack) gas were measured in the experimental tests. The effects of fuel properties and operating conditions (load and excess air) on these variables were investigated. Both CO and NO axial profiles were found to have a maximum whose location divides conventionally the combustor volume into formation (lower) and reduction (upper) regions for these pollutants. Based on CO emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash, the combustion efficiency of the conical FBC was quantified for the selected biomass fuels fired under different operating conditions. (Author)

  3. NO formation during oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Jensen, Anker Degn; Glarborg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The yields of NO from combustion of bituminous coal, lignite, and biomass chars were investigated in O2/N2 and O2/CO 2 atmospheres. The experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range of 850-1150 °C. To minimize thermal deactivation during char preparat......The yields of NO from combustion of bituminous coal, lignite, and biomass chars were investigated in O2/N2 and O2/CO 2 atmospheres. The experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range of 850-1150 °C. To minimize thermal deactivation during char...

  4. Combustion and emission formation in a biomass fueled grate furnace - measurements and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsjoe, H.

    1997-06-01

    A study of turbulent combustion with special emphasis on the formation of nitrous oxide emissions in a biomass fueled grate furnace has been conducted with the aid of measurements, literature studies and CFD-computations. The literature study covers nitrous oxide formation and the pyrolysis, gasification and combustion of biomass fuel. The measurements were conducted inside the furnace and at the outlet, and temperature and some major species were measured. A tool for the treatment of the bed processes (pyrolysis, gasification and combustion) has been developed. The measurements show significantly higher concentrations of oxygen above the fuel bed than expected. The gas production in the bed was shown to be very unevenly distributed over the width of the furnace. The measured temperatures were relatively low and in the same order as reported from other, similar measurements. The computational results are in good quantitative agreement with the measurements, even for the nitrous oxide emissions. It was necessary to include tar as one of the combustible species to achieve reasonable results. The computations point out that the fuel-NO mechanism is the most important reaction path for the formation of nitrous oxide in biomass combustion in grate furnaces. The thermal NO mechanism is responsible for less than 10% of the total amount of NO-emissions. Although the results are quantitatively in good agreement with the measurements, a sensitivity study showed that the fuel-NO model did not respond to changes in the distribution of secondary air as the measurements indicate. The results from this work have lead to some guidelines on how the furnace should be operated to achieve minimum NO-emissions. Some proposals of smaller changes in the construction are also given. 33 refs, 37 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds in ashes from biomass combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Havelcová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2012), s. 481-490 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : biomass combustion * ash * PAHs Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2012_04/6.Straka_%20Havelcova.pdf

  6. A new classification system for biomass and waste materials for their use in combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkinson, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The use of biomass derived solid fuels for electricity generation in combustion, gasification and pyrolysis plant has received increasing levels of interest for commercial operation in recent years. However, there are limited tools available which allow a prediction of the performance of these fuels during thermochemical transformation given an understanding of their original chemical structure. As such, this investigation has concentrated on the derivation of a simply utilised classificat...

  7. In-Situ Characteristics of Particle Emissions from Biomass Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagels, Joakum; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri; Swietlicki, Erik

    2005-01-01

    In this work we used a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Electrical Low-pressure Impactor to: a) Derive information of the particle morphology through air-borne analysis and b) Identify time and size variations of particle phase components from incomplete combustion and ash-components. The results presented here covers measurements in two moving grate boilers (12 MW operating on moist forest residue and 1.5 MW operating on wood pellets). We have previously shown that PM1 estimated from Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor (ELPI)-measurements consisted of a rather constant background with peaks correlating with CO and OGC peaks. In the 1.5 MW boiler EC contributed to 34% of PM1, while in the 12 MW boiler EC was below 0.5%. Figure 2 shows time variations in the 1.5 MW boiler as the current in three stages of the ELPI-impactor. Note that time-variations increase strongly with particle size. The fraction of the gravimetric mass detected as water-soluble ions (IC) decreased from ∼ 70% for dae= 78 and 133 nm to ∼ 25% for 322 and 510 nm particles and increased to around 50% for particles larger than 1 μm. In the 12 MW boiler time variations were as low as for 128 nm particles and IC recovery was high for all studied particle sizes. Based on these data we conclude that PM consisting of ash-components are formed with small time variations mainly in mobility-sizes below 250 nm, while Elemental Carbon is emitted at high concentrations during peaks on the time-scale 10-30 s, mainly in particle sizes larger than 150 nm. However, the detailed mixing status of these two particle types/materials is still not known

  8. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  9. A Preliminary Study on Rock Bed Heat Storage from Biomass Combustion for Rice Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, L. O.; Wulandani, D.; Subrata, I. D. M.

    2018-05-01

    One of the main constraints of biomass fuel utilization in a small scale rice drying system is the operating difficulties related to the adjustment of combustion/feeding rate. Use of thermal storage may reduce the problem since combustion operation can be accomplished in a much shorter time and then the use of heat can be regulated by simply adjusting the air flow. An integrated biomass furnace-rock bed thermal storage with a storage volume of 540 L was designed and tested. There were four experiments conducted in this study. Charging was performed within 1-2 hours with a combustion rate of 11.5-15.5 kg/h. In discharging process, the mixing of air passing through the rock bed and ambient air were regulated by valves. Without adjusting the valve during the discharging process, air temperature increased up to 80°C, which is not suitable for rice batch drying process. Charging with sufficiently high combustion rate (14 kg/h) within 1 hour continued by adjusting the valve during discharging process below 60°C increased the discharge-charge time ratio (DCTR) up to 5.33 at average air temperature of 49°C and ambient temperature of 33°C.The efficiency of heat discharging was ranged from 34.5 to 45.8%. From the simulation, as much as 156.8-268.8 kg of rice was able to be dried by the discharging conditions.

  10. Aerosols from biomass combustion. Particle formation, relevance on air quality, and measures for particle reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Biomass combustion is a relevant source of particle emissions. In Switzerland, wood combustion contributes with 2% to the energy supply but with more than 4% to Particulate Matter smaller 10 microns (PM 10) in the ambient air. In areas with high density of residential wood heating (e.g. in the south of Chile), wood particles are the dominant source of PM 10 resulting in heavy local smog situations. Since combustion particles are regarded as health relevant and since immission limit values on PM 10 are widely exceeded, measures for particle reduction from biomass combustion are of high priority. With respect to aerosols from biomass combustion, two sources of particles are distinguished: 1. an incomplete combustion can lead to soot and organic matter contained in the particles, 2. ash constituents in the fuel lead to the formation of inorganic fly ash particles mainly consisting of salts such as chlorides and oxides. The theory of aerosol formation from fuel constituents is described and two hypotheses to reduce inorganic particles from biomass combustion are proposed: 1. a reduced oxygen content in the solid fuel conversion zone (glow bed in a fixed bed combustion) is assumed to reduce the particle mass concentration due to three mechanisms: a) reduced oxidation of fuel constituents to compounds with higher volatility, b) reduced local temperature for solid fuel conversion, c) a reduced entrainmed of fuel constituents 2. a reduced total excess air can reduce the particle number due to enhanced coagulation. The proposed low-particle concept has been implemented for an automatic furnace for wood pellets in the size range from 100 kW to 500 kW. Furthermore, the furnace design was optimised to enable a part load operation without increased emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and particles. In a 100 kW prototype furnace the low-particle conditions resulted in particle emissions between 6 mg/m n 3 to 11 mg/m n 3 at 13 vol.-% O2 and CO emissions below 70 mg/m n 3 in the

  11. Comparative analysis of large biomass & coal co-utilization units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, M.; Nowak, G.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Favrat, D.; Marechal, F.

    2010-01-01

    The co-utilization of coal and biomass in large power units is considered in many countries (e.g. Poland) as fast and effective way of increasing renewable energy share in the fuel mix. Such a method of biomass use is especially suitable for power systems where solid fuels (hard coal, lignite) are

  12. Experimental setup for combustion characteristics in a diesel engine using derivative fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andi Mulkan; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocating engines are normally run on petroleum fuels or diesel fuels. Unfortunately, energy reserves such as gas and oil are decreasing. Today, with renewable energy technologies petroleum or diesel can be reduced and substituted fully or partly by alternative fuels in engine. The objective of this paper is to setup the experimental rig using producer gas from gasification system mix with diesel fuel and fed to a diesel engine. The Yanmar L60AE-DTM single cylinder diesel engine is used in the experiment. A 20 kW downdraft gasifier has been developed to produce gas using cut of furniture wood used as biomass source. Air inlet of the engine has been modified to include the producer gas. An AVL quartz Pressure Transducer P4420 was installed into the engine head to measure pressure inside the cylinder of the engine. Several test were carried out on the downdraft gasifier system and diesel engine. The heating value of the producer gas is about 4 MJ/m 3 and the specific biomass fuel consumption is about 1.5 kg/kWh. Waste cooking oil (WCO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used as biomass fuel. The pressure versus crank angle diagram for using blend of diesel are presented and compared with using diesel alone. The result shows that the peak pressure is higher. The premixed combustion is lower but have higher mixing controlled combustion. The CO and NO x emission are higher for biomass fuel

  13. Investigation of black and brown carbon multiple-wavelength-dependent light absorption from biomass and fossil fuel combustion source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Olson; Mercedes Victoria Garcia; Michael A. Robinson; Paul Van Rooy; Mark A. Dietenberger; Michael Bergin; James Jay Schauer

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) components of source emissions is critical to understanding the impact combustion aerosols have on atmospheric light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption was measured from fuels including wood, agricultural biomass, coals, plant matter, and petroleum distillates in controlled combustion settings....

  14. Kinetics of devolatilization and oxidation of a pulverized biomass in an entrained flow reactor under realistic combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Santiago [LITEC-CSIC (Spanish Council for Scientific Research), Maria de Luna 10, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Remacha, Pilar; Ballester, Javier [LITEC-CSIC (Spanish Council for Scientific Research), Maria de Luna 10, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fluid Mechanics Group, University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Ballesteros, Juan C.; Gimenez, Antonio [ENDESA GENERACION, S.A., Ribera del Loira 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    In this paper the results of a complete set of devolatilization and combustion experiments performed with pulverized ({proportional_to}500 {mu}m) biomass in an entrained flow reactor under realistic combustion conditions are presented. The data obtained are used to derive the kinetic parameters that best fit the observed behaviors, according to a simple model of particle combustion (one-step devolatilization, apparent oxidation kinetics, thermally thin particles). The model is found to adequately reproduce the experimental trends regarding both volatile release and char oxidation rates for the range of particle sizes and combustion conditions explored. The experimental and numerical procedures, similar to those recently proposed for the combustion of pulverized coal [J. Ballester, S. Jimenez, Combust. Flame 142 (2005) 210-222], have been designed to derive the parameters required for the analysis of biomass combustion in practical pulverized fuel configurations and allow a reliable characterization of any finely pulverized biomass. Additionally, the results of a limited study on the release rate of nitrogen from the biomass particle along combustion are shown. (author)

  15. Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for NOx emission prediction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshfar, Ehsan; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Because of the complex composition of biomass, the chemical mechanism contains many different species and therefore a large number of reactions. Although biomass gas‐phase combustion is fairly well researched and understood, the proposed mechanisms are still complex and need very long computational...... time and powerful hardware resources. A reduction of the mechanism for biomass volatile oxidation has therefore been performed to avoid these difficulties. The selected detailed mechanism in this study contains 81 species and 703 elementary reactions. Necessity analysis is used to determine which...... reactions and chemical species, that is, 35 species and 198 reactions, corresponding to 72% reduction in the number of reactions and, therefore, improving the computational time considerably. Yet, the model based on the reduced mechanism predicts correctly concentrations of NOx and CO that are essentially...

  16. Experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, S.V. [Mechanical Dept., M.S. Ramaiah Inst. of Tech., Bangalore (India); Shankapal, S.R. [M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bangalore (India)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace was carried out using pulverized coconut shell (CSP), LDO and water. The effect of equivalence ratio on the slurry composition, calorific value and the effect of exhaust gas percentage are presented. The calorific value of the biomass slurry increases with equivalence ratio initially, attains a peak value and then decreases with the increase in equivalence ratio. It is also observed that with the increase in composition of biomass slurry, the cost of the fuel and the percentage emission of CO decreases. It was found that CSP up to a blend of 20% was more convenient to be used as a slurry fuel in the furnace. (orig.)

  17. Pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific value, fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J.; Hoppesteyn, P.D.J.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU-funded, international R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific flue fuel gas. The objects of the project are: To design, manufacture and test a pressurised, high temperature gas turbine combustor for biomass derived LCV fuel gas; to develop a steady-state and dynamic model describing a combustor using biomass-derived, low calorific value fuel gases; to gather reliable experimental data on the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the combustor; to study the steady-state and dynamic plant behaviour using a plant layout wich incorporates a model of a gas turbine suitable for operation on low calorific value fuel gas. (orig)

  18. Pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific value, fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Hoppesteyn, P D.J.; Hein, K R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU-funded, international R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific flue fuel gas. The objects of the project are: To design, manufacture and test a pressurised, high temperature gas turbine combustor for biomass derived LCV fuel gas; to develop a steady-state and dynamic model describing a combustor using biomass-derived, low calorific value fuel gases; to gather reliable experimental data on the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the combustor; to study the steady-state and dynamic plant behaviour using a plant layout wich incorporates a model of a gas turbine suitable for operation on low calorific value fuel gas. (orig)

  19. Rheology of fly ashes from coal and biomass co-combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    The presence of large amounts of alkali metals, chlorine and sulphur in most biomass fuels - compared to coal - can create serious ash-related problems such as deposition, agglomeration and/or corrosion. This paper discusses the viscosity characteristics of fly ash from the co-combustion of various...... coal/biomass blends in a pilot scale pf-boiler. The produced data provide information on the melting of the ash and its flow characteristics, as a function of temperature, which may be used to modify the temperature profile of the boiler in order to avoid slagging. Straw co-firing lowers the ash...... viscosity leading to higher stickiness of the ash particles. Wood co-firing has only minor effects, due to the composition of wood ash and the low percentage of wood in the coal/biomass blend....

  20. Risk analysis of a biomass combustion process using MOSAR and FMEA methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, P-X; Bultel, Y; Delpech, F

    2008-02-28

    Thermal and chemical conversion processes that convert in energy the sewage sludge, pasty waste and other pre-processed waste are increasingly common, for economic and ecological reasons. Fluidized bed combustion is currently one of the most promising methods of energy conversion, since it burns biomass very efficiently, and produces only very small quantities of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The hazards associated with biomass combustion processes are fire, explosion and poisoning from the combustion gases (CO, etc.). The risk analysis presented in this paper uses the MADS-MOSAR methodology, applied to a semi-industrial pilot scheme comprising a fluidization column, a conventional cyclone, two natural gas burners and a continuous supply of biomass. The methodology uses a generic approach, with an initial macroscopic stage where hazard sources are identified, scenarios for undesired events are recognized and ranked using a grid of SeverityxProbability and safety barriers suggested. A microscopic stage then analyzes in detail the major risks identified during the first stage. This analysis may use various different tools, such as HAZOP, FMEA, etc.: our analysis is based on FMEA. Using MOSAR, we were able to identify five subsystems: the reactor (fluidized bed and centrifuge), the fuel and biomass supply lines, the operator and the environment. When we drew up scenarios based on these subsystems, we found that malfunction of the gas supply burners was a common trigger in many scenarios. Our subsequent microscopic analysis, therefore, focused on the burners, looking at the ways they failed, and at the effects and criticality of those failures (FMEA). We were, thus, able to identify a number of critical factors such as the incoming gas lines and the ignition electrode.

  1. Risk analysis of a biomass combustion process using MOSAR and FMEA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivel, P.-X.; Bultel, Y.; Delpech, F.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal and chemical conversion processes that convert in energy the sewage sludge, pasty waste and other pre-processed waste are increasingly common, for economic and ecological reasons. Fluidized bed combustion is currently one of the most promising methods of energy conversion, since it burns biomass very efficiently, and produces only very small quantities of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The hazards associated with biomass combustion processes are fire, explosion and poisoning from the combustion gases (CO, etc.). The risk analysis presented in this paper uses the MADS-MOSAR methodology, applied to a semi-industrial pilot scheme comprising a fluidization column, a conventional cyclone, two natural gas burners and a continuous supply of biomass. The methodology uses a generic approach, with an initial macroscopic stage where hazard sources are identified, scenarios for undesired events are recognized and ranked using a grid of Severity x Probability and safety barriers suggested. A microscopic stage then analyzes in detail the major risks identified during the first stage. This analysis may use various different tools, such as HAZOP, FMEA, etc.: our analysis is based on FMEA. Using MOSAR, we were able to identify five subsystems: the reactor (fluidized bed and centrifuge), the fuel and biomass supply lines, the operator and the environment. When we drew up scenarios based on these subsystems, we found that malfunction of the gas supply burners was a common trigger in many scenarios. Our subsequent microscopic analysis, therefore, focused on the burners, looking at the ways they failed, and at the effects and criticality of those failures (FMEA). We were, thus, able to identify a number of critical factors such as the incoming gas lines and the ignition electrode

  2. Increased combustion stability in modulating biomass boilers for district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hermansson, Roger (eds.) [Lulea Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    One of the problems in small district heating systems is the large load variation that must be handled by the system. If the boiler is designed to cover the needs during the coldest day in winter time in northern Europe it would have to run at loads as low as 10% of full load during summer time, when heat is needed only for tap water production. Load variations in small networks are quite fast and earlier investigations have shown that existing biomass boilers give rise to large amounts of harmful emissions at fast load variations and at low loads. The problem has been addressed in different ways: Three new boiler concepts have been realized and tested: A prototype of a 500 kW boiler with partitioned primary combustion chamber and supplied with a water heat store. A 10 kW bench scale combustor and a 500 kW prototype boiler based on pulsating combustion. Bench scale boilers to test the influence from applied sound on emissions and a 150 kW prototype boiler with a two-stage secondary vortex combustion chamber. Development of control and regulating equipment: Glow Guard, a control system using infra-red sensors to detect glowing char on the grate, has been constructed and tested. A fast prediction model that can be used in control systems has been developed. Simulation of the combustion process: Code to simulate pyrolysis/gasification of fuel on the grate has been developed. Combustion of the gas phase inside the combustion chamber has been simulated. The two models have been combined to describe the combustion process inside the primary chamber of a prototype boiler. A fast simulation code based on statistical methods that can predict the environmental performance of boilers has been developed. One of the boiler concepts matches the desired load span from 10 to 100% of full load with emissions far below the set limits for CO and THC and close to the set limits for NO{sub x}. The other boilers had a bit more narrow load range, one with very low emissions except for NO

  3. Model Research of Gas Emissions From Lignite and Biomass Co-Combustion in a Large Scale CFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzywański Jarosław

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the idea of a combustion modelling of a large-scale circulating fluidised bed boiler (CFB during coal and biomass co-combustion. Numerical computation results for three solid biomass fuels co-combustion with lignite are presented in the paper. The results of the calculation showed that in previously established kinetics equations for coal combustion, some reactions had to be modified as the combustion conditions changed with the fuel blend composition. Obtained CO2, CO, SO2 and NOx emissions are located in borders of ± 20% in the relationship to the experimental data. Experimental data was obtained for forest biomass, sunflower husk, willow and lignite cocombustion tests carried out on the atmospheric 261 MWe COMPACT CFB boiler operated in PGE Turow Power Station in Poland. The energy fraction of biomass in fuel blend was: 7%wt, 10%wt and 15%wt. The measured emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx (i.e. NO + NO2 were also shown in the paper. For all types of biomass added to the fuel blends the emission of the gaseous pollutants was lower than that for coal combustion.

  4. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  5. Combustion of biomass-derived, low caloric value, fuel gas in a gasturbine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Hoppesteyn, P D.J.; Hein, K R.G. [Technische Univ. Delf (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    The use of biomass and biomass/coal mixtures to produce electricity and heat reduces the net emissions of CO{sub 2}, contributes to the restructuring of the agricultural sector, helps to reduce the waste problem and saves finite fossil fuel reserves. Pressurised fluidised bed gasification followed by an adequate gas cleaning system, a gas turbine and a steam turbine, is a potential attractive way to convert biomass and biomass/coal mixtures. To develop and validate mathematical models, which can be used to design and operate Biomass-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) systems, a Process Development Unit (PPDU) with a maximum thermal capacity of 1.5 MW{sub th}, located at the Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands is being used. The combustor forms an integral part of this facility. Recirculated flue gas is used to cool the wall of the combustor. (orig.)

  6. Economics of biomass energy utilization in combustion and gasification plants: effects of logistic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Palumbo, Mario; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.; Scacchia, Federica

    2005-01-01

    The substitution of conventional fossil fuels with biomass for energy production results both in a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and in the replacement of non-renewable energy sources. However, at present, generating energy from biomass is rather expensive due to both technological limits related to lower conversion efficiencies, and logistic constraints. In particular, the logistics of biomass fuel supply is likely to be complex owing to the intrinsic feedstock characteristics, such as the limited period of availability and the scattered geographical distribution over the territory. In this paper, the economical feasibility of biomass utilization for direct production of electric energy by means of combustion and gasification-conversion processes, has been investigated and evaluated over a capacity range from 5 to 50 MW, taking into account total capital investments, revenues from energy sale and total operating costs, also including a detailed evaluation of logistic costs. Moreover, in order to evaluate the impact of logistics on the bio-energy plants profitability, the effects of main logistic variables such as specific vehicle transport costs, vehicles capacity, specific purchased biomass costs and distribution density, have been examined. Finally, a mapping of logistic constraints on plant profitability in the specified capacity range has been carried out

  7. Experimental analysis of a combustion reactor under co-firing coal with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabyo Luiz; Bazzo, Edson; Oliveira Junior, Amir Antonio Martins de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). LabCET], e-mail: ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Complexo Termeletrico Jorge Lacerda, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gases emission is one of the most important issues in energy engineering. Biomass is a potential renewable source but with limited use in large scale energy production because of the relative smaller availability as compared to fossil fuels, mainly to coal. Besides, the costs concerning transportation must be well analysed to determine its economic viability. An alternative for the use of biomass as a primary source of energy is the co-firing, that is the possibility of using two or more types of fuels combined in the combustion process. Biomass can be co-fired with coal in a fraction between 10 to 25% in mass basis (or 4 to 10% in heat-input basis) without seriously impacting the heat release characteristics of most boilers. Another advantage of cofiring, besides the significant reductions in fossil CO{sub 2} emissions, is the reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. As a result, co-firing is becoming attractive for power companies worldwide. This paper presents results of some experimental analysis on co-firing coal with rice straw in a combustion reactor. The influence of biomass thermal share in ash composition is also discussed, showing that alkali and earth alkaline compounds play the most important role on the fouling and slagging behavior when co-firing. Some fusibility correlations that can assist in the elucidation of these behavior are presented and discussed, and then applied to the present study. Results show that for a biomass thermal share up to 20%, significant changes are not expected in fouling and slagging behavior of ash. (author)

  8. Integrating spatial and biomass planning for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sicong; Wang, Shifeng

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is low-carbon energy and has tremendous potential as an alternative to fossil fuels. However, the significant role of biomass in future low-carbon energy portfolio depends heavily on its consumption. The paper presents a first attempt to examine the spatial-temporal patterns of biomass consumption in the United States (US), using a novel method-spatial Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) model, in order to strengthen the link between energy planning and spatial planning. In order to obtain the robust parameters of spatial SUR models and estimate the parameters efficiently, an iterative maximum likelihood method, which takes full advantage of the stationary characteristic of maximum likelihood estimation, has been developed. The robust parameters of models can help draw a proper inference for biomass consumption. Then the spatial-temporal patterns of biomass consumption in the US at the state level are investigated using the spatial SUR models with the estimation method developed and data covering the period of 2000–2012. Results show that there are spatial dependences among biomass consumption. The presence of spatial dependence in biomass consumption has informative implications for making sustainable biomass polices. It suggests new efforts to adding a cross-state dimension to state-level energy policy and coordinating some elements of energy policy across states are still needed. In addition, results consistent with classic economic theory further proves the correctness of applying the spatial SUR models to investigate the spatial-temporal patterns of biomass consumption. - Highlights: • A spatial model is suggested as framework to investigate biomass consumption. • A new estimation method is developed to obtain the robust parameters of model. • There are spatial dependences among biomass consumption. • The spatial dependence can contribute to making sustainable biomass policies. • Efforts to adding cross-state dimension to state

  9. Faecal-wood biomass co-combustion and ash composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorin, Tosin Onabanjo; Kolios, Athanasios J; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-09-01

    Fuel blending is a widely used approach in biomass combustion, particularly for feedstocks with low calorific value and high moisture content. In on-site sanitation technologies, fuel blending is proposed as a pre-treatment requirement to reduce moisture levels and improve the physiochemical properties of raw faeces prior to drying. This study investigates the co-combustion performance of wood dust: raw human faeces blends at varying air-to-fuel ratios in a bench-scale combustor test rig. It concludes with ash composition analyses and discusses their potential application and related problems. The study shows that a 50:50 wood dust (WD): raw human faeces (FC) can reduce moisture levels in raw human faeces by ∼40% prior to drying. The minimum acceptable blend for treating moist faeces without prior drying at a combustion air flow rate of 14-18 L/min is 30:70 WD: FC. For self-sustained ignition and flame propagation, the minimum combustion temperature required for conversion of the fuel to ash is ∼400 °C. The most abundant elements in faecal ash are potassium and calcium, while elements such as nickel, aluminium and iron are in trace quantities. This suggests the potential use of faecal ash as a soil conditioner, but increases the tendency for fly ash formation and sintering problems.

  10. Examinations of the process of hard coal and biomass blend combustion in OEA (oxygen enriched atmosphere)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak-Kruczek, Halina; Ostrycharczyk, Michał; Czerep, Michał; Baranowski, Marcin; Zgóra, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of oxygen enrichment have been demonstrated in a variety of industrial combustion applications, but to date no implementation of oxygen enrichment in boilers has been reported, primarily due to their already high thermal efficiencies and a very large scale of such systems, which require significant amounts of oxygen. But recently, oxygen combustion in boilers has become one of the CCS technologies which can be an effective tool for reducing greenhouse gases emissions, and oxygen enriched combustion is suitable for low-calorific fuels, including biomass. This paper analyses the use of oxygen enrichment in a furnace for co-firing of different kinds of biomass with hard coal in terms of emission and burnout impact (LOI). As a part of this research, the effect of injection oxygen mode and total oxygen concentration on the flue gas emission (SO_2, NO_x) and burnout from co-firing of straw and wooden biomass in different proportions (20% and 40%) with hard coal were studied. The co-firing tests were carried out in an isothermal flow reactor. One of the benefits from the OEA (oxygen enriched atmosphere) technology is more effective separation of CO_2 owing to the higher CO_2 concentration in the flue gas. The additional advantage of the OEA combustion technology in comparison with oxy-fuel combustion is that the OEA process needs lower O_2 purities and therefore it is cost-effective. Experimental tests on co-firing of 20% straw-hard coal blend were conducted in oxygen enriched (up to 25 and 30%) atmospheres with three variants of O_2 injection modes. NO_x, SO_2 emissions and burnout for the various atmospheres in the combustion chamber were studied. Moreover, co-firing tests were performed with 40% share of wooden biomass to examine the effect of the biomass share and a type on emission of NO_x and SO_2 in OEA. The two O_2 injection modes were investigated. In each case, the emission of SO_2 increases alongside an increase of oxygen concentration in

  11. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ash in larger scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd), biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. It has previously been shown that it is possible to reduce the concentration of Cd in different bio ashes...... significantly by using electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted extraction method. In this work the potential of the method was demonstrated in larger scale. Three different experimental set-ups were used, ranging from bench-scale (25 L ash suspension) to pilot scale (0.3 - 3 m3......). The experimental ash was a straw combustion fly ash suspended in water. Within 4 days of remediation, Cd concentrations below the limiting concentration of 5.0 mg Cd/kg DM for straw ash were reached. On the basis of these results, the energy costs for remediation of ash in industrial scale have been estimated...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal waste...

  13. 3-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION AND FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BIOMASS/COAL CO-COMBUSTION BURNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya DUNAYEVSKA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of solid biomass mixed with coal in existing boilers not only reduces harmful emissions, but also allows diversifying the available fuel base. Such technology allows to implement the efficient use of food industry solid wastes, which otherwise would be dumped in piles, and thus produce harmful environmental impact. The geometrical models of research reactor and a burner thermal preprocessing of pulverized coal were developed and calculational meshes were generated. The geometrical model of the VGP-100Vpresents only fluid domain whereas the effect of cooled walls was substituted by the equivalent biudary conditions deruved on the basis of direct experimentation. The model of the VGP-100V allowed accounting for the specifics of radiative heat transfer by comparison of experimental thermo-couple measurements to the simulated by the model one. A model has been developed allowing the determination of actual temperatures of combustion gases flow based upon the reading of unsheathed thermo-couples by taking into account the reradiation of the thermo-couple beads to the channel walls. Based on the ANSYS 3-D process model in the burner of the Trypilska Thermal Power Plant (TPP for the combustion of low-reactive coal with the thermochemical preparation of the design of an actual burner has been developed. On the basis of the experimental studies of the actual burner and the above-mentioned CFD calculations, the burner draft of the 65 MW for TPP-210A boiler aimed at the implementation of biomass-coal co-combustion was designed.

  14. Element budgets of forest biomass combustion and ash fertilisation - a Danish case-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Skov, Simon; Sevel, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to a significant export of nutrients from the forest. Ash spreading and recycling of nutrients from wood chip combustion to the forest has come into focus as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine...... the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions and utilise the nutrient recovery to evaluate the fertiliser quality of the examined ash. The mass and element flux of wood chips, bottom ash, cyclone fly ash and condensation sludge at Ebeltoft central heating plant was studied over a four day...

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BOILER FOR COMBUSTION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS BY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Turanjanin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Serbia consumes about 15 million tons of equivalent oil per year (Mtoe. At the same time potential of the renewable energy sources is about 3,5 Mtoe/year. Main renewable source is biomass, with its potential of about 2,6 Mtoe/year, and 60% of the total biomass source is of agricultural origin. Mainly, that type of biomass is collected, transported and stored in form of bales. At the same time in one of the largest agricultural companies in Serbia (PKB there are over 2000 ha of soya plantations, and also 4000 t/year of baled soya straw available, none of which being used for energy purposes. Therefore, efforts have been made in the Laboratory for Thermal Engineering and Energy of the "Vinča" Institute to develop a technology for utilizing bales of various sizes and shapes for energy production. Satisfactory test results of the 1 MW experimental facility - low CO levels and stable thermal output - led to the building-up of a 1.5 MW soya straw bales-fired hot water boiler, with cigarette type of combustion, for the purposes of greenhouse and office heating in the PKB. Further more, achieving good results in exploitation of that hot water boiler, the next step is building up the first combined heat and power (electricity production facility (CHP, which will use agricultural biomass as a fuel, in Serbia.

  17. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia Faure, Luis; Recio Recio, Angel; Oliva Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla Suarez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  18. Biomass combustion power generation technologies: Background report 4.1 for the EU Joule 2+ project: Energy from biomass: An assessment of two promising systems for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R.; Faaij, A.; Van Wijk, A.

    1995-05-01

    New developments in biomass combustion technology in progress tend to go towards efficiencies which come close to the present fossil fuel fired systems. The objective of this study is to give a representation of the state of the art and future prospects of biomass combustion technologies and to compare those on a location-independent basis. This will be done both by a general boiler technology description on the basis of qualitative criteria and by a comparison of most recently built and planned power plants on more quantitative grounds. The methodology which has been used in gathering, selecting, presenting and comparing the information is discussed in chapter 2. In chapter 3, a general introduction is given on some basic principles of biomass combustion technology. This includes the combustion process, the Rankine steam cycle and NO x formation. Different boiler technologies which are in use for biomass combustion power generation are discussed in chapter 4. The main groups of boilers which are discussed are the pile burners, stoker fired boilers, suspension fired boilers and fluidized bed boilers. The description focuses on aspects such as construction, operation, fuel requirements, efficiencies and emissions. Chapter 5 deals with individual existing or planned biomass combustion plants, resulting from an international inventory. All the different technologies which have been discussed in chapter 4 are discussed in chapter 5 in the context of complete power plants. The information which is presented for each plant comprises a technical description, efficiencies, emissions and investment costs. At the end of chapter 5 an overview of comparable data from the literature is given, as well as an overview of the results of the inventory. 32 figs., 28 tabs., 4 appendices., 51 refs

  19. Emissions from small-scale combustion of biomass fuels - extensive quantification and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Christoffer; Nordin, Anders; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry; Westerholm, Roger [Stockholm Univ., Arrhenius Laboratory (Sweden). Analytical Chemistry

    2005-02-01

    This work was a part of the Swedish national research program concerning emissions and air quality with the sub-programme concerning biomass, health and environment - BHM. The main objective of the work was to systematically determine the quantities and characteristics of gaseous and particulate emissions from combustion in residential wood log and biomass fuel pellet appliances and report emission factors for the most important emission components. The specific focus was on present commercial wood and pellet stoves as well as to illustrate the potentials for future technology development. The work was divided in different subprojects; 1) a literature review of health effects of ambient wood smoke, 2) design and evaluation of an emission dilution sampling set-up, 3) a study of the effects of combustion conditions on the emission formation and characteristics and illustrate the potential for emission minimization during pellets combustion, 4) a study of the inorganic characteristics of particulate matter during combustion of different pelletized woody raw materials and finally 5) an extensive experimental characterization and quantification of gaseous and particulate emissions from residential wood log and pellet stoves. From the initial literature search, nine relevant health studies were identified, all focused on effects of short-term exposure. Substantial quantitative information was only found for acute asthma in relation to PM10. In comparison with the general estimations for ambient PM and adverse health effects, the relative risks were even stronger in the studies where residential wood combustion was considered as a major PM source. However, the importance of other particle properties than mass concentration, like chemical composition, particle size and number concentration remain to be elucidated. A whole flow dilution sampling set-up for residential biomass fired appliances was designed, constructed and evaluated concerning the effects of sampling

  20. Emissions from small-scale combustion of biomass fuels - extensive quantification and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Christoffer; Nordin, Anders; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry; Westerholm, Roger [Stockholm Univ., Arrhenius Laboratory (Sweden). Analytical Chemistry

    2005-02-01

    This work was a part of the Swedish national research program concerning emissions and air quality with the sub-programme concerning biomass, health and environment - BHM. The main objective of the work was to systematically determine the quantities and characteristics of gaseous and particulate emissions from combustion in residential wood log and biomass fuel pellet appliances and report emission factors for the most important emission components. The specific focus was on present commercial wood and pellet stoves as well as to illustrate the potentials for future technology development. The work was divided in different subprojects; 1) a literature review of health effects of ambient wood smoke, 2) design and evaluation of an emission dilution sampling set-up, 3) a study of the effects of combustion conditions on the emission formation and characteristics and illustrate the potential for emission minimization during pellets combustion, 4) a study of the inorganic characteristics of particulate matter during combustion of different pelletized woody raw materials and finally 5) an extensive experimental characterization and quantification of gaseous and particulate emissions from residential wood log and pellet stoves. From the initial literature search, nine relevant health studies were identified, all focused on effects of short-term exposure. Substantial quantitative information was only found for acute asthma in relation to PM10. In comparison with the general estimations for ambient PM and adverse health effects, the relative risks were even stronger in the studies where residential wood combustion was considered as a major PM source. However, the importance of other particle properties than mass concentration, like chemical composition, particle size and number concentration remain to be elucidated. A whole flow dilution sampling set-up for residential biomass fired appliances was designed, constructed and evaluated concerning the effects of sampling

  1. Economic and policy factors driving adoption of institutional woody biomass heating systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse D. Young; Nathaniel M. Anderson; Helen T. Naughton; Katrina Mullan

    2018-01-01

    Abundant stocks of woody biomass that are associated with active forest management can be used as fuel for bioenergy in many applications. Though factors driving large-scale biomass use in industrial settings have been studied extensively, small-scale biomass combustion systems commonly used by institutions for heating have received less attention. A zero inflated...

  2. Biomass waste carbon materials as adsorbents for CO2 capture under post-combustion conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M Calvo-Muñoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of porous carbon materials obtained from biomass waste have been synthesized, with different morphologies and structural properties, and evaluated as potential adsorbents for CO2 capture in post-combustion conditions. These carbon materials present CO2 adsorption capacities, at 25 ºC and 101.3 kPa, comparable to those obtained by other complex carbon or inorganic materials. Furthermore, CO2 uptakes under these conditions can be well correlated to the narrow micropore volume, derived from the CO2 adsorption data at 0 ºC (VDRCO2. In contrast, CO2 adsorption capacities at 25 ºC and 15 kPa are more related to only pores of sizes lower than 0.7 nm. The capacity values obtained in column adsorption experiments were really promising. An activated carbon fiber obtained from Alcell lignin, FCL, presented a capacity value of 1.3 mmol/g (5.7 %wt. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of this carbon fiber was totally recovered in a very fast desorption cycle at the same operation temperature and total pressure and, therefore, without any additional energy requirement. Thus, these results suggest that the biomass waste used in this work could be successfully valorized as efficient CO2 adsorbent, under post-combustion conditions, showing excellent regeneration performance.

  3. Effect of additives in reducing ash sintering and slagging in biomass combustion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liang

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate sintering and slagging behaviors of biofuels during combustion processes. Biofuels tested are derived from the agricultural sector, wood and furniture industry as well as from municipal sewage sludge. It was also the aim to test and evaluate additives that can prevent and abate biomass ash sintering by conducting laboratory and industrial scale tests. Sintering characteristics of sewage sludge ashes at elevated temperatures were investigated by means of different laboratory methods. Utilizing of phosphorus participation agents Al2(SO4)3 or Fe2(SO4)3 caused substantially high contents of aluminum or iron in the studied sewage sludge ashes, respectively. High initial melting temperatures over 1100 degrees C and low sintering tendencies were observed from the sewage sludge ashes rich in aluminum. It was related to presence and formation of the inert mineral phases such as aluminum oxide, quartz and calcium aluminum silicates in the aluminum rich sewage sludge ashes at elevated temperatures. A low melting temperature, about 994 degree C, was detected from the iron rich sewage sludge ash. Severe sintering of this sewage sludge ash was mainly due to generation of low temperature melting iron silicates, as results of interaction and re-assemblage of hematite (Fe2O3), quartz (SiO2) and alkali feldspars under heating. Fusion behaviors of corn cob ashes under rising temperatures were characterized. The work revealed that chemical compositions of corn cob ashes are dominated by potassium, silicon, chlorine and phosphorus. However, the relative concentrations of these principal elements are considerably different for three studied corn cob ashes, which have major influence on ash transformation reactions and sintering tendencies. Compared with the other two, the chemical composition of the Waimanalo corn cob (WCob) was characterized with the highest K/Cl, Si/(Ca+Mg) and (Si+P+K)/(Ca+Mg) molar ratios, which was favorable for

  4. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coal mining is more energy and CO_2 efficient than biomass production. • Co-combustion of 60% biomass with coal doubles mass transport compared to 100% coal. • Low co-combustion levels reduce GHG emissions, but the margins are small. • Total supply chain efficiency is the highest for the coal reference at 41.2%. - Abstract: Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain scenario, for a Dutch situation. The 60% biomass co-combustion supply chain scenarios show possibilities to reduce emissions up to 48%. The low co-combustion levels are effective to reduce GHG emissions, but the margins are small. Currently co-combustion of pellets is the norm. Co-combustion of combined torrefaction and pelleting (TOP) shows the best results, but is also the most speculative. The indicators from the renewable energy directive cannot be aligned. When biomass is regarded as scarce, co-combustion of small shares or no co-combustion is the best option from an energy perspective. When biomass is regarded as abundant, co-combustion of large shares is the best option from a GHG reduction perspective.

  5. 40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires. Your unit is exempt from this subpart if three requirements are met: (1) Your municipal waste combustion unit combusts a single-item waste stream of tires and...) Plastics/rubber recycling units. Your unit is exempt from this subpart if four requirements are met: (1...

  6. Biomass of tomorrow: Banknotes. Two new disposal methods as an alternative to combustion. Die Biomasse von morgen: Banknoten. Zwei neue Verwertungsverfahren als Alternative zur Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, M.

    1999-06-01

    Old banknotes may be tomorrow's biomass. Experts on biowaste are investigating two new processes for disposal of the 1000 tonnes of old bills sorted out every year which may be an alternative to combustion. The author presents details.

  7. NOx emissions and thermal efficiencies of small scale biomass-fuelled combustion plant with reference to process industries in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, A.S.; Purvis, M.R.I.

    1996-01-01

    Solid biomass materials are an important industrial fuel in many developing countries and also show good potential for usage in Europe within a future mix of renewable energy resources. The sustainable use of wood fuels for combustion relies on operation of plant with acceptable thermal efficiency. There is a clear link between plant efficiency and environmental impacts due to air pollution and deforestation. To supplement a somewhat sparse literature on thermal efficiencies and nitrogen oxide emissions from biomass-fuelled plants in developing countries, this paper presents results for tests carried out on 14 combustion units obtained during field trials in Sri Lanka. The plants tested comprised steam boilers and process air heaters. Biomass fuels included: rubber-wood, fuelwood from natural forests; coconut shells; rice husks; and sugar can bagasse. Average NO x (NO and NO 2 ) emissions for the plants were found to be 47 gNO 2 GJ -1 with 18% conversion of fuel nitrogen. The former value is the range of NO x emission values quoted for combustion of coal in grate-fired systems; some oil-fired systems and systems operating on natural gas, but is less than the emission levels for the combustion of pulverized fuel and heavy fuel oil. This value is significantly within current European standards for NO x emission from large combustion plants. Average thermal efficiency of the plants was found to be 50%. Observations made on operational practices demonstrated that there is considerable scope for the improvement of this thermal efficiency value by plant supervisor training, drying of fuelwood and the use of simple instruments for monitoring plant performance. (Author)

  8. Environmental consequences of the use of biomass and combustible waste in the Baltic Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denafas, G.; Revoldas, V.; Zaliauskiene, A.; Bendere, R.; Kudrenickis, I.; Mander, U.; Oja, T.; Sergeeva, L.; Esipenko, A.

    2002-01-01

    Three Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) and the Russian Kaliningrad region possess similar natural conditions as well as natural resources and are closely related by network of energy systems. Therefore joint research into the potentialities hidden in biomass and combustive waste as alternative fuel and into the related problems of air pollutions has been carried out. Based on the methods worked out by the main coordinator of the research work - the Kaunas University of Technology (Dept. of Env. Engineering) - emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , CO, NO x and solid particles at combustion of various fuels have been studied and the energy potential and resource of alternative fuels (different kinds of wood fuel, straw, combustible waste, bio diesel oil, bio ethanol and biogas) have been estimated with regard to each of the mentioned regions. In the paper, possibilities for substitution of the alternative fuels for traditional ones in energy production and transport are discussed and the forecasts as to possible limitations of emissions due to the substitution are given. The work presents the tabulated results of exhaustive calculation of air pollutant formation on the scale of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and the Kaliningrad region made with due consideration for the current requirements on the primary energy and existing renewable sources of alternative fuel. A separate conclusion is made concerning Lithuania, where the issue of alternative fuels is closely connected with the operation of the Ignalina NPP and its expected decommissioning. (authors)

  9. Ash related behaviour in staged and non-staged combustion of biomass fuels and fuel mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becidan, Michaël; Todorovic, Dusan; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Khalil, Roger A.; Backman, Rainer; Goile, Franziska; Skreiberg, Alexandra; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Sørum, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The fate of selected elements (with focus on the important players in corrosion i.e. Na, K, Pb, Zn, Cl and S) are investigated for three biomasses (wood, demolition wood and coffee waste) and six mixtures of these as pellets both with and without air staging in a laboratory reactor. In order to get a complete overview of the combustion products, both online and offline analytical methods are used. Information is collected about: flue gas composition, particle (fly ash) size distribution and composition, bottom ash composition and melting properties. The main findings are: (1) complex interactions are taking place between the mixed fuels during combustion; (2) the mode of occurrence of an element as well as the overall structure of the fuel are important for speciation; (3) the pelletisation process, by bringing chemical elements into intimate contact, may affect partitioning and speciation; (4) staging and mixing might simultaneously have positive and negative effects on operation; (5) staging affects the governing mechanisms of fly ash (aerosols) formation. -- Highlights: ► Complex interactions are taking place between the mixed fuels during combustion. ► The mode of occurrence of an element as well as the overall structure of the fuel are important for speciation. ► The pelletisation process, by bringing chemical elements into intimate contact, may affect partitioning and speciation. ► Staging and mixing might simultaneously have positive and negative effects on operation. ► Staging affects the governing mechanisms of fly ash (aerosols) formation.

  10. The direct observation of alkali vapor species in biomass combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, R J; Dayton, D C; Milne, T A

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes new data from screening various feedstocks for alkali vapor release under combustion conditions. The successful development of a laboratory flow reactor and molecular beam, mass spectrometer interface is detailed. Its application to several herbaceous and woody feedstocks, as well as a fast-pyrolysis oil, under 800 and 1,100{degrees}C batch combustion, is documented. Chlorine seems to play a large role in the facile mobilization of potassium. Included in the report is a discussion of relevant literature on the alkali problem in combustors and turbines. Highlighted are the phenomena identified in studies on coal and methods that have been applied to alkali speciation. The nature of binding of alkali in coal versus biomass is discussed, together with the implications for the ease of release. Herbaceous species and many agricultural residues appear to pose significant problems in release of alkali species to the vapor at typical combustor temperatures. These problems could be especially acute in direct combustion fired turbines, but may be ameliorated in integrated gasification combined cycles.

  11. CFD Modelling of Biomass Combustion in Small-Scale Boilers. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue-Song Bai; Griselin, Niklas; Klason, Torbern; Nilsson, Johan [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2002-10-01

    This project deals with CFD modeling of combustion of wood in fixed bed boilers. A flamelet model for the interaction between turbulence and chemical reactions is developed and applied to study small-scale boiler. The flamelet chemistry employs 43 reactive species and 174 elementary reactions. It gives detailed distributions of important species such as CO and NO{sub x} in the flow field and flue gas. Simulation of a small-scale wood fired boiler measured at SP Boraas (50 KW) shows that the current flamelet model yields results agreeable to the available experimental data. A detailed chemical kinetic model is developed to study the bed combustion process. This model gives boundary conditions for the CFD analysis of gas phase volatile oxidation in the combustion chambers. The model combines a Functional Group submodel with a Depolymerisation, Vaporisation and Crosslinking submodel. The FG submodel simulates how functional groups decompose and form light gas species. The DVC submodell predicts depolymerisation and vaporisation of the macromolecular network and this includes bridge breaking and crosslinking processes, where the wood structure breaks down to fragments. The light fragments form tar and the heavy ones form metaplast. Two boilers firing wood log/chips are studied using the FG-DVC model, one is the SP Boraas small-scale boiler (50 KW) and the other is the Sydkraft Malmoe Vaerme AB's Flintraennan large-scale boiler (55 MW). The fix bed is assumed to be two zones, a partial equilibrium drying/devolatilisation zone and an equilibrium zone. Three typical biomass conversion modes are simulated, a lean fuel combustion mode, a near-stoichiometric combustion and a fuel rich gasification mode. Detailed chemical species and temperatures at different modes are obtained. Physical interpretation is provided. Comparison of the computational results with experimental data shows that the model can reasonably simulate the fixed bed biomass conversion process. CFD

  12. PM10 emissions and PAHs: The importance of biomass type and combustion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosima, Angela T; Tzimou-Tsitouridou, Roxani D; Nikolaki, Spyridoula; Zikopoulos, Dimitrios; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, Maria Th

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the impact of biomass combustion with respect to conditions and fuel types on particle emissions (PM10) and their PAHs content. Special concern was on sampling, quantification and characterization of PM using different appliances, fuels and operating procedures. For this purpose different lab-scale burning conditions, two pellets stoves (8.5 and 10 kW) and one open fireplace were tested by using eight fuel types of biomass. An analytical method is described for the quantitative determination of 16 PAHs using liquid-liquid extraction and subsequent measurement by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Average PM10 emissions ranged from about 65 to 170 mg/m(3) at lab-scale combustions with flow oxygen at 13% in the exhaust gas, 85-220 mg/m(3) at 20% O2, 47-83 mg/m(3) at pellet stove of 10 kW, 34-69 mg/m(3) at pellet stove of 8.5 kW and 106-194 mg/m(3) at the open fireplace. The maximum permitted particle emission limit is 150 mg/m(3). Pellets originated from olive trees and from nonmixture trees were found to emit the lowest particulate matter in relation to the others, so they are considered healthiest and suitable for domestic heating reasons. In general, the results show that biomass open burning is an important PM10 and PAHs emission source.

  13. Highly-controlled, reproducible measurements of aerosol emissions from African biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Sophie; Thomas, J. Chris; Morgan, William; Hadden, Rory; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James; Williams, Paul; Sekou, Keïta; Liousse, Catherine; Coe, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Particulate emissions from biomass burning can alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and cause significant harm to human health. However, the relationship between these emissions and fundamental combustion processes is, to date, poorly characterised. In atmospheric models, aerosol emissions are represented by emission factors based on mass loss, which are averaged over an entire combustion event for each particulate species. This approach, however, masks huge variability in emissions during different phases of the combustion period. Laboratory tests have shown that even small changes to the burning environment can lead to huge variation in observed aerosol emission factors (Akagi et al., 2011). In order to address this gap in understanding, in this study, small wood samples sourced from Côte D'Ivoire were burned in a highly-controlled laboratory environment. The shape and mass of samples, available airflow and surrounding heat were carefully regulated. Organic aerosol and refractory black carbon emissions were measured in real-time using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer, respectively. Both of these instruments are used regularly to measure aerosol concentrations in the field. This methodology produced remarkably repeatable results, allowing three different phases of combustion to be identified by their emissions. Black carbon was emitted predominantly during flaming combustion; organic aerosols were emitted during pyrolysis before ignition and from smouldering-dominated behaviour near the end of combustion. During the flaming period, there was a strong correlation between the emission of black carbon and the rate of mass loss, which suggests there is value in employing a mass-based emission factor for this species. However, very little correlation was seen between organic aerosol and mass loss throughout the tests. As such, results here suggest that emission factors averaged over an entire combustion event are unlikely to be

  14. Effect of biomass blending on coal ignition and burnout during oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Arias; C. Pevida; F. Rubiera; J.J. Pis [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a GHG abatement technology in which coal is burned using a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, to obtain a rich stream of CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. An entrained flow reactor was used in this work to study the ignition and burnout of coals and blends with biomass under oxy-fuel conditions. Mixtures of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} of different concentrations were used and compared with air as reference. A worsening of the ignition temperature was detected in CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures when the oxygen concentration was the same as that of the air. However, at an oxygen concentration of 30% or higher, an improvement in ignition was observed. The blending of biomass clearly improves the ignition properties of coal in air. The burnout of coals and blends with a mixture of 79%CO{sub 2}-21%O{sub 2} is lower than in air, but an improvement is achieved when the oxygen concentration is 30 or 35%. The results of this work indicate that coal burnout can be improved by blending biomass in CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 40 CFR 60.1810 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1810 Section 60.1810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you must install, calibrate...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... municipal waste combustion unit? If this subpart AAAA applies to your municipal waste combustion unit, then...

  17. Results concerning a clean co-combustion technology of waste biomass with fossil fuel, in a pilot fluidised bed combustion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, Ioana; Trif-Tordai, Gavril; Ungureanu, Corneliu; Popescu, Francisc; Lontis, Nicolae [Politehnica Univ. Timisoara (Romania). Faculty for Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The research focuses on a facility, the experimental results, interpretation and future plans concerning a new developed technology of using waste renewable energy by applying the cocombustion of waste biomass with coal, in a fluidised bed system. The experimental facility is working entirely in accordance to the allowed limits for the exhaust flue gas concentration, with special concern for typical pollutants. The experiments conclude that the technology is cleaner, has as main advantage the possibility to reduce both the SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} exhaust in comparison to standard fossil fuel combustion, under comparable circumstances. The combustion is occurring in a stable fluidised bed. (orig.)

  18. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha"−"1 application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha"−"1 straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil.

  19. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoxi, E-mail: Xiaoxi.Li@agro.au.dk; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-07-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha{sup −1} application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha{sup −1} straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil

  20. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  1. Co-firing coal and biomass blends and their influence on the post-combustion CO2 capture installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Więckol-Ryk Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Research proved that co-firing of biomass in fossil fuel power plants is beneficial for PCC process. It may also reduce the corrosion of CO2 capture installation. The oxygen concentration in the flue gases from hard coal combustion was comparable with the respective value for a fuel blend of biomass content of 20% w/w. It was also noted that an increase in biomass content in a sample from 20 to 40 % w/w increased the concentration of oxygen in the flue gas streams. However, this concentration should not have a significant impact on the rate of amine oxidative degradation.

  2. Biomass fueled fluidized bed combustion: atmospheric emissions, emission control devices and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, S.W.; Jenkins, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustors have become the technological choice for power generation from biomass fuels in California. Atmospheric emission data obtained during compliance tests are compared for five operating 18 to 32 MW fluidized bed combustion power plants. The discussion focuses on the impact of fuel properties and boiler design criteria on the emission of pollutants, the efficiency of pollution control devices, and regulations affecting atmospheric emissions. Stack NO x emission factors are shown not to vary substantially among the five plants which burn fuels with nitrogen concentrations between 0.3 and 1.1% dry weight. All facilities use at least one particular control device, but not all use limestone injection or other control techniques for sulfur and chlorine. The lack of control for chlorine suggests the potential for emission of toxic species due to favorable temperature conditions existing in the particulate control devices, particularly when burning fuels containing high concentrations of chlorine. (Author)

  3. An exploratory study of alkali sulfate aerosol formation during biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løj, Lusi Hindiyarti; Frandsen, Flemming; Livbjerg, Hans

    2008-01-01

    mechanism. The modeling predictions are compared to data from laboratory experiments and entrained flow reactor experiments available in the literature. The analysis support that alkali sulfate aerosols are formed from homogeneous nucleation following a series of steps occurring in the gas phase. The rate......It is still in discussion to what extent alkali sulfate aerosols in biomass combustion are formed in the gas phase by a homogeneous mechanism or involve heterogeneous or catalyzed reactions. The present study investigates sulfate aerosol formation based on calculations with a detailed gas phase......-limiting step may be the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, rather than the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 proposed previously. Even though the proposed model is consistent with experimental observations, experiments in a rigorously homogeneous system are called for to test its validity....

  4. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate...... of ammonium sulfate addition and ferric sulfation addition compared favorably with the experimental results. However, the model for aluminum sulfate addition under-predicted significantly the high sulfation degree of KCl observed in the experiments, possibly because of an under-estimation of the decomposition...... rate of aluminum. Under the boiler conditions of the present work, the simulation results suggested that the desirable temperature for the ferric sulfate injection was around 950-900oC, whereas for ammonium sulfate the preferable injection temperature was below 800oC....

  5. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum...... sulfate were obtained from experiments in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were investigated in a tube reactor at 600–900 °C, revealing a constant distribution of about 15% SO2 and 85% SO3 from aluminum sulfate decomposition and a temperature...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  6. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to

  7. Preliminary observations of organic gas-particle partitioning from biomass combustion smoke using an aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Lee; S. M. Kreidenweis; J. L. Collett; A. P. Sullivan; C. M. Carrico; J. L. Jimenez; M. Cubison; S. Saarikoski; D. R. Worsnop; T. B. Onasch; E. Fortner; W. C. Malm; E. Lincoln; Cyle Wold; WeiMin Hao

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols play important roles in adverse health effects, indirect and direct forcing of Earth’s climate, and visibility degradation. Biomass burning emissions from wild and prescribed fires can make a significant contribution to ambient aerosol mass in many locations and seasons. In order to better understand the chemical properties of particles produced by combustion...

  8. Combustion of palm kernel shell in a fluidized bed: Optimization of biomass particle size and operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninduangdee, Pichet; Kuprianov, Vladimir I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Safe burning of palm kernel shell is achievable in a FBC using alumina as the bed material. • Thermogravimetric analysis of the shell with different particle sizes is performed. • Optimal values of the shell particle size and excess air lead to the minimum emission costs. • Combustion efficiency of 99.4–99.7% is achievable when operated under optimal conditions. • CO and NO emissions of the FBC are at levels substantially below national emission limits. - Abstract: This work presents a study on the combustion of palm kernel shell (PKS) in a conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using alumina sand as the bed material to prevent bed agglomeration. Prior to combustion experiments, a thermogravimetric analysis was performed in nitrogen and dry air to investigate the effects of biomass particle size on thermal and combustion reactivity of PKS. During the combustion tests, the biomass with different mean particle sizes (1.5 mm, 4.5 mm, 7.5 mm, and 10.5 mm) was burned at a 45 kg/h feed rate, while excess air was varied from 20% to 80%. Temperature and gas concentrations (O 2 , CO, C x H y as CH 4 , and NO) were recorded along the axial direction in the reactor as well as at stack. The experimental results indicated that the biomass particle size and excess air had substantial effects on the behavior of gaseous pollutants (CO, C x H y , and NO) in different regions inside the reactor, as well as on combustion efficiency and emissions of the conical FBC. The CO and C x H y emissions can be effectively controlled by decreasing the feedstock particle size and/or increasing excess air, whereas the NO emission can be mitigated using coarser biomass particles and/or lower excess air. A cost-based approach was applied to determine the optimal values of biomass particle size and excess air, ensuring minimum emission costs of burning the biomass in the proposed combustor. From the optimization analysis, the best combustion and emission performance of the

  9. Predictions of the product compositions for combustion or gasification of biomass and others hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Hendrick Maxil Zarate; Itai, Yuu; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Moraes, Sinfronio Brito; Rocha, Brigida Ramati Pereira da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: hendrick@ufpa.br; yuuitai@ufpa.br; mfmn@ufpa.br; sbrito@ufpa.br; brigida@ufpa.br

    2008-07-01

    Processes involving combustion and gasification are object of study of many researchers. To simulate these processes in a detailed way, it is necessary to solve equations for chemical kinetics whose resolution many times is difficult due lack of information in the literature a simples way to bypass tis problem is due the chemical equilibrium. Prediction of the flu gases composition through chemical equilibrium is an important step in the mathematical modelling for gasification and combustion processes. Some free programs exists to solve problems that involve the chemical equilibrium, such as STANJAN, CEA, GASEQ, CANTERA and others.These programs have difficulty for cases involving fuel such as: biomass, vegetable oils, biodiesel, natural gas, etc., because they do not have database with the fuel composition and is hard to supply their HHV and their elementary analysis. In this work, using numeric methods, a program was developed to predict the gases composition on equilibrium after combustion and gasification processes with the for constant pressure or volume. In the program the chemical formula of the fuel is defined as C{sub x}H{sub y}O{sub z}N{sub w}S{sub v}A{sub u} that reacts with an gaseous oxidizer composed by O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, Ar, He, CO{sub 2} e H{sub 2}O to have as final result the composition of the products CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, H, OH, O{sub 2}, O, N{sub 2}, NO, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, Ar, He, and ash. To verify the accuracy of the calculated values, it was compared with the program CEA (developed by NASA) and with experimental data obtained from literature. (author)

  10. Direct radiative effect due to brownness in organic carbon aerosols generated from biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, T.D.; Sahu, S.K.; Tiwari, M.; Pandit, G.G.

    2016-01-01

    We report the enhancement in the direct radiative effect due the presence of Brown carbon (BrC) as a part of organic carbon aerosols. The optical properties of organic carbon aerosols generated from pyrolytic combustion of mango tree wood (Magnifera Indica) and dung cake at different temperatures were considered. Mie codes were used to calculate absorption and scattering coefficients coupled with experimentally derived imaginary complex refractive index. The direct radiative effect (DRE) for sampled organic carbon aerosols was estimated using a wavelength dependent radiative transfer equation. The BrC DRE was estimated taking virtually non absorbing organic aerosols as reference. The BrC DRE from wood and dung cake was compared at different combustion temperatures and conditions. The BrC contributed positively to the direct top of the atmosphere radiative effect. Dung cake generated BrC aerosols were found to be strongly light absorbing as compared to BrC from wood combustion. It was noted that radiative effects of BrC from wood depended on its generation temperature and conditions. For BrC aerosols from dung cake such strong dependence was not observed. The average BrC aerosol DRE values were 1.53±0.76 W g"−"1 and 17.84±6.45 W g"−"1 for wood and dung cake respectively. The DRE contribution of BrC aerosols came mainly (67–90%) from visible light absorption though they exhibited strong absorption in shorter wavelengths of the UV–visible spectrum. - Highlights: • Biomass fuels (wood and dung cake) were studied for brown carbon direct radiative effects. • Model calculations predicted positive contribution of Brown carbon aerosols to organic carbon direct radiative effect. • Average direct radiative values for brown carbon from dung cake were higher compare to wood. • The visible light absorption played major role in brown carbon contribution (67–90 %) to total direct radiative effect.

  11. Comparative study for hardwood and softwood forest biomass: chemical characterization, combustion phases and gas and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Simone Simões; de Carvalho, João Andrade; Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Soares Neto, Turíbio Gomes; Dellani, Rafael; Leite, Luiz Henrique Scavacini

    2014-07-01

    Two different types of typical Brazilian forest biomass were burned in the laboratory in order to compare their combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions. Approximately 2 kg of Amazon biomass (hardwood) and 2 kg of Araucaria biomass (softwood) were burned. Gaseous emissions of CO2, CO, and NOx and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were evaluated in the flaming and smoldering combustion phases. Temperature, burn rate, modified combustion efficiency, emissions factor, and particle diameter and concentration were studied. A continuous analyzer was used to quantify gas concentrations. A DataRam4 and a Cascade Impactor were used to sample PM2.5. Araucaria biomass (softwood) had a lignin content of 34.9%, higher than the 23.3% of the Amazon biomass (hardwood). CO2 and CO emissions factors seem to be influenced by lignin content. Maximum concentrations of CO2, NOx and PM2.5 were observed in the flaming phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of ash and particle emissions during bubbling fluidised bed combustion of three types of residual forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João Peres; Vicente, Estela Domingos; Alves, Célia; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio; Tarelho, Luís A C

    2017-04-01

    Combustion of residual forest biomass (RFB) derived from eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus), pine (Pinus pinaster) and golden wattle (Acacia longifolia) was evaluated in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor (BFBR). During the combustion experiments, monitoring of temperature, pressure and exhaust gas composition has been made. Ash samples were collected at several locations along the furnace and flue gas treatment devices (cyclone and bag filter) after each combustion experiment and were analysed for their unburnt carbon content and chemical composition. Total suspended particles (TSP) in the combustion flue gas were evaluated at the inlet and outlet of cyclone and baghouse filter and further analysed for organic and elemental carbon, carbonates and 57 chemical elements. High particulate matter collection efficiencies in the range of 94-99% were observed for the baghouse, while removal rates of only 1.4-17% were registered for the cyclone. Due to the sand bed, Si was the major element in bottom ashes. Fly ashes, in particular those from eucalypt combustion, were especially rich in CaO, followed by relevant amounts of SiO 2 , MgO and K 2 O. Ash characteristics varied among experiments, showing that their inorganic composition strongly depends on both the biomass composition and combustion conditions. Inorganic constituents accounted for TSP mass fractions up to 40 wt%. Elemental carbon, organic matter and carbonates contributed to TSP mass fractions in the ranges 0.58-44%, 0.79-78% and 0.01-1.7%, respectively.

  13. Producer gas production of Indonesian biomass in fixed-bed downdraft gasifier as an alternative fuels for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, J. P.; Lisyanto; Daryanto, E.; Tambunan, B. H.

    2018-03-01

    downdraft biomass gasification reactors, coupled with reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) are a viable technology for small scale heat and power generation. The direct use of producer gas as fuel subtitution in an ICE could be of great interest since Indonesia has significant land area in different forest types that could be used to produce bioenergy and convert forest materials to bioenergy for use in energy production and the versatility of this engine. This paper will look into the aspect of biomass energie as a contributor to energy mix in Indonesia. This work also contains information gathered from numerous previews study on the downdraft gasifier based on experimental or simulation study on the ability of producer gas as fuels for internal combustion engines aplication. All data will be used to complement the preliminary work on biomass gasification using downdraft to produce producer gas and its application to engines.

  14. Management methods ash from combustion of biomass. Review of productions and associated methods. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulday, D.; Marcovecchio, F.

    2016-02-01

    The study deals with the management of biomass ashes from industrial and collective facilities (wood log excluded) and provides a state of the art, in France and in Europe, flows, methods of recovery and post-treatment, physico-chemical characteristics and programs for new opportunities. Currently, flows of biomass ash are estimated at 110 kt-330 kt in France and 1 500 kt - 4 500 kt in Europe and should amount respectively 330 kt-1000 kt and 3100 kt-8000 kt in 2020. The physical and chemical composition of biomass ash is influenced by many factors: fuel, pretreatment, post-treatment, additives, fly and bottom ash, power installation, type of combustion equipment, extraction mode...However, these ashes have characteristics which are commonly accepted: liming / neutralizing power, fertilizer, pozzolanic behavior generally almost zero. In France and Europe, a distinction is made between fly and bottom ashes, usually less polluted. However, this separation does not always make sense according to the valuation mode, the type of equipment (including fluidized bed or grid) or mixtures of ash made in the plant (e.g. mix of bottom and coarse ash). Currently, the main outlet is ash landfill, followed by agricultural and forestry recycling. The other identified opportunities concern a few countries and marginal flows: brick-works, road engineering... The development of biomass energy, coupled with a reduction in landfill options, has given rise to many research and demonstration programs in recent years, particularly in France, with some promising solutions. Many limiting factors, which can be different according to opportunities, have been identified. More or less advanced solutions aimed at reducing the harmful effects of these factors (slaking lime, sorting, grinding...).However to date, the most robust and massive solution for ash recycling material remains undoubtedly the agricultural recycling. According to the study, it's necessary to consolidate the agricultural

  15. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  16. A new method to quantify fluidized bed agglomeration in the combustion of biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, M. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The present licentiate thesis is a summary and discussion of four papers, dealing with the development, evaluation and use of a new method to quantify bed agglomeration tendencies for biomass fuels. An increased utilization of biomass related fuels has many environmental benefits, but also requires careful studies of potential new problems associated with these fuels such as bed agglomeration/defluidization during combustion and gasification in fluidized beds. From a thorough literature survey, no suitable methods to determine bed agglomeration tendencies of different fuels, fuel combinations or fuels with additives appeared to be available. It therefore seemed of considerable interest to develop a new method for the quantification of fluidized bed agglomeration tendencies for different fuels. A bench scale fluidized bed reactor (5 kW), specially designed to obtain a homogeneous isothermal bed temperature, is used. The method is based on controlled increase of the bed temperature by applying external heat to the primary air and to the bed section walls. The initial agglomeration temperature is determined by on- or off-line principal component analysis of the variations in measured bed temperatures and differential pressures. Samples of ash and bed material for evaluation of agglomeration mechanisms may also be collected throughout the operation. To determine potential effects of all the process related variables on the determined fuel specific bed agglomeration temperature, an extensive sensitivity analysis was performed according to a statistical experimental design. The results showed that the process variables had only relatively small effects on the agglomeration temperature, which could be determined to 899 deg C with a reproducibility of {+-} 5 deg C (STD). The inaccuracy was determined to be {+-} 30 deg C (STD). The method was also used to study the mechanism of both bed agglomeration using two biomass fuels and prevention of bed agglomeration by co-combustion

  17. Optimizing diesel combustion behaviour with tailor-made fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Florian; Heuser, Benedikt [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen; Klankermayer, Juergen [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie; Pischinger, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Modem biofuels offer a vast potential to decrease engine out emissions while at the same time allowing a reduction of greenhouse gases produced from individual mobility. In order to deeply investigate and improve the complete path from biofuel production to combustion, in 2007 the cluster of excellence ''Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass'' was installed at RWTH Aachen University. Since the start of the work in the cluster a whole variety of possible fuel candidates were identified and investigated, eventually leading to the definition of 2-methyltetrahydrofurane (2-MTHF) as a tailor-made biofuel for passenger car diesel engines. With 2-MTHF, a nearly soot-free combustion can be realized. This soot-free combustion behavior can partially be explained by the low self-ignition tendency and the therefore observed long ignition delays. Hereby, a good mixture preparation can be realized. This long ignition delay also results in high HC- and CO emissions, though, which are partially accompanied by increased noise emissions. In this work, the addition of di-n-butylether (DNBE) to 2-MTHF to reduce the described disadvantages will be analyzed. DNBE, a fuel that can be obtained via a reaction pathway defined in TMFB, is characterized by an extremely high Cetane number (CN- 100) and therefore very high self-ignitability. The effects of different mixtures of DNBE and 2-MTHF from 0% to 100% especially on the HC- and CO- and noise emissions will be carefully analyzed. In addition, the overall emission performance will be compared to standard EN590 Diesel as reference fuel. The results show that an adapted addition of DNBE to 2-MTHF can lead to a significant reduction of HC-, CO- and noise emissions while not sacrificing the benefits gained from the 2-MTHF's long ignition delays with regard to the particulate emissions. It can be proven that the use of two tailored biofuels with different self-ignitability such as 2-MTHF and DNBE allows to tailor the

  18. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  19. The synergistic effect in coal/biomass blend briquettes combustion on elements behavior in bottom ash using ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaroiu, G.; Frentiu, T.; Maescu, L.; Mihaltan, A.; Ponta, M.; Frentiu, M.; Cordos, E. [Universitatea Politehnica din Bucuresti, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    This paper focuses on the study of the synergistic effect in coal/biomass blend briquettes combustion on behavior of Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co. Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Si, V, W, Zn, Zr and characterization of raw materials and bottom ashes. The manufacturing of coal/biomass briquettes although not commonly used is an attractive approach, as briquettes combustion is more technologically advantageous than the fluidized bed combustion. In the same time this technology is a way to render valuable materials of low calorific power and results in diminishing polluting emission. Raw materials and briquettes from different blends of pitcoal/sawdust were subjected to combustion in a 55 kW-boiler. The total content of elements after digestion in the HNO{sub 3} - HF mixture and the content in water leachate at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:2 were determined both in raw materials and bottom ash by ICP-OES. The total content of elements was higher in pitcoal than in sawdust. The synergistic effect depends both on coal/biomass ratio in blend and element nature. The water leachable fraction of elements from ash decreased along with the increase of sawdust weight excepting macronutrients (K, P) and Si.

  20. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  1. The influence of fine char particles burnout on bed agglomeration during the fluidized bed combustion of a biomass fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, Fabrizio; Chirone, Riccardo [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, P.le V. Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P.le V. Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy)

    2003-11-15

    The combustion of biomass char in a bubbling fluidized bed is hereby addressed, with specific reference to the influence that the combustion of fine char particles may exert on ash deposition and bed agglomeration phenomena. Experiments of steady fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of powdered biomass were carried out with the aim of mimicking the postcombustion of attrited char fines generated in the fluidized bed combustion of coarse char. Experimental results showed that the char elutriation rate is much smaller than expected on the basis of the average size of the biomass powder and of the carbon loading in the combustor. Samples of bed material collected after prolonged operation of the combustor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-EDX analysis and revealed the formation of relatively coarse sand-ash-carbon aggregates. The phenomenology is consistent with the establishment of a char phase attached to the bed material as a consequence of adhesion of char fines onto the sand particles. Combustion under sound-assisted fluidization conditions was also tested. As expected, enhancement of fines adhesion on bed material and further reduction of the elutriation rate were observed. Experimental results are interpreted in the light of a simple model which accounts for elutriation of free fines, adhesion of free fines onto bed material and detachment of attached fines by attrition of char-sand aggregates. Combustion of both free and attached char fines is considered. The parameters of the model are assessed on the basis of the measured carbon loadings and elutriation rates. Model computations are directed to estimate the effective size and the peak temperature of char-sand aggregates. The theoretical estimates of the effective aggregate size match fairly well those observed in the experiments.

  2. CFD analysis of combustion of natural gas and syngas from biomass pyrolysis in the combustion chamber of a micro gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Laranci, Paolo; D' Alessandro, Bruno [University of Perugia (DII/UNIPG) (Italy). Dept. of Industrial Engineering], Emails: fanto@unipg.it, paolo.laranci@unipg.it, dalessandro@bio-net.it

    2009-07-01

    Micro gas turbines (MGT) can be profitably used for the production of distributed energy (DE), with the possibility to use gaseous fuels with low BTU derived from biomass or waste through the pyrolysis or gasification processes. These synthesis gases (SG) show significant differences with respect to natural gas (NG), in terms of composition, calorific value, content of hydrogen, tar and particulate matter content; such differences can be turn into problems of ignition, instability burning, difficulties in controlling the emissions and fouling. CFD analysis of the combustion process is an essential tool for identifying the main critical arising in using these gases, in order to modify existing geometries and to develop new generation of combustor for use with low BTU gases. This paper describes the activities of experimental and numerical analysis carried out to study the combustion process occurring inside an existing annular Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) Combustion Chamber (CC) of a 80 kW MGT. In the paper some results of a CFD study of the combustion process performed with an original developed chemical models are reported in terms of temperature and velocity distributions inside the CC and in terms of compositions of turbine inlet gas and of its thermodynamic parameters (mass flow, temperature, pressure). An evaluation of pollutant emissions of CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx and a comparison with the available experimental data relating to the case of combustion of NG is also provided in the paper. Moreover, the carried out investigation concerns the case of operation with a SG fuel derived from biomass in an Integrated Pyrolysis Regenerated Plant (IPRP). (author)

  3. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical and combustion characterization of pyrolytic oils derived from biomass material upgraded by catalytic hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitolo, S.; Ghetti, P. (Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica)

    1994-11-01

    Physical and combustion properties of a pyrolytic bio-oil are determined both as-obtained and after catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. The tests demonstrate that the hydrogenation treatment improves the oil as regards combustibility, viscosity and acidity. Combustion properties of the oil have been characterized by evaporation and temperature programmed combustion profiles. Short communication. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2020 - What combustion units are exempt from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What combustion units are exempt from..., 2001 Applicability § 60.2020 What combustion units are exempt from this subpart? This subpart exempts... byproduct streams/residues containing catalyst metals which are reclaimed and reused as catalysts or used to...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2555 - What combustion units are exempt from my State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What combustion units are exempt from... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2555 What combustion units are... metals which are reclaimed and reused as catalysts or used to produce commercial grade catalysts. (5...

  8. Combustion-derived substances in deep basins of Puget Sound: Historical inputs from fossil fuel and biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Wade, Terry L.; Crecelius, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructions of 250 years historical inputs of two distinct types of black carbon (soot/graphitic black carbon (GBC) and char-BC) were conducted on sediment cores from two basins of the Puget Sound, WA. Signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also used to support the historical reconstructions of BC to this system. Down-core maxima in GBC and combustion-derived PAHs occurred in the 1940s in the cores from the Puget Sound Main Basin, whereas in Hood Canal such peak was observed in the 1970s, showing basin-specific differences in inputs of combustion byproducts. This system showed relatively higher inputs from softwood combustion than the northeastern U.S. The historical variations in char-BC concentrations were consistent with shifts in climate indices, suggesting an influence of climate oscillations on wildfire events. Environmental loading of combustion byproducts thus appears as a complex function of urbanization, fuel usage, combustion technology, environmental policies, and climate conditions. - Research highlights: → We reconstructed the historical inputs of GBC and char-BC in Puget Sound, WA, USA. → Temporal trend of GBC was linked to human activities (urbanization, fuel usage). → Temporal trend of char-BC was more likely driven by regional climate oscillations. → Historical trends of combustion byproducts show the geographical heterogeneities. - Temporal trend of GBC was directly linked to human activities, while the input of char-BC in Puget Sound was more likely driven by regional climate oscillations.

  9. Electricity generation from solid biomass via co-combustion with coal. Energy and emission balances from a German case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, D.; Kaltschmitt, M.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental effects of electricity production from different biofuels by means of co-combustion with hard coal in existing coal fired power plants are analysed and compared to electricity production from hard coal alone based on Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). The use of straw and residual wood at a 10% blend with coal in an existing power plant in the southern part of Germany shows that all investigated environmental effects are significantly lower if biomass is used instead of coal. Thus based on the available and proven technology of co-combustion of hard coal and biomass in existing power plants a significant contribution could be made to a more environmentally sound energy system compared to using coal alone. (author)

  10. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  11. Experimental Investigation into the Combustion Characteristics on the Co-firing of Biomass with Coal as a Function of Particle Size and Blending Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lkhagvadorj, Sh; Kim, Sang In; Lim, Ho; Kim, Seung Mo; Jeon, Chung Hwan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung Hwa [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Co-firing of biomass with coal is a promising combustion technology in a coal-fired power plant. However, it still requires verifications to apply co-firing in an actual boiler. In this study, data from the Thermogravimetric analyzer(TGA) and Drop tube furnace(DTF) were used to obtain the combustion characteristics of biomass when co-firing with coal. The combustion characteristics were verified using experimental results including reactivity from the TGA and Unburned carbon(UBC) data from the DTF. The experiment also analyzed with the variation of the biomass blending ratio and biomass particle size. It was determined that increasing the biomass blending ratio resulted in incomplete chemical reactions due to insufficient oxygen levels because of the rapid initial combustion characteristics of the biomass. Thus, the optimum blending condition of the biomass based on the results of this study was found to be 5 while oxygen enrichment reduced the increase of UBC that occurred during combustion of blended biomass and coal.

  12. Particulate emissions from biomass combustion in small district heating plants; Partikelemissioner fraan biobraensleeldade mindre fjaerrvaermecentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Henrik; Johansson, Linda; Tullin, Claes; Oesterberg, Stefan; Johansson, Mathias [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy Conversion

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, negative health effects associated with increased levels of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} (particles less then 10 and 2.5 {mu}m, respectively) in the ambient air have been highlighted. The development towards a sustainable society will lead to an increased use of biomass in Sweden. Conversion from oil to biomass can lead to increased local levels of particulate matter. In smaller district heating plants (up to a few MW), the dust reduction often is restricted to the use of cyclones/multicyclones having limited separation efficiency for submicron particles (particles less than 1 {mu}m). The emissions are often in the range 100 Mg/nm{sup 3} or higher but very few data regarding particle size distributions from district heating plants have been reported in the literature. In addition to the particle size, a number of other properties might be important for the health effects but the knowledge in this area is limited. It is therefore important to characterise the particles in detail regarding physical and chemical qualities. The objective with the present investigation is to measure and characterise the particulate emissions from two biomass based smaller district heating centrals for different fuel qualities (pellets, briquettes, forest residues and wood chips) and operating parameters such as load and excess air. In addition to analyses of dust and particulates, extensive measurements of the flue composition have been performed. Measurements were performed downstream the multicyclones. The dust emissions were found to be in the range 20 to 120 mg/MJ supplied fuel depending on operating condition and fuel quality. At normal operation, the dust emissions were about 35 to 40 mg/MJ supplied fuel. The particle size distributions were measured using an ELPI (Electric Low Pressure Impactor). The number size distributions were found to be dominated by submicron particles with maxima at diameters between 0. 1 and 0.3 gm. Additional measurements indicated that

  13. Theoretical study of the combustion de pellets of biomass coming from the sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdecia Torres, David; Macías Socarrás, Idalberto; Gaskins Espinosa, Benjamín Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    In the follow work they are an a examinations of the kinetic quimestry of the combustions process, we obtain the combustions time in functions of the kinetic combustions model and we made a experiment design for determinations of the theory's mathematics models in that process. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit at your plant. Include supporting calculations. (b) Records of low carbon feed... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Combustion Units 1 Table 1 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced... Combustion Units For the following pollutants You must meet thefollowing emission limits a Using the...

  17. Laboratory characterization of PM emissions from combustion of wildland biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, SeyedEhsan; Urbanski, Shawn; Dixit, P.; Qi, L.; Burling, Ian R.; Yokelson, Robert; Johnson, Timothy J.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Jung, H.; Weise, David; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.

    2013-09-09

    Particle emissions from open burning of southwestern (SW) and southeastern (SE) U.S. 17 fuel types during 77 controlled laboratory burns are presented. The fuels include SW 18 vegetation types: ceanothus, chamise/scrub oak, coastal sage scrub, California sagebrush, 19 manzanita, maritime chaparral, masticated mesquite, oak savanna, and oak woodland as 20 well as SE vegetation types: 1-year, 2-year rough, pocosin, chipped understory, 21 understory hardwood, and pine litter. The SW fuels burned at a higher Modified 22 Combustion Efficiency (MCE) than the SE fuels resulting in lower particulate matter 23 (PM) mass emission factor (EF). Particle size distributions for six fuels and particle 24 number emission or all fuels are reported. Excellent mass closure (slope = 1.00, r2=0.94) 25 between ions, metals, and carbon with total weight was obtained. Organic carbon 26 emission factors inversely correlated (= 0.72) with MCE, while elemental carbon (EC) 27 had little correlation with MCE (=0.10). The EC/total carbon (TC) ratio sharply 28 increased with MCE for MCEs exceeding 0.94. The average levoglucosan and total Poly 29 Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions factors ranged from 25-1272 mg/kg fuel and 30 1790-11300 μg/kg fuel, respectively. No correlation between MCE and emissions of 31 PAHs/levoglucosan was found. Additionally, PAH diagnostic ratios were observed to be 32 poor indicators of biomass burning. Large fuel-type and regional dependency was 33 observed in the emission rates of ammonium, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, sodium, and

  18. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain

  19. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... qualifies for the exemption. (d) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires. Units are exempt... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel oil.../rubber recycling units. Units are exempt from your State plan if four requirements are met: (1) The...

  20. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested boiler during combustion were investigated. The obtained results were compared with corresponding results of flame coal (GFC. Combustion of the PBZ fuel turned out to be a stable process in the tested boiler but the thermal output has decreased in about 30% compared to coal combustion, while CO and NOx emission has increased. Similar effect was observed when 15% of the poultry litter was added to the coal. In this case thermal output has also decreased (in about 20% and increase of CO and NOx emission was observed. As a conclusion, it can be stated that more effective control system with an adaptive air regulation and a modified heat exchanger could be useful in order to achieve the nominal power of the tested boiler.

  1. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junga, Robert; Wzorek, Małgorzata; Kaszubska, Mirosława

    2017-10-01

    This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel) and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM) were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested boiler during combustion were investigated. The obtained results were compared with corresponding results of flame coal (GFC). Combustion of the PBZ fuel turned out to be a stable process in the tested boiler but the thermal output has decreased in about 30% compared to coal combustion, while CO and NOx emission has increased. Similar effect was observed when 15% of the poultry litter was added to the coal. In this case thermal output has also decreased (in about 20%) and increase of CO and NOx emission was observed. As a conclusion, it can be stated that more effective control system with an adaptive air regulation and a modified heat exchanger could be useful in order to achieve the nominal power of the tested boiler.

  2. Water Vapor Adsorption on Biomass Based Carbons under Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Conditions: Effect of Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausika Querejeta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of post-treatment upon the H2O adsorption performance of biomass-based carbons was studied under post-combustion CO2 capture conditions. Oxygen surface functionalities were partially replaced through heat treatment, acid washing, and wet impregnation with amines. The surface chemistry of the final carbon is strongly affected by the type of post-treatment: acid treatment introduces a greater amount of oxygen whereas it is substantially reduced after thermal treatment. The porous texture of the carbons is also influenced by post-treatment: the wider pore volume is somewhat reduced, while narrow microporosity remains unaltered only after acid treatment. Despite heat treatment leading to a reduction in the number of oxygen surface groups, water vapor adsorption was enhanced in the higher pressure range. On the other hand acid treatment and wet impregnation with amines reduce the total water vapor uptake thus being more suitable for post-combustion CO2 capture applications.

  3. Catalytic reduction of emissions from small-scale combustion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Magnus; Gustavsson, Patrik; Berge, Niklas

    1998-01-01

    This report covers a study on the prospect of using catalytic techniques for the abatement of emissions from small-scale combustion of biomass. The results show that there is a great potential for catalytic techniques and that the emissions of primarily CO and unburned hydrocarbons can be reduced but also that indirectly the emissions of NO x can be reduced. The aim of the project was to methodically indicate the requirement that both the catalyst and the stove must meet to enable the development of low emission stoves utilising this technique. The project should also aim at the development of catalysts that meet these requirements and apply the technique on small-scale stoves. By experimental work these appliances have been evaluated and conclusions drawn on the optimisation of the technique. The project has been performed in close collaboration between TPS Termiska Processer AB, Department of Chemical Technology at KTH, Perstorp AB and CTC-PARCA AB. The development of new catalysts have been conduc ted by KTH in collaboration with Perstorp while the work performed by TPS have been directed towards the integration of the monolithic catalysts in two different stoves that have been supplied by CTC. In one of these stoves a net based catalyst developed by KATATOR have also been tested. Within the project it has been verified experimentally that in a wood fired stove a reduction of the CO-emissions of 60% can be achieved for the monolithic catalysts. This reduction could be achieved even without any optimisation of the design. Experiments in a smaller scale and under well controlled conditions have shown that almost 100% reduction of CO can be achieved. The parameters that limits the conversion over the catalyst, and thereby prevents that the targeted low emissions can be reached, have been identified as: * Short residence time, * Mass transport limitations caused by the large channel width, * Uneven temperature profile over the catalyst, and * Insufficient mixing

  4. 40 CFR 60.1200 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1200 Section 60.1200 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1200 What are the operating practice...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1690 Section 60.1690 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1690 What...

  6. Novel application of a combustion chamber for experimental assessment of biomass burning emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusini, I.; Pallozi, E.; Corona, P.; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 94, sep (2014), s. 117-125 ISSN 1352-2310 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest fires * combustion chamber * combustion gases * volatile organic compounds emission Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2014

  7. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  8. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Junga Robert; Wzorek Małgorzata; Kaszubska Mirosława

    2017-01-01

    This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel) and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM) were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested...

  9. EOSLT Consortium Biomass Co-firing. WP 4. Biomass co-firing in oxy-fuel combustion. Part 1. Lab- Scale Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryda, L.E. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    In the frame of WP4 of the EOS LT Co-firing program, the ash formation and deposition of selected coal/biomass blends under oxyfuel and air conditions were studied experimentally in the ECN lab scale coal combustor (LCS). The fuels used were Russian coal, South African coal and Greek Lignite, either combusted separately or in blends with cocoa and olive residue. The first trial period included tests with the Russian and South African coals and their blends with cocoa, the second trial period included Lignite with olive residue tests and a final period firing only Lignite and Russian coal, mainly to check and verify the observed results. During the testing, also enriched air combustion was applied, in order to establish conclusions whether a systematic trend on ash formation and deposition exists, ranging from conventional air, to enriched air (improving post combustion applications) until oxyfuel conditions. A horizontal deposition probe equipped with thermocouples and heat transfer sensors for on line data acquisition, and a cascade impactor (staged filter) to obtain size distributed ash samples including the submicron range at the reactor exit were used. The deposition ratio and the deposition propensity measured for the various experimental conditions were higher in all oxyfuel cases. No significant variations in the ash formation mechanisms and the ash composition were established. Finally the data obtained from the tests performed under air and oxy-fuel conditions were utilised for chemical equilibrium calculations in order to facilitate the interpretation of the measured data; the results indicate that temperature dependence and fuels/blends ash composition are the major factors affecting gaseous compound and ash composition rather than the combustion environment, which seems to affect neither the ash and fine ash (submicron) formation, nor the ash composition. The ash deposition mechanisms were studied in more detail in Part II of this report.

  10. Strategies to reduce gaseous KCl and chlorine in deposits during combustion of biomass in fluidised bed boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassman, Haakan

    2012-11-01

    Combustion of a biomass with an enhanced content of alkali and chlorine (Cl) can result in operational problems including deposit formation and superheater corrosion. The strategies applied to reduce such problems include co-combustion and the use of additives. In this work, measures were investigated in order to decrease the risk of superheater corrosion by reducing gaseous KCl and the content of chlorine in deposits. The strategies applied were sulphation of KCl by sulphur/sulphate containing additives (i.e. elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate (AS)) and co-combustion with peat. Both sulphation of KCl and capture of potassium (K) in ash components can be of importance when peat is used. The experiments were mainly performed in a 12 MW circulation fluidised bed (CFB) boiler equipped for research purposes but also in a full-scale CFB boiler. The results were evaluated by means of IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous KCl), conventional gas analysis, deposit and corrosion probe measurements and ash analysis. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. Thus the presence of SO{sub 3} (i.e. AS) is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} (i.e. S) for sulphation of gaseous KCl and reduction of chlorine in deposits. Only a minor reduction of gaseous KCl was obtained during co-combustion with peat although chlorine in the deposits was greatly reduced. This reduction was supposedly due to capture of K by reactive components from the peat ash in parallel to sulphation of KCl. These compounds remained unidentified. The effect of volatile combustibles on the sulphation of gaseous KCl was investigated. The poorest sulphation was attained during injection of ammonium sulphate in the upper part of the combustion chamber during the lowest air excess ratio. The explanation for this is that SO{sub 3} was partly consumed by side reactions due to the presence of combustibles. These experimental results were supported by modelling, although the

  11. A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Granada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  12. A refrigerated web camera for photogrammetric video measurement inside biomass boilers and combustion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteiro, Jacobo; Riveiro, Belén; Granada, Enrique; Armesto, Julia; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  13. Research on optimization of combustion efficiency of thermal power unit based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the economic performance and reduce pollutant emissions of thermal power units, the characteristics of neural network in establishing boiler combustion model are analyzed based on the analysis of the main factors affecting boiler efficiency by using orthogonal method. In addition, on the basis of this model, the genetic algorithm is used to find the best control amount of the furnace combustion in a certain working condition. Through the genetic algorithm based on real number encoding and roulette selection is concluded: the best control quantity at a condition of furnace combustion can be combined with the boiler combustion system model for neural network training. The precision of the neural network model is further improved, and the basic work is laid for the research of the whole boiler combustion optimization system.

  14. Effect of co-combustion on the burnout of lignite/biomass blends: a Turkish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykiri-Acma, H; Yaman, S

    2008-11-01

    Co-combustion of Turkish Elbistan lignite and woody shells of hazelnut was performed in a TGA up to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. SEM images of each fuel revealed the differences in their physical appearances. Hazelnut shell was blended with lignite in the range of 2-20 wt% to observe the co-combustion properties. Maximum burning rates (Rmax), temperatures of the maximum burning rates (T(R-max)), and the final burnout values of the parent samples and the blends were compared. The results were interpreted considering lignite properties and the major biomass ingredients such as cellulosics, hemicellulosics, and lignin. Deviations between the theoretical and experimental burnout values were evaluated at various temperatures. Burnout characteristics of the blends up to 10 wt% were concluded to have a synergistic effect so the addition of hazelnut shell up to 8 wt% provided higher burnouts than the expected theoretical ones, whereas addition of as much as 10 wt% led to a decrease in the burnout. However, the additive effects were more favorable for the blend having a biomass content of 20 wt%. Apparent activation energy, Rmax, and T(R-max), were found to follow the additive behavior for the blend samples.

  15. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu; Li, Xinrong; Yang, Yu; Coveney, Raymond M; Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Haitao; Shen, Weiran

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA, procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from approximately 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from approximately 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 +/- 2.87 ng/m3 on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m3, 41% of the entire population lives within this area.

  16. Biomass pyrolysis and combustion integral and differential reaction heats with temperatures using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Igathinathane, C; Yu, Manlu; Pothula, Anand Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Integral reaction heats of switchgrass, big bluestem, and corn stalks were determined using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC). Iso-conversion differential reaction heats using TGA/DSC pyrolysis and combustion of biomass were not available, despite reports available on heats required and released. A concept of iso-conversion differential reaction heats was used to determine the differential reaction heats of each thermal characteristics segment of these materials. Results showed that the integral reaction heats were endothermic from 30 to 700°C for pyrolysis of switchgrass and big bluestem, but they were exothermic for corn stalks prior to 587°C. However, the integral reaction heats for combustion of the materials followed an endothermic to exothermic transition. The differential reaction heats of switchgrass pyrolysis were predominantly endothermic in the fraction of mass loss (0.0536-0.975), and were exothermic for corn stalks (0.0885-0.850) and big bluestem (0.736-0.919). Study results provided better insight into biomass thermal mechanism. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effect of co-combustion on the burnout of lignite/biomass blends: A Turkish case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykirl-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    Co-combustion of Turkish Elbistan lignite and woody shells of hazelnut was performed in a TGA tip to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. SEM images of each fuel revealed the differences in their physical appearances. Hazelnut shell was blended with lignite in the range of 2-20 wt% to observe the co-combustion properties. Maximum burning rates (R{sub max}), temperatures of the maximum burning rates (TR{sub max}), and the final burnout values of the parent samples and the blends were compared. The results were interpreted considering lignite properties and the major biomass ingredients such as cellulosics, hemicellulosics, and lignin. Deviations between the theoretical and experimental burnout values were evaluated at various temperatures. Burnout characteristics of the blends up to 10 wt% were concluded to have a synergistic effect so the addition of hazelnut shell up to 8 wt% provided higher burnouts than the expected theoretical ones, whereas addition of as much as 10 wt% led to a decrease in the burnout. However, the additive effects were more favorable for the blend having a biomass content of 20 wt%. Apparent activation energy, R{sub max} and TR{sub max}, were found to follow the additive behavior for the blend samples.

  18. Use of artificial intelligence techniques for optimisation of co-combustion of coal with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, C.K.; Wilcox, S.J.; Ward, J. [University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd (United Kingdom). Division of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-03-15

    The optimisation of burner operation in conventional pulverised-coal-fired boilers for co-combustion applications represents a significant challenge This paper describes a strategic framework in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied to solve such an optimisation problem. The effectiveness of the proposed system is demonstrated by a case study that simulates the co-combustion of coal with sewage sludge in a 500-kW pilot-scale combustion rig equipped with a swirl stabilised low-NOx burner. A series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to generate data for different operating conditions, which were then used to train several Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict the co-combustion performance. Once trained, the ANNs were able to make estimations of unseen situations in a fraction of the time taken by the CFD simulation. Consequently, the networks were capable of representing the underlying physics of the CFD models and could be executed efficiently for a large number of iterations as required by optimisation techniques based on Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs). Four operating parameters of the burner, namely the swirl angles and flow rates of the secondary and tertiary combustion air were optimised with the objective of minimising the NOx and CO emissions as well as the unburned carbon at the furnace exit. The results suggest that ANNs combined with EAs provide a useful tool for optimising co-combustion processes.

  19. Combustion characteristics and retention-emission of selenium during co-firing of torrefied biomass and its blends with high ash coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Habib; Liu, Guijian; Yousaf, Balal; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Abbas, Qumber; Zhou, Chuncai

    2017-12-01

    The combustion characteristics, kinetic analysis and selenium retention-emission behavior during co-combustion of high ash coal (HAC) with pine wood (PW) biomass and torrefied pine wood (TPW) were investigated through a combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and laboratory-based circulating fluidized bed combustion experiment. Improved ignition behavior and thermal reactivity of HAC were observed through the addition of a suitable proportion of biomass and torrefied. During combustion of blends, higher values of relative enrichment factors in fly ash revealed the maximum content of condensing volatile selenium on fly ash particles, and depleted level in bottom ash. Selenium emission in blends decreased by the increasing ratio of both PW and TPW. Higher reductions in the total Se volatilization were found for HAC/TPW than individual HAC sample, recommending that TPW have the best potential of selenium retention. The interaction amongst selenium and fly ash particles may cause the retention of selenium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponi, F.R.; Wheless, E.; Frediani, D.

    1998-01-01

    The 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments require the development of maximum achievable control technology standards (MACT) for sources of hazardous air pollutants, including landfill gas-fired combustion sources. The Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR) Federal Advisory Committee is a group of stakeholders from the public and private sector whose charge is to develop recommendations for a unified set of federal toxic air emissions regulations. Specifically, the group will establish MACT standards for industrial-commercial-institutional combustion sources. The ICCR proceedings have given rise to considerable interest in potential dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units. In order to establish the potential of dioxin and furan emissions from this group of combustion sources, a world-wide literature search was conducted. A total of 22 references were evaluated. The references covered a wide range of test programs, testing methodologies and combustion equipment type. The most abundant data were for landfill gas-fired flares (shrouded and afterburners) and I.C. engines. Because of limitations in obtaining actual test reports with complete lab data and QA/QC results, and a lack of knowledge as to the exact types of waste received at the European landfills, the test data from these sources, for the purposes of this paper, are considered qualitative. The conclusion reached from review of the test data is that there is a potential for dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units, but at very low levels for well operated systems

  1. Laboratory Studies of Water Uptake by Biomass Burning Smoke: Role of Fuel Inorganic Content, Combustion Phase and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Bixler, S. L.; Romonosky, D.; Lam, J.; Carrico, C.; Aiken, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosol emissions have substantially increased with observed warming and drying in the southwestern US. While wildfires are projected to intensify missing knowledge on the aerosols hampers assessments. Observations demonstrate that enhanced light absorption by coated black carbon and brown carbon can offset the cooling effects of organic aerosols in wildfires. However, if mixing processes that enhance this absorption reduce the aerosol lifetime it would lower their atmospheric burden. In order to elucidate mechanisms regulating this tradeoff we performed laboratory studies of smoke from biomass burning. We focus on aerosol optical properties and their hygroscopic response. Fresh emissions from burning 30 fuels under flaming and smoldering conditions were investigated. We measured aerosol absorption, scattering and extinction at multiple wavelengths, water uptake at 85% relative humidity (fRH85%) with a humidity controlled dual nephelometer, and black carbon mass with a SP2. Trace gases and the ionic content of the fuel and smoke were also measured We find that whereas the optical properties of smoke were strongly dictated by the flaming versus smoldering nature of the burn, the observed hygroscopicity was intimately linked to the chemical composition of the fuel. The mean hygroscopicity ranged from nearly hydrophobic (fRH85% = 1) to very hydrophilic (fRH85% = 2.1) values typical of pure deliquescent salts. The k values varied from 0.004 to 0.18 and correlated well with inorganic content. Inorganic fuel content was the key driver of hygroscopicity with combustion phase playing a secondary but important role ( 20%). Flaming combustion promoted hygroscopicity by generating refractory black carbon and ions. Smoldering combustion suppressed hygroscopicity by producing hydrogenated organic species. Wildfire smoke was hydrophobic since the evergreen species with low inorganic content dominated in these fires. We also quantify the mass absorption cross

  2. Heating great residential units with combustion-motor heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossen, W

    1982-10-01

    Economic usage of combustion-motor heat pumps requires: reliable technology and delivery of the heat pump; design and operation. The heat pump must be integrated perfectly into the heating system. This contributions is based on a three-year operational experience with over 150 heat pumps used mainly in residential and administrative buildings (plus commercial buildings, swimming pools, sport centres etc.). These are heat pumps operating on the compression principle with natural gas, liquid gas, or fuel oil.

  3. Combustion performance of cellulosic biomass in a gasifier-based cookstove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Romli, Raffisyazana

    2012-06-01

    Depletion in fossil fuel and increase in the world population may change the trend in future kitchens in households. Cooking with LPG fuel may one day become impossible and households would have to consider alternatives such as electric stoves. One other solution to this problem is through the use of biomass cook stoves. However, traditional cook stoves, predominantly used in the households, are not efficient and its utilizations for domestic cooking have been a major contributor to the ill effects related in respiratory and other health problem. Improved cook stoves programs implemented in the developing world attempt to address these problems. Biomass gasification appears to have significant potential in Asia for domestic cooking applications. Gasifier-based cook stoves are fuel efficient in comparison to traditional cook stove. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of various type of cellulosic biomass in a gasifier-based cook stove. The biomass considered in this study are oil palm fronds, dried leaves, wood sticks, coconut shells, bagasse, charcoal, and saw dust. The samples are analyzed in order to study their chemical properties. The thermochemical properties of the biomass were characterized. The performance of the each of the samples is studied by observing the time taken to boil water. It is found that oil palm fronds are the best type of biomass for the gasifer cook stove. It is also concluded that the higher the carbon content and the calorific value in a biomass, the lesser the time taken to boil the water.

  4. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

  5. Facilitating Students' Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning Involving the Unit of Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Quen; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2010-01-01

    This article reports research from a 3 year digital learning project to unite conceptual change and scientific reasoning in the learning unit of combustion. One group of students had completed the course combining conceptual change and scientific reasoning. The other group of students received conventional instruction. In addition to the…

  6. Review of fuel oil quality and combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oils from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, Jani; Oasmaa, Anja; Solantausta, Yrjö; Kytö, Matti; Chiaramonti, David

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of state-of-the-art fast pyrolysis oil combustion in burner applications. • Fast pyrolysis oil has been found to be suitable for industrial scale utilization. • Curves for NO x -emissions for air-assisted atomization burners are presented. • Quality control, combined with standards and specifications is recommended. - Abstract: Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are completely different from petroleum fuels and other bio-fuels available in the market, as regards both to their physical properties and chemical composition. When the unusual properties of these bio-oils are carefully taken into account in system and burner design, their combustion without a pilot flame or support fuel is possible on an industrial scale. The aim of the paper is to review the work done on combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and highlight the latest and most important findings of its combustion from laboratory fundamentals to industrial scale. The main focus of the paper is on the bio-oil burner applications. In recent industrial scale bio-oil combustion tests, bio-oil has been found to be technically suitable for replacing heavy fuel oil in district heating. In addition, it has also been found out that limited possibilities for further lowering particulate emissions exist, since the majority of the particulates are typically incombustible matter. Curves for NO x -emissions of fast pyrolysis bio-oil combustion for air-assisted atomization burners are presented in the paper. Current burner designs are quite sensitive to the changes in the quality of the bio-oil, which may cause problems in ignition, flame detection and flame stabilization. Therefore, in order to be able to create reliable bio-oil combustion systems that operate at high efficiency, bio-oil grades should be standardized for combustion applications. Careful quality control, combined with standards and specifications, all the way from feedstock harvesting through production to end-use is recommended in

  7. The Forest Biomass Resource of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel D. Cost; James O. Howard; Bert Mead; William H. McWilliams; W. Brad Smith; Dwane D. van Hooser; Eric H. Wharton

    1990-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomass statistics have been published for most states. However, the existing aggregate data are either limited or out of date. The most recent statistics on biomass were for 1980 (U.S. Department of Agriculture 1981). The development of such data continues to lag even though user interest is high. This study was initiated to provide current...

  8. Biomass: An overview in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T. [USDA Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC (United States); Shapouri, H.

    1993-12-31

    Concerns about the heavy reliance on foreign sources of fossil fuels, environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels, environmental impacts of agricultural activities, the need to find sustainable renewable sources of energy, and the need for a sustainable agricultural resource base have been driving forces for the development of biomass as a source of energy. The development of biomass conversion technologies, of high-yielding herbaceous and short-rotation woody biomass crops, of high-yielding food, feed, and fiber crops, and of livestock with higher levels of feed conversion efficiencies has made the transition from total reliance on fossil fuels to utilization of renewable sources of energy from biomass a reality. A variety of biomass conversion technologies have been developed and tested. Public utilities, private power companies, and the paper industry are interested in applying this technology. Direct burning of biomass and/or cofiring in existing facilities will reduce emissions of greenhouse and other undesirable gases. Legislation has been passed to promote biomass production and utilization for liquid fuels and electricity. Land is available. The production of short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses provides alternatives to commodity crops to stabilize income in the agricultural sector. The production of biomass crops can also reduce soil erosion, sediment loadings to surface water, and agricultural chemical loadings to ground and surface water; provide wildlife habitat; increase income and employment opportunities in rural areas; and provide a more sustainable agricultural resource base.

  9. Effects of increased small-scale biomass combustion on local air quality - A theoretical dispersion modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, C.

    1997-01-01

    The decided phasing out of nuclear power and the goal of reducing CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels causes a substantial estimated increase in the use of biomass fuels for energy production. Thus, a significant shift from small scale heating generated by electricity or fuel oil to biomass fuels is desirable. If a drastic deterioration of the local air quality is to be avoided, a reduction of today's emission limits is necessary. The objective of this report was therefore to describe the use of biomass fuels and small scale pellet fuel combustion, to make a theoretical study of the effects of increased pellets heating on the air quality in a residential area, and to discuss necessary emission limits for small biomass fuel plants. The general description is based on literature studies. In the theoretical study, several different dispersion model calculations were performed using the computer program Dispersion 1.1.0. The contents of tar and total hydrocarbons (THC) in the air were calculated for different scenarios with conversion from electricity to pellets and with different pellet plant performance. A sensitivity analysis was performed with additional variables and dispersion calculations according to an underlying statistical experimental design. The modeling and design computer program MODDE was used to facilitate design, evaluation and illustration of the calculated results. The results show that a substantial increase in the use of small scale pellets heating with worst calculated plant performance, will lead to a drastic increase of the content of hydrocarbons in the air. Thus, with best available performance, the content only increases marginally. Conversion from electricity to pellets, plant performance and time of year were the most influential variables. Also conversion from wood to pellets showed a significant effect, despite the small number of wood heated houses within the studied area. If a significant deterioration of the air quality is to be avoided

  10. Thermochemical conversion of biomass in smouldering combustion across scales: The roles of heterogeneous kinetics, oxygen and transport phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyan; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass in smouldering combustion is investigated here by combining experiments and modeling at two scales: matter (1mg) and bench (100g) scales. Emphasis is put on the effect of oxygen (0-33vol.%) and oxidation reactions because these are poorly studied in the literature in comparison to pyrolysis. The results are obtained for peat as a representative biomass for which there is high-quality experimental data published previously. Three kinetic schemes are explored, including various steps of drying, pyrolysis and oxidation. The kinetic parameters are found using the Kissinger-Genetic Algorithm method, and then implemented in a one-dimensional model of heat and mass transfer. The predictions are validated with thermogravimetric and bench-scale experiments and then analyzed to unravel the role of heterogeneous reaction. This is the first time that the influence of oxygen on biomass smouldering is explained in terms of both chemistry and transport phenomena across scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made concerning the formation of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in SI gas engines fueled by producer gas. The main objective was to determine and characterise CCD and PAH formation caused by the presence of the light tar compounds phenol and guaiacol in producer gas from...... on filters and a sorbent was used for collection of vapour phase aromatic compounds. The filters and sorbent were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formed during combustion. The measurements showed that there was no significant increase in particulate PAH emissions due to the tar compounds...

  12. Release of K, Cl, and S during Pyrolysis and Combustion of High-Chlorine Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Joakim Myung; Jakobsen, Jon Geest; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The release of critical ash-forming elements during the pyrolysis and combustion of corn stover has been investigated through controlled lab-scale experiments supported by multicomponent and multiphase thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Fuel samples were treated under isothermal conditions...... ranging from 500 to 1150 °C, under both pyrolysis and combustion atmospheres. The volatilized material was quantified by means of mass balances based on char and ash elemental analysis, compared to a corresponding feedstock fuel analysis. Close relations between the observed K and Cl release are found...

  13. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  14. A kinetic study on the catalysis of KCl, K2SO4, and K2CO3 during oxy-biomass combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuanghui; Wang, Xuebin; Zhang, Jiaye; Liu, Zihan; Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Tan, Houzhang; Duić, Neven

    2018-07-15

    Biomass combustion under the oxy-fuel conditions (Oxy-biomass combustion) is one of the approaches achieving negative CO 2 emissions. KCl, K 2 CO 3 and K 2 SO 4 , as the major potassium species in biomass ash, can catalytically affect biomass combustion. In this paper, the catalysis of the representative potassium salts on oxy-biomass combustion was studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Effects of potassium salt types (KCl, K 2 CO 3 and K 2 SO 4 ), loading concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 8 wt%), replacing N 2 by CO 2 , and O 2 concentrations (5, 20, 30 vol%) on the catalysis degree were discussed. The comparison between TG-DTG curves of biomass combustion before and after water washing in both the 20%O 2 /80%N 2 and 20%O 2 /80%CO 2 atmospheres indicates that the water-soluble minerals in biomass play a role in promoting the devolatilization and accelerating the char-oxidation; and the replacement of N 2 by CO 2 inhibits the devolatilization and char-oxidation processes during oxy-biomass combustion. In the devolatilization stage, the catalysis degree of potassium monotonously increases with the increase of potassium salt loaded concentration. The catalysis degree order of the studied potassium salts is K 2 CO 3  > KCl > K 2 SO 4 . In the char-oxidation stage, with the increase of loading concentration the three kinds of potassium salts present inconsistent change tendencies of the catalysis degree. In the studied loading concentrations from 0 to 8 wt%, there is an optimal loading concentration for KCl and K 2 CO 3 , at 3 and 5 wt%, respectively; while for K 2 SO 4 , the catalysis degree on char-oxidation monotonically increases with the loading potassium concentration. For most studied conditions, regardless of the potassium salt types or the loading concentrations or the combustion stages, the catalysis degree in the O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere is stronger than that in the O 2 /N 2 atmosphere. The catalysis degree is also affected by the O 2

  15. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made concerning the formation of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in SI gas engines fueled by producer gas. The main objective was to determine and characterise CCD and PAH formation caused by the presence of the light tar compounds phenol and guaiacol in producer gas from an...

  16. Experimental Study on Effects of Particle Shape and Operating Conditions on Combustion Characteristics of Single Biomass Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, M.; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the ignition, devolatilization, and burnout of single biomass particles of various shapes and sizes under process conditions that are similar to those in an industrial combustor. A chargecoupled device (CCD) camera is used to record the whole...... combustion process. For the particles with similar volume (mass), cylindrical particles are found to lose mass faster than spherical particles and the burnout time is shortened by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area). The conversion times of cylindrical particles with almost the same surface...... area/volume ratio are very close to each other. The ignition, devolatilization, and burnout times of cylindrical particles are also affected by the oxidizer temperature and oxygen concentration, in which the oxygen concentration is found to have a more pronounced effect on the conversion times at lower...

  17. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  18. Particulate emission reduction in small-scale biomass combustion plants by a condensing heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, de C.J.J.M.; Kemenade, van H.P.; Brunner, T.; Obernberger, I.

    2008-01-01

    Use of biomass fuels for energy purposes has gained increasing importance as a method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In comparison to gaseous and liquid fossil fuels, the emissions of particulate matter are higher, leading to concerns about the availability of cost-effective techniques to

  19. Analysis of unburned carbon in industrial ashes from biomass combustion by thermogravimetric method using Boudouard reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Náhunková, Jana; Žaloudková, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 575, JAN (2014), s. 188-194 ISSN 0040-6031 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : unburned carbon * biomass * ash * thermogravimetry Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040603113005455

  20. Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: A comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola; Finnveden, Goeran; Ekvall, Tomas; Bjoerklund, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management (landfill disposal or material recovery). A secondary objective was to test a combination of dynamic energy system modelling and LCA by combining the concept of complex marginal electricity production in a static, environmental systems analysis. Furthermore, we wanted to increase the methodological knowledge about how waste can be environmentally compared to other fuels in district-heat production. The results indicate that combustion of biofuel in a CHP is environmentally favourable and robust with respect to the avoided type of electricity and waste management. Waste incineration is often (but not always) the preferable choice when incineration substitutes landfill disposal of waste. It is however, never the best choice (and often the worst) when incineration substitutes recycling. A natural gas fired CHP is an alternative of interest if marginal electricity has a high fossil content. However, if the marginal electricity is mainly based on non-fossil sources, natural gas is in general worse than biofuels

  1. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Liu, Q.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-10-01

    The influence of air pollutants, especially aerosols, on regional and global climate has been widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies report their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect of how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in the air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease in the solar radiation intensity by more than 70%, a decrease in the sensible heat by more than 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change in rainfall during both daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution-weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather via air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks. This study highlights cross-disciplinary needs to investigate the environmental, weather and climate impacts of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in East China.

  2. Investigation on the fast co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge with biomass and the combustion reactivity of residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuanghui; Tan, Houzhang; Wang, Xuebin; Yang, Fuxin; Cao, Ruijie; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Renhui

    2017-09-01

    Gaining the valuable fuels from sewage sludge is a promising method. In this work, the fast pyrolysis characteristics of sewage sludge (SS), wheat straw (WS) and their mixtures in different proportions were carried out in a drop-tube reactor. The combustion reactivity of the residual char obtained was investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results indicate that SS and WS at different pyrolysis temperatures yielded different characteristic gas compositions and product distributions. The co-pyrolysis of SS with WS showed that there existed a synergistic effect in terms of higher gas and bio-oil yields and lower char yield, especially at the WS adding percentage of 80wt%. The addition of WS to SS increased the carbon content in the SS char and improved char porous structures, resulting in an improvement in the combustion reactivity of the SS char. The research results can be used to promote co-utilization of sewage sludge and biomass. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  4. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T.T.; van der Werf, G.R.; Hoffmann, A.A.; Detmers, R.G.; Ruecker, G.; French, N.H.F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho Jr., J.A.; Cook, G.D.; de Groot, J.W.; Hely, C.; Kasischke, E.S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J.L.; Pettinari, M.L.; Savadogo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions.

  5. EnviroAtlas - Above Ground Live Biomass Carbon Storage for the Conterminous United States- Forested

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes the average above ground live dry biomass estimate for the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in kg/m...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Below Ground Live Tree Biomass Carbon Storage for the Conterminous United States- Forested

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes the average below ground live tree root dry biomass estimate for the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit Hydrologic Unit...

  7. Proceedings of the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting, 26-28 September 1994, Estes Park, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing scale-up of fast pyrolysis in North America and Europe, as well as the exploration and expansion of markets for the energy use of biocrude oils that now needs to take place, suggested that it was timely to convene an international meeting on the properties and combustion behavior of these oils. A common understanding of the state-of-the-art and technical and other challenges which need to be met during the commercialization of biocrude fuel use, can be achieved. The technical issues and understanding of combustion of these oils are rapidly being advanced through R&D in the United States. Canada, Europe and Scandinavia. It is obvious that for the maximum economic impact of biocrude, it will be necessary to have a common set of specifications so that oils can be used interchangeably with engines and combustors which require minimal modification to use these renewable fuels. Fundamental and applied studies being pursued in several countries are brought together in this workshop so that we can arrive at common strategies. In this way, both the science and the commercialization are advanced to the benefit of all, without detracting from the competitive development of both the technology and its applications. This United States-Canada-Finland collaboration has led to the two and one half day specialists meeting at which the technical basis for advances in biocrude development is discussed. The goal is to arrive at a common agenda on issues that cross national boundaries in this area. Examples of agenda items are combustion phenomena, the behavior of trace components of the oil (N, alkali metals), the formation of NOx in combustion, the need for common standards and environmental safety and health issues in the handling, storage and transportation of biocrudes.

  8. Effect of torrefaction pre-treatment on physical and combustion characteristics of biomass composite briquette from rice husk and banana residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Atan Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is an alternative renewable energy sources that can generates energy almost same as fossil fuel. The depletion sources of fossil fuel had increase the potential use of biomass energy. In Malaysia, rice husk and banana residues are abundantly left and not treated with proper disposal method which later may contribute to environment and health problems. Thus the development of biomass composite briquette made from rice husk and banana residue is one of the potential ways to reduce the problems and hence may contribute the better way to treat the waste by recycling the waste into a form of biomass product. The biomass briquettes are used for thermal applications because it can produce a complete combustion as it has a consistent quality and high burning efficiency. However, the quality of the biomass briquette can be added by application of torrefaction pre-treatment method. Torrefaction is a thermal method that can produce more high quality of the briquette with high calorific value, high fixed carbon content, low volatile matter, and low ash content. This study was conducted to assess the physical and combustion characteristic of the biomass briquette from rice husk and banana residue which was produced through torrefaction process. The biomass briquette, were densified by using hot press machine with temperature of 180°C for about 30 minutes. The briquette produce are 150 μm in particle size with varies in mixing ratio of rice husk to banana residue which are 100:0, 80:20 and 60:40. After the briquetting process, the biomass fuel briquettes have been undergoes parameter testing and the data have been analysed. Result showed the best biomass briquette is developed from torrefied rice husk and banana residue mixed at ratio of 60:40. Moreover, SEM image reveal that torrefaction pre-treatment has shrinkage the fibres size which confirming the thermal stability of the briquette.

  9. Patterns and predictors of personal exposure to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion among women and children in rural China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J. (Univ. of Minnesota. Institute on the Environment, St. Paul, MN (United States)); Patz, J.; Bautista, L.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin. Dept. of Population Health Sciences, Madison, WI (United States)); Schauer, J.J. (Univ. of Wisconsin. Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, Madison, WI (United States)); Ezzati, M. (MRC-HPA Center for Environment and Health, Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)); Lu, L.; Cheng, C. (Yunnan Provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Yunnan (China))

    2011-12-15

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from domestic biomass combustion is an important health risk factor, yet direct measurements of personal IAP exposure are scarce. We measured 24-h integrated gravimetric exposure to particles <2.5 mum in aerodynamic diameter (particulate matter, PM{sub 2.5}) in 280 adult women and 240 children in rural Yunnan, China. We also measured indoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in a random sample of 44 kitchens. The geometric mean winter PM{sub 2.5} exposure among adult women was twice that of summer exposure [117 mug/m3 (95% CI: 107, 128) vs. 55 mug/m3 (95% CI: 49, 62)]. Children's geometric mean exposure in summer was 53 mug/m3 (95% CI: 46, 61). Indoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were moderately correlated with women's personal exposure (r = 0.58), but not for children. Ventilation during cooking, cookstove maintenance, and kitchen structure were significant predictors of personal PM{sub 2.5} exposure among women primarily cooking with biomass. These findings can be used to develop exposure assessment models for future epidemiologic research and inform interventions and policies aimed at reducing IAP exposure. (Author)

  10. Development of generalised model for grate combustion of biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, L.

    2007-02-15

    This project has been divided into two main parts, one of which has focused on modelling and one on designing and constructing a grate fired biomass test rig. The modelling effort has been defined due to a need for improved knowledge of the transport and conversion processes within the bed layer for two reasons: 1) to improve emission understanding and reduction measures and 2) to improve boundary conditions for CFD-based furnace modelling. The selected approach has been based on a diffusion coefficient formulation, where conservation equations for the concentration of fuel are solved in a spatially resolved grid, much in the same manner as in a finite volume CFD code. Within this porous layer of fuel, gas flows according to the Ergun equation. The diffusion coefficient links the properties of the fuel to the grate type and vibration mode, and is determined for each combination of fuel, grate and vibration mode. In this work, 3 grates have been tested as well as 4) types of fuel, drinking straw, wood beads, straw pellets and wood pellets. Although much useful information and knowledge has been obtained on transport processes in fuel layers, the model has proved to be less than perfect, and the recommendation is not to continue along this path. New visual data on the motion of straw on vibrating grates indicate that a diffusion governed motion does not very well represent the transport. Furthermore, it is very difficult to obtain the diffusion coefficient in other places than the surface layer of the grate, and it is not likely that this is representative for the motion within the layer. Finally, as the model complexity grows, model turnover time increases to a level where it is comparable to that of the full furnace model. In order to proceed and address the goals of the first paragraph, it is recommended to return to either a walking column approach or even some other, relatively simple method of prediction, and combine this with a form of randomness, to mimic the

  11. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuously estimate load level (for example, the feed rate of municipal solid waste or refuse-derived fuel... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  12. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of... of Part 62—Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  13. The Formation of Aerosol Particles during Combustion of Biomass and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Aerosoler dannet under afbrænding af biomasse og affald består af saltpartikler med diametre under en mikrometer. Disse partikler udgør en sundhedsrisiko, da de kan trænge ned i lungevævet og videre ud i blodbanen. Partiklerne har desuden en negativ virkning i kraftværkerne, da de forårsager korr...

  14. An investigation of co-combustion municipal sewage sludge with biomass in a 20kW BFB combustor under air-fired and oxygen-enriched condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Ravi Inder

    2017-12-01

    The behavior of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) with biomass (Guar stalks (GS), Mustard Husk (MH), Prosopis Juliflora Wood (PJW)) has been investigated in a 20kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor under both air-fired (A-F) and oxygen-enriched (O-E) conditions. The work presented is divided into three parts, first part cover the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), second part cover the experimental investigation of BFB combustor, and third part covers the ash analysis. TGA was performed with a ratio of 50%MSS/50%biomass (GS, MH, PJW) and results show that 50%MSS/50%GS has highest combustion characteristic factor (CCF). The experimental investigation of BFB combustor was performed for two different ratios of MSS/biomass (50%/50% and 25%/75%) and the combustion characteristics of blends were distinctive under both A-F and O-E condition. Despite 50%MSS/50%GS showing the highest combustion performance in TGA analysis, it formed agglomerates during burning in BFB. Due to this formation of large amount of agglomerates, de-fluidization was observed in the combustor bed after 65-75min in A-F conditions. The rate of de-fluidization increased under O-E condition. The de-fluidization problem disappeared when the share of MSS was reduced to 25%, but small amounts of the agglomerate were still present in the bed. With oxygen enhancement, the combustion efficiency of BFB combustor was improved and flue gasses were found within permissible limit. The maximum conceivable combustion efficiency (97.1%) for BFB combustor was accomplished by using 50% MSS/50%PJW under O-E condition. Results show that a ratio of 25%MSS/75%biomass combusted successfully inside the BFB combustor and extensive work is required for efficient utilization of significant share of MSS with biomass. SEM/EDS analyses were performed for agglomerate produced and for the damaged heater to study the surface morphology and compositions. The elemental heterogeneity of fly ash generated during MSS/biomass combustion

  15. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that the operation of a micro steam turbine is rather inefficient from the technical and economic point of view, a specially modified air compressor can be used as a steam piston engine. Such engine should be designed to work at low pressure of the working medium. Studies regarding the first version of the prototype installation were focused on the confirmation of applicability of a straw boiler in the prototype ORC power system. The results of the previous studies and the studies described in the paper (on the new cogeneration unit confirmed the high potential of the developed solution. Of course, many further studies have to be carried out.

  16. Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Ronald W.; Shea, Barbara W.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Ward, Darold E.; Haskins, Craig I.; Scholes, Mary C.

    1996-10-01

    Fires are dominant factors in shaping the structure and composition of vegetation in African savanna ecosystems. Emissions such as CO2, NOx, CH4, and other compounds originating from these fires are suspected to contribute substantially to changes in global biogeochemical processes. Limited quantitative data exist detailing characteristics of biomass, burning conditions, and the postfire environment in African savannas. Fourteen test sites, differentiated by distinct burn frequency histories and land-use patterns, were established and burned during August and September 1992 in savanna parklands of South Africa and savanna woodlands of Zambia. Vegetation physiognomy, available fuel loads, the levels of biomass consumed by fire, environmental conditions, and fire behavior are described. In the South African sites, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 2218 to 5492 kg ha-1 where fire return intervals were 1-4 years and exceeded 7000 kg ha-1 at a site subjected to 38 years of fire exclusion. However, fireline intensity was only 1419 kW m-1 at the fire exclusion site, while ranging from 480 to 6130 kW m-1 among the frequent fire sites. In Zambia, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 3164 kg ha-1 in a hydromorphic grassland to 7343 kg ha-1 in a fallow shifting cultivation site. Dormant grass and litter constituted 70-98% of the total fuel load among all sites. Although downed woody debris was a relatively minor fuel component at most sites, it constituted 43-57% of the total fuel load in the fire exclusion and shifting cultivation sites. Fire line intensity ranged between 1734 and 4061 kW m-1 among all Zambian sites. Mean grass consumption generally exceeded 95%, while downed woody debris consumption ranged from 3 to 73% at all sites. In tropical savannas and savanna woodlands of southern Africa, differences in environmental conditions, land- use patterns, and fire regimes influence vegetation characteristics and thus influence fire behavior and biomass

  17. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilised soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K; Orjala, M [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    This presentation describes research carried out by VTT Energy and METLA during 1996, as part of the collaborative EU project involving Finland, Portugal and Spain. The main objectives of this project are to carry out experimental studies of both combustion and gasification under atmospheric (Portugal and Spain) and pressurised conditions (Finland) using biomass from different countries, namely Finland, Portugal and Spain. This was to determine the influence of biomass fertilising conditions on the process itself and the impact on the integrated energy production facilities, such as gas turbines. The aim of the research was carried out during 1996: (1) To complete the biomass collection, analyses and selection of the samples for combustion and gasification tests. This task has been carried out in co-operation with VTT and METLA, (2) To start the combustion and gasification tests under pressurised and atmospheric conditions. The combustion research in Finland is being performed in pressurised entrained flow reactor at VTT in Jyvaeskylae and the gasification research is being conducted at VTT in Espoo. The collection of biomass samples has been completed. The analyses of the samples show that for instance potassium and phosphorus content will be increased by about 30-50 % due to fertilisation. In the ash fusion tests, the ash from fertilised bark and branches and needles may start to soften already at 900 deg C under reducing conditions depending on the composition of the ash. In oxidising atmospheres the ash softening seems to occur at higher temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that the fertilisation may have an influence on the combustion process

  18. Process engineering design of pathological waste incinerator with an integrated combustion gases treatment unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, A F

    2007-06-25

    Management of medical wastes generated at different hospitals in Egypt is considered a highly serious problem. The sources and quantities of regulated medical wastes have been thoroughly surveyed and estimated (75t/day from governmental hospitals in Cairo). From the collected data it was concluded that the most appropriate incinerator capacity is 150kg/h. The objective of this work is to develop the process engineering design of an integrated unit, which is technically and economically capable for incinerating medical wastes and treatment of combustion gases. Such unit consists of (i) an incineration unit (INC-1) having an operating temperature of 1100 degrees C at 300% excess air, (ii) combustion-gases cooler (HE-1) generating 35m(3)/h hot water at 75 degrees C, (iii) dust filter (DF-1) capable of reducing particulates to 10-20mg/Nm(3), (iv) gas scrubbers (GS-1,2) for removing acidic gases, (v) a multi-tube fixed bed catalytic converter (CC-1) to maintain the level of dioxins and furans below 0.1ng/Nm(3), and (vi) an induced-draft suction fan system (SF-1) that can handle 6500Nm(3)/h at 250 degrees C. The residence time of combustion gases in the ignition, mixing and combustion chambers was found to be 2s, 0.25s and 0.75s, respectively. This will ensure both thorough homogenization of combustion gases and complete destruction of harmful constituents of the refuse. The adequate engineering design of individual process equipment results in competitive fixed and operating investments. The incineration unit has proved its high operating efficiency through the measurements of different pollutant-levels vented to the open atmosphere, which was found to be in conformity with the maximum allowable limits as specified in the law number 4/1994 issued by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) and the European standards.

  19. An example of environmental applications of PTR-MS: characterization of pollution outflow from India and Arabia - biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Stehr, J.W.; Dickerson, R.R.; Guazzotti, S.A.; Prather, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: One objective of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX 1999) was to characterize the chemical composition of pollution outflow from South Asia. Real-time single particle analysis (ATOFMS, Univ. of California- Riverside), CO analysis (Nondispersive Infrared Gas Filter Correlation Photometer, Univ. of Maryland) and fast-response VOC measurements (PTR-MS, Univ. of Innsbruck) measurements were performed onboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown. Gas phase and aerosol chemical composition of encountered air parcels changed according to their geographic origin traced by backtrajectory analysis (continental air from Arabia and India; maritime air). The relative strength of combustion related pollution sources (biomass burning (BB) vs. fossil fuel (FF) combustion) was determined from the relative abundance of different tracers: acetonitrile (BB), CO (BB and FF), submicron particles containing carbon but no potassium (FF), submicron particles containing carbon and potassium (BB and coal combustion), submicron particles containing carbon, potassium and lithium (coal combustion). Arabian air clearly reflected the signature of fossil fuel combustion, while air from the Indian subcontinent was strongly influenced by biomass burning. (author)

  20. Production of fines during co-combustion of coal with biomass fuels by fragmentation and attrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; D. Boavida; H. Lopes (and others) [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-07-01

    Results are reported from a project funded by the RFCS Programme of the European Union. The aim is to investigate, experimentally and by modeling, the production of fine char and ash particles during co-combustion of coal with wastes and biofuels in circulating fluidized bed. Work was undertaken at installations of different scales. Polish and Colombian coals were base fuels. The additional fuels were two sewage sludges. Bed temperature, feeding system, sand particle size, devolatilisation behaviour and char burn-out were studied to verify their influence on the fine particle production. Modeling was also carried out to understand the mechanisms of fragmentation and attrition. Samples from bed and cyclone were collected to determine particle size distributions. 11 refs.

  1. Consumption of Combustible and Smokeless Tobacco - United States, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teresa W; Kenemer, Brandon; Tynan, Michael A; Singh, Tushar; King, Brian

    2016-12-09

    Combustible and smokeless tobacco use causes adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and multiple types of cancer (1,2). Standard approaches for measuring tobacco use include self-reported surveys of use and consumption estimates based on tobacco excise tax data (3,4). To provide the most recently available tobacco consumption estimates in the United States, CDC used federal excise tax data to estimate total and per capita consumption during 2000-2015 for combustible tobacco (cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipe tobacco, small cigars, and large cigars) and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and dry snuff). During this period, total combustible tobacco consumption decreased 33.5%, or 43.7% per capita. Although total cigarette consumption decreased 38.7%, cigarettes remained the most commonly used combustible tobacco product. Total noncigarette combustible tobacco (i.e., cigars, roll-your-own, and pipe tobacco) consumption increased 117.1%, or 83.8% per capita during 2000-2015. Total consumption of smokeless tobacco increased 23.1%, or 4.2% per capita. Notably, total cigarette consumption was 267.0 billion cigarettes in 2015 compared with 262.7 billion in 2014. These findings indicate that although cigarette smoking declined overall during 2000-2015, and each year from 2000 to 2014, the number of cigarettes consumed in 2015 was higher than in 2014, and the first time annual cigarette consumption was higher than the previous year since 1973. Moreover, the consumption of other combustible and smokeless tobacco products remains substantial. Implementation of proven tobacco prevention interventions (5) is warranted to further reduce tobacco use in the United States.

  2. Ignition and combustion phenomena on a moving grate: with application to the thermal conversion of biomass and municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijderveen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Combustion can be defined as a fast oxidation process of a solid, gaseous or liquid fuel at elevated temperatures. In any combustion process, ignition plays an essential role. Not only to initiate the combustion process, but also to maintain it. Especially in solid fuel combustion on a grate, where

  3. Engine performance, combustion, and emissions study of biomass to liquid fuel in a compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable biomass to liquid (BTL) fuel was tested in a direct injection diesel engine. • Engine performance, in-cylinder pressure, and exhaust emissions were measured. • BTL fuel reduces pollutant emission for most conditions compared with diesel and biodiesel. • BTL fuel leads to high thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption compared with diesel and biodiesel. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of diesel, biodiesel and biomass to liquid (BTL) fuels are investigated in a single-cylinder diesel engine at a fixed speed (2000 rpm) and three engine loads corresponding to 0 bar, 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The engine performance, in-cylinder combustion, and exhaust emissions were measured. Results show an increase in indicated work for BTL and biodiesel at 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP when compared to diesel but a decrease at 0 bar. Lower mechanical efficiency was observed for BTL and biodiesel at 1.26 bar BMEP but all three fuels had roughly the same mechanical efficiency at 3.77 bar BMEP. BTL was found to have the lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and the highest brake thermal efficiency (BTE) among the three fuels tested. Combustion profiles for the three fuels were observed to vary depending on the engine load. Biodiesel was seen to have the shortest ignition delay among the three fuels regardless of engine loads. Diesel had the longest ignition delay at 0 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP but had the same ignition delay as BTL at 1.26 bar BMEP. At 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP, BTL had the lowest HC emissions but highest HC emissions at no load conditions when compared to biodiesel and diesel. When compared to diesel and biodiesel BTL had lower CO and CO 2 emissions. At 0 bar and 1.26 bar BMEP, BTL had higher NOx emissions than diesel fuel but lower NOx than biodiesel at no load conditions. At the highest engine load tested, NOx emissions were observed to be highest for diesel fuel but lowest for BTL. At 1

  4. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for chemical elements important for biomass combustion quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    clone ‘Tordis’, and to reveal the relationship between sampling position, shoot diameters, and distribution of elements. Five Tordis willow shoots were cut into 10–50 cm sections from base to top. The ash content and concentration of twelve elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, and Zn......Willow (Salix spp.) is expected to contribute significantly to the woody bioenergy system in the future, so more information on how to sample the quality of the willow biomass is needed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial variation of elements within shoots of a willow......) in each section were determined. The results showed large spatial variation in the distribution of most elements along the length of the willow shoots. Concentrations of elements in 2-year old shoots of the willow clone Tordis were fairly stable within the range of 100–285 cm above ground and resembled...

  5. Biomass utilization for green environment: Co-combustion of diesel fuel and producer gas in thermal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ani, F.N.; Mehamed, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Study of co-combustion of diesel oil and producer gas from a gasifier, individually as well as combined, in an experimental combustion chamber revealed that the producer gas can be co-combusted with liquid fuel. The process produced more CO, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ as compared to the combustion of diesel oil alone; the exhaust temperature for the process was higher than the diesel combustion alone. (author)

  6. Light-Absorbing Brown Carbon Aerosol Constituents from Combustion of Indonesian Peat and Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Riva, Matthieu; Williams, Michael; Chen, Jing; Itoh, Masayuki; Surratt, Jason D; Kuwata, Mikinori

    2017-04-18

    Light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC) constituents of organic aerosol (OA) have been shown to significantly absorb ultraviolet (UV) and visible light and thus impact radiative forcing. However, molecular identification of the BrC constituents is still limited. In this study, we characterize BrC constituents at the molecular level in (i) aerosols emitted by combustion of peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal from Indonesia and (ii) ambient aerosols collected in Singapore during the 2015 haze episode. Aerosols were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography instrument interfaced to a diode array detector and electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer operated in the negative ion mode. In the laboratory-generated aerosols, we identified 41 compounds that can potentially absorb near-UV and visible wavelengths, such as oxygenated-conjugated compounds, nitroaromatics, and S-containing compounds. The sum of BrC constituents in peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal burning aerosols are 16%, 35%, and 28% of the OA mass, respectively, giving an average contribution of 24%. On average, the BrC constituents account for 0.4% of the ambient OA mass; however, large uncertainties in mass closure remain because of the lack of authentic standards. This study highlights the potential of light-absorbing BrC OA constituents from peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal burning and their importance in the atmosphere.

  7. Experimental investigation on combustion and heat transfer characteristics in a furnace fueled with unconventional biomass fuels (date stones and palm stalks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omari, S.-A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The combustion of date stones and palm stalks in a small scale furnace with a conical solid fuel bed is investigated experimentally. This investigation (to the best of the knowledge of the author) is the first addressing date stones as a new renewable energy source. Different experimental conditions are investigated where different fuel feed conditions and different combustion air flow rates are considered. The major results are given in terms of the fuel reduction rates and the heat transferred to the cooling water flowing in a water jacket around the furnace as functions of time. Combustion of the biomass fuels considered here in the investigated furnace is initiated by using LPG fuel as a starter. The hot products of LPG combustion, which is taking place in a burner built prior to the investigated solid fuel furnace, are allowed to penetrate the conical fuel bed for 2-3 min from its bottom base in the upward direction, causing effective heating and gasification and pyrolysis of the solid fuel in the bed to take place. The resulting combustible gases mix with the combustion air and subsequently are ignited by an external ignition source. The results of the present study highlight date stones as a renewable energy source with a good potential

  8. Combustion of mediterranean agro-forest biomasses in small and medium scale pellet boilers: strategies for minimizing ash fusion and slagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Nieva, Daniel J.; Dopazo, Raquel; Ortiz, Luis [Forest Engineering Univ. School. Univ. of Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)], e-mail: DanielJVN@gmail.com

    2012-11-01

    The slagging and fouling risk remain as important barriers that are currently limiting the use of various agricultural residues and potential energy crops feedstocks (e.g. [1-3]), which remain largely unutilized, particularly in Mediterranean countries. In this oral communication, the main results from the VI Framework European Project Domoheat on the combustion of mediterranean biomasses and its mixtures on small and medium size domestic pellet boilers, are presented, together with the goals of the ongoing VII Framework European Project AshMelT focusing on the definition of objective criteria and tests for ash slagging in domestic pellet boilers. The utilization of ash slagging indices based on ash composition and the definition of biomass mixtures based on such ash indices are presented as potentially useful tools for minimizing the occurrence of ash fusion and slagging during combustion.

  9. Indoor air pollution from solid biomass fuels combustion in rural agricultural area of Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Yu, Q; Gu, Q; Chen, Y; Ding, K; Zhu, J; Chen, L

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we are trying to investigate the indoor air pollution and to estimate the residents' pollution exposure reduction of energy altering in rural Tibet. Daily PM(2.5) monitoring was conducted in indoor microenvironments like kitchen, living-room, bedroom, and yard in rural Tibet from December 2006 to March 2007. For kitchen air pollution, impact of two fuel types, methane and solid biomass fuels (SBFs), were compared. Questionnaire survey on the domestic energy pattern and residents' daily activity pattern was performed in Zha-nang County. Daily average PM(2.5) concentrations in kitchen, living-room, bedroom, and yard were 134.91 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 45, 95%CI 84.02, 185.80), 103.61 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 21, 95%CI 85.77, 121.45), 76.13 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 18, 95%CI 57.22, 95.04), and 78.33 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 34, 95%CI 60.00, 96.65) respectively. Using SBFs in kitchen resulted in higher indoor pollution than using methane. PM(2.5) concentrations in kitchen with dung cake, fuel wood and methane use were 117.41 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 18, 95%CI 71.03, 163.79), 271.11 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 12, 95%CI 104.74, 437.48), and 46.96 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 15, 95%CI 28.10, 65.82) respectively. Family income has significant influence on cooking energy choice, while the lack of commercial energy supply affects the energy choice for heating more. The effects of two countermeasures to improve indoor air quality were estimated in this research. One is to replace SBFs by clean energy like methane, the other is to separate the cooking place from other rooms and by applying these countermeasures, residents' exposure to particulate matters would reduce by 25-50% (methane) or 20-30% (separation) compared to the present situation. Indoor air pollution caused by solid biomass fuels is one of the most important burdens of disease in the developing countries, which attracts the attention of environment and public health researchers, as well as policy makers. This paper

  10. The Influence of Particle Size, Fluidization Velocity, and Fuel Type on Ash-Induced Agglomeration in Biomass Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatternig, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.gatternig@cbi.uni-erlangen.de; Karl, Jürgen [Chair of Energy Process Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nuremberg (Germany)

    2014-11-19

    Agglomeration of the bed material is one of the main obstacles for biomass utilization in fluidized bed combustors. Especially, high-potential fuels such as fast growing energy crops or biogeneous residues are affected because of their high content of alkaline metals. Despite ongoing research efforts, the knowledge base on what fuels are affected is still limited. This paper describes the design and installation of two lab-scale reactors for the experimental determination of agglomeration temperatures. The reactor concept and measurement method were developed under consideration of experiences from existing test rigs published in literature. Preliminary tests confirmed a reproducibility of ±5°C for both new reactors. The results of an extended measurement campaign (156 test runs of 25 fuel species at a wide range of the operational parameters “bed particle size,” “gas velocity,” and “bed ash accumulation”), based on “design of experiment” (DoE) criteria, showed high-agglomeration tendencies for residues (e.g., dried distillery grains, corn cobs) while woody energy crops (e.g., willow, alder) exhibited very stable combustion behavior. The operating parameters influenced the agglomeration behavior to a lesser degree than different ash compositions of fuel species tested. An interpolation within the DoE factor space allowed for a subsequent comparison of our results with experiments reported in literature. Good agreement was reached for fuels of comparable ash composition considering the interpolation errors of ±32°C on average.

  11. An SEM/EDX study of bed agglomerates formed during fluidized bed combustion of three biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, Fabrizio; Chirone, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    The agglomeration behaviour of three biomass fuels (exhausted and virgin olive husk and pine seed shells) during fluidized bed combustion in a lab-scale reactor was studied by means of SEM/EDX analysis of bed agglomerate samples. The effect of the fuel ash composition, bed temperature and sand particle size on agglomeration was investigated. The study was focused on the main fuel ash components and on their interaction with the bed sand particles. Agglomeration was favoured by high temperature, small sand size, a high fraction of K and Na and a low fraction of Ca and Mg in the fuel ash. An initial fuel ash composition close to the low-melting point eutectic composition appears to enhance agglomeration. The agglomerates examined by SEM showed a hollow structure, with an internal region enriched in K and Na where extensive melting is evident and an external one where sand particles are only attached by a limited number of fused necks. Non-molten or partially molten ash structures deposited on the sand surface and enriched in Ca and Mg were also observed. These results support an ash deposition-melting mechanism: the ash released by burning char particles inside the agglomerates is quantitatively deposited on the sand surface and then gradually embedded in the melt. The low-melting point compounds in the ash migrate towards the sand surface enriching the outermost layer, while the ash structure is progressively depleted of these compounds

  12. Health effects engineering: Perspectives for environmental health and environmental engineering studies-domestic biomass combustion as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiang; Yu Qi; Chen Limin

    2007-01-01

    Health effects engineering (HEE) is a newly developed research field, which involves collaboration with environmental scientists, engineering researchers, and toxicologists. By employing the methods of HEE, one can not only confirm which attributes of the project are likely to contribute to certain health effects, but can also get rid of the adverse health effects by engineering technologies. HEE is thought to be particularly important to domestic projects in which there is a lack of environmental assessment. This paper presented the authors' viewpoints of the principles of HEE in the field of the environmental health and engineering studies by using programs of domestic biomass combustion as an example. The authors showed that there are three sub-fields of HEE, which are as follows: engineering behavior, the pollution characteristics, and the health effects. The authors conclude that the principles of HEE compose a helix with the studies in the fields of environmental science, health, and engineering, and give suggestions on how to perform HEE in a practical field

  13. A detailed kinetic mechanism including methanol and nitrogen pollutants relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coda Zabetta, Edgardo; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2008-01-15

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the simulation of the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels was compiled by assembling selected reaction subsets from existing mechanisms (parents). The mechanism, here referred to as ''AaA,'' includes reaction subsets for the oxidation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), light hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}), and methanol (CH{sub 3}OH). The mechanism also takes into account reaction subsets of nitrogen pollutants, including the reactions relevant to staged combustion, reburning, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). The AaA mechanism was validated against suitable experimental data from the literature. Overall, the AaA mechanism gave more accurate predictions than three other mechanisms of reference, although the reference mechanisms performed better occasionally. The predictions from AaA were also found to be consistent with the predictions of its parent mechanisms within most of their range of validity, thus transferring the validity of the parents to the inheriting mechanism (AaA). In parametric studies the AaA mechanism predicted that the effect of methanol on combustion and pollutants is often similar to that of light hydrocarbons, but it also showed that there are important exceptions, thus suggesting that methanol should be taken into account when simulating biomass combustion. To our knowledge, the AaA mechanism is currently the only mechanism that accounts for the chemistry of methanol and nitrogen relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels. (author)

  14. Assessment of PM10 concentrations from domestic biomass fuel combustion in two rural Bolivian highland villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albalak, R.; Haber, M.

    1999-01-01

    PM 10 concentrations were measured in two contrasting rural Bolivian villages that cook with biomass fuels. In one of the villages, cooking was done exclusively indoors, and in the other, it was done primarily outdoors. Concentrations in all potential microenvironments of exposure (i.e., home, kitchen, and outdoors) were measured for a total of 621 samples. Geometric mean kitchen PM 10 concentrations were 1830 and 280 microg/m 3 and geometric mean home concentrations were 280 and 440 microg/m 3 for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. An analysis of pollutant concentrations using generalized estimating equation techniques showed significant effects of village location, and interaction of village and location on log-transformed PM 10 concentrations. Pollutant concentrations and activity pattern data were used to estimate total exposure using the indirect method of exposure assessment. Daily exposure for women during the nonwork season was 15 120 and 6240 microg h -1 m -3 for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. Differences in exposure to pollution between the villages were not as great as might be expected based on kitchen concentration alone. This study underscores the importance of measuring pollutant concentrations in all microenvironments where people spend time and of shifting the focus of air pollution studies to include rural populations in developing countries

  15. Evaluation of the reference unit method for herbaceous biomass estimation in native grasslands of southwestern South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Boyda

    2013-01-01

    The high costs associated with physically harvesting plant biomass may prevent sufficient data collection, which is necessary to account for the natural variability of vegetation at a landscape scale. A biomass estimation technique was previously developed using representative samples or "reference units", which eliminated the need to harvest biomass from all...

  16. A 25 kWe low concentration methane catalytic combustion gas turbine prototype unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shi; Yu, Xinxiang

    2015-01-01

    Low concentration methane, emitted from various industries e.g. coal mines and landfills into atmosphere, is not only an important greenhouse gas, but also a wasted energy resource if not utilized. In the past decade, we have been developing a novel VAMCAT (ventilation air methane catalytic combustion gas turbine) technology. This turbine technology can be used to mitigate methane emissions for greenhouse gas reduction, and also to utilize the low concentration methane as an energy source. This paper presents our latest research results on the development and demonstration of a 25 kWe lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine prototype unit. Recent experimental results show that the unit can be operated with 0.8 vol% of methane in air, producing about 19–21 kWe of electricity output. - Highlights: • A novel low concentration methane catalytic turbine prototype unit was developed. • The 25 kWe unit can be operated with ∼0.8 vol.% CH 4 in air with 19–21 kWe output. • A new start-up method was developed for the prototype unit

  17. Biomass boiler conversion potential in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles D. Ray; Li Ma; Thomas Wilson; Daniel Wilson; Lew McCreery; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. is the world's leading consumer of primary energy. A large fraction of this energy is used in boiler installations to generate steam and hot water for heating applications. It is estimated there are total 163,000 industrial and commercial boilers in use in the United States of all sizes. This paper characterizes the commercial and industrial boilers in...

  18. Chemical reactions in combustion of peat and biomass in two fluidized-bed boilers, CFB (25 MW) and BFB (25 MW) at Oestersund. The effect on SO2- and NOx-emissions by operating conditions and type of fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, A.

    1991-03-01

    Most of the air pollutants are emitted from different combustion processes and much work is therefore needed to reduce these emissions. The processes are however extremely complex and to be able to study them, fundamental chemical and physical principles have to be taken into account. The aim of the present work has been to show the importance of equilibrium chemistry to improve the knowledge of specific combustion problems as well as the processes as a whole. This will also increase the possibilities to reduce the pollutants. The measured values from two combustion units (CFB and BFB, 25 MW) show good agreement with the corresponding calculated equilibrium values. The following are some of the more important results obtained: - By co-firing peat with biomass, the total SO 2 emissions can be reduced. The effects of variations in temperature and oxygen level on the SO 2 emissions are also reported; - The NO x emission levels agree well with the equilibrium levels, that is they increase with temperature and oxygen levels. Therefore, the amount of nitrogen in the fuel has shown to have insignificant effect in these experiments; - Initial levels of N 2 O are effectively reduced by high temperatures (> 950 deg Centigrade). (Orig.). ( 36 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.)

  19. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unit a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unit a 4 Table 4 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... Part 60—Model Rule—Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unit a For...

  20. Changes in forest biomass and tree species distribution under climate change in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Jacob S. Fraser; William D. Dijak

    2016-01-01

    Context. Forests in the northeastern United States are currently in early- and mid-successional stages recovering from historical land use. Climate change will affect forest distribution and structure and have important implications for biodiversity, carbon dynamics, and human well-being. Objective. We addressed how aboveground biomass (AGB) and...

  1. Potential impacts of biomass production in the United States on biological diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.H.; Beyea, J.; Keeler, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that biomass could be a renewable source of energy and chemicals that would not add CO 2 to the atmosphere. It will become economically competitive as its cost decreases relative to energy costs, and biotechnology is expected to accelerate this trend by increasing biomass productivity. Pressure to slow global warming may also make biomass more attractive. Substantial dependence on biomass would entail massive changes in land use, risking serious reductions in biodiversity through destruction of habitat for native species. Forests could be managed and harvested more intensively, and virtually all arable land unsuitable for high-value agriculture or silviculture might be used to grow energy crops. The authors estimate that it would require an area equal to that farmed in 1988, about 130 million hectares, just to supply the United States with transportation fuel. Planning at micro to macro scales will be crucial to minimize the ecological impacts of producing biomass. Cropping and harvesting systems will need to provide the spatial and temporal diversity characteristics of natural ecosystems and successional sequences. To maximize habitat value for interior-dependent species, it will be essential to maintain the connectivity of the habitat network, both within biomass farms and to surrounding undisturbed areas

  2. Pyrolysis of biomass in a semi-industrial scale reactor: Study of the fuel-nitrogen oxidation during combustion of volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, E.; Debono, O.; Villot, A.; Paviet, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study of the NOx-fuel formation, carried out on a semi-industrial scale reactor during combustion of volatiles of the pyrolysis, is performed. Two different biomasses with different nitrogen contents such as a mixture of organic sludge and wood were tested. Results show that the temperature of pyrolysis does not obviously affect the production of NOx-fuel because of the most active precursors (NH 3 and HCN) are already released at low temperatures (400 °C). In the case of sludge mixture, the combustion conditions play the discriminating role in the production of NOx-fuel: the higher the excess air ratio the larger the production of nitrogen oxides from N-fuel. -- Highlights: • An experimental study of the pyrolysis of biomass from waste has been carried out. • The study consists in the analysis of NOx-fuel production during combustion. • The temperature of pyrolysis does not affect the production of NOx. • Only a small part of the N-fuel released in the volatile fraction is oxidized. • In the case of sewage sludge the excess air ratio affects the NOx production

  3. Operation related on-line measurements of low temperature fire side corrosion during co-combustion of biomass and oil; Driftrelaterad direktmaetning av laagtemperaturkorrosion i en braensleeldad kraftvaermeanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Thomas [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    A number of combustion plants have experienced corrosion attack on air preheaters and economisers when fired with biomass fuels. In certain plants the problems are great and reconstruction has been performed so that exposed components can be exchanged during operation. The electrochemical techniques offer on-line measurements of the changes in corrosion rate in the low temperature region in a waste incinerator. The purpose with this study was to evaluate the technique in a biomass fired boiler where the corrosion rate is considerable lower compared to a waste incinerator. Experiments were performed at the Haesselby plant, boiler 3, which was fired with pure biomass as well as a mixture of biomass and oil during the test period. It was found that the electrochemical technique is a useful tool for on-line measurements of the changes in corrosion rate in biomass fired utilities. Since the corrosion rate in the low temperature region is dependent on the boiler construction, electrochemical measurements give valuable information on the corrosion rate during optimisation of the fuel mixture, SNCR and temperature or the low temperature components. This is of special importance when introducing new fuels or fuel mixtures. Soot blowing is of prime importance for the total corrosion. During a few minutes an individual soot blower can initiate such a high corrosion rate that it represents the total corrosion. The material temperature is another important parameter. Above a certain temperature the corrosion rate is negligible. During co-combustion this temperature was found to be in the region 65-85 deg C. The influence of the SNCR with ammonia, with respect to corrosion, is dependent on the fuel mixture used. In utilities where acidic combustion products are formed, ammonia has a neutralising effect e.g. in Hoegdalen. At the Haesselby plant this neutralising effect was not found. During cocombustion with oil the ammonia forms ammoniahydrosulphate which increases the corrosion

  4. Design and Testing of a Breadboard Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluid Combustion Facility Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.

    1999-01-01

    The Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) Project and the Power Technology Division at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH along with the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL are jointly developing an Electrical Power Converter Unit (EPCU) for the Fluid Combustion Facility to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF facility experiment contains three racks: A core rack, a combustion rack, and a fluids rack. The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS 120V(sub dc) power distribution system by each FCF experiment rack which requires 28V(sub dc). The EPCU is a modular design which contains three 120V(sub dc)-to-28V(sub dc) full-bridge, power converters rated at 1 kW(sub e) each bus transferring input relays and solid-state, current-limiting input switches, 48 current-limiting, solid-state, output switches; and control and telemetry hardware. The EPCU has all controls required to autonomously share load demand between the power feeds and--if absolutely necessary--shed loads. The EPCU, which maximizes the usage of allocated ISS power and minimizes loss of power to loads, can be paralleled with other EPCUs. This paper overviews the electrical design and operating characteristics of the EPCU and presents test data from the breadboard design.

  5. Health and cost impact of air pollution from biomass burning over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, E.; Sadeghi, B.; Choi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Effective assessment of health and cost effects of air pollution associated with wildfire events is critical for supporting sustainable management and policy analysis to reduce environmental damages. Since biomass burning events result in higher ozone, PM2.5, and NOx concentration values in urban regions due to long-range transport, preliminary results indicated that wildfire events cause a considerable increase in incident estimates and costs. This study aims to evaluate the health and cost impact of biomass burning events over the continental United States using combined air quality and health impact modeling. To meet this goal, a comprehensive air quality modeling scenarios containing biomass burning emissions were conducted using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system from 2011 to 2014 with a spatial resolution of 12 km. The modeling period includes fire seasons between April and October over the course of four years. By using modeled pollutants concentrations, the USEPA's GIS-based computer program Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition (BenMAP-CE) provides an inclusive figure of health and cost impact caused by changing gaseous and particulate air pollution due to fire events. The basis of BenMAP-CE is the use of a damage-function approach to estimate the health impact of an applied change in air quality by comparing a biomass burning scenario (the one that includes wildfire events) with a baseline scenario (without biomass emissions). This approach considers several factors containing population, exposure to the pollutants, adverse health effects of a particular pollutant, and economic costs. Hence, this study made it capable of showing how biomass burning across U.S. influences people's health in different months, seasons, and regions. Besides, the cost impact of the wildfire events during study periods has also been estimated at both national and regional levels. The results of this study demonstrate the

  6. ERA-Net Evaluation of technology status for small-scale combustion of pellets from new ash rich biomasses - combustion tests in residential burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Johansson, Mathias; Frida Claesson

    2008-07-01

    In this project, pellets with higher ash content compared to the wood pellets used today on the Swedish market were tested in three domestic-scale burners. The tests were carried out based on EN 303-5. In the flue gas, combustion parameters as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydro carbons were measured, and also more fuel specific parameters such as nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, total dust and particle mass- and number concentration. The dust (fly ash) and bottom ash were characterized chemically. The implications of high ash content on combustion performance are discussed in the report. Altogether five pellets with 8 mm diameter were tested: oilseed straw pellet, reed canary grass pellet (RCG), barley straw pellet, bark pellet and wood pellet. All fuels were dry ranging from 6.5-12 % moisture. The ash content varied from 0.3 weight-% dm in wood to 7.9 % in RCG. Barley straw has a noticeable low ash melting temperature, < 980 deg C, and could not be combusted in any of the burners. The nitrogen content varied nine times and sulphur more than 10 times. The chlorine content was very low in wood and bark and more than 20 times higher in oilseed and barley. The composition of inorganic species in the fuel ash was dominated by calcium, potassium and silica in wood, bark and oilseed pellet, while RCG and barley straw were dominated by silica. The three burners used were commercial and known to fulfil high quality requirements. Burner A is a pellet burner where fuel is supplied on top of the grate with no mechanical mean for moving bottom ash on the grate during combustion. Bottom ash is blown away, and any slag remaining on the grate is removed with a scrape before ignition. Burner B is an upward burning pellet burner where fuel and ash is pushed upwards and the glow bed is exposed to the surrounding combustion department. Burner C is a forward burning grain burner that pushes fuel and ash forwards, inside a cylinder. From the

  7. Characterization of size, number, concentration and morphology of particulate matter emitted from a high performance diesel combustion system using biomass derived fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Om Parkash; Krishnamurthy, Ketan; Kremer, Florian; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Berg, Angelika von; Roth, Georg [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Crystallography; Lueers, Bernhard; Kolbeck, Andreas; Koerfer, Thomas [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been identified as a major source of particulates. Although the low limits of particulate matter cause a need for a particulate trap in most of the present day diesel engines, the physical and chemical characterization of particles with the measures of size, number, volatility and reactivity etc. is of increasing interest with respect to the regeneration frequency and regeneration efficiency of a particulate trap. Within the Cluster of Excellence ''Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB)'' at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out a detailed investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel candidates for future combustion systems. The experiments for particulate measurements and analysis were conducted on a EURO 6 compliant High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System (HECS) with petroleum based diesel fuel as reference and today's biofuel (i.e. FAME) as well as a potential future biomass derived fuel candidate (i.e. 2-MTHF I DBE), being developed under TMFB approach. Soot samples collected on polycarbonate filters were analyzed using SEM; revealing vital informations regarding particle size distribution. Furthermore, thermophoretic sampling was also performed on copper grids and samples were analyzed using TEM to determine its graphitic micro-structure. In addition, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were also performed to get further quantitative information regarding crystal lattice parameters and structure of investigated soot. The results indicate more than 90% reduction in the mass and number concentrations of engine out particle emissions using future biomass derived fuel candidate. A good co-relation was observed between TEM micro-structure results and quantitative crystal lattice and structure information obtained from XRD studies, indicating higher reactivity for soot emitted from 2-MTHF/DBE. (orig.)

  8. Microbial respiration per unit microbial biomass increases with carbon-to-nutrient ratios in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Marie; Chodak, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    The ratio of carbon-to-nutrient in forest floors is usually much higher than the ratio of carbon-to-nutrient that soil microorganisms require for their nutrition. In order to understand how this mismatch affects carbon cycling, the respiration rate per unit soil microbial biomass carbon - the metabolic quotient (qCO2) - was studied. This was done in a field study (Spohn and Chodak, 2015) and in a meta-analysis of published data (Spohn, 2014). Cores of beech, spruce, and mixed spruce-beech forest soils were cut into slices of 1 cm from the top of the litter layer down to 5 cm in the mineral soil, and the relationship between the qCO2 and the soil carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) and the soil carbon-to-phosphorus (C:P) ratio was analyzed. We found that the qCO2 was positively correlated with soil C:N ratio in spruce soils (R = 0.72), and with the soil C:P ratio in beech (R = 0.93), spruce (R = 0.80) and mixed forest soils (R = 0.96). We also observed a close correlation between the qCO2 and the soil C concentration in all three forest types. Yet, the qCO2 decreased less with depth than the C concentration in all three forest types, suggesting that the change in qCO2 is not only controlled by the soil C concentration. We conclude that microorganisms increase their respiration rate per unit biomass with increasing soil C:P ratio and C concentration, which adjusts the substrate to their nutritional demands in terms of stoichiometry. In an analysis of literature data, I tested the effect of the C:N ratio of soil litter layers on microbial respiration in absolute terms and per unit microbial biomass C. For this purpose, a global dataset on the microbial respiration rate per unit microbial biomass C - termed the metabolic quotient (qCO2) - was compiled form literature data. It was found that the qCO2 in the soil litter layers was positively correlated with the litter C:N ratio and negatively related with the litter nitrogen (N) concentration. The positive relation between the qCO2

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics of eight different biomass fuels and comparison of combustion and emission results in a small scale multi-fuel boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, E.G.A.; Easson, D.L.; Lyons, G.A.; McRoberts, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical parameters of the eight biomass fuels examined were all different. • Significant differences were found in Proximate, Ultimate and TGA results. • Energy outputs were not proportionate to dry matter energy content. • Highest flue ash production from fuels with highest fines content. • Flue gas emissions varied significantly, NOx levels correlated with fuel N content. - Abstract: This study describes the results from the investigation of 7 different biomass fuel types produced on a farm, and a commercial grade wood pellet, for their physical, chemical, thermo-gravimetric and combustion properties. Three types of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, two species of conifers, forest residues (brash), commercially produced wood-pellets and a chop harvested energy grass crop Miscanthus giganteus spp., (elephant grass) were investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in most of the raw fuel parameters examined using particle distribution, Thermogravimetric, Ultimate and Proximate analysis. Combustion tests in a 120 kW multi-fuel boiler revealed differences, some significant, in the maximum output, energy conversion efficiency, gaseous emission profiles and ash residues produced from the fuels. It was concluded that some of the combustion results could be directly correlated with the inherent properties of the different fuels. Ash production and gaseous emissions were the aspects of performance that were clearly and significantly different though effects on energy outputs were more varied and less consistent. The standard wood pellet fuel returned the best overall performance and miscanthus produced the largest amount of total ash and clinker after combustion in the boiler

  10. Combustion and gasification of solid biomass: energy solutions for the Amazon; Combustao e gasificacao de biomassa solida: solucoes energeticas para a Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Eduardo Jose Fagundes; Rendeiro, Goncalo; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Brasil, Augusto Cesar de Mendonca; Cruz, Daniel Onofre de Almeida; Guerra, Danielle Regina da Silva; Macedo, Emanuel Negrao; Ichihara, Jorge de Araujo

    2008-07-01

    For electrify isolated rural communities in the Amazon, the Ministerio de Minas e Energia - MME (Brazilian Mining and Energy Ministry), promoted under the 'Luz para todos' (Light for All) program, a series of activities aimed at the development and implementation of projects for small- scale power generation and training professionals, in the region, for the deployment of alternative energy solutions from renewable energy sources. Among these activities are the production of the collection 'Energy Solutions for the Amazon', consisting of five volumes. This is the fourth volume in the series that presents an overview of the combustion and gasification of solid biomass.

  11. Method to produce combustible gas with low tar content out of biomass. Foerfarande foer att ur biomassa framstaella en tjaerfattig braennbar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindman, N

    1988-01-11

    The gas is led in a controlled flow to a vertical reactor shaft with a circulating fluidized bed containing dispersed calcined limestone. The biomass is pyrolyzed by means of the reactor heat in order to produce tarry gas and charcoal. While the gas flows upward in the reactor shaft the tar is gasified in a heterogeneous catalytic reaction with limestone. Charcoal and limestone are separated from the gas at the top of the reactor shaft and brought back to the fluidized bed for combustion. (L.F.).

  12. Design and Implementation of the Control System of an Internal Combustion Engine Test Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Koç

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate tests and performance analysis of engines are required to minimize measurement errors and so the use of the advanced test equipment is imperative. In other words, the reliable test results depend on the measurement of many parameters and recording the experimental data accurately which is depended on engine test unit. This study aims to design the control system of an internal combustion engine test unit. In the study, the performance parameters of an available internal combustion engine have been transferred to computer in real time. A data acquisition (DAQ card has been used to transfer the experimental data to the computer. Also, a user interface has been developed for performing the necessary procedures by using LabVIEW. The dynamometer load, the fuel consumption, and the desired speed can easily be adjusted precisely by using DAQ card and the user interface during the engine test. Load, fuel consumption, and temperature values (the engine inlet-outlet, exhaust inlet-outlet, oil, and environment can be seen on the interface and also these values can be recorded to the computer. It is expected that developed system will contribute both to the education of students and to the researchers’ studies and so it will eliminate a major lack.

  13. Updated African biomass burning emission inventories in the framework of the AMMA-IDAF program, with an evaluation of combustion aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liousse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available African biomass burning emission inventories for gaseous and particulate species have been constructed at a resolution of 1 km by 1km with daily coverage for the 2000–2007 period. These inventories are higher than the GFED2 inventories, which are currently widely in use. Evaluation specifically focusing on combustion aerosol has been carried out with the ORISAM-TM4 global chemistry transport model which includes a detailed aerosol module. This paper compares modeled results with measurements of surface BC concentrations and scattering coefficients from the AMMA Enhanced Observations period, aerosol optical depths and single scattering albedo from AERONET sunphotometers, LIDAR vertical distributions of extinction coefficients as well as satellite data. Aerosol seasonal and interannual evolutions over the 2004–2007 period observed at regional scale and more specifically at the Djougou (Benin and Banizoumbou (Niger AMMA/IDAF sites are well reproduced by our global model, indicating that our biomass burning emission inventory appears reasonable.

  14. Reductions in emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass pellets in comparison with raw fuel burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Wen; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxing; Wang, Xuejun; Masse Simonich, Staci L y

    2012-06-05

    Biomass pellets are emerging as a cleaner alternative to traditional biomass fuels. The potential benefits of using biomass pellets include improving energy utilization efficiency and reducing emissions of air pollutants. To assess the environmental, climate, and health significance of replacing traditional fuels with biomass pellets, it is critical to measure the emission factors (EFs) of various pollutants from pellet burning. However, only a few field measurements have been conducted on the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the combustion of pellets. In this study, pine wood and corn straw pellets were burned in a pellet burner (2.6 kW), and the EFs of CO, organic carbon, elemental carbon, PM, and PAHs (EF(CO), EF(OC), EF(EC), EF(PM), and EF(PAH)) were determined. The average EF(CO), EF(OC), EF(EC), and EF(PM) were 1520 ± 1170, 8.68 ± 11.4, 11.2 ± 8.7, and 188 ± 87 mg/MJ for corn straw pellets and 266 ± 137, 5.74 ± 7.17, 2.02 ± 1.57, and 71.0 ± 54.0 mg/MJ for pine wood pellets, respectively. Total carbonaceous carbon constituted 8 to 14% of the PM mass emitted. The measured values of EF(PAH) for the two pellets were 1.02 ± 0.64 and 0.506 ± 0.360 mg/MJ, respectively. The secondary side air supply in the pellet burner did not change the EFs of most pollutants significantly (p > 0.05). The only exceptions were EF(OC) and EF(PM) for pine wood pellets because of reduced combustion temperatures with the increased air supply. In comparison with EFs for the raw pine wood and corn straw, EF(CO), EF(OC), EF(EC), and EF(PM) for pellets were significantly lower than those for raw fuels (p 0.05). Based on the measured EFs and thermal efficiencies, it was estimated that 95, 98, 98, 88, and 71% reductions in the total emissions of CO, OC, EC, PM, and PAHs could be achieved by replacing the raw biomass fuels combusted in traditional cooking stoves with pellets burned in modern pellet burners.

  15. Influence of advections of particulate matter from biomass combustion on specific-cause mortality in Madrid in the period 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, C; Carmona, R; Tobías, A; Mirón, I J; Díaz, J

    2015-05-01

    Approximately, 20 % of particulate and aerosol emissions into the urban atmosphere are of natural origin (including wildfires and Saharan dust). During these natural episodes, PM10 and PM2.5 levels usually exceed World Health Organisation (WHO) health protection thresholds. This study sought to evaluate the possible effect of advections of particulate matter from biomass fuel combustion on daily specific-cause mortality among the general population and the segment aged ≥ 75 years in Madrid. Ecological time-series study in the city of Madrid from January 01, 2004 to December 31, 2009. The dependent variable analysed was daily mortality due to natural (ICD-10:A00-R99), circulatory (ICD-10:I00-I99), and respiratory (ICD-10:J00-J99) causes in the population, both general and aged ≥ 75 years. The following independent and control variables were considered: a) daily mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations; b) maximum daily temperature; c) daily mean O3 and NO2 concentrations; d) advection of particulate matter from biomass combustion ( http://www.calima.ws/ ), using a dichotomous variable and e) linear trend and seasonalities. We conducted a descriptive analysis, performed a test of means and, to ascertain relative risk, fitted a model using autoregressive Poisson regression and stratifying by days with and without biomass advection, in both populations. Of the 2192 days analysed, biomass advection occurred on 56, with mean PM2.5 and PM10 values registering a significant increase during these days. PM10 had a greater impact on organic mortality with advection (RRall ages = 1.035 [1.011-1.060]; RR  ≥  75 years = 1.066 [1.031-1.103]) than did PM2.5 without advection (RRall ages = 1.017 [1.009-1.025]; RR  ≥  75 years = 1.012 [1.003-1.022]). Among specific causes, respiratory-though not circulatory-causes were associated with PM10 on days with advection in ≥ 75 year age group. PM10, rather than PM2.5, were associated with an increase in natural

  16. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Thermoeconomic cost analysis of CO_2 compression and purification unit in oxy-combustion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bo; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoeconomic cost analysis for CO_2 compression and purification unit is conducted. • Exergy cost and thermoeconomic cost occur in flash separation and mixing processes. • Unit exergy costs for flash separator and multi-stream heat exchanger are identical. • Multi-stage CO_2 compressor contributes to the minimum unit exergy cost. • Thermoeconomic performance for optimized CPU is enhanced. - Abstract: High CO_2 purity products can be obtained from oxy-combustion power plants through CO_2 compression and purification unit (CPU) based on phase separation method. To identify cost formation process and potential energy savings for CPU, detailed thermoeconomic cost analysis based on structure theory of thermoeconomics is applied to an optimized CPU (with double flash separators). It is found that the largest unit exergy cost occurs in the first separation process while the multi-stage CO_2 compressor contributes to the minimum unit exergy cost. In two flash separation processes, unit exergy costs for the flash separator and multi-stream heat exchanger are identical but their unit thermoeconomic costs are different once monetary cost for each device is considered. For cost inefficiency occurring in CPU, it mainly derives from large exergy costs and thermoeconomic costs in the flash separation and mixing processes. When compared with an unoptimized CPU, thermoeconomic performance for the optimized CPU is enhanced and the maximum reduction of 5.18% for thermoeconomic cost is attained. To achieve cost effective operation, measures should be taken to improve operations of the flash separation and mixing processes.

  18. Scale-up study on combustibility and emission formation with two biomass fuels (B quality wood and pepper plant residue) under BFB conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif Ahmed; de Jong, Wiebren; Jansens, Peter Johannes [Department of Process and Energy, Section Energy Technology, Faculty 3ME, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, NL-2628 CA, Delft (Netherlands); Aho, Martti; Vainikka, Pasi [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Spliethoff, Hartmut [TU Munich, Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Kraftanlagen, Boltzmannstrasse 15, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Combustion of two biomass fuels: demolition wood (DW) and pepper plant residue (PPR), was investigated from an emission viewpoint in a 20 kW{sub th} fluidized bubbling bed reactor and a 1 MW{sub th} fluidized bubbling bed test boiler. Fluidization velocity and boiler output were varied in the larger facility whereas they were kept constant in the smaller reactor. Traditional flue gases were analyzed. In addition, impactor measurements were carried out to determine the mass flow of the finest fly ash and toxic elements. These measurements were compared with EU emission directives for biomass co-incineration. It was possible to combust DW without operational problems. However, the DW was contaminated with lead, which tended to get strongly enriched in the fine fly ash. Pb tends to be adsorbed on the measurement line surfaces stronger than many other toxic elements and therefore proved difficult to collect and measure. Enrichment of Pb in the fine fly ash can be weakened by co-firing DW with PPR. Increasing the share of PPR up to 50% markedly reduces the toxic metal concentration in the finest fly ash. This, however, leads to increased mass flow of fine fly ash and increases the potential risks of operational problems such as bed agglomeration and fouling. (author)

  19. Assessing the role of federal community assistance programs to develop biomass utilization capacity in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Mark Nechodom; Adam Barnett; Tad Mason; Eini C. Lowell; John Shelly; Dean Graham

    2008-01-01

    As forest biomass utilization becomes cost effective to harvest, more areas at risk of catastrophic wildfire can be thinned of dense brush and small-diameter trees. In an effort to increase biomass utilization, the USDA Forest Service granted more than $36 million in National Fire Plan-Economic Action Program funds in the Western United States during fiscal years 2001...

  20. Accelerated Electromechanical Modeling of a Distributed Internal Combustion Engine Generator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy V. Bozhko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation with a combustion engine prime mover is still widely used to supply electric power in a variety of applications. These applications range from backup power supply systems and combined wind-diesel generation to providing power in places where grid connection is either technically impractical or financially uneconomic. Modelling of such systems as a whole is extremely difficult due to the long-time load profiles needed and the computational difficulty of including small time-constant electrical dynamics with large time-constant mechanical dynamics. This paper presents the development of accelerated, reduced-order models of a distributed internal combustions engine generator unit. Overall these models are shown to achieve a massive improvement in the computational time required for long-time simulations while also achieving an extremely high level of dynamic accuracy. It is demonstrated how these models are derived, used and verified against benchmark models created using established techniques. Throughout the paper the modelling set as a whole, including multi level detail, is presented, detailed and finally summarised into a crucial tool for general system investigation and multiple target optimisation.

  1. Predictive models of biomass for poplar and willow. Short rotation coppice in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, A.C.; Morgan, G.W.; Poole, E.J.; Baldwin, M.E.; Tubby, I. (Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    A series of forty-nine experimental trials on short rotation coppice (SRC) were conducted throughout the United Kingdom using a selection of varieties of poplar and willow with the aim of evaluating their performance for wood fuel production under a representative range of UK conditions. Observations on the crops and on a range of site and climatic conditions during the growth of the crops were taken over two three-year cutting cycles. These observations were used to develop a suite of empirical models for poplar and willow SRC growth and yield from which systems were constructed to provide a- priori predictions of biomass yield for any site in the UK with known characteristics (predictive yield models), and estimates of biomass yield from a standing crop (standing biomass models). The structure of the series of field trials and the consequent approach and methodology used in the construction of the suite of empirical models are described, and their use in predicting biomass yields of poplar and willow SRC is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Comparing tree foliage biomass models fitted to a multispecies, felled-tree biomass dataset for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Clough; Matthew B. Russell; Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; Philip J. Radtke

    2016-01-01

    tEstimation of live tree biomass is an important task for both forest carbon accounting and studies of nutri-ent dynamics in forest ecosystems. In this study, we took advantage of an extensive felled-tree database(with 2885 foliage biomass observations) to compare different models and grouping schemes based onphylogenetic and geographic variation for predicting foliage...

  3. Combustion gas from biomass - innovative plant concepts on the basis of circulating fluidized bed gasification; Brenngas aus Biomasse - innovative Anlagenkonzepte auf Basis der Zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtvergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C; Hirschfelder, H [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The contribution describes the applications of the Lurgi-ZWS gas generator. There are three main fields of application: Direct feeding of combustion gas, e.g. into a rotary kiln, as a substitute for coal or oil, without either dust filtering or gas purification. - Feeding of the combustion gas into the steam generator of a coal power plant after dust filtering and, if necessar, filtering of NH{sub 3} or H{sub 2}S. - Combustion in a gas turbine or gas engine after gas purification according to specifications. The applications are described for several exemplary projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im folgenden wird ueber die Anwendung des Lurgi-ZWS-Gaserzeugers berichtet. Nach heutiger Sicht stehen drei Anwendungsgebiete im Vordergrund: - direkte Einspeisung des Brenngases in z.B. einen Zementdrehrohrofen zur Substitution von Kohle oder Oel, ohne Entstaubung und Gasreinigung. - Einspeisung des Brenngases nach Entstaubung und gegebenenfalls Entfernung weiterer Komponenten wie NH{sub 3} oder H{sub 2}S in den Dampferzeuger eines Kohlekraftwerkes - Einsatz des Brenngases in einer Gasturbine oder Gasmotor nach spezifikationsgerechter Gasreinigung. Die aufgefuehrten Einsatzmoeglichkeiten werden am Beispiel von Projekten beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  4. Process and unit for gasification of combustible material. Verfahren und Aggregat zur Vergasung brennbaren Gutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linneborn, J

    1987-05-21

    The invention refers to a process for the gasification of solid and combustible material in a moving bed and a unit in which this process can be carried out. By material to be gasified one means small material such as ground fossil coal and all organic substances such as wood, straw, husks and shells of fruit, to which sewage sludge can be added. The new process can be carried out, according to the invention, in a closed duct moved by vibration or shaking, in which the material or the ash produced moves from one end to the other by suitable vibration and comes into contact with round heat sources largely resistant to friction. This achieves rapid gasification of the material (at about 1000/sup 0/C) by convection and radiation.

  5. Comprehensive characterization of humic-like substances in smoke PM2.5 emitted from the combustion of biomass materials and fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xingjun; Wei, Siye; Zhu, Mengbo; Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-10-01

    Humic-like substances (HULIS) in smoke fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted from the combustion of biomass materials (rice straw, corn straw, and pine branch) and fossil fuels (lignite coal and diesel fuel) were comprehensively studied in this work. The HULIS fractions were first isolated with a one-step solid-phase extraction method, and were then investigated with a series of analytical techniques: elemental analysis, total organic carbon analysis, UV-vis (ultraviolet-visible) spectroscopy, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results show that HULIS account for 11.2-23.4 and 5.3 % of PM2.5 emitted from biomass burning (BB) and coal combustion, respectively. In addition, contributions of HULIS-C to total carbon and water-soluble carbon in smoke PM2.5 emitted from BB are 8.0-21.7 and 56.9-66.1 %, respectively. The corresponding contributions in smoke PM2.5 from coal combustion are 5.2 and 45.5 %, respectively. These results suggest that BB and coal combustion are both important sources of HULIS in atmospheric aerosols. However, HULIS in diesel soot only accounted for ˜ 0.8 % of the soot particles, suggesting that vehicular exhaust may not be a significant primary source of HULIS. Primary HULIS and atmospheric HULIS display many similar chemical characteristics, as indicated by the instrumental analytical characterization, while some distinct features were also apparent. A high spectral absorbance in the UV-vis spectra, a distinct band at λex/λem ≈ 280/350 nm in EEM spectra, lower H / C and O / C molar ratios, and a high content of [Ar-H] were observed for primary HULIS. These results suggest that primary HULIS contain more aromatic structures, and have a lower content of aliphatic and oxygen-containing groups than atmospheric HULIS. Among the four primary sources of HULIS, HULIS from BB had the highest O / C molar ratios (0.43-0.54) and [H

  6. Toxic emissions during co-combustion of biomass-waste wood-lignite blends in an industrial boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, P; Skodras, G; Sakellaropoulos, G P; Blumenstock, M; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the PCDD/F emissions during the co-combustion of waste wood/coal co-combustion in an industrial boiler and to determine the relation of the toxic emissions to the fuel properties. Co-combustion experiments were performed in a 13.8 MWthermal industrial moving grate combustor. The fuels which were examined in this study included Greek lignite, natural uncontaminated wood, power poles and medium density fibers (MDFs) which were by-products of the plant production process. Fuel blends were prepared by mixing single components in various concentrations. PCDD/F emissions were collected during experimental runs and were analyzed according to standard methods. Low PCDD/F emissions were obtained during the co-combustion tests, lower than the limit value of 0.1 ng TEQ/Nm3. The lowest values were observed during the combustion of fuel blends containing MDF, possibly due to the inhibitory action of some of the N-containing MDF ingredients, such as urea. No direct correlation was found between the PCDD/F and the copper emissions, while examination of the PCDD/F homologue patterns revealed the predominance of the lower chlorinated isomers over the higher ones.

  7. Co-combustion of wood biomass in coal power plants, a contribution to energy turnaround and climate protection?; Die Mitverbrennung holzartiger Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Ein Beitrag zur Energiewende und zum Klimaschutz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Claudia; Herr, Michael; Edel, Matthias; Seidl, Hannes

    2011-08-15

    Co-combustion of wood biomass in coal power plants is feasible at short notice and can is a low-cost option for climate protection. While other EU states have already provided funding mechanism, Germany has not followed this lead so far. Domestic wood resources are limited and unevenly distributed among the German regions, so that wood materials will have to be imported. During the past few years, the basic requirements for imports of wood were provided with the initiation of a global pellets market. Sustainability criteria for wood consumption were defined, and international certification systems were developed. The sustainability criteria should be extended to cover also wood-like materials and other biomass for power generation. The German EEG (Renewables Act) is a first step in this direction. Further, investments must be made in logistics capacities. The available logistics of coal power plants can be used with some minor modifications. In all, successful and sustainable international biomass markets may soon be available.

  8. Production of hydrogen driven from biomass waste to power Remote areas away from the electric grid utilizing fuel cells and internal combustion engines vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Hazem [Farmingdale State College, NY (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Recent concerns over the security and reliability of the world’s energy supply has caused a flux towards the research and development of renewable sources. A leading renewable source has been found in the biomass gasification of biological materials derived from organic matters such as wood chips, forest debris, and farm waste that are found in abundance in the USA. Accordingly, there is a very strong interest worldwide in the development of new technologies that provide an in-depth understanding of this economically viable energy source. This work aims to allow the coupling of biomass gasification and fuel cell systems as well as Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to produce high-energy efficiency, clean environmental performance and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass gasification is a process, which produces synthesis gas (syngas) that contains 19% hydrogen and 20% carbon monoxide from inexpensive organic matter waste. This project main goal is to provide cost effective energy to the public utilizing remote farms’ waste and landfill recycling area.

  9. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  10. Laboratory Measurements of Biomass Cook-stove Emissions Aged in an Oxidation Flow Reactor: Influence of Combustion and Aging Conditions on Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, A. P.; Reece, S. M.; Sinha, A.; Wathore, R.

    2016-12-01

    Combustion in rudimentary and improved cook-stoves used by billions in developing countries can be a regionally dominant contributor to black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosols (POA) and precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Recent studies suggest that SOA formed during photo-oxidation of primary emissions from biomass burning may make important contribution to its atmospheric impacts. However, the extent to which stove type and operating conditions affect the amount, composition and characteristics of SOA formed from the aging of cookstoves emissions is still largely undetermined. Here we present results from experiments with a field portable oxidation flow reactor (F-OFR) designed to assess aging of cook-stove emissions in both laboratory and field settings. Laboratory tests results are used to compare the quantity and properties of fresh and aged emissions from a traditional open fire and twp alternative stove designs operated on the standard and alternate testing protocols. Diluted cookstove emissions were exposed to a range of oxidant concentrations in the F-OFR. Primary emissions were aged both on-line, to study the influence of combustion variability, and sampled from batched emissions in a smog chamber to examine different aging conditions. Data from real-time particle- and gas-phase instruments and integrated filter samples were collected up and down stream of the OFR. The properties of primary emissions vary strongly with stove type and combustion conditions (e.g. smoldering versus flaming). Experiments aging diluted biomass emissions from distinct phases of stove operation (smoldering and flaming) showed peak SOA production for both phases occurred between 3 and 6 equivalent days of aging with slightly greater production observed in flaming phase emissions. Changing combustion conditions had a stronger influence than aging on POA+SOA `emission factors'. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor data show a substantial evolution of aerosol

  11. Physical and combustion characteristics of biomass particles prepared by different milling processes for suspension firing in utility boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    close to suspension-fired boilers. The ignition, devolatilization and burnout times of the milled particles under different combustion conditions are analysed. A one-dimensional transient model, properly accounting for the particle-ambient flow interaction and appropriately addressing the key sub...

  12. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ► A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ► Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ► Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ► Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal

  13. Elephant grass genotypes for bioenergy production by direct biomass combustion Genótipos de capim-elefante para produção de bioenergia por combustão direta da biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fiusa de Morais

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. genotypes for bioenergy production by direct biomass combustion. Five elephant grass genotypes grown in two different soil types, both of low fertility, were evaluated. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Agrobiologia field station in Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. The design was in randomized complete blocks, with split plots and four replicates. The genotypes studied were Cameroon, Bag 02, Gramafante, Roxo and CNPGL F06-3. Evaluations were made for biomass production, total biomass nitrogen, biomass nitrogen from biological fixation, carbon/nitrogen and stem/leaf ratios, and contents of fiber, lignin, cellulose and ash. The dry matter yields ranged from 45 to 67 Mg ha-1. Genotype Roxo had the lowest yield and genotypes Bag 02 and Cameroon had the highest ones. The biomass nitrogen accumulation varied from 240 to 343 kg ha-1. The plant nitrogen from biological fixation was 51% in average. The carbon/nitrogen and stem/leaf ratios and the contents of fiber, lignin, cellulose and ash did not vary among the genotypes. The five genotypes are suitable for energy production through combustion.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. quanto ao potencial para a produção de bioenergia por combustão direta da biomassa. Avaliaram-se cinco genótipos de capim-elefante, em dois solos com baixa fertilidade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na estação experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, em Seropédica, RJ. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os genótipos estudados foram Cameroon, Bag 02, Gramafante, Roxo e CNPGL F06-3. Determinaram-se a produção de biomassa, o acúmulo de nitrogênio na biomassa, o nitrogênio da biomassa proveniente da fixação biológica, as relações carbono/nitrogênio e talo/folha, e os teores de fibra, lignina

  14. Determining contributions of biomass burning and other sources to fine particle contemporary carbon in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Amanda S.; Sullivan, Amy P.; Munchak, Leigh A.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.

    2011-02-01

    Six-day integrated fine particle samples were collected at urban and rural sampling sites using Hi-Volume samplers during winter and summer 2004-2005 as part of the IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) Radiocarbon Study. Filter samples from six sites (Grand Canyon, Mount Rainier, Phoenix, Puget Sound, Rocky Mountain National Park, and Tonto National Monument) were analyzed for levoglucosan, a tracer for biomass combustion, and other species by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD). Contemporary carbon concentrations were available from previous carbon isotope measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Primary contributions of biomass burning to measured fine particle contemporary carbon were estimated for residential wood burning (winter) and wild/prescribed fires (summer). Calculated contributions ranged from below detection limit to more than 100% and were typically higher at rural sites and during winter. Mannitol, a sugar alcohol emitted by fungal spores, was analyzed and used to determine contributions of fungal spores to fine particle contemporary carbon. Contributions reached up to 13% in summer samples, with higher contributions at rural sites. Concentrations of methyltetrols, oxidation products of isoprene, were also measured by HPAEC-PAD. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from isoprene oxidation was estimated to contribute up to 22% of measured contemporary carbon. For each sampling site, a substantial portion of the contemporary carbon was unexplained by primary biomass combustion, fungal spores, or SOA from isoprene oxidation. This unexplained fraction likely contains contributions from other SOA sources, including oxidation products of primary smoke emissions and plant emissions other than isoprene, as well as other primary particle emissions from meat cooking, plant debris, other biological aerosol particles, bio-diesel combustion, and other sources. Loss

  15. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural women of Tamilnadu: implications for refining disease burden assessments attributable to household biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Johnson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive1 1This paper was orally presented in the Annual conference International Society of Environmental Epidemiology held in Pasadena in 2008. pulmonary disease (COPD is the 13th leading cause of burden of disease worldwide and is expected to become 5th by 2020. Biomass fuel combustion significantly contributes to COPD, although smoking is recognized as the most important risk factor. Rural women in developing countries bear the largest share of this burden resulting from chronic exposures to biomass fuel smoke. Although there is considerable strength of evidence for the association between COPD and biomass smoke exposure, limited information is available on the background prevalence of COPD in these populations.This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of COPD and its associated factors among non-smoking rural women in Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in Southern India.This cross-sectional study was conducted among 900 non-smoking women aged above 30 years, from 45 rural villages of Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in Southern India in the period between January and May 2007. COPD assessments were done using a combination of clinical examination and spirometry. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between COPD and use of biomass for cooking. R software was used for statistical analysis.The overall prevalence of COPD in this study was found to be 2.44% (95% CI: 1.43–3.45. COPD prevalence was higher in biomass fuel users than the clean fuel users 2.5 vs. 2%, (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.36–6.64 and it was two times higher (3% in women who spend >2 hours/day in the kitchen involved in cooking. Use of solid fuel was associated with higher risk for COPD, although no statistically significant results were obtained in this study.The estimates generated in this study will contribute significantly to the growing database of available information on COPD prevalence in rural women. Moreover, with

  16. Ash formation and deposition in coal and biomass fired combustion systems: Progress and challenges in the field of ash particle sticking and rebound behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinhans, Ulrich; Wieland, Christoph; Frandsen, Flemming J.

    2018-01-01

    . The impaction of solid, molten or partially molten particles on surfaces is dependent on the particle and surface characteristics. For instance, a particulate deposit might capture incoming particles or be removed due to erosion, while a molten layer will collect all impacting particles, no matter...... if they are sticky or not. The main properties affecting the particle stickiness are the viscosity and surface tension for silicate-rich ashes. On the contrary, the stickiness of salt-rich ashes – typical for herbaceous biomass and wood- or waste-based fuels – is often described using the liquid melt fraction......, their required parameters are discussed and typical particle and surface properties found in combustion systems, are summarized. Eight different sticking criteria are implemented in a computational fluid dynamics code and computations are compared against measurements from an entrained flow reactor. Uniform...

  17. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  18. Testing of the Engineering Model Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.; Fox, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) in Cleveland, OH and the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL have designed and developed an Engineering Model (EM) Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU) for the Fluids Combustion Facility, (FCF) experiments to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS power distribution system for the FCF's space experiments'test and telemetry hardware. Furthermore. it is proposed to be the common power interface for all experiments. The EPCU is a three kilowatt 12OVdc-to-28Vdc converter utilizing three independent Power Converter Units (PCUs), each rated at 1kWe (36Adc @ 28Vdc) which are paralleled and synchronized. Each converter may be fed from one of two ISS power channels. The 28Vdc loads are connected to the EPCU output via 48 solid-state and current-limiting switches, rated at 4Adc each. These switches may be paralleled to supply any given load up to the 108Adc normal operational limit of the paralleled converters. The EPCU was designed in this manner to maximize allocated-power utilization. to shed loads autonomously, to provide fault tolerance. and to provide a flexible power converter and control module to meet various ISS load demands. Tests of the EPCU in the Power Systems Facility testbed at GRC reveal that the overall converted-power efficiency, is approximately 89% with a nominal-input voltage of 12OVdc and a total load in the range of 4O% to 110% rated 28Vdc load. (The PCUs alone have an efficiency of approximately 94.5%). Furthermore, the EM unit passed all flight-qualification level (and beyond) vibration tests, passed ISS EMI (conducted, radiated. and susceptibility) requirements. successfully operated for extended periods in a thermal/vacuum chamber, was integrated with a proto-flight experiment and passed all stability and functional requirements.

  19. Time-resolved analysis of particle emissions from residential biomass combustion - Emissions of refractory black carbon, PAHs and organic tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg E.; Eriksson, Axel C.; Lindgren, Robert; Martinsson, Johan; Nyström, Robin; Nordin, Erik Z.; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Boman, Christoffer; Nøjgaard, Jacob K.; Pagels, Joakim

    2017-09-01

    Time-resolved particle emissions from a conventional wood stove were investigated with aerosol mass spectrometry to provide links between combustion conditions, emission factors, mixing state of refractory black carbon and implications for organic tracer methods. The addition of a new batch of fuel results in low temperature pyrolysis as the fuel heats up, resulting in strong, short-lived, variable emission peaks of organic aerosol-containing markers of anhydrous sugars, such as levoglucosan (fragment at m/z 60). Flaming combustion results in emissions dominated by refractory black carbon co-emitted with minor fractions of organic aerosol and markers of anhydrous sugars. Full cycle emissions are an external mixture of larger organic aerosol-dominated and smaller thinly coated refractory black carbon particles. A very high burn rate results in increased full cycle mass emission factors of 66, 2.7, 2.8 and 1.3 for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon, total organic aerosol and m/z 60, respectively, compared to nominal burn rate. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily associated with refractory black carbon-containing particles. We hypothesize that at very high burn rates, the central parts of the combustion zone become air starved, leading to a locally reduced combustion temperature that reduces the conversion rates from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to refractory black carbon. This facilitates a strong increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. At nominal burn rates, full cycle emissions based on m/z 60 correlate well with organic aerosol, refractory black carbon and particulate matter. However, at higher burn rates, m/z 60 does not correlate with increased emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon and organic aerosol in the flaming phase. The new knowledge can be used to advance source apportionment studies, reduce emissions of genotoxic compounds and model the climate impacts of

  20. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a~case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in the eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y. N.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of air pollutants, particularly aerosols, on regional and global climate is widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies reports their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70%, of sensible heat flux over 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution - weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather with the influence of air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloudy feedbacks. This study highlights a cross-disciplinary needs to study the environmental, weather and climate impact of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in the East China.

  1. Use of Green Mussel Shell as a Desulfurizer in the Blending of Low Rank Coal-Biomass Briquette Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahidin Mahidin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxide-based material is available abundantly and naturally. A potential resource of that material comes from marine mollusk shell such as clams, scallops, mussels, oysters, winkles and nerites. The CaO-based material has exhibited a good performance as the desulfurizer oradsorbent in coal combustion in order to reduce SO2 emission. In this study, pulverized green mussel shell, without calcination, was utilized as the desulfurizer in the briquette produced from a mixture of low rank coal and palm kernel shell (PKS, also known as bio-briquette. The ratio ofcoal to PKS in the briquette was 90:10 (wt/wt. The influence of green mussel shell contents and combustion temperature were examined to prove the possible use of that materialas a desulfurizer. The ratio of Ca to S (Ca = calcium content in desulfurizer; S = sulfur content in briquette werefixed at 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, 1.75:1, and 2:1 (mole/mole. The burning (or desulfurization temperature range was 300-500 °C; the reaction time was 720 seconds and the air flow rate was 1.2 L/min. The results showed that green mussel shell can be introduced as a desulfurizer in coal briquette or bio-briquette combustions. The desulfurization process using that desulfurizer exhibited the first order reaction and the highest average efficiency of 84.5%.

  2. Research on the combustion, energy and emission parameters of diesel fuel and a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuel blend in a compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimkus, Alfredas; Žaglinskis, Justas; Rapalis, Paulius; Skačkauskas, Paulius

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Researched physical–chemical and performance properties of diesel fuel and BTL blend (85/15 V/V). • BTL additive reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, improved engine efficiency. • Simpler BTL molecular chains and lower C/H ratio reduced CO_2 emission and smokiness. • Higher cetane number of BTL reduced heat release in beginning of combustion and NO_x emission. • Advanced start of fuel injection caused reduced fuel consumption and smokiness, increased NO_x emission. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparable research results of the physical–chemical and direct injection (DI) diesel engine properties of diesel fuel and BTL (biomass-to-liquid) blend (85/15 V/V). The energy, ecological and in-cylinder parameters were analysed under medium engine speed and brake torque load regimes; the start of fuel injection was also adjusted. After analysis of the engine bench tests and simulation with AVL BOOST software, it was observed that the BTL additive shortened the fuel ignition delay phase, reduced the heat release in the pre-mixed intensive combustion phase, reduced the nitrogen oxide (NO_x) concentration in the engine exhaust gases and reduced the thermal and mechanical load of the crankshaft mechanism. BTL additive reduced the rates of carbon dioxide (CO_2), incompletely burned hydrocarbons (HC) emission and smokiness due to its chemical composition and combustion features. BTL also reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC, g/kW h) and improved engine efficiency (η_e); however, the volumetric fuel consumption changed due to the lower density of BTL. The start of fuel injection was adjusted for maximum engine efficiency; concomitantly, reductions in the CO_2 concentration, HC concentration and smokiness were achieved. However, the NO_x and thermo-mechanical engine load increased.

  3. A supply chain analysis framework for assessing state-level forest biomass utilization policies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Dennis R.; Moseley, Cassandra; Lee, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The number of state policies aimed at fostering biomass utilization has proliferated in recent years in the United States. Several states aim to increase the use of forest and agriculture biomass through renewable energy production. Several more indirectly encourage utilization by targeting aspects of the supply chain from trees standing in the forest to goods sold. This research classifies 370 state policies from across the United States that provides incentives for forest biomass utilization. We compare those policies by types of incentives relative to the supply chain and geographic clustering. We then develop a framework for policy evaluation building on the supply chain steps, which can be used to assess intended and unintended consequences of policy interactions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance forest biomass utilization.

  4. Woody biomass for bioenergy and biofuels in the United States -- a briefing paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. White

    2010-01-01

    Woody biomass can be used for the generation of heat, electricity, and biofuels. In many cases, the technology for converting woody biomass into energy has been established for decades, but because the price of woody biomass energy has not been competitive with traditional fossil fuels, bioenergy production from woody biomass has not been widely adopted. However,...

  5. Modeling and Optimization of Woody Biomass Harvest and Logistics in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Damon S.

    World energy consumption is at an all-time high and is projected to continue growing for the foreseeable future. Currently, much of the energy that is produced comes from non-renewable fossil energy sources, which includes the burden of increased greenhouse gas emissions and the fear of energy insecurity. Woody biomass is being considered as a material that can be utilized to reduce the burden caused by fossil energy. While the technical capability to convert woody biomass to energy has been known for a long period of time, the cost of the feedstock has been considered too costly to be implemented in a large commercial scale. Increasing the use of woody biomass as an energy source requires that the supply chains are setup in a way that minimizes cost, the locational factors that lead to development are understood, the facilities are located in the most favorable locations and local resource assessments can be made. A mixed integer linear programming model to efficiently configure woody biomass supply chain configurations and optimize the harvest, extraction, transport, storage and preprocessing of the woody biomass resources to provide the lowest possible delivered price. The characteristics of woody biomass, such as spatial distribution and low bulk density, tend to make collection and transport difficult as compared to traditional energy sources. These factors, as well as others, have an adverse effect on the cost of the feedstock. The average delivered cost was found to be between 64.69-98.31 dry Mg for an annual demand of 180,000 dry Mg. The effect of resource availability and required demand was examined to determine the impact that each would have on the total cost. The use of woody biomass for energy has been suggested as a way to improve rural economies through job creation, reduction of energy costs and regional development. This study examined existing wood using bio-energy facilities in the northeastern United States to define the drivers of

  6. Study into the status of co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and household refuse in coal-fired power stations. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Stand der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm, Hausmuell und Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, H.; Scheurer, W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen; Seifert, H.; Richers, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer technische Chemie - Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    2000-03-01

    The co-combustion of wastes in power stations is an additional option for the thermal treatment of certain waste materials and thus for complying with the specifications of the German TA-Siedlungsabfall (technical directive on disposal of municipal solid waste). The present investigation compiles the status of knowledge about co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and selected waste materials in coal-fired power stations. The results are meant to provide extensive assistance to evaluate the processes and thus to contribute to sort out uncertainties, both on the part of power plant operators and of the authorities. Based on the information acquired, the report shall point out the gaps in knowledge, the further need for research and development and the need for action conerning the authorities. By enquiries at disposal enterprises, power station operators as well as authorities, the literature work was completed and a comprehensive view of the current situation in Germany elaborated. The report points out the legal conditions of co-combustion and supplementary fuel potentials, presents the process engineering of co-combustion, and examines the obstacles encountered during the technical conversion, the environmental questions, and the potential for co-combustion of the above materials in existing power stations. The electrical power sector is subject to strong changes due to the liberalisation of the energy market. The pressure on costs has increased and the periods available for planning are shorter. On the one hand, this arouses an increased interest in co-combustion of waste materials because of possible additional payments for the wastes. On the other hand, however, initiatives in this respect are counteracted by high investments costs necessary for the introduction of co-combustion with the existing high environmental standards. What is more, the competitive situation reduces the exchange of experience between the power station operators. Co-combustion of sewage

  7. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilized soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Project has started 1995 by determination of fertilized areas in Finland, Portugal and Spain. According to the results obtained from the analysis proper amount of pine and eucalyptus samples were selected for combustion and gasification tests. After that atmospheric and pressurized combustion and gasifications tests, including few series of gas clean up tests, have been performed by INETI and VTT. The 1 MW-scale long term test, were conducted by CIEMAT. The results are indicating that fertilization increases the potassium content in trees up to 50% or more depending upon the climate and conditions in soil. Alkali release seems to be an inverse function of the pressure indicating that the highest alkali release take place under atmospheric conditions corresponding to 111 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is over 25 wt.-% of total potassium in pine and 214 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is 32 wt.-% of total potassium in eucalyptus as received in the 1 MW ABFBC-tests. The potassium release is higher than allowed for the gas turbine process. Therefore the flue gas need to be cleaned up before it enters the gas turbine. For alkali removal at the operation conditions in oxidizing environment, the sorbent technology looks promising. According to the gasification tests the alkali release seems to be somewhat lower. Using for example filter system such as ceramic cancel filter the alkali emissions can be kept below requirements for gas turbine process using temperatures between 460-480 deg C. The research conducted here shows that fertilized biomass accumulate nutrients such potassium more than the non fertilized biomasses. Also the soil conditions has an effect to that. Due to the fact that alkalies in biomass are bonded differently than that of coal, the release is also higher. It could be shown that in combined gas turbine process the release of potassium is too high and need to be removed from the flue gas. It could also be shown that alkalies can be captured between 95-100 % at high temperature

  8. Combustion characteristics and NO formation for biomass blends in a 35-ton-per-hour travelling grate utility boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ruiyang; Wang, Zhenwang; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Guangbo

    2009-04-01

    Measurements were taken for a 35-ton-per-hour biomass-fired travelling grate boiler. Local mean concentrations of O(2), CO, SO(2) and NO gas species and gas temperatures were determined in the region above the grate. For a 28-ton-per-hour load, the mass ratios of biomass fly ash and boiler slag were 42% and 58%, the boiler efficiency was 81.56%, and the concentrations of NO(x) and SO(2) at 6% O(2) were 257 and 84 mg/m(3). For an 18-ton-per-hour load, the fuel burning zone was nearer to the inlet than it was for the 28-ton-per-hour load, and the contents of CO and NO in the fuel burning zone above the grate were lower.

  9. Mathematical modeling and experimental study of biomass combustion in a thermal 108 MW grate-fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    Grate boilers are widely used to fire biomass for heat and power production. However grate-firing systems are often reported to have relatively high un-burnout, low efficiency and high emissions, and need to be optimized and modernized. This paper presents the efforts towards a reliable baseline...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization of the grate boiler as well as design of new grate boilers. First, based on the design conditions, a thorough sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the relative importance...... of different factors in CFD analysis of the grate boiler. In a late stage, a two-day measuring campaign is carried out to measure the gas temperatures and gas concentrations in the boiler using a fiber optic probe connected to a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A baseline model is then defined...

  10. Influence of transport from urban sources and domestic biomass combustion on the air quality of a mountain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracchini, Francesco; Romagnoli, Paola; Paciucci, Lucia; Vichi, Francesca; Imperiali, Andrea; Paolini, Valerio; Liotta, Flavia; Cecinato, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    The environmental influence of biomass burning for civil uses was investigated through the determination of several air toxicants in the town of Leonessa and its surroundings, in the mountain region of central Italy. Attention was focussed on PM 10 , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and regulated gaseous pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone and benzene). Two in-field campaigns were carried out during the summer 2012 and the winter 2013. Contemporarily, air quality was monitored in Rome and other localities of Lazio region. In the summer, all pollutants, with the exception of ozone, were more abundant in Rome. On the other hand, in the winter, PAH concentration was higher in Leonessa (15.8 vs. 7.0 ng/m 3 ), while PM 10 was less concentrated (22 vs. 34 μg/m 3 ). Due to lack of other important sources and to limited impact of vehicle traffic, biomass burning was identified as the major PAH source in Leonessa during the winter. This hypothesis was confirmed by PAH molecular signature of PM 10 (i.e. concentration diagnostic ratios and 206 ion mass trace in the chromatograms). A similar phenomenon (i.e. airborne particulate levels similar to those of the capital city but higher PAH loads) was observed in other locations of the province, suggesting that uncontrolled biomass burning contributed to pollution across the Rome metropolitan area.

  11. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Primary energy production from solid biomass (wood, wood waste and other solid vegetal and animal materials) reached 62,4 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2006, i-e 3,1 more than in 2005. The primary energy coming from the direct combustion of renewable origin solid urban waste in incineration unit scan also be added to this figure. In 2006 this represented a production of 5,3 Mtoe, i-e 0,1 Mtoe more than in 2005. (author)

  12. Biomass Energy Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olthoff, Edward [Cedar Falls Utilities, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The Municipal Electric Utility of the City of Cedar Falls (dba Cedar Fals Utilities or CFU) received a congressionally directed grant funded through DOE-EERE to run three short (4 hour) duration test burns and one long (10 days) duration test burn to test the viability of renewable fuels in Streeter Station Boiler #6, a stoker coal fired electric generation unit. The long test burn was intended to test supply chain assumptions, optimize boiler combustion and assess the effects of a longer duration burn of biomass on the boiler.

  13. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  14. Fuels from biomass. Potentials, concepts, competitive situation with regard to combustion; Kraftstoffe aus Biomassen. Potentiale, Konzepte, Konkurrenzsituationen zur Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrendt, F.; Neubauer, Y. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Energieverfahrenstechnik

    2006-07-01

    Liquid fuels are today something of an elixir of life for the industrialised societies and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. Mobility is dependent on the availability of petrol, diesel and kerosine. Whereas the introduction of alternative vehicle drives is expected to proceed only stepwise over a period of decades, the origin of liquid fuels will change fundamentally. This will involve a shift away from crude oil towards the synthesis of fuels from natural gas, coal and biomass. It will also lead to a revival of long-known technical concepts such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or the direct liquefaction of source materials, albeit using significantly refined techniques.

  15. Conflict over biomass energy development in the United Kingdom: some observations and lessons from England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upreti, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the causes of conflict over biomass energy development in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses social dimensions of development of biomass power plants. Based on the four case studies from England and Wales this paper examines impacts of public oppositions on planning permission. This paper revels that public opposition is one of the major obstacles to promote biomass energy. Though local communities value environmental benefits of biomass energy, they concern more on the immediate negative local effects of power plants to their areas. Main sources of public conflict over biomass energy development were related to location of the plant, perceived risks, and negative effects to ecology and landscape compared to few economic benefits to local people. Other factors contributing to the conflict were feeling of injustice, weak public relation strategy of the developers and low level of awareness. The paper concludes that biomass energy can be promoted only if all actors: the central government, developers, local councils, environmental concern groups and local communities make collective efforts. Such collaborative efforts need drastic shift in the current approach of biomass energy development

  16. Success of lime additives for controlling SO2 releases from fluidized bed combustion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muezzinoglu, A.; Bayram, A.; Odabasi, M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose of this work was to study the desulfurization efficiencies of dry additives on the fluidized bed reactors fired with low quality lignites. In these tests selected initial SO 2 levels were in the order of 1000 ppm or less in the flue gases. Lime addition for desulfurization may either be made by mixing with the fuel or by injection into the combustion reactor. In fluidized bed combustion systems both methods are physically possible. In the fluidized combustion systems a third method of addition is also possible this, is by mixing dry additives with fluidizer sand. In this third method additives create a fluidizer effect as well as reacting with the sulfur oxides being formed during the combustion of fuel

  17. Biomass opportunities in the United States to mitigate the effects of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The increased interest in the global warming threat has caused a great deal of attention to be paid to the value of forests as a mitigating strategy. This paper is a preliminary report on efforts by a number of investigators to document the opportunities for improving the forests of the United States, and the effect that those improvements might have on global warming. In the process, major interest is on the amount of biomass that can be produced - particularly opportunities to increase the amount of biomass that can be produced annually in relatively stable forms - woody plant structures, woody roots, soil carbon, and long-lived wood products - or burned as a substitute for fossil fuels. While it is readily recognized that growing additional forest products is not a way out of avoiding other issues such as energy conservation and reduction of industrial emissions, forestry opportunities provide an excellent bridging strategy that may buy a few decades of time on the problem of carbon dioxide buildup in the atmosphere, while at the same time providing a host of other economic and environmental benefits. In other words, at reasonable levels, implementing forestry opportunities is a global warming strategy that does not cost, it pays. The current state of the study leads us to believe that those opportunities can offset somewhere in the neighborhood of half of the current net fossil fuel carbon emissions produced by the United States, with changes that are economically sound for other reasons - mainly in terms of forest products produced, or energy expenditures avoided. In the process, there are substantial collateral environmental benefits that will be realized. It seems clear, however, that we can increase forest acreage, and forest productivity, more than current markets for forest products can absorb. Thus, new markets will need to be established. 36 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  18. SVM-based multisensor data fusion for phase concentration measurement in biomass-coal co-combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxin; Hu, Hongli; Jia, Huiqin; Tang, Kaihao

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the electrical method combines the electrostatic sensor and capacitance sensor to measure the phase concentration of pulverized coal/biomass/air three-phase flow through data fusion technology. In order to eliminate the effects of flow regimes and improve the accuracy of the phase concentration measurement, the mel frequency cepstrum coefficient features extracted from electrostatic signals are used to train the Continuous Gaussian Mixture Hidden Markov Model (CGHMM) for flow regime identification. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is introduced to establish the concentration information fusion model under identified flow regimes. The CGHMM models and SVM models are transplanted on digital signal processing (DSP) to realize on-line accurate measurement. The DSP flow regime identification time is 1.4 ms, and the concentration predict time is 164 μs, which can fully meet the real-time requirement. The average absolute value of the relative error of the pulverized coal is about 1.5% and that of the biomass is about 2.2%.

  19. Estimating State-Specific Contributions to PM2.5- and O3-Related Health Burden from Residential Combustion and Electricity Generating Unit Emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Woody, Matthew; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM 2.5 and O 3 from RC and EGU emissions by precursor species, source sector, and source-state in the continental United States for 2005. We used the Community Multiscale Air Quality model employing the decoupled direct method to quantify changes in air quality and epidemiological evidence to determine concentration-response functions to calculate associated health impacts. We estimated 21,000 premature mortalities per year from EGU emissions, driven by sulfur dioxide emissions forming PM 2.5 . More than half of EGU health impacts are attributable to emissions from eight states with significant coal combustion and large downwind populations. We estimate 10,000 premature mortalities per year from RC emissions, driven by primary PM 2.5 emissions. States with large populations and significant residential wood combustion dominate RC health impacts. Annual mortality risk per thousand tons of precursor emissions (health damage functions) varied significantly across source-states for both source sectors and all precursor pollutants. Our findings reinforce the importance of pollutant-specific, location-specific, and source-specific models of health impacts in design of health-risk minimizing emissions control policies. Citation: Penn SL, Arunachalam S, Woody M, Heiger-Bernays W, Tripodis Y, Levy JI. 2017. Estimating state-specific contributions to PM 2.5 - and O 3 -related health burden from residential combustion and electricity generating unit emissions in the United States. Environ

  20. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and its adverse health effects in central India: An exposure-response study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam D Sukhsohale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some of the highest exposures to air pollutants in developing countries occur inside homes where biofuels are used for daily cooking. Inhalation of these pollutants may cause deleterious effects on health. Objectives: To assess the respiratory and other morbidities associated with use of various types of cooking fuels in rural area of Nagpur and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure (exposure index [EI] and various morbidities. Materials and Methods: A total of 760 non-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 15 years and above (mean age 32.51 ΁ 14.90 years exposed to domestic smoke from cooking fuels from an early age, working in poorly ventilated kitchen were selected and on examination presented with various health problems. Exposure was calculated as the average hours spent daily for cooking multiplied by the number of years. Symptoms were enquired by means of a standard questionnaire adopted from that of the British Medical Research Council. Lung function was assessed by the measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. PEFR less than 80% of the predicted was considered as abnormal pulmonary function. Results and Conclusions: Symptoms like eye irritation, headache, and diminution of vision were found to be significantly higher in biomass users (P < 0.05. Abnormal pulmonary function, chronic bronchitis, and cataract in biomass users was significantly higher than other fuel users (P < 0.05. Moreover an increasing trend in prevalence of symptoms/morbid conditions was observed with increase in EI. The presence of respiratory symptoms/morbid conditions was associated with lower values of both observed and percent predicted PEFR (P < 0.05 to 0.001. Thus women exposed to biofuels smoke suffer more from health problems and respiratory illnesses when compared with other fuel users.

  1. A quick scan of economic value of offshore wind versus biomass co-combustion; Quick scan economische waarde van wind op zee versus biomassabijstook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijers, F.J.; Bennink, D.; Blom, M.J.

    2013-05-15

    Co-combustion of biomass in conventional power stations is currently cheaper than offshore wind power. By the year 2025, though, both forms of renewable energy are expected to be similarly priced. Because offshore wind yields more added value for the Dutch economy and employment than biomass cocombustion, it would seem more logical to earmark more of the funds under the SDE (Dutch renewable energy subsidy scheme) for the former. At the request of the Netherlands Society for Nature and Environment (Natuur en Milieu) CE Delft compared the two generating options to assess how the Netherlands can boost use of renewable energy in the economically wisest manner in the years ahead. This issue is also to be discussed in upcoming consultations under the umbrella of the Netherlands Social and Economic Council (SER), where a new national energy agreement is to be hammered out [Dutch] Biomassabijstook is op dit moment goedkoper dan wind op zee. De verwachting is echter dat tegen 2025 de prijs van beide vormen van hernieuwbare energie vergelijkbaar kunnen zijn. Doordat de toegevoegde waarde voor de Nederlandse economie en werkgelegenheid van wind op zee groter is dan van biomassabijstook, lijkt het logischer dat uit de SDE-gelden meer wind op zee dan biomassa bijstook wordt betaald. Voor Natuur en Milieu heeft CE Delft een vergelijking gemaakt tussen deze twee technieken om de vraag te beantwoorden op welke economisch verstandige manier Nederland de komende jaren het gebruik van hernieuwbare energie kan realiseren. Die vraag is ook aan de orde in het SER-overleg dat de komende maand moet leiden tot een Energieakkoord.

  2. Source apportionment of carbonaceous chemical species to fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic emissions by a coupled radiocarbon-levoglucosan marker method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Imre; Németh, Zoltán; Weidinger, Tamás; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda; Molnár, Mihály; Major, István; Ajtai, Tibor; Utry, Noémi; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    An intensive aerosol measurement and sample collection campaign was conducted in central Budapest in a mild winter for 2 weeks. The online instruments included an FDMS-TEOM, RT-OC/EC analyser, DMPS, gas pollutant analysers and meteorological sensors. The aerosol samples were collected on quartz fibre filters by a low-volume sampler using the tandem filter method. Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol and mannitol were determined, and radiocarbon analysis was performed on the aerosol samples. Median atmospheric concentrations of EC, OC and PM2.5 mass were 0.97, 4.9 and 25 µg m-3, respectively. The EC and organic matter (1.6 × OC) accounted for 4.8 and 37 %, respectively, of the PM2.5 mass. Fossil fuel (FF) combustion represented 36 % of the total carbon (TC = EC + OC) in the PM2.5 size fraction. Biomass burning (BB) was a major source (40 %) for the OC in the PM2.5 size fraction, and a substantial source (11 %) for the PM10 mass. We propose and apply here a novel, straightforward, coupled radiocarbon-levoglucosan marker method for source apportionment of the major carbonaceous chemical species. The contributions of EC and OC from FF combustion (ECFF and OCFF) to the TC were 11.0 and 25 %, respectively, EC and OC from BB (ECBB and OCBB) were responsible for 5.8 and 34 %, respectively, of the TC, while the OC from biogenic sources (OCBIO) made up 24 % of the TC. The overall relative uncertainty of the OCBIO and OCBB contributions was assessed to be up to 30 %, while the relative uncertainty for the other apportioned species is expected to be below 20 %. Evaluation of the apportioned atmospheric concentrations revealed some of their important properties and relationships among them. ECFF and OCFF were associated with different FF combustion sources. Most ECFF was emitted by vehicular road traffic, while the contribution of non-vehicular sources such as domestic and industrial heating or cooking using gas, oil or coal

  3. Modelling of pyrolysis of peat and biomass under combustion and gasification; Pyrolyysimalli turpeen ja biomassan poltolle ja kaasutukselle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Haukka, P.; Vehmaan-Kreula, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Technology

    1997-10-01

    In the model developed during the research the chemical kinetics of pyrolysis is described with `the two competing reactions model`. Heat transfer in particle consists of convection and conduction. With the help of the model all the kinetic parameters of the two pyrolysis reactions are fitted with measured values. Also simple correlations for pyrolysis of peat under fluidized bed and pulverised flame conditions are given. The effect of the heating rate can be taken into account by using two competing Arrhenius-type reactions. In this model pyrolysis is modelled by using two reactions; one for the low temperature level and the other for the high temperature level. Both of these reactions consume the same unreacted fuel and this model is able to describe the pyrolysis at different temperature levels. Pyrolysis takes place in the heating stage of the particle before heterogeneous combustion and therefore temperature and density profiles inside the particle have to be solved simultaneously. The energy and mass balance equations of the particle form a set of partial differential equations (PDE), which is solved numerically by using so called method of lines, by converting PDE into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE). The final solution of ODEs is received by using LSODE algorithm of Hindmash. An user friendly interface for the pyrolysis model is programmed by using Visual Basic enabling convenient variation of the conditions and observation of the results

  4. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  5. A review of biomass energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoi Why Kong.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews some recent development in biomass utilisation systems in Malaysia. The technology reviewed are direct combustion of biomass , wood briquetting technology, pyrolysis of biomass and gasification of wood in Malaysia

  6. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsell, John F.; Fox, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km 2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km 2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km 2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  7. The use of remotely-sensed wildland fire radiation to infer the fates of carbon during biomass combustion - the need to understand and quantify a fire's mass and energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, M. B.; Dietenberger, M.; Ellicott, E. A.; Hardy, C.; Hudak, A. T.; Kremens, R.; Mathews, W.; Schroeder, W.; Smith, A. M.; Strand, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Few measurement techniques offer broad-scale insight on the extent and characteristics of biomass combustion during wildland fires. Remotely-sensed radiation is one of these techniques but its measurement suffers from several limitations and, when quantified, its use to derive variables of real interest depends on an understanding of the fire's mass and energy budget. In this talk, we will review certain assumptions of wildland fire radiation measurement and explore the use of those measurements to infer the fates of biomass and the dissipation of combustion energy. Recent measurements show that the perspective of the sensor (nadir vs oblique) matters relative to estimates of fire radiated power. Other considerations for producing accurate estimates of fire radiation from remote sensing include obscuration by an intervening forest canopy and to what extent measurements that are based on the assumption of graybody/blackbody behavior underestimate fire radiation. Fire radiation measurements are generally a means of quantifying other variables and are often not of interest in and of themselves. Use of fire radiation measurements as a means of inference currently relies on correlations with variables of interest such as biomass consumption and sensible and latent heat and emissions fluxes. Radiation is an imperfect basis for these correlations in that it accounts for a minority of combustion energy ( 15-30%) and is not a constant as is often assumed. Measurements suggest that fire convective energy accounts for the majority of combustion energy and (after radiation) is followed by latent energy, soil heating, and pyrolysis energy, more or less in that order. Combustion energy in and of itself is not its potential maximum, but is reduced to an effective heat of combustion by combustion inefficiency and by work done to pyrolyze fuel (important in char production) and in moisture vaporization. The effective heat of combustion is often on the order of 65% of its potential

  8. Exergy analysis of biomass organic Rankine cycle for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, T. B.; Sunoto

    2018-02-01

    The study examines proposed small biomass-fed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant through exergy analysis. The system consists of combustion burner unit to utilize biomass as fuel, and organic Rankine cycle unit to produce power from the expander. The heat from combustion burner was transfered by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator part. The effects of adding recuperator into exergy destruction were investigated. Furthermore, the results of the variations of system configurations with different operating parameters, such as the evaporating pressures, ambient temperatures, and expander pressures were analyzed. It was found that the largest exergy destruction occurs during processes are at combustion part, followed by evaporator, condenser, expander, and pump. The ORC system equipped with a recuperator unit exhibited good operational characteristics under wide range conditions compared to the one without recuperator.

  9. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  10. Consumption of cigarettes and combustible tobacco--United States, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Smoking cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products causes adverse health outcomes, particularly cancer and cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. A priority of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is to develop innovative, rapid-response surveillance systems for assessing changes in tobacco use and related health outcomes. The two standard approaches for measuring smoking rates and behaviors are 1) surveying a representative sample of the public and asking questions about personal smoking behaviors and 2) estimating consumption based on tobacco excise tax data. Whereas CDC regularly publishes findings on national and state-specific smoking rates from public surveys, CDC has not reported consumption estimates. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which previously provided such estimates, stopped reporting on consumption in 2007. To estimate consumption for the period 2000-2011, CDC examined excise tax data from the U.S. Department of Treasury's Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB); consumption estimates were calculated for cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipe tobacco, and small and large cigars. From 2000 to 2011, total consumption of all combustible tobacco decreased from 450.7 billion cigarette equivalents to 326.6, a 27.5% decrease; per capita consumption of all combustible tobacco products declined from 2,148 to 1,374, a 36.0% decrease. However, while consumption of cigarettes decreased 32.8% from 2000 to 2011, consumption of loose tobacco and cigars increased 123.1% over the same period. As a result, the percentage of total combustible tobacco consumption composed of loose tobacco and cigars increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 10.4% in 2011. The data suggest that certain smokers have switched from cigarettes to other combustible tobacco products, most notably since a 2009 increase in the federal tobacco excise tax that created tax disparities between product types.

  11. Chemical characterzation of fine particle emissions from the fireplace combustion of woods grown in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Philip M; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-04-01

    The fireplace combustion of wood is a significant and largely unregulated source of fine particle pollution in the United States. Source apportionment techniques that use particulate organic compounds as tracers have been successful in determining the contribution of wood smoke to ambient fine particle levels in specific areas in California. To apply these techniques to the rest of the United States, the differences in emissions profiles between different wood smoke sources and fuel types should be resolved. To this end, a series of fireplace source tests was conducted on six fuel wood species found in the Southern United States to determine fine particulate emission factors for total mass, ionic and elemental species, elemental and organic carbon, and over 250 individual organic compounds. The wood species tested, chosen for their high abundance and availability in the Southern U.S. region, were yellow poplar, white ash, sweetgum, mockernut hickory, loblolly pine, and slash pine. The differences in the emissions of compounds such as substituted phenols and resin acids help to distinguish between the smoke from hardwood and softwood combustion. Levoglucosan, a cellulose pyrolysis product which may serve as a tracer for wood smoke in general, was quantified in the emissions from all the wood species burned. The furofuran lignan, yangambin, which was emitted in significant quantities from yellow poplar combustion and not detected in any of the other North American wood smokes, is a potential species-specific molecular tracer which may be useful in qualitatively identifying particulate emissions from a specific geographical area where yellow poplar is being burned.

  12. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  13. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  14. Grasslands and Croplands Have Different Microbial Biomass Carbon Levels per Unit of Soil Organic Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P. McGonigle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primarily using cropped systems, previous studies have reported a positive linear relationship between microbial biomass carbon (MBC and soil organic carbon (SOC. We conducted a meta-analysis to explore this relationship separately for grasslands and croplands using available literature. Studies were limited to those using fumigation–extraction for MBC for field samples. Trials were noted separately where records were distinct in space or time. Grasslands were naturally occurring, restored, or seeded. Cropping systems were typical of the temperate zone. MBC had a positive linear response to increasing SOC that was significant in both grasslands (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76 and croplands (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.48. However, MBC increased 2.5-fold more steeply per unit of increasing SOC for grassland soils, as compared to the corresponding response in cropland soils. Expressing MBC as a proportion of SOC across the regression overall, slopes corresponded to 2.7% for grasslands and 1.1% for croplands. The slope of the linear relationship for grasslands was significantly (p = 0.0013 steeper than for croplands. The difference between the two systems is possibly caused by a greater proportion of SOC in grasslands being active rather than passive, relative to that in croplands, with that active fraction promoting the formation of MBC.

  15. Top-down Estimates of Biomass Burning Emissions of Black Carbon in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y.; Li, Q.; Randerson, J. T.; CHEN, D.; Zhang, L.; Liou, K.

    2012-12-01

    We apply a Bayesian linear inversion to derive top-down estimates of biomass burning emissions of black carbon (BC) in the western United States (WUS) for May-November 2006 by inverting surface BC concentrations from the IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Model simulations are conducted at both 2°×2.5° (globally) and 0.5°×0.667° (nested over North America) horizontal resolutions. We first improve the spatial distributions and seasonal and interannual variations of the BC emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2) using MODIS 8-day active fire counts from 2005-2007. The GFEDv2 emissions in N. America are adjusted for three zones: boreal N. America, temperate N. America, and Mexico plus Central America. The resulting emissions are then used as a priori for the inversion. The a posteriori emissions are 2-5 times higher than the a priori in California and the Rockies. Model surface BC concentrations using the a posteriori estimate provide better agreement with IMPROVE observations (~50% increase in the Taylor skill score), including improved ability to capture the observed variability especially during June-September. However, model surface BC concentrations are still biased low by ~30%. Comparisons with the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) are included.

  16. 40 CFR 62.14525 - Can my combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....2558. (o) Laboratory units. Units that burn samples of materials for the purpose of chemical or... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That... specified in this section and in § 62.14531. (a) Pathological waste incineration units. Incineration units...

  17. Combustible Tobacco and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Working Adults-United States, 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine tobacco use among working adults at least 18 years of age. The 2012 to 2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 105,779) was used to estimate prevalences for cigarette smoking, other combustible tobacco use, and smokeless tobacco use and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for any tobacco product use among working adults at least 18 years of age, by industry and occupation. Of the estimated 144 million currently employed adults, 17% were cigarette smokers, 7.0% other noncigarette combustible tobacco users, and 3.4% smokeless tobacco users. Odds of using tobacco varied by sociodemographic characteristics and by industry and occupations. Disparities in tobacco use exist among working adults. Continued implementation of proven interventions to prevent and reduce all forms of tobacco use among U.S. workers is warranted, particularly among those workers with a higher burden of use.

  18. Source apportionment of carbonaceous chemical species to fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic emissions by a coupled radiocarbon–levoglucosan marker method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An intensive aerosol measurement and sample collection campaign was conducted in central Budapest in a mild winter for 2 weeks. The online instruments included an FDMS-TEOM, RT-OC/EC analyser, DMPS, gas pollutant analysers and meteorological sensors. The aerosol samples were collected on quartz fibre filters by a low-volume sampler using the tandem filter method. Elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol and mannitol were determined, and radiocarbon analysis was performed on the aerosol samples. Median atmospheric concentrations of EC, OC and PM2.5 mass were 0.97, 4.9 and 25 µg m−3, respectively. The EC and organic matter (1.6  ×  OC accounted for 4.8 and 37 %, respectively, of the PM2.5 mass. Fossil fuel (FF combustion represented 36 % of the total carbon (TC  =  EC + OC in the PM2.5 size fraction. Biomass burning (BB was a major source (40 % for the OC in the PM2.5 size fraction, and a substantial source (11 % for the PM10 mass. We propose and apply here a novel, straightforward, coupled radiocarbon–levoglucosan marker method for source apportionment of the major carbonaceous chemical species. The contributions of EC and OC from FF combustion (ECFF and OCFF to the TC were 11.0 and 25 %, respectively, EC and OC from BB (ECBB and OCBB were responsible for 5.8 and 34 %, respectively, of the TC, while the OC from biogenic sources (OCBIO made up 24 % of the TC. The overall relative uncertainty of the OCBIO and OCBB contributions was assessed to be up to 30 %, while the relative uncertainty for the other apportioned species is expected to be below 20 %. Evaluation of the apportioned atmospheric concentrations revealed some of their important properties and relationships among them. ECFF and OCFF were associated with different FF combustion sources. Most ECFF was emitted by vehicular road traffic, while the contribution of non-vehicular sources such as

  19. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, B C; Hauserman, W B [Energy and Environmental Research Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  20. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.C.; Hauserman, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  1. Increase in efficiency and reduction of generation cost at hard coal-fired power plants. Post-combustion of combustion residues from co-firing of RDF and biomass during dry ash removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Guenter [Magaldi Power GmbH, Esslingen (Germany); Spindeldreher, Olaf [RWE Generation SE, Werne (Germany); RWE Generation SE, Essen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Secondary as well as substitute fuels are being used in hard coal-fired power plants to improve efficiency and to enlarge fuel flexibility. However, grinding and firing systems of the existing coal-fired plants are not designed for those co-fuels. Any deterioration of the combustion performance would reduce the power output and increase ash disposal costs by increased content of combustion residues. The application of air-cooled ash removal, with simultaneous and controlled post-combustion of unburned residues on the conveyor belt, enlarges the furnace and maintains combustion efficiency even with different fuel qualities. Plant efficiency can also be increased through heat recovery. (orig.)

  2. Combustible and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among High School Athletes - United States, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Singh, Tushar; Jones, Sherry Everett; King, Brian A; Jamal, Ahmed; Neff, Linda; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2015-09-04

    Athletes are not a typical at-risk group for smoking combustible tobacco products, because they are generally health conscious and desire to remain fit and optimize athletic performance (1). In contrast, smokeless tobacco use historically has been associated with certain sports, such as baseball (2). Athletes might be more likely to use certain tobacco products, such as smokeless tobacco, if they perceive them to be harmless (3); however, smokeless tobacco use is not safe and is associated with increased risk for pancreatic, esophageal, and oral cancers (4). Tobacco use among youth athletes is of particular concern, because most adult tobacco users first try tobacco before age 18 years (5). To examine prevalence and trends in current (≥1 day during the past 30 days) use of combustible tobacco (cigarettes, cigars) and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip [moist snuff]) products among athlete and nonathlete high school students, CDC analyzed data from the 2001–2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Current use of any tobacco (combustible or smokeless tobacco) significantly declined from 33.9% in 2001 to 22.4% in 2013; however, current smokeless tobacco use significantly increased from 10.0% to 11.1% among athletes, and did not change (5.9%) among nonathletes. Furthermore, in 2013, compared with nonathletes, athletes had significantly higher odds of being current smokeless tobacco users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.77, pcombustible tobacco users (AOR = 0.80, p<0.05). These findings suggest that opportunities exist for development of stronger tobacco control and prevention measures targeting youth athletes regarding the health risks associated with all forms of tobacco use.

  3. Biomass and genotype × environment interactions of Populus energy crops in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Bernard G. McMahon; William E. Berguson; Glen R. Stanosz

    2009-01-01

    Using Populus feedstocks for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts is becoming economically feasible as global fossil fuel prices increase. Maximizing Populus biomass production across regional landscapes largely depends on understanding genotype × environment interactions, given broad genetic variation at strategic (...

  4. Woody biomass policies and location decisions of the woody bioenergy industry in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhimei; Hodges, Donald G.; Young, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Woody biomass for bioenergy production has been included in relatively few renewable energy policies since the 1970s. Recently, however, several states have implemented a variety of new woody biomass policies to spur the establishment of new bioenergy industry. Establishing new woody biomass-based facilities in a specific state is affected by a number of factors such as the strength of these new policy incentives, resource availability, business tax climate, and the available labor force. This study employs a conditional logit model (CLM) to explore the effects of woody biomass policies on the siting decisions of new bioenergy projects relative to some of these other state attributes. The CLM results suggest that state government incentives are significantly related to state success in attracting new plants. The results have substantial implications regarding woody biomass policies and the creation of a new bioenergy industry. -- Highlights: •This study explores the effects of state attributes on the siting decisions of new woody bioenergy projects. •Results suggest that state woody biomass policies are significantly related to state success in attracting new plants. •Other factors related to the siting of woody bioenergy facilities include resource availability, taxes, and wage rate

  5. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, P D [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India)

    1995-12-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO{sub 2}, to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world`s present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  6. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO 2 , to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  7. Biomass burning emissions and potential air quality impacts of volatile organic compounds and other trace gases from temperate fuels common in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Warneke, C.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 9 inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern United States. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) provided extensive chemical detail of discrete air samples collected during a laboratory burn and was complemented by real-time measurements of organic and inorganic species via an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) and 3 different chemical ionization-mass spectrometers. These measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The relative magnitude and composition of the gases emitted varied by individual fuel type and, more broadly, by the 3 geographic fuel regions being simulated. Emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; reactivity with the hydroxyl radical, OH; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the 3 different US fuel regions presented here. VOCs contributed less than 0.78 ± 0.12 % of emissions by mole and less than 0.95 ± 0.07 % of emissions by mass (on average) due to the predominance of CO2, CO, CH4, and NOx emissions; however, VOCs contributed 70-90 (±16) % to OH reactivity and were the only measured gas-phase source of SOA precursors from combustion of biomass. Over 82 % of the VOC emissions by mole were unsaturated compounds including highly reactive alkenes and aromatics and photolabile oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) such as formaldehyde. OVOCs contributed 57-68 % of the VOC mass emitted, 42-57 % of VOC-OH reactivity, and aromatic-OVOCs such as benzenediols, phenols, and benzaldehyde were the dominant potential SOA precursors. In addition, ambient air measurements of emissions from the Fourmile Canyon Fire

  8. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  9. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  10. Biomass a fast growing energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    Biomass as an energy resource is as versatile as the biodiversity suggests. The global net primary production, NPP, describes the annual growth of biomass on land and in the seas. This paper focuses on biomass grown on land. A recent estimate for the NPP on land is 120 billion tons of dry matter. How much of this biomass are available for energy purposes? The potential contribution of wood fuel and energy plants from sustainable production is limited to some 5% of NPP, i.e. 6 Bt. One third of the potential is energy forests and energy plantations which at present are not economic. One third is used in rural areas as traditional fuel. The remaining third would be available for modern biomass energy conversion. Biomass is assigned an expanding role as a new resource in the world's energy balance. The EU has set a target of doubling the share of renewable energy sources by 2010. For biomass the target is even more ambitious. The challenge for biomass utilization lies in improving the technology for traditional usage and expanding the role into other areas like power production and transportation fuel. Various technologies for biomass utilization are available among those are combustion, gasification, and liquefaction. Researchers have a grand vision in which the chemical elements in the hydrocarbon molecules of biomass are separated and reformed to yield new tailored fuels and form the basis for a new world economy. The vision of a new energy system based on fresh and fossilized biomass to be engineered into an environmentally friendly and sustainable fuel is a conceivable technical reality. One reason for replacing exhaustible fossil fuels with biomass is to reduce carbon emissions. The most efficient carbon dioxide emission reduction comes from replacing brown coal in a steam-electric unit, due to the efficiency of the thermal cycle and the high carbon intensity of the coal. The smallest emission reduction comes from substituting natural gas. (BA)

  11. Biomass CCS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavezzali, S.

    2009-11-15

    The use of biomass in power generation is one of the important ways in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, the cofiring of biomass with coal could be regarded as a common feature to any new build power plant if a sustainable supply of biomass fuel is readily accessible. IEA GHG has undertaken a techno-economic evaluation of the use of biomass in biomass fired and co-fired power generation, using post-combustion capture technology. This report is the result of the study undertaken by Foster Wheeler Italiana.

  12. Molecular hydrogen (H2) combustion emissions and their isotope (D/H) signatures from domestic heaters, diesel vehicle engines, waste incinerator plants, and biomass burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.K.; Walter, S.; Mohn, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Bond, S.W.; Röckmann, T.; Reimann, S.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its stable isotope signature ( D), and the key combustion parameters carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were measured from various combustion processes. H2 in the exhaust of gas and oil-fired heaters and of waste incinerator plants was generally

  13. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI will assemble an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1

  14. Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The study summarizes the best available public data on the production, capacity, cost, market demand, and feedstock availability for the production of biomass-based diesel and jet fuel. It includes an overview of the current conversion processes and current state-of-development for the production of biomass-based jet and diesel fuel, as well as the key companies pursuing this effort. Thediscussion analyzes all this information in the context of meeting the RFS mandate, highlights uncertainties for the future industry development, and key business opportunities.

  15. Circulating fluidized-bed technologies for the conversion of biomass into energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H.

    1995-01-01

    The paper introduces circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion and CFB gasification. CFB combustion units are state-of-the-art and have proven their ability to convert biomass into power and/or steam. The existing units and projects in developing countries are discussed as examples of conventional technology. To illustrate advanced technologies, CFB gasification is discussed. Important process parameters of plants already in operation or under construction in developed countries are shown, Criteria for the selection of CFB combustion or gasification based on available feedstocks and products required are discussed. Finally, a procedure for implementing Lurgi's CFB technology in developing countries is proposed. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 60.2887 - What combustion units are excluded from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disposal site in Alaska that is classified as a Class II or Class III municipal solid waste landfill, as... Manufacturing Industry). (b) Co-fired combustors. Your unit, that would otherwise be considered a very small... institutional waste incineration unit meets the two requirements specified in paragraphs (h)(1)(i) and (ii) of...

  17. Biomass and carbon attributes of downed woody materials in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; B.F. Walters; S.N. Oswalt; G.M. Domke; C. Toney; A.N. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Due to burgeoning interest in the biomass/carbon attributes of forest downed and dead woody materials (DWMs) attributable to its fundamental role in the carbon cycle, stand structure/diversity, bioenergy resources, and fuel loadings, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has conducted a nationwide field-based inventory of DWM. Using the national DWM inventory, attributes...

  18. Top-down estimates of biomass burning emissions of black carbon in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. H. Mao; Q. B. Li; D. Chen; L. Zhang; W. -M. Hao; K.-N. Liou

    2014-01-01

    We estimate biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions of black carbon (BC) in the western US for May-October 2006 by inverting surface BC concentrations from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) network using a global chemical transport model. We first use active fire counts from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS...

  19. Biomass Feedstocks | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feedstocks Biomass Feedstocks Our mission is to enable the coordinated development of biomass generic biomass thermochemical conversion process (over a screened-back map of the United States) showing U.S. Biomass Resources, represented by photos of timber, corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar. All

  20. Ash chemistry and behavior in advanced co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M; Skrifvars, B J [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this LIEKKI 2 project is to report results achieved within the EU/JOULE/OPTEB project to the Finnish combustion research community through the LIEKKI program. The purpose of the EU/JOULE/OPTEB project is to find prediction methods for evaluating ash behavior, such as slagging, fouling and corrosion propensity, in full scale combustion systems through chemical or mineralogical analyses, intelligent laboratory tests and chemistry calculations. The project focuses on coals, coal mixtures and coal biomass mixtures fired in advanced combustion systems, such as fluidized bed boilers, pulverized fuel boilers with critical steam values etc. The project will make use of (1) advanced multi-component combustion equilibrium calculations, (2) ash sintering tendency laboratory tests and (3) chemical evaluations of slagging, fouling and corrosion measurements in full scale units. (orig.)

  1. Construction, evaluation and demonstration of mobile catalytic combustion units for destruction of methane and different odor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannasch, Anna-Karin [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    This project reports on the construction, the evaluation and the demonstration of novel, mobile small-scale (< 100 Nm{sup 3}/h) combustion units for reduction of methane and/or different odour pollutants (e.g. hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, VOC) existing in small concentrations in process air streams. The evaluated units include a regenerative (MeshRegenOx/MRO) and a recuperative, catalytic unit (Deodoron), respectively, which both are based on Catator's proprietary wire mesh catalyst technology. The evaluation and the demonstration work have involved laboratory tests with synthetic gases and a number of field tests at plants for biogas production, water and waste treatment. The results show that: 1. In comparison to conventional thermal emission abatement systems, the wire mesh catalyst technology opens up for the construction of very compact (V=0.6 Nm, W=500 kg for 1000 Nm{sup 3}/h) and thermo-economical systems (> 95 %), which technology can easily be scaled up and integrated into existing industrial and/or process streams. 2. Catator's MRO-prototype enables for autothermal oxidation of methane, with a conversion degree of 97-98 %, from an inlet concentration of 0.2 vol% at an operation temperature of 660-700 deg, i.e. 200-300 deg less than when conventional homogenous flame combustion is applied. 3. The performance of the MRO-unit was seen to be somewhat unstable, with an oscillating conversion degree during the operation cycle. This should however be able to overcome by further optimizing the integrated catalyst package and the heat exchanger. Significant improvements in efficiency and stability are also to be expected by the scale-up due to a decreasing heat loss with an increasing capacity 4. Close to 100 % removal of different odorants, with a thermal efficiency of around 80 %, can be obtained by the use of Catator's unit Deodoron at an operation temperature of 300-400 deg. The results were verified by odor tests performed up- and downstream the

  2. Design and process integration of organic Rankine cycle utilizing biomass for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ependi, S.; Nur, T. B.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has high potential biomass energy sources from palm oil mill industry activities. The growing interest on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application to produce electricity by utilizing biomass energy sources are increasingly due to its successfully used for generating electricity from rejected waste heat to the environment in industrial processes. In this study, the potential of the palm oil empty fruit bunch, and wood chip have been used as fuel for biomass to generate electricity based ORC with combustion processes. The heat from combustion burner was transfer by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator unit. The Syltherm-XLT thermal oil was used as the heat carrier from combustion burner, while R245fa was used as the working fluid for ORC unit. Appropriate designs integration from biomass combustion unit to ORC unit have been analyzed and proposed to generate expander shaft-work. Moreover, the effect of recuperator on the total system efficiency has also been investigated. It was observed that the fuel consumption was increased when the ORC unit equipped recuperator operated until certain pressure and decreased when operated at high pressure.

  3. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  4. The evaluation of effective criteria on site selection for energy production units from cellulosic biomass in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR techniques were used successfully to evaluate the effective criteria on site selection for energy production unit development from cellulosic biomass in Iran. The results showed that the benefits criteria was at the first level while the initial cellulosic raw materials and opportunities with the aim of the local economy had the second position as the most important indices on site selection. In addition, third criterion has been introduced for the costs criteria (transportation cost and social barriers by the experts. However, risks criteria which referred to instability of providing cellulosic raw materials is one of the less important effective indices on site selection to make energy production unit. The results illustrated that the economy and politics as two environmental effective factors affected on the site selection process generally.

  5. Modeling, simulation, parametric study and economic assessment of reciprocating internal combustion engine integrated with multi-effect desalination unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Mohsen; Amidpour, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of small MED unit with gas engine power cycle is studied in this paper. • Modeling, simulation, parametric study and sensitivity analysis were performed. • A thermodynamic model for heat recovery and power generation of the gas engine has been presented. • Annualized Cost of System (ACS) has been employed for economic assessment. • Economic feasibilty dependence of integrated system on natural gas and water prices has been investigated. - Abstract: Due to thermal nature of multi-effect desalination (MED), its integration with a suitable power cycle is highly desirable for waste heat recovery. One of the proper power cycle for proposed integration is internal combustion engine (ICE). The exhaust gas heat of ICE is used to produce motive steam for the required heat for the first effect of MED system. Also, the water jacket heat is utilized in a heat exchanger to pre-heat the seawater. This paper studies a thermodynamic model for a tri-generation system composed of ICE integrated with MED. The ICE thermodynamic model has been used in place of different empirical efficiency relations to estimate performance – load curves reasonably. The entire system performance has been coded in MATLAB, and the results of proposed thermodynamic model for the engine have been verified by manufacturer catalogue. By increasing the engine load from 40% to 100%, the water production of MED unit will increase from 4.38 cubic meters per day to 26.78 cubic meters per day and the tri-generation efficiency from 31% to 56%. Economic analyses of the MED unit integrated with ICE was performed based on Annualized Cost of System method. This integration makes the system more economical. It has been determined that in higher market prices for fresh water (more than 7 US$ per cubic meter), the increase in effects number is more significant to the period of return decrement.

  6. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  7. Energy from biomass and wastes 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This proceedings is contains 63 papers on the utilization of biomass as an energy source and as a source for materials. The specific topics discussed include: environmental issues, biomass production, biomass pretreatment and processing, chemicals and other products from biomass, fuel ethanol, thermal liquefaction, thermal gasification, combustion and power generation, and national programs. Individual papers are indexed separately

  8. Energy biomass and environment. The French programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The main themes of the french program for energy from biomass are presented: agriculture and forest products (short rotation plantations, waste products, etc.), enhancement of the biomass production, mobilization of biomass resources, biomass processing technics (biofuels, combustion processes, biotechnologies); vulgarization for diffusion of technics from laboratories to industry or domestic sectors.

  9. Forest biomass and energy-wood potential in the southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, J.R. [Forestry Sciences Lab., Athens, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Timber resource data were compiled from the most recent USDA Forest Service inventory data for the 12 Southern States from Virginia to Texas. Timber resource inventories traditionally include only trees 5 inches dbh and greater and their volumes to the prevailing merchantable top diameter expressed in cubic feet, board feet, or cords. For this paper, conversion factors were developed to express timber inventories in weight and to expand the inventories to include the crowns of merchantable trees and trees less than 5 inches dbh. By so doing, the total aboveground biomass is estimated for the timberlands in the South. The region contains 185 million acres of timberland. Some 14.6 billion green tons of woody biomass are present on southern timberland -- about 79 tons per acre. When mature stands are harvested, the average acre in the South has 22.2 tons of woody material left in crowns and sapling, and 5.1 tons in cull stems. Thus, an average of 27.3 green tons per acre of potential energy wood are left after conventional harvests. Conversion factors that are presented permit estimates for specific tracts, areas, counties, or states.

  10. Investigating co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Wang, Ruijuan; Jiang, Changle; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Wanhe; Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia

    2017-11-01

    To investigate co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood, moso bamboo and masson pine were torrefied and mixed with different blend ratios. The combustion process was examined by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed the combustion process of samples included volatile emission and oxidation combustion as well as char combustion. The main mass loss of biomass blends occurred at volatile emission and oxidation combustion stage, while that of torrefied biomass occurred at char combustion stage. With the increase of bamboo content, characteristic temperatures decreased. Compared with untreated biomass, torrefied biomass had a higher initial and burnout temperature. With the increase of heating rates, combustion process of samples shifted to higher temperatures. Compared with non-isothermal models, activation energy obtained from isothermal model was lower. The result is helpful to promote development of co-combustion of bamboo and masson pine wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India: findings from a nationwide large-scale cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa

    2012-05-01

    Increasing prevalence of asthma in developing countries has been a significant challenge for public health in recent decades. A number of studies have suggested that ambient air pollution can trigger asthma attacks. Biomass and solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in developing countries the health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. In this study we examined the effect of cooking smoke produced by biomass and solid fuel combustion on the reported prevalence of asthma among adult men and women in India. The analysis is based on 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged between 20 and 49 years included in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005-2006. Effects of exposure to cooking smoke, determined by the type of fuel used for cooking such as biomass and solid fuels versus cleaner fuels, on the reported prevalence of asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Since the effects of cooking smoke are likely to be confounded with effects of tobacco smoking, age, and other such factors, the analysis was carried out after statistically controlling for such factors. The results indicate that adult women living in households using biomass and solid fuels have a significantly higher risk of asthma than those living in households using cleaner fuels (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.06-1.49; p = .010), even after controlling for the effects of a number of potentially confounding factors. Interestingly, this effect was not found among men (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.77-1.24; p = .846). However, tobacco smoking was associated with higher asthma prevalence among both women (OR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.34-2.21; p effects of biomass and solid fuel use and tobacco smoke on the risk of asthma were greater and more significant in women (OR: 2.16; 95%CI: 1.58-2.94; p countries such as India, where large proportions of the population still rely on polluting biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Decreasing household biomass and solid fuel use

  12. Biomass Maps | Geospatial Data Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Maps Biomass Maps These maps illustrate the biomass resource in the United States by county . Biomass feedstock data are analyzed both statistically and graphically using a geographic information Data Science Team. Solid Biomass Resources Map of Total Biomass Resources in the United States Solid

  13. Combustion behaviour and deposition characteristics of Cynara Cardunculus/Greek lignite co-firing under various thermal shares in a thermal pilot-scale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Aaron; Maier, Joerg; Scheffknecht, Guenter [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Combustion and Power Plant Technology; Pawlak-Kruczek, Halina [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Heat Engineering and Fluid Mechanics; Karampinis, Emmanouil; Grammelis, Panagiotis; Kakaras, Emmanuel [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Ptolemais (Greece). Chemical Process and Energy Resources Inst.; National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants

    2013-06-01

    The combustion of herbaceous biomass in industrial boilers, either as co-firing fuel or in dedicated combustion units, possess significant operating challenges due to increased risks for corrosion and slagging/fouling. The present work aims at investigating the combustion behaviour of Cynara Cardunculus (cardoon) in a range of thermal shares (0 to 100 %) with a Greek lignite. Combustion tests were performed in a 0.5 MW thermal input pulverised fuel pilot-scale test facility. Deposits were characterised in terms of morphological and ash fusion behaviour, and slagging/fouling tendencies were determined. (orig.)

  14. Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels in a 10 kWth Unit Combustion de charge solide en boucle chimique dans une unité de 10 kWth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berguerand N.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on previous results from batch experiments which were conducted in a 10 kWth chemical looping combustor for solid fuels using ilmenite, an iron titanium oxide, as the oxygen carrier with two solid fuels: a Mexican petroleum coke and a South African bituminous coal. These experiments involved testing at different fuel reactor temperatures, up to 1030°C, and different particle circulation rates between the air and fuel reactors. Previous results enabled modeling of the reactor system. In particular, it was possible to derive a correlation between measured operational data and actual circulation mass flow, as well as a model that describes the carbon capture efficiency as a function of the residence time and the char reactivity. Moreover, the kinetics of char conversion could be modeled and results showed good agreement with experimental values. The purpose of the present study was to complete these results by developing a model to predict the conversion of syngas with ilmenite in the fuel reactor. Here, kinetic data from investigations of ilmenite in TGA and batch fluidized bed reactors were used. Results were compared with the actual conversions during operation in this 10 kWth unit. Cette étude est basée sur des résultats antérieurs obtenus dans une unité de combustion de charges solides en boucle chimique d’une puissance de 10 kWth. Le transporteur d’oxygène utilisé est de l’ilménite, un minerai de fer et de titane, et les charges solides étudiées sont, d’une part, un coke de pétrole mexicain et, d’autre part, un charbon bitumineux sud africain. Les résultats expérimentaux ont été obtenus à des températures allant jusqu’à 1030°C avec différents débits de transporteur d’oxygène entre les réacteurs d’oxydation et de réduction. La modélisation de la combustion en boucle chimique de charges solides a déjà permis d’établir une corrélation entre le débit de circulation de

  15. Experimental analysis of micro-cogeneration units based on reciprocating internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Possidente, R.; Sibilio, S. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Storia e Processi dell' ambiente Antropizzato (DiSPAMA), Borgo San Lorenzo, Aversa, CE (Italy); Roselli, C.; Sasso, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universita degli Studi del Sannio, Benevento (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    , MCHP, to the conventional one based on separate 'production'. In the energetic analysis the amount of primary energy savings provided by micro-cogeneration unit has been evaluated for different types of MCHP units and at various working conditions. Furthermore the evaluation of the equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions of the compared systems, MCHP and conventional systems, allows to calculate the MCHP potentials to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally the Simple Pay Back approach has been considered to define the economic feasibility of cogeneration in small size applications with the varying of some economic variables (first cost, gas price, operating hours per year ...). (author)

  16. Biomass Data | Geospatial Data Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Data Biomass Data These datasets detail the biomass resources available in the United Coverage File Last Updated Metadata Biomethane Zip 72.2 MB 10/30/2014 Biomethane.xml Solid Biomass Zip 69.5

  17. The Effect of Fuel Mass Fraction on the Combustion and Fluid Flow in a Sulfur Recovery Unit Thermal Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lang Yeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur recovery unit (SRU thermal reactors are negatively affected by high temperature operation. In this paper, the effect of the fuel mass fraction on the combustion and fluid flow in a SRU thermal reactor is investigated numerically. Practical operating conditions for a petrochemical corporation in Taiwan are used as the design conditions for the discussion. The simulation results show that the present design condition is a fuel-rich (or air-lean condition and gives acceptable sulfur recovery, hydrogen sulfide (H2S destruction, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and thermal reactor temperature for an oxygen-normal operation. However, for an oxygen-rich operation, the local maximum temperature exceeds the suggested maximum service temperature, although the average temperature is acceptable. The high temperature region must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period if there are oxygen-rich operations. If the fuel mass fraction to the zone ahead of the choke ring (zone 1 is 0.0625 or 0.125, the average temperature in the zone behind the choke ring (zone 2 is higher than the zone 1 average temperature, which can damage the downstream heat exchanger tubes. If the zone 1 fuel mass fraction is reduced to ensure a lower zone 1 temperature, the temperature in zone 2 and the heat exchanger section must be monitored closely and the zone 2 wall and heat exchanger tubes must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period. To determine a suitable fuel mass fraction for operation, a detailed numerical simulation should be performed first to find the stoichiometric fuel mass fraction which produces the most complete combustion and the highest temperature. This stoichiometric fuel mass fraction should be avoided because the high temperature could damage the zone 1 corner or the choke ring. A higher fuel mass fraction (i.e., fuel-rich or air-lean condition is more suitable because it can avoid deteriorations of both zone 1

  18. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  19. Oxy combustion with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    An update for oxyfuel-combustion carbon capture in the power industry is provided. The report was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on behalf of the Global CCS Institute. In the oxyfuel-combustion processes, the bulk nitrogen is removed from the air before combustion. The resulting combustion products will have CO2 content up to about 90 per cent (dry basis). The flue gas impurities (predominantly O2, N2, and Ar) may be removed by reducing the flue gas (at moderate pressure) to a temperature at which the CO2 condenses and the impurities do not. Oxyfuel-combustion may be employed with solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, and biomass, as well as liquid and gaseous fuels. Some key points raised in the oxyfuel-combustion carbon capture report are: The oxyfuel-combustion/CO2 capture power plant designs being developed and deployed for service in the next four or five years are based on individual component technologies and arrangements which have demonstrated sufficient maturity, with the greatest remaining technical challenge being integrating the systems into a complete steam-electric power plant; By its nature, an oxyfuel-coal power plant is likely to be a 'near zero' emitter of all criteria pollutants; Existing air-fired power plants might be retrofitted with an air separation unit, oxyfuel-fired burners, flue gas recycle, and a CO2 processing unit, with the large fleet of air-fired power plants in service calling for more study of this option; and, Future efficiency improvements to the oxyfuel-combustion process for power generation point toward an oxyfuel-combustion plant with near zero emissions of conventional pollutants, up to 98 per cent CO2 capture, and efficiency comparable to the best power plants currently being built.

  20. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  1. Environmental and economic gains of the conversion of the Zvolen (Slovakia) district CHP plant from low quality brown coal combustion to co-firing of biomass and low-sulphur brown coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilavsky, Jan; Jankovsky, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Zvolen CHP plant was originally commissioned in 1954. Overall installed output is 311 MW in heat production and 44,3 MW in power. Annual supply to the consumers was 788,910 GJ of heat and 102,459 GJ of electricity in 2004. Some 60 % of the heat production was used for heat and hot water supply to more than 9,000 houses and apartments and 40 % to industrial consumers. It uses pulverized lignite with up to 1 % of sulphur content as fuel. The content of sulphur in emitted flue gas is as high as 3,500-4,000 mg SO 2 /m 3 . It causes serious environmental problems in the region. New national limits for greenhouse gases emissions are 1.700 mg SO 2 /m 3 and 600 mg NO x /m 3 with effect from 1 January 2007. CHP is not able to achieve them without substantial improvement of technology with very high investment costs. Several alternatives of technical changes have been analysed in a study. Shift from lignite to low-sulphur content brown coal with co-firing of biomass has been identified economically most feasible and environmentally acceptable solution. The paper presents results of the study analysing the whole chain from biomass resources in the region up to the technical solutions for boilers reconstruction. The first part of the study was focused at identification of biomass resources for energy use from forestry, wood processing industry and agriculture. Ecological, economic and operational factors limiting utilization of potential biomass resources were identified and factored into calculations. Two boilers, each of them with the output of 108 MW t , will be reconstructed for co-firing of pulverized low sulphur content brown coal and biomass. Biomass will share up to 30% of the combusted fuel. After the reconstruction one boiler will remain with the same output of 108 MW t and the other will be with the output of 65 MW t . Power will be produced by the back pressure 25 MW e turbine. Chips will be stored in 9.000 m 3 open depot and in 3.000 m 3 silo. Chips will be fed

  2. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  3. Experience Gained from Construction of Low-Emission Combustion Chambers for On-Land Large-Capacity Gas-Turbine Units: GT24/26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.; Gutnik, M. M.

    2018-06-01

    This article is the third in a planned series of articles devoted to the experience gained around the world in constructing low-emission combustion chambers for on-land large-capacity (above 250 MW) gas-turbine units (GTUs). The aim of this study is to generalize and analyze the ways in which different designers apply the fuel flow and combustion arrangement principles and the fuel feed control methods. The considered here GT24 and GT26 (GT24/26) gas-turbine units generating electric power at the 60 and 50 Hz frequencies, respectively, are fitted with burners of identical designs. Designed by ABB, these GTUs were previously manufactured by Alstom, and now they are produced by Ansaldo Energia. The efficiency of these GTUs reaches 41% at the 354 MW power output during operation in the simple cycle and 60.5% at the 505MW power output during operation in the combined cycle. Both GTUs comply with all requirements for harmful emissions. The compression ratio is equal to 35. In this article, a system is considered for two-stage fuel combustion in two sequentially arranged low-emission combustion chambers, one of which is placed upstream of the high-pressure turbine (CC1) and the other upstream of the low-pressure turbine (CC2). The article places the main focus on the CC2, which operates with a decreased content of oxygen in the oxidizer supplied to the burner inlets. The original designs of vortex generators and nozzles placed in the flow of hot combustion products going out from the high-pressure turbine are described in detail. The article also presents an original CC2 front plate cooling system, due to which a significantly smaller amount of air fed for cooling has been reached. The article also presents the pressure damping devices incorporated in the chamber, the use of which made it possible to obtain a significantly wider range of CC loads at which its low-emission operation is ensured. The fuel feed adjustment principles and the combustion control methods

  4. Operational experiences of (in)direct co-combustion in coal and gas fired power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ree, R.; Korbee, R.; Meijer, R.; Konings, T.; Van Aart, F.

    2001-02-01

    The operational experiences of direct and indirect co-combustion of biomass/waste in European coal and natural gas fired power plants are addressed. The operational experiences of mainly Dutch direct co-combustion activities in coal fired power plants are discussed; whereas an overview of European indirect co-combustion activities is presented. The technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of different indirect co-combustion concepts (i.e. upstream gasification, pyrolysis, combustion with steam-side integration) is investigated, and the results are compared with the economic preferable concept of direct co-combustion. Main technical constraints that limit the co-combustion capacity of biomass/waste in conventional coal fired power plants are: the grindability of the biomass/coal blend, the capacity of available unit components, and the danger of severe slagging, fouling, corrosion and erosion. The main environmental constraints that have to be taken into account are the quality of produced solid waste streams (fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum) and the applicable air emission regulations. 6 refs

  5. Characterization of the southwest United States for the production of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; Folger, A.G.

    1987-03-01

    The southwest United States, an area of diverse climate, topography, terrain, soils, and vegetation, is characterized to determine the feasibility of growing terrestrial energy crops there. The emphasis in the study is on delineating general zones of relative resource and environmental suitability, which are then evaluated to estimate the potential of the region for energy crop production. 100 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Effects of operating conditions and fuel properties on emission performance and combustion efficiency of a swirling fluidized-bed combustor fired with a biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuprianov, Vladimir I.; Kaewklum, Rachadaporn; Chakritthakul, Songpol

    2011-01-01

    This work reports an experimental study on firing 80 kg/h rice husk in a swirling fluidized-bed combustor (SFBC) using an annular air distributor as the swirl generator. Two NO x emission control techniques were investigated in this work: (1) air staging of the combustion process, and (2) firing rice husk as moisturized fuel. In the first test series for the air-staged combustion, CO, NO and C x H y emissions and combustion efficiency were determined for burning 'as-received' rice husk at fixed excess air of 40%, while secondary-to-primary air ratio (SA/PA) was ranged from 0.26 to 0.75. The effects of SA/PA on CO and NO emissions from the combustor were found to be quite weak, whereas C x H y emissions exhibited an apparent influence of air staging. In the second test series, rice husks with the fuel-moisture content of 8.4% to 35% were fired at excess air varied from 20% to 80%, while the flow rate of secondary air was fixed. Radial and axial temperature and gas concentration (O 2 , CO, NO) profiles in the reactor, as well as CO and NO emissions, are discussed for the selected operating conditions. The temperature and gas concentration profiles for variable fuel quality exhibited significant effects of both fuel-moisture and excess air. As revealed by experimental results, the emission of NO from this SFBC can be substantially reduced through moisturizing rice husk, while CO is effectively mitigated by injection of secondary air into the bed splash zone, resulting in a rather low emission of CO and high (over 99%) combustion efficiency of the combustor for the ranges of operating conditions and fuel properties.

  7. Thermodynamics and kinetics parameters of co-combustion between sewage sludge and water hyacinth in CO2/O2 atmosphere as biomass to solid biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limao; Liu, Jingyong; He, Yao; Sun, Shuiyu; Chen, Jiacong; Sun, Jian; Chang, KenLin; Kuo, Jiahong; Ning, Xun'an

    2016-10-01

    Thermodynamics and kinetics of sewage sludge (SS) and water hyacinth (WH) co-combustion as a blend fuel (SW) for bioenergy production were studied through thermogravimetric analysis. In CO2/O2 atmosphere, the combustion performance of SS added with 10-40wt.% WH was improved 1-1.97 times as revealed by the comprehensive combustion characteristic index (CCI). The conversion of SW in different atmospheres was identified and their thermodynamic parameters (ΔH,ΔS,ΔG) were obtained. As the oxygen concentration increased from 20% to 70%, the ignition temperature of SW decreased from 243.1°C to 240.3°C, and the maximum weight loss rate and CCI increased from 5.70%·min(-1) to 7.26%·min(-1) and from 4.913%(2)·K(-3)·min(-2) to 6.327%(2)·K(-3)·min(-2), respectively, which corresponded to the variation in ΔS and ΔG. The lowest activation energy (Ea) of SW was obtained in CO2/O2=7/3 atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concentrations of inorganic elements in biomass fuels and recovery in the different ash fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obernberger, I.; Biedermann, F.; Widmann, W.; Riedl, R.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic elements and compounds in biomass fuels influence the combustion process and the composition of the ashes produced. Consequently, knowledge about the material fluxes of inorganic elements and compounds during biomass combustion for different kinds of biofuels and their influencing

  9. A computationally inexpensive CFD approach for small-scale biomass burners equipped with enhanced air staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmayr, M.; Gruber, J.; Hargassner, M.; Hochenauer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Time efficient CFD model to predict biomass boiler performance. • Boundary conditions for numerical modeling are provided by measurements. • Tars in the product from primary combustion was considered. • Simulation results were validated by experiments on a real-scale reactor. • Very good accordance between experimental and simulation results. - Abstract: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an upcoming technique for optimization and as a part of the design process of biomass combustion systems. An accurate simulation of biomass combustion can only be provided with high computational effort so far. This work presents an accurate, time efficient CFD approach for small-scale biomass combustion systems equipped with enhanced air staging. The model can handle the high amount of biomass tars in the primary combustion product at very low primary air ratios. Gas-phase combustion in the freeboard was performed by the Steady Flamelet Model (SFM) together with a detailed heptane combustion mechanism. The advantage of the SFM is that complex combustion chemistry can be taken into account at low computational effort because only two additional transport equations have to be solved to describe the chemistry in the reacting flow. Boundary conditions for primary combustion product composition were obtained from the fuel bed by experiments. The fuel bed data were used as fuel inlet boundary condition for the gas-phase combustion model. The numerical and experimental investigations were performed for different operating conditions and varying wood-chip moisture on a special designed real-scale reactor. The numerical predictions were validated with experimental results and a very good agreement was found. With the presented approach accurate results can be provided within 24 h using a standard Central Processing Unit (CPU) consisting of six cores. Case studies e.g. for combustion geometry improvement can be realized effectively due to the short calculation

  10. Biomass energy in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in countries that produce

  11. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    In the cement industry there is an increasing environmental and financial motivation for substituting conventional fossil fuels with alternative fuels, being biomass or waste derived fuels. However, the introduction of alternative fuels may influence emissions, cement product quality, process...... stability, and process efficiency. Alternative fuel substitution in the calciner unit has reached close to 100% at many cement plants and to further increase the use of alternative fuels rotary kiln substitution must be enhanced. At present, limited systematic knowledge of the alternative fuel combustion...... properties and the influence on the flame formation is available. In this project a scientific approach to increase the fundamental understanding of alternative fuel conversion in the rotary kiln burner is employed through literature studies, experimental combustion characterisation studies, combustion...

  12. Biomass Pyrolysis in DNS of Turbulent Particle-Laden Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Fröhlich, Jochen; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is important for co-firing in coal power plants thereby reducing CO2 emissions. Modeling the combustion of biomass involves various physical and chemical processes, which take place successively and even simultaneously [1, 2]. An important step in biomass combustion is pyrolysis, in which

  13. Chemical composition of air masses transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast during ITCT 2K2: Fossil fuel combustion versus biomass-burning signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Warneke, C.; Hudson, P. K.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Nicks, D. K., Jr.; Nowak, J. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Donnelly, S. G.; Schauffler, S. M.; Stroud, V.; Johnson, K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Streets, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft was used to study the long-range transport of Asian air masses toward the west coast of North America. During research flights on 5 and 17 May, strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO) and other species were observed in air masses that had been transported from Asia. The hydrocarbon composition of the air masses indicated that the highest CO levels were related to fossil fuel use. During the flights on 5 and 17 May and other days, the levels of several biomass-burning indicators increased with altitude. This was true for acetonitrile (CH3CN), methyl chloride (CH3Cl), the ratio of acetylene (C2H2) to propane (C3H8), and, on May 5, the percentage of particles measured by the particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) instrument that were attributed to biomass burning based on their carbon and potassium content. An ensemble of back-trajectories, calculated from the U.S. west coast over a range of latitudes and altitudes for the entire ITCT 2K2 period, showed that air masses from Southeast Asia and China were generally observed at higher altitudes than air from Japan and Korea. Emission inventories estimate the contribution of biomass burning to the total emissions to be low for Japan and Korea, higher for China, and the highest for Southeast Asia. Combined with the origin of the air masses versus altitude, this qualitatively explains the increase with altitude, averaged over the whole ITCT 2K2 period, of the different biomass-burning indicators.

  14. Energy from aquatic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aresta, M.; Dibenedetto, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic biomass is considered as a second (or third) generation option for the production of bio fuels. The best utilization for energy purposes is not its direct combustion. Several technologies are available for the extraction of compounds that may find application for the production of gaseous fuels (biogas, dihydrogen) or liquid fuels (ethanol, bio oil, biodiesel). [it

  15. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  16. Modeling of biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Memon, A.S.; Akhund, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The fuels used in industry and power sector for the last two decades have become expensive. As a result renewable energy source have been emerging increasingly important, of these, biomass appears to be the most applicable in the near future. The pyrolysis of biomass plays a key role amongst the three major and important process generally encountered in a gas producer, namely, pyrolysis, combustion and reduction of combustion products. Each biomass has its own pyrolysis characteristics and this important parameters must be known for the proper design and efficient operation of a gasification system. Thermogravimetric analysis has been widely used to study the devolatilization of solid fuels, such as biomass. It provides the weight loss history of a sample heated at a predetermined rate as a function of time and temperature. This paper presents the experimental results of modelling the weight loss curves of the main biomass components i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Thermogravimetric analysis of main components of biomass showed that pyrolysis is first order reaction. Furthermore pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloe can be regarded as taking place in two stages, for while lignin pyrolysis is a single stage process. This paper also describes the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) technique to predict the weight retained during pyrolysis at any temperature, for number of biomass species, such as cotton stalk, bagasse ad graoundnut shell. (author)

  17. Long term analysis of the biomass content in the feed of a waste-to-energy plant with oxygen-enriched combustion air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Johann; Cencic, Oliver; Zellinger, Günter; Rechberger, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    Thermal utilization of municipal solid waste and commercial wastes has become of increasing importance in European waste management. As waste materials are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, a part of the energy generated can be considered as renewable and is thus subsidized in some European countries. Analogously, CO(2) emissions of waste incinerators are only partly accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories. A novel approach for determining these fractions is the so-called balance method. In the present study, the implementation of the balance method on a waste-to-energy plant using oxygen-enriched combustion air was investigated. The findings of the 4-year application indicate on the one hand the general applicability and robustness of the method, and on the other hand the importance of reliable monitoring data. In particular, measured volume flows of the flue gas and the oxygen-enriched combustion air as well as corresponding O(2) and CO(2) contents should regularly be validated. The fraction of renewable (biogenic) energy generated throughout the investigated period amounted to between 27 and 66% for weekly averages, thereby denoting the variation in waste composition over time. The average emission factor of the plant was approximately 45 g CO(2) MJ(-1) energy input or 450 g CO(2) kg(-1) waste incinerated. The maximum error of the final result was about 16% (relative error), which was well above the error (<8%) of the balance method for plants with conventional oxygen supply.

  18. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  19. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  20. Biomass Burning Smoke Climatology of the United States: Implications for Particulate Matter Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfus, Aaron S; Nair, Udaysankar; Jaffe, Daniel; Christopher, Sundar A; Goodrick, Scott

    2017-10-17

    We utilize the NOAA Hazard Mapping System smoke product for the period of 2005 to 2016 to develop climatology of smoke occurrence over the Continental United States (CONUS) region and to study the impact of wildland fires on particulate matter air quality at the surface. Our results indicate that smoke is most frequently found over the Great Plains and western states during the summer months. Other hotspots of smoke occurrence are found over state and national parks in the southeast during winter and spring, in the Gulf of Mexico southwards of the Texas and Louisiana coastline during spring season and along the Mississippi River Delta during the fall season. A substantial portion (20%) of the 24 h federal standard for particulate pollution exceedance events in the CONUS region occur when smoke is present. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations continue to reduce anthropogenic emissions, wildland fire emissions will become the major contributor to particulate pollution and exceedance events. In this context, we show that HMS smoke product is a valuable tool for analysis of exceptional events caused by wildland fires and our results indicate that these tools can be valuable for policy and decision makers.

  1. Reduced ash related operational problems (slagging, bed agglomeration, corrosion and fouling) by co-combustion biomass with peat; Minskade askrelaterade driftsproblem (belaeggning, slaggning, hoegtemperatur-korrosion, baeddagglomerering) genom inblandning av torv i biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Marcus; Boman, Christoffer; Erhardsson, Thomas; Gilbe, Ram; Pommer, Linda; Bostroem, Dan; Nordin, Anders; Samuelsson, Robert; Burvall, Jan

    2006-12-15

    Combustion studies were performed in both a fluidized bed (5 kW) and in an under-feed pellets burner (20 kW) to elucidate the responsible mechanisms for the positive effects on ash related operational problems (i.e. slagging, fouling, corrosion and bed agglomeration) during co-combustion of several problematic biomass with peat. Three typical carex-containing Swedish peat samples with differences in e.g. silicon-, calcium- and sulfur contents were co-fired with logging residues, willow and straw in proportions corresponding to 15-40 weight %d.s. Mixing of corresponding 20 wt-% of peat significantly reduced the bed agglomeration tendencies for all fuels. The fuel specific agglomeration temperature were increased by 150-170 deg C when adding peat to the straw fuel and approximately 70-100 deg C when adding peat to the logging residue- and the willow fuel. The increased level of calcium in the inner bed particle layer caused by the added reactive calcium from the peat and/or removing alkali in the gas phase to a less reactive particular form via sorption and/or reaction with reactive peat ash (containing calcium, silica etc.) during which larger particles (>1{mu}m) are formed where collected potassium is present in a less reactive form, is considered to be the dominated reason for the increased agglomeration temperatures during combustion of logging residues and willow. During straw combustion, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky particles in the bed. The iron, sulphur and calcium content of these individual ash particles were significantly increased when adding peat to the fuel mix thereby decreasing the stickiness of these particles i.e. reducing the agglomeration tendencies. Adding peat to the relatively silicon-poor fuels (willow and logging residues) resulted in higher slagging tendencies, especially when the relative silicon rich peat fuel (Brunnskoelen) was used. However, when co-combusting peat with the relatively silicon and potassium

  2. Health impacts of anthropogenic biomass burning in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Torben; Forsberg, Bertil; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Blomberg, Anders; Bølling, Anette; Boman, Christoffer; Bønløkke, Jakob; Brauer, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Kelly, Frank; Künzli, Nino; Lundbäck, Bo; Moshammer, Hanns; Noonan, Curtis; Pagels, Joachim; Sallsten, Gerd; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-12-01

    Climate change policies have stimulated a shift towards renewable energy sources such as biomass. The economic crisis of 2008 has also increased the practice of household biomass burning as it is often cheaper than using oil, gas or electricity for heating. As a result, household biomass combustion is becoming an important source of air pollutants in the European Union.This position paper discusses the contribution of biomass combustion to pollution levels in Europe, and the emerging evidence on the adverse health effects of biomass combustion products.Epidemiological studies in the developed world have documented associations between indoor and outdoor exposure to biomass combustion products and a range of adverse health effects. A conservative estimate of the current contribution of biomass smoke to premature mortality in Europe amounts to at least 40 000 deaths per year.We conclude that emissions from current biomass combustion products negatively affect respiratory and, possibly, cardiovascular health in Europe. Biomass combustion emissions, in contrast to emissions from most other sources of air pollution, are increasing. More needs to be done to further document the health effects of biomass combustion in Europe, and to reduce emissions of harmful biomass combustion products to protect public health. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  3. Field study of a Brownian Demister Unit to reduce aerosol based emission from a Post Combustion CO2 Capture plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakharia, P.M.; Kvamsdal, H.M.; Da Silva, E.F.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Emission of solvent and its degradation products from a typical absorption-desorption based Post Combustion CO2 Capture (PCCC) process is inevitable and thus, an area of growing concern. Recently, it has been pointed out that emissions can also occur by means of aerosol droplets. Conventional

  4. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels...... such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because...... there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...

  5. Analysis of cumulative energy consumption in an oxy-fuel combustion power plant integrated with a CO2 processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxy-fuel combustion is promising CCS technology. • Sum of direct and indirect energy consumption ought to be consider. • This sum is expressed by cumulative energy consumption. • Input–output analysis is adequate method of CCS modeling. - Abstract: A balance of direct energy consumption is not a sufficient tool for an energy analysis of an oxy-fuel combustion power plant because of the indirect consumption of energy in preceding processes in the energy-technological set of interconnections. The sum of direct and indirect consumption expresses cumulative energy consumption. Based on the “input–output” model of direct energy consumption the mathematical model of cumulative energy consumption concerning an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant has been developed. Three groups of energy carriers or materials are to be distinguished, viz. main products, by-products and external supplies not supplementing the main production. The mathematical model of the balance of cumulative energy consumption based on the assumption that the indices of cumulative energy consumption of external supplies (mainly fuels and raw materials) are known a’priori. It results from weak connections between domestic economy and an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant. The paper presents both examples of the balances of direct and cumulative energy consumption. The results of calculations of indices of cumulative energy consumption concerning main products are presented. A comparison of direct and cumulative energy effects between three variants has been worked out. Calculations of the indices of cumulative energy consumption were also subjected to sensitive analysis. The influence of the indices of cumulative energy consumption of external supplies (input data), as well as the assumption concerning the utilization of solid by-products of the combustion process have been investigated

  6. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  7. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  8. Biomass equipments. The wood-fueled heating plants; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R, 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the consequences of the classification of biomass fuels in the French 2910 by-law on the classification of biomass-fueled combustion installations. Biomass fuels used in such installations must be only wood wastes without any treatment or coating. The design of biomass combustion systems must follow several specifications relative to the fueling system, the combustion chamber, the heat exchanger and the treatment of exhaust gases. Other technical solutions must be studied for other type of wood wastes in order to respect the environmental pollution laws. (J.S.)

  9. Assessing Extension's Ability to Promote Family Forests as a Woody Biomass Feedstock in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Rene' H.; Ghosh, Chandrani

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here surveyed Extension educators' awareness and knowledge of woody biomass energy and assessed their desire and ability to reach out to family forest owners-a critical feedstock source. The results indicate Extension educators are aware of the potential of woody biomass to serve as a renewable source of energy. Respondents…

  10. Biomass Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels Using the MixAlcoTM Process Conversion de la biomasse en combustibles hydrocarbonés au moyen du procédé MixAlcoTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taco-Vasquez S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MixAlcoTM process converts biomass to hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline using the following generic steps: pretreatment, fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, oligomerization and saturation. This study describes the production of bio-gasoline from chicken manure and shredded office paper, both desirable feedstocks that do not require pretreatment. Using a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from marine soil, the biomass was fermented to produce a dilute aqueous solution of carboxylate salts, which were subsequently descummed and dried. The dry salts were thermally converted to raw ketones, which were distilled to remove impurities. Using Raney nickel catalyst, the distilled ketones were hydrogenated to mixed secondary alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. Using zeolite HZSM-5 catalyst, these alcohols were oligomerized to hydrocarbons in a plug -flow reactor. Finally, these unsaturated hydrocarbons were hydrogenated to produce a mixture of hydrocarbons that can be blended into commercial gasoline. Le procédé MixAlcoTM convertit la biomasse en hydrocarbures (par exemple, en essence selon les étapes génériques suivantes : prétraitement, fermentation, écumage, déshydratation, cétonisation thermique, distillation, hydrogénation, oligomérisation et saturation. Cette étude décrit la production de bioessence à partir de fumier de poulet et de papier en lambeaux, ces deux sources étant des matières premières convoitées ne nécessitant pas de prétraitement. À l’aide d’une culture mixte de microorganismes dérivés de sols marins, la biomasse a été soumise à une fermentation de manière à produire une solution aqueuse diluée de sels de carboxylates, ultérieurement écumés et séchés. Les sels séchés ont été thermiquement convertis en cétones brutes, ensuite distillées afin d’éliminer les impuretés. À l’aide du catalyseur à base de nickel de Raney, les c

  11. Availability of potassium in biomass combustion ashes and gasification biochars after application to soils with variable pH and clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte Holton; Sørensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    .8–7.8) and clay contents (3–17%). Exchangeable K in the product-soil mixture was determined, and the K recovery rate from the applied products varied from 31 to 86%. The relative recovery compared to applied KCl was used to indicate K availability and was 50–86% across all soils, but lower for two sewage sludge....... The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium (K) availability in various types of biomass ashes and gasification biochars (GBs) derived from straw, wood, sewage sludge and poultry manure when mixed with soil. A 16-week incubation study was conducted with three contrasting soils of variable pH (5...

  12. From the idea to the construction of a biomass fuelled plant. The marketing potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Ranveig Vaa

    2000-12-01

    The report deals with the case handling in connection with the planning of a biomass fuelled plant as well as the market potential for a biomass fuelled Stirling engines and direct combustion of biomass with a steam circuit

  13. A Comparative Study of Fouling and Bottom Ash from Woody Biomass Combustion in a Fixed-Bed Small-Scale Boiler and Evaluation of the Analytical Techniques Used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Febrero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fouling and bottom ash were collected from a low-power boiler after wood pellet combustion and studied using several analytical techniques to characterize and compare samples from different areas and determine the suitability of the analysis techniques employed. TGA results indicated that the fouling contained a high amount of organic matter (70%. The XRF and SEM-EDS measurements revealed that Ca and K are the main inorganic elements and exhibit clear tendency in the content of Cl that is negligible in the bottom ash and increased as it penetrated into the innermost layers of the fouling. Calcite, magnesia and silica appeared as the major crystalline phases in all the samples. However, the bottom ash was primarily comprised of calcium silicates. The KCl behaved identically to the Cl, preferably appeared in the adhered fouling samples. This salt, which has a low melting point, condenses upon contact with the low temperature tube and played a crucial role in the early stages of fouling formation. XRD was the most useful technique applied, which provided a semi-quantitative determination of the crystalline phases. FTIR was proven to be inadequate for this type of sample. The XRF and SEM-EDS, techniques yield similar results despite being entirely different.

  14. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  15. Biomass torrefaction: A promising pretreatment technology for biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ZhiWen; Wang, Mingfeng; Ren, Yongzhi; Jiang, Enchen; Jiang, Yang; Li, Weizhen

    2018-02-01

    Torrefaction is an emerging technology also called mild pyrolysis, which has been explored for the pretreatment of biomass to make the biomass more favorable for further utilization. Dry torrefaction (DT) is a pretreatment of biomass in the absence of oxygen under atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range of 200-300 degrees C, while wet torrrefaction (WT) is a method in hydrothermal or hot and high pressure water at the tempertures within 180-260 degrees C. Torrrefied biomass is hydrophobic, with lower moisture contents, increased energy density and higher heating value, which are more comparable to the characteristics of coal. With the improvement in the properties, torrefied biomass mainly has three potential applications: combustion or co-firing, pelletization and gasification. Generally, the torrefaction technology can accelerate the development of biomass utilization technology and finally realize the maximum applications of biomass energy.

  16. Biomass electric technologies: Status and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    At the present time, there axe approximately 6 gigawatts (GWe) of biomass-based, grid-connected electrical generation capacity in the United States. This capacity is primarily combustion-driven, steam-turbine technology, with the great majority of the plants of a 5-50 megawatt (MW) size and characterized by heat rates of 14,770-17,935 gigajoules per kilowatt-hour (GJ/kWh) (14,000-17,000 Btu/kWh or 18%-24% efficiency), and with installed capital costs of $1,300-$1,500/kW. Cost of electricity for existing plants is in the $0.065-$O.08/kWh range. Feedstocks are mainly waste materials; wood-fired systems account for 88% of the total biomass capacity, followed by agricultural waste (3%), landfill gas (8%), and anaerobic digesters (1%). A significant amount of remote, non-grid-connected, wood-fired capacity also exists in the paper and wood products industry. This chapter discusses biomass power technology status and presents the strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Power Program for advancing biomass electric technologies to 18 GWe by the year 2010, and to greater than 100 GWe by the year 2030. Future generation systems will be characterized by process efficiencies in the 35%-40% range, by installed capital costs of $770-$900/kW, by a cost of electricity in the $0.04-$O.05/kWh range, and by the use of dedicated fuel-supply systems. Technology options such as integrated gasification/gas-turbine systems, integrated pyrolysis/gas-turbine systems, and innovative direct-combustion systems are discussed, including present status and potential growth. This chapter also presents discussions of the U.S. utility sector and the role of biomass-based systems within the industry, the potential advantages of biomass in comparison to coal, and the potential environmental impact of biomass-based electricity generation

  17. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  18. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fátima Alves de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  19. New technologies reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravainen, H.

    1997-01-01

    In reducing CO 2 emissions, bioenergy will be the most important source of renewable energy in the next few decades. In principle, combustion of biomass is friendly to the environment because CO 2 released during combustion is recycled back into natural circulation. Biofuels normally contain little nitrogen and sulphur. However, depending on the combustion technology used, emissions may be quite high. This is true of combustion of biomass fuels in small appliances like wood stoves, fireplaces, small boilers etc. When fuels having high content of volatile matter are burnt in appliances using batch type combustion, the process is rather an unsteady-state combustion. Emissions of carbon monoxide, other combustible gases and particulates are quite difficult to avoid. With continuous combustion processes this is not normally a problem. This conference paper presents some means of reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels. 5 refs., 4 figs

  20. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domke Grant M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated in 1998, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program (responsible for compiling the Nation's forest C estimates began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees, which may now supplant previous purely model-based approaches to standing dead biomass and C stock estimation. A substantial hurdle to estimating standing dead tree biomass and C attributes is that traditional estimation procedures are based on merchantability paradigms that may not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to decomposition common in standing dead trees. The goal of this study was to incorporate standing dead tree adjustments into the current estimation procedures and assess how biomass and C stocks change at multiple spatial scales. Results Accounting for decay and structural loss in standing dead trees significantly decreased tree- and plot-level C stock estimates (and subsequent C stocks by decay class and tree component. At a regional scale, incorporating adjustment factors decreased standing dead quaking aspen biomass estimates by almost 50 percent in the Lake States and Douglas-fir estimates by more than 36 percent in the Pacific Northwest. Conclusions Substantial overestimates of standing dead tree biomass and C stocks occur when one does not account for density reductions or structural loss. Forest inventory estimation procedures that are descended from merchantability standards may need to be revised toward a more holistic approach to determining standing dead tree biomass and C attributes (i.e., attributes of tree biomass outside of sawlog

  1. A Spatial Decision Support System Framework for the Evaluation of Biomass Energy Production Locations: Case Study in the Regional Unit of Drama, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Ioannou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy Sources are expected to play a very important role in energy production in the following years. They constitute an energy production methodology which, if properly enabled, can ensure energy sufficiency as well as the protection of the environment. Energy production from biomass in particular is a very common method, which exploits a variety of resources (wood and wood waste, agricultural crops and their by-products after cultivation, animal wastes, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW and food processing wastes for the production of energy. This paper presents a Spatial Decision Support System, which enables managers to locate the most suitable areas for biomass power plant installation. For doing this, fuzzy logic and fuzzy membership functions are used for the creation of criteria layers and suitability maps. In this paper, we use a Multicriteria Decision Analysis methodology (Analytical Hierarchy Process combined with fuzzy system elements for the determination of the weight coefficients of the participating criteria. Then, based on the combination of fuzzy logic and theAnalytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, a final proposal is created thatdivides the area into four categories regarding their suitability forsupporting a biomass energy production power plant. For the two optimal locations, the biomass is also calculated.The framework is applied to theRegional Unit of Drama, which is situated in Northern Greece and is very well known for the area’s forest and agricultural production.

  2. Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Ronald H.; Groves, Steve; Betterton, William J.; William, Benzel; Conrad, Kelly L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Clough, James G.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Kolker, Allan; Hower, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) is to (1) understand the processes critical to the formation, accumulation, occurrence, and alteration of geologically based energy resources; (2) conduct scientifically robust assessments of those resources; and (3) study the impacts of energy resource occurrence and (or) their production and use on both the environment and human health. The ERP promotes and supports research resulting in original, geology-based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other Federal and State agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, non-governmental groups, and academia. Investigations include research on the geology of oil, gas, and coal, and the impacts associated with energy resource occurrence, production, quality, and utilization. The ERP's focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and (or) conversion, and the environmental impact of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products (CCPs). To accomplish these studies, the USGS combines its activities with other organizations to address domestic and international issues that relate to the development and use of energy resources.

  3. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Kiil, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Several options are available to control the emission of SO2 from combustion processes. One possibility is to use a cleaner technology, i.e. fuel switching from oil and coal to natural gas or biomass, or to desulphurize coal and oil. Another possibility is to change to a different technology...

  4. Biomass living energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  5. Biomass stoves in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    and analyzed in this session. Experimental results regarding the performance of biomass combustion stoves and the effects of real-life practices in terms of thermal efficiency, particulate and gaseous emissions will be addressed. This research is based on the development of a new testing approach that combines...... laboratory and field measurements established in the context of the implications of the upcoming eco-design directive. The communication will cover technical aspects concerning the operating performance of different types of biomass stoves and building envelopes, in order to map the ongoing opportunities...

  6. Biomass sector review for the Carbon Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-26

    In great depth. Our review suggested a focus (from a cost-effective carbon reduction point of view) on very small, scale (about 0.2MW) to industrial scale (about 30MW) units generating heat and power. The cost, of carbon in domestic-scale applications was found to be very high. Within combustion processes, heat applications, especially small heat (e.g. around 2MW), have the most attractive and robust plant economics, excluding government incentives. When replacing oil-fired boilers, small heat plant have the most favourable investment returns of all the applications examined (which included large and small CHP, large and small electricity only). The oil price is the main driver of heat plant economics. At our medium crude oil price scenario ($30/bbl), small heat is the only application with a positive IRR (c.5%) for all biomass fuels. At our high oil price scenario ($50/bbl). small heat, plant returns are high enough to attract investment (c.20%). Large heat (around 30MW) and very small heat (around 0.2MW) generate positive returns for all fuels, but are probably too low for investment (i.e. c.10%). The most attractive of the other applications is large CHP, which at $50/bbl has positive returns for all of the key fuels. With current Government incentives, large biomass CHP becomes attractive for investment, generating returns of between 15-20% at $30/bbl. Four main barriers affect all developers. These barriers increase the risk of investing in biomass (thereby increasing the cost of capital), and increase operating costs. Together these reduce the economic viability of biomass developments. The four main barriers are: Market information; Fuel supply risks; Planning; and Policy costs. (UK)

  7. Industrial application of fluidized bed combustion. Phase I, task 4: sub-scale unit testing and data analysis. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstine, S.L.; Accortt, J.I.; Harris, R.D.; Kantersaria, P.P.; Matthews, F.T.; Jones, B.C.; Jukkola, G.D.

    1979-12-01

    Combustion Engineering, under contract with the Department of Energy, has developed, designed, and is constructing a 50,000 lbs steam/hr Industrial FBC Demonstration Plant. The plant will provide steam for space heating at the Great Lakes Naval Base in North Chicago, Illinois. Its operation will enable industry to objectively appraise the performance, reliability, and economics of FBC technology. A hot sub-scale unit (SSU), simulating the operating conditions of the demonstration plant, has been constructed and operated at Combustion Engineering's Kreisinger Development Laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. The SSU facility has served as a valuable developmental tool in establishing the performance characteristics of the FBC process and equipment as used in the larger Demonstration Plant. Experience gained during more than 2000 hours of operation, including the analytical results derived from an extensive test program of 1500 hours operation, has defined problems and identified solutions in engineering the larger FBC Demonstration Plant. This report presents documentation of the results of the SSU test program.

  8. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  9. Electrifying biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnierczyk, D.

    2005-01-01

    British Columbia's (BC) energy plan was outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. BC Hydro is the third largest electric utility in Canada with a generating capacity of 11,000 MW, 90 per cent of which is hydro generation. Various independent power project (IPP) biomass technologies were outlined, including details of biogas, wood residue and municipal solid waste facilities. An outline of BC Hydro's overall supply mix was presented, along with details of the IPP supply mix. It was suggested that the cancellation of the Duke Point power project has driven growth in the renewable energy sector. A chart of potential energy contribution by resource type was presented, as well as unit energy cost ranges. Resources included small and large hydro; demand side management; resource smart natural gas; natural gas; coal; wind; geothermal; biomass; wave; and tidal. The acquisition process was reviewed. Details of calls for tenders were presented, and issues concerning bidder responsibility and self-selection were examined. It was observed that wood residue presents a firm source of electricity that is generally local, and has support from the public. In addition, permits for wood residue energy conversion are readily available. However, size limitations, fuel risks, and issues concerning site control may prove to be significant challenges. It was concluded that the success of biomass energy development will depend on adequate access and competitive pricing. tabs., figs

  10. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  11. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  12. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  13. Use of combustible wastes as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Salamov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Achievements of science and technology in creating and using units for combustion of wastes with recovery of heat of the escaping gases has been systematized and generalized. Scales and outlooks are examined for the use of general, industrial and agricultural waste as fuel, composition of the waste, questions of planning and operating units for combustion of solid refuse, settling of waste water and industrial and agricultural waste. Questions are covered for preparing them for combustion use in special units with recovery of heat and at ES, aspects of environmental protection during combustion of waste, cost indicators of the employed methods of recovering the combustible waste.

  14. Biomass for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbucci, P.; Neri, G.; Trebbi, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the activities carried out at ENEL-Thermal research center to develop technologies suitable to convert biomass into power with high conversion efficiency: a demonstration project, Energy Farm, to build an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant fed by wood chips; a demonstration plant for converting wood chips into oil by thermal conversion (pyrolysis oil); combustion tests of different oils produced by thermal conversion. 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Combined Heat and Power Systems for the Provision of Sustainable Energy from Biomass in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Ortwein Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Against the background of greenhouse gases causing climate change, combined heat and power (CHP) systems fueled by biomass can efficiently supply energy with high flexibility. Such CHP systems will usually consist of one or more thermo-chemical conversion steps and at least one (the more or less separated) electric power generation unit. Depending on the main products of the previous conversion steps (e.g. combustible gases or liquids, but also flue gases with sensible heat), different techno...

  16. Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Wooster

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning emissions factors are vital to quantifying trace gas release from vegetation fires. Here we evaluate emissions factors for a series of savannah fires in Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa using ground-based open path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and an IR source separated by 150–250 m distance. Molecular abundances along the extended open path are retrieved using a spectral forward model coupled to a non-linear least squares fitting approach. We demonstrate derivation of trace gas column amounts for horizontal paths transecting the width of the advected plume, and find for example that CO mixing ratio changes of ~0.01 μmol mol−1 [10 ppbv] can be detected across the relatively long optical paths used here. Though FTIR spectroscopy can detect dozens of different chemical species present in vegetation fire smoke, we focus our analysis on five key combustion products released preferentially during the pyrolysis (CH2O, flaming (CO2 and smoldering (CO, CH4, NH3 processes. We demonstrate that well constrained emissions ratios for these gases to both CO2 and CO can be derived for the backfire, headfire and residual smouldering combustion (RSC stages of these savannah fires, from which stage-specific emission factors can then be calculated. Headfires and backfires often show similar emission ratios and emission factors, but those of the RSC stage can differ substantially. The timing of each fire stage was identified via airborne optical and thermal IR imagery and ground-observer reports, with the airborne IR imagery also used to derive estimates of fire radiative energy (FRE, allowing the relative amount of fuel burned in each stage to be calculated and "fire averaged" emission ratios and emission factors to be determined. These "fire averaged" metrics are dominated by the headfire contribution, since the FRE data indicate that the vast majority

  17. Circulating fluidized-bed technologies for the conversion of biomass into energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C; Hirschfelder, H [Lurgi Energid und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    The paper introduces circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion and CFB gasification. CFB combustion units are state-of-the-art and have proven their ability to convert biomass into power and/or steam. The existing units and projects in developing countries are discussed as examples of conventional technology. To illustrate advanced technologies, CFB gasification is discussed. Important process parameters of plants already in operation or under construction in developed countries are shown, Criteria for the selection of CFB combustion or gasification based on available feedstocks and products required are discussed. Finally, a procedure for implementing Lurgi`s CFB technology in developing countries is proposed. (author) 7 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1998-01-01

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW Th pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using chemical

  19. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1999-12-31

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  20. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  1. A comparative thermodynamic, economic and risk analysis concerning implementation of oxy-combustion power plants integrated with cryogenic and hybrid air separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Bartela, Łukasz; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical model of an integrated oxy-combustion power plant. • Comparison of a hybrid membrane–cryogenic oxygen generation plant with a cryogenic plant. • Thermodynamic analysis of the modeled cases of the plant. • Comparative economic analysis of the power plant with cryogenic and hybrid ASU. • Comparative risk analysis using a Monte Carlo method and sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of two types of oxy-combustion power plant that differ from each other in terms of the method of oxygen separation. For the purpose of the analysis, detailed thermodynamic models of oxy-fuel power plants with gross power of approximately 460 MW were built. In the first variant (Case 1), the plant is integrated with a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU). In the second variant (Case 2), the plant is integrated with a hybrid membrane–cryogenic installation. The models were built and optimized using the GateCycle, Aspen Plus and Aspen Custom Modeller software packages and with the use of our own computational codes. The results of the thermodynamic evaluation of the systems, which primarily uses indicators such as the auxiliary power and efficiencies of the whole system and of the individual components that constitute the unit, are presented. Better plant performance is observed for Case 2, which has a net efficiency of electricity generation that is 1.1 percentage points greater than that of Case 1. For the selected structure of the system, an economic analysis of the solutions was made. This analysis accounts for different scenarios of the functioning of the Emission Trading Scheme and includes detailed estimates of the investment costs in both cases. As an indicator of profitability, the break-even price of electricity was used primarily. The results of the analysis for the assumptions made are presented in this paper. A system with a hybrid air separation unit has slightly better economic performance. The break-even price

  2. Performance Evaluation of a Lithium-Chloride Absorption Refrigeration and an Assessment of Its Suitability for Biomass Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Oberweis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer model that will evaluate the performance of a thermo-chemical accumulator. The model is based on operational data such as temperatures and flow rates. The ultimate goal for this model is to estimate the coefficient of performance (COP of this unit when run on hot water from biomass combustion as the heat source. The outputs of the model are verified by comparing the simulation of the actual machine with published experimental data. The computed results for cooling COP are within 10% of the measured data. The simulations are all run for heat load temperatures varying between 80 °C and 110 °C. As expected, simulation results showed an increase in COP with increased heat source temperatures. The results demonstrate that the potential of combined solar and biomass combustion as a heat source for absorption cooling/heating in climates with low solar radiation can be coupled with biomass waste.

  3. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  4. Biomass programme: Overview of the 2006 Swiss research programme; Programm Biomasse. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done within the framework of the Swiss biomass research programme in 2006. The programme concentrates on the efficient conversion of biomass into heat, electrical power and motor fuels. Projects concerned with the optimisation of processes are reported on, including low-particle-emission systems, control systems for bivalent heating installations, use of demanding biomass fuels, combined pellets and solar heating systems and the elimination of ammonia emissions. In the material flow area, measurement campaigns, organic pollutants in compost, the effects of fermented wastes in agriculture and methane losses in biogas conditioning are reported on. New conversion technologies are reviewed, including hydro-thermal gasification, plant-oil fuelled combined heat and power units, flameless burners and catalytic direct liquefaction. In the area of basics, studies and concepts, eco-balances and life-cycle analyses are reported on; the production of synthetic natural gas and the influence of combustion particles are discussed and decentralised power generation from solid biomass is reported on. National and international co-operation is reviewed. The report is concluded with a review of eight pilot and demonstration projects, a review of work to be done in 2007 and a list of research and demonstration projects.

  5. Spatially-explicit modeling of multi-scale drivers of aboveground forest biomass and water yield in watersheds of the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaz Ahmed, Mukhtar Ahmed; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Escobedo, Francisco J; Cropper, Wendell P; Martin, Timothy A; Timilsina, Nilesh

    2017-09-01

    Understanding ecosystem processes and the influence of regional scale drivers can provide useful information for managing forest ecosystems. Examining more local scale drivers of forest biomass and water yield can also provide insights for identifying and better understanding the effects of climate change and management on forests. We used diverse multi-scale datasets, functional models and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to model ecosystem processes at the watershed scale and to interpret the influence of ecological drivers across the Southeastern United States (SE US). Aboveground forest biomass (AGB) was determined from available geospatial datasets and water yield was estimated using the Water Supply and Stress Index (WaSSI) model at the watershed level. Our geostatistical model examined the spatial variation in these relationships between ecosystem processes, climate, biophysical, and forest management variables at the watershed level across the SE US. Ecological and management drivers at the watershed level were analyzed locally to identify whether drivers contribute positively or negatively to aboveground forest biomass and water yield ecosystem processes and thus identifying potential synergies and tradeoffs across the SE US region. Although AGB and water yield drivers varied geographically across the study area, they were generally significantly influenced by climate (rainfall and temperature), land-cover factor1 (Water and barren), land-cover factor2 (wetland and forest), organic matter content high, rock depth, available water content, stand age, elevation, and LAI drivers. These drivers were positively or negatively associated with biomass or water yield which significantly contributes to ecosystem interactions or tradeoff/synergies. Our study introduced a spatially-explicit modelling framework to analyze the effect of ecosystem drivers on forest ecosystem structure, function and provision of services. This integrated model approach facilitates

  6. Thermal performance of milk chilling units in remote villages working with the combination of biomass,